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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878877


Rhei Radix et Rhizoma(RRR) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, with extensive pharmacological effects and clinical applications. This paper summarized processing history evolution of RRR and its effect on chemical compositions and pharmacological effects, and provided feasible insights for further studies on the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of RRR before and after processing. Relevant information demonstrated that RRR has a long history of processing and various methods. At pre-sent, Chinese Pharmacopoeia mainly records four processing methods: cleaning(raw RRR), wine processing(RRR stir-fried with wine), steaming processing(RRR wine steaming), fried charcoal(RRR charring). RRR has a good effect in clearing heat effect, hemostatic effect and blood promoting effect, and its main chemical components are anthraquinone/anthrones, stilbene, phenylbutanone, chromogens, flavonoids and tannin compounds. This paper reviewed the history evolution of RRR and its effect on chemical composition and pharmacological changes, and put forward further study ideas, with the aim to provide a basic reference for processing mechanism, effective material basis and clinical application of RRR.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rhizome/chemistry , Wine
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 242-252, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878558


To screen the available tomato pollution-safe cultivar varieties and reduce the potential food safety risks in Cd-polluted areas, the differences of Cd accumulation in different tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) varieties in southern China were studied by soil culture and hydroponic experiments. Firstly, the high and low accumulation varieties were selected from 25 tomato varieties under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress by soil culture test, and then the responses of high and low accumulation tomato varieties to Cd stress were determined by hydroponic experiments. The results of soil culture test show that under 2.94 mg/kg Cd stress, there were significant differences in plant height, total biomass and yield among 25 tomato cultivars, and the Cd contents of fruits of all 25 tomato cultivars exceeded the highest limit value (0.05 mg/kg) of CAC (Codex alimentarius commission). Through cluster analysis, 7, 4 and 14 varieties accumulating relatively high, medium, and low concentrations of Cd in the fruits were screened, among which the highest, the lowest, and the average Cd contents in the fruits were 3.06 mg/kg DW, 1.47 mg/kg DW, and 2.21 mg/kg DW, respectively. The results of hydroponic experiment show that under the same concentration of Cd stress, Qiantangxuri F1, a high Cd accumulating variety, absorbed Cd faster, accumulated more Cd, used shorter oxidative stress response time and had stronger tolerance to Cd than Zhefen 3053, a low Cd accumulating variety. The typical high and low Cd accumulating varieties can provide a reference for agricultural production in heavy metal polluted areas and the development of molecular-assisted breeding methods of PSC. At present, cultivating low Cd accumulating PSC varieties and dynamic monitoring of Cd contents in tomato fruits are feasible methods in medium and light Cd-polluted areas.

Antioxidants , Cadmium/toxicity , China , Lycopersicon esculentum , Plant Breeding , Plant Roots/chemistry , Soil Pollutants/toxicity
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201


The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.

El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.

Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Flavonoids/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Plant Roots/chemistry , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 518-526, sept. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008290


Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. widely distributed in the northeast region of China and some region in Russia and Korea, and its underground parts (roots and rhizomes) being used to cure nervous system diseases such as insomnia. The active components including the essential oil and iridoids of underground parts were investigated in different harvest periods in order to evaluate the quality for the roots and rhizomes of V. amurensis. The content of the essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and bornyl acetate in the oil was quantitated by GC-EI. The iridoids, valepotriates were determined by potentiometric titration and the main component, valtrate was quantitated by HPLC-UV. The factors of biomass were considered in the determination of collection period. Statistical analysis of results showed that, the highest content of the essential oil per plant was 22.69 µl in withering period and then 21.58 µl in fruit ripening period, while the highest contents of bornyl acetate, valepotriates and valtrate per plant were 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg and 0.98 mg in fruit ripening period separately. Fruit ripening period was decided as the best harvest period for the content of active constituents and output of drug, and it would provide scientific basis for the artificial cultivation of V. amurensis.

Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. Se distribuye ampliamente en la región noreste de China y en algunas regiones de Rusia y Corea, y sus partes subterráneas (raíces y rizomas) se utilizan para curar enfermedades del sistema nervioso como el insomnio. Se investigaron los componentes activos, incluidos el aceite esencial y los iridoides de las partes subterráneas de V. amurensis en diferentes períodos de cosecha para evaluar la calidad de las raíces y rizomas. El contenido del aceite esencial se obtuvo mediante hidrodestilación y el acetato de bornilo en el aceite se cuantificó por GC-EI. Los iridoides, valepotriatos se determinaron mediante valoración potenciométrica y el componente principal, el valtrato se cuantificó por HPLC-UV. Los factores de biomasa fueron considerados en la determinación del período de recolección. El análisis estadístico de los resultados mostró que el mayor contenido de aceite esencial por planta fue de 22,69 µl en el período de marchitación y luego de 21,58 µl en el período de maduración de la fruta, mientras que el mayor contenido de acetato de bornilo, valepotriatos y valtrato por planta fue de 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg y 0,98 mg, respectivamente, en el período de maduración de la fruta por separado. Se definió el período de maduración de la fruta como el mejor período de cosecha para el contenido de constituyentes activos y la producción de droga, lo cual proporcionaría una base científica para el cultivo artificial de V. amurensis.

Valerian/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seasons , Camphanes/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Rhizome/chemistry , Iridoids/analysis
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 40: 71-77, July. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053491


Background: Burdock (Arctium lappa L.) is a fructan-rich plant with prebiotic potential. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient enzymatic route to prepare fructooligosaccharides (FOS)-rich and highly antioxidative syrup using burdock root as a raw material. Results: Endo-inulinase significantly improved the yield of FOS 2.4-fold while tannase pretreatment further increased the yield of FOS 2.8-fold. Other enzymes, including endo-polygalacturonase, endo-glucanase and endo-xylanase, were able to increase the yield of total soluble sugar by 11.1% (w/w). By this process, a new enzymatic process for burdock syrup was developed and the yield of burdock syrup increased by 25% (w/w), whereas with FOS, total soluble sugars, total soluble protein and total soluble polyphenols were enhanced to 28.8%, 53.3%, 8.9% and 3.3% (w/w), respectively. Additionally, the scavenging abilities of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, and total antioxidant capacity of the syrup were increased by 23.7%, 51.8% and 35.4%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results could be applied to the development of efficient extraction of valuable products from agricultural materials using enzyme-mediated methods.

Oligosaccharides/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Fructose/chemistry , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Antioxidants/chemistry , Oligosaccharides/metabolism , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases/metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Hydroxyl Radical , Arctium , Functional Food , Polyphenols , Fructose/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7581, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974275


Bredemeyera floribunda roots are popularly used to treat snakebites in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil, and previous studies indicate the anti-ophidian actions of triterpenoid saponins found in its roots. To assess B. floribunda root extract (BFRE) activity against the effects of Bothrops jararacussu venom (BjuV), antiphospholipasic, antiproteolytic, antihemorrhagic, antinecrotic, and anti-edematogenic activities were investigated in mice. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and sugars, with rutin and saccharose being the major constituents of BFRE. Acute toxicity was determined and BFRE was nontoxic to mice. Phospholipase A2 and proteolytic activities induced by BjuV were inhibited in vitro by BFRE at all concentrations tested herein. BFRE (150 mg/kg) inhibited paw edema induced by BjuV (50 µg/animal), reducing total edema calculated by area under the curve, but carrageenan-induced paw edema was unchanged. Hemorrhagic and necrotizing actions of BjuV (50 µg/animal) were considerably decreased by BFRE treatment. Thus, BFRE blocked the toxic actions of B. jararacussu venom despite having no anti-inflammatory activity, which points to a direct inhibition of venom's toxins, as demonstrated in the in vitro assays. The larger amounts of rutin found in BFRE may play a role in this inhibition, since 3′,4′-OH flavonoids are known inhibitors of phospholipases A2.

Animals , Male , Rats , Antivenins/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Crotalid Venoms/antagonists & inhibitors , Edema/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/etiology , Antivenins/isolation & purification , Bothrops , Crotalid Venoms/toxicity , Polygalaceae/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Edema/etiology , Hemorrhage/drug therapy
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(6): e7628, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001534


This study aimed to explore the influence of gut microbiota alterations induced by Linderae radix ethanol extract (LREE) on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in rats and to study the anti-inflammatory effect of LREE on ALD through the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. ALD rat models were established by intragastric liquor [50% (v/v) ethanol] administration at 10 mL/kg body weight for 20 days. Rats were divided into six groups: normal group (no treatment), model group (ALD rats), Essentiale group (ALD rats fed with Essentiale, 137 mg/kg), and LREE high/moderate/low dose groups (ALD rats fed with 4, 2, or 1 g LREE/kg). NF-κB and LPS levels were evaluated. Liver pathological changes and intestinal ultrastructure were examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. The gut microbiota composition was evaluated by 16S rDNA sequencing. Expression levels of TLR4 and CD68 in liver tissue, and occludin and claudin-1 in intestinal tissue were measured. LREE treatment significantly reduced NF-κB and LPS levels, improved liver pathological changes, and ameliorated intestinal ultrastructure injury. Meanwhile, LREE-fed groups showed a higher abundance of Firmicutes and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes than the rats in the model group. Administration of LREE suppressed TLR4 overexpression and promoted the expression of occludin and claudin-1 in intestine tissue. Thus, LREE could partly ameliorate microflora dysbiosis, suppress the inflammatory response, and attenuate liver injury in ALD rats. The protective effect of LREE might be related to the LPS-TLR4-NF-κB pathway.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lindera/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Inflammation/prevention & control , Liver/ultrastructure , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/prevention & control , Lipopolysaccharides/blood , Cytokines/blood , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/blood , Plant Roots/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Toll-Like Receptor 4/blood , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/diagnostic imaging
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 509-516, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951583


Abstract Typha domingensis (cattail) is a native macrophyte known by its capacity to tolerate several heavy metals effects and the potential use for phytoremediation. However, in despite that cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic pollutants; its effects in T. domingensis biology remain uninvestigated. Thus, the objective of this study was to study the tolerance of T. domingensis to cadmium contamination by evaluating its growth, Cd uptake, leaf anatomy and gas exchange. The experiment was designed using three cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 50 µM) and ten replicates for 90 days. The cadmium uptake, growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and leaf anatomy were evaluated. Data was submitted to ANOVA and Scott-Knott test for P<0.05. Typha domingensis accumulates Cd proportionally to its concentration on the solution and the content of this metal was higher in roots as compared to shoots. Plants showed no significant modifications on growth parameters such as the biomass production, number of leaves, number of clones and the biomass allocation to organs. The photosynthesis, transpiration and chlorophyll content were not modified by Cd. Most anatomical traits evaluated were not modified by the metal but the stomatal density and the proportion of vascular tissues were reduced under 50 µM of Cd. In despite, the leaf anatomy showed no toxicity evidences for any Cd level. The absence of growth reduction and the stability of anatomical and physiological traits give insight about the Cd tolerance of this species. Therefore, T. domingensis is able to overcome Cd toxicity and shows potential for phytoremediation.

Resumo A espécie Typha domingensis (taboa) é uma macrófita nativa conhecida por sua tolerância a vários metais pesados e potencial uso na fitorremediação. Contudo, apesar de que o Cd é um dos poluentes mais tóxicos; Seus efeitos em T. domingensis ainda não foram investigados. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a tolerância de T. domingensis ao cádmio, avaliando o crescimento, absorção de Cd, anatomia foliar e trocas gasosas. O experimento foi conduzido utilizando três concentrações de Cd (0, 10 e 50 µM) e dez repetições por 90 dias.. O crescimento, trocas gasosas e o teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram avaliados. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e ao teste de Scott-Knott para P<0,05. A absorção de cádmio, crescimento, trocas gasosas, teor de clorofila e anatomia foliar foram analisados. As plantas de T. domingensis podem acumular Cd proporcionalmente à sua concentração na solução e o teor deste metal foi maior nas raízes em comparação com a parte aérea. As plantas não apresentam modificações significativas nos parâmetros de crescimento como produção de biomassa, número de folhas, número de clones produzidos e alocação de biomassa nos órgãos. A fotossíntese, transpiração e conteúdo de clorofila não foram afetados de forma significativa pelo Cd. A maioria das características anatômicas avaliadas não apresentou diferenças, mas houve redução na densidade estomática e na proporção de tecidos vasculares na concentração de 50 µM de Cd. A anatomia foliar não mostrou evidências de toxicidade em nenhum dos níveis de Cd. A ausência de redução de crescimento e estabilidade das características anatômicas e fisiológicas caracteriza alta tolerância da espécie ao Cd. Portanto, T. domingensis é capaz de superar a toxicidade do Cd e demostra potencial para fitorremediação.

Cadmium/metabolism , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Typhaceae/growth & development , Typhaceae/metabolism , Photosynthesis/physiology , Biodegradation, Environmental , Cadmium/toxicity , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Chlorophyll/chemistry , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Biomass , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 555-565, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007333


Species of Polygala genus have been used for the treatment of inflamation and pain in Turkish traditional medicine. The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of P. anatolica. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The methanol extracts prepared from the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were found to be active in carrageenan- and PGE2-induced paw edema models and in Whittle method. Methanolic extract of the aerial part inhibited serotonin-induced hind paw edema, while the root extract did not exert inhibitory effect in the same model. In addition, Fr. B and C obtained from the methanol extract of P. anatolica aerial parts showed significant anti- inflammatory activity. Morover, the analgesic effect of the methanol extracts prepared from the roots and aerial parts and Fr.B and Fr.C were found to be statistically significant without inducing ulceration. The methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts of the plant and its saponoside and flavonoid fractions showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the trials.

Las especies del género Polygala se han utilizado para el tratamiento de la inflamación y el dolor en la medicina tradicional turca. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar las actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas de P. anatolica. Se investigaron los extractos de n-hexano, acetato de etilo y metanol de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica por sus efectos antiinflamatorios y analgésicos. Los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica se encontraron activos en modelos de edema de pata inducidos por carragenina y PGE2 por el método de Whittle. El extracto metanólico de la parte aérea inhibió el edema de la pata trasera inducido por serotonina, mientras que el extracto de raíz no ejerció un efecto inhibidor en el mismo modelo. En suma, la fracción B y C obtenidos a partir del extracto metanólico de partes aéreas de P. anatolica mostraron actividad antiinflamatoria significativa. Además, el efecto analgésico de los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las raíces y las partes aéreas y la fracción B y C resultaron ser estadísticamente significativas sin inducir la ulceración. El extracto de metanol obtenido de las partes aéreas de la planta y sus fracciones de saponósidos y flavonoides mostraron actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas en los ensayos.

Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polygala , Edema/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Plant Roots/chemistry , Methanol/pharmacology , Edema/chemically induced , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 619-624, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951603


Abstract Leaves and roots of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae) have been used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea, skin diseases, blennorrhagia, dyspepsia, parasitic worms and malaria. The aim of study was to characterize the chemical profiles of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and roots of A. australe, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against diarrhea-inducing bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella dysenteriae and Yersinia enterocolitica), as well as their cytotoxic properties. Aqueous leaf extracts were obtained by infusion, while aqueous root extracts were obtained by decoction. The hydroalcoholic leaf and root extracts were prepared by maceration in 90% ethanol for 3 days. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using standard techniques and cytotoxicity was evaluated using Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO-K1. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the extracts. Although root extracts were not effective against E. faecalis, leaf extracts at concentrations of 20 mg/mL exhibited bactericidal activities against this microorganism. The hydroalcoholic root extract was unique in presenting a bactericidal effect against S. dysenteriae. None of the extracts showed bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities against Y. enterocolitica. The results presented herein demonstrate that the Gram-positive E. faecalis and the Gram-negative S. dysenteriae were susceptible to A. australe extracts, although bacteriostatic/bactericidal activities were only observed at concentrations considered too high for clinical application. Our results support the ethnopharmacological use of A. australe in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhea caused by infectious bacteria, although further studies are required to determine the anti-diarrhea effects and the toxicities of the extracts in vivo.

Resumo Folhas e raízes de Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae) têm sido usadas na medicina popular brasileira para o tratamento de várias doenças, incluindo diarreia, doenças de pele, blenorragia, dispepsia, vermes parasitas e malária. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar os perfis químicos dos extratos aquosos e hidroalcoólicos das raízes e folhas de A. australe, e avaliar as suas atividades antimicrobianas contra as bactérias indutoras de diarreia (Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella dysenteriae e Yersinia enterocolitica), bem como sua citotoxicidade. Os extratos aquosos de folhas foram obtidos por infusão, enquanto que os extratos aquosos de raízes foram obtidos por decocção. Os extratos hidroalcoólicos de folhas e raízes foram preparados por maceração em etanol a 90% durante 3 dias. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada utilizando técnicas padrão e a citotoxicidade foi avaliada utilizando células de ovário de hamster chinês CHO-K1. A análise química revelou a presença de taninos, flavonóides, saponinas e compostos fenólicos nos extratos. Apesar de extratos de raiz não foram eficazes contra E. faecalis, extratos de folhas em concentrações de 20 mg/mL apresentaram atividades bactericidas contra este microrganismo. O extrato hidroalcoólico de raiz foi o único a apresentar um efeito bactericida contra S. dysenteriae. Nenhum dos extratos apresentaram atividades bacteriostáticas ou bactericidas contra Y. enterocolitica. Os resultados apresentados demonstram que a bactéria Gram-positiva E. faecalis e a Gram-negativa S. dysenteriae foram suscetíveis aos extratos de A. australe, embora as atividades bacteriostáticos/bactericidas tenham sido apenas observados em concentrações consideradas elevadas para aplicação clínica. Os nossos resultados apoiam a utilização de etnofarmacológica de A. australe no tratamento de perturbações gastrointestinais, especialmente diarreia causadas por bactérias infecciosas, embora sejam necessários mais estudos para determinar os efeitos anti-diarreia e as toxicidades dos extratos in vivo.

Shigella dysenteriae/drug effects , Yersinia enterocolitica/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Asteraceae/chemistry , Diarrhea/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Brazil , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Toxicity Tests , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(4): 381-393, jul. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915662


This study analysed the total content of phenolic compounds in roots and rhizomes extracts from two populations of Valeriana carnosa Sm. (Caprifoliaceae) at three phenological stages. Total phenolic content was determined through the Folin-Ciocalteu method, which ranged between individuals from 3.56 to 11.68 mg GAE/g of dry sample. Antioxidant activity was determined using the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), which showed a significant positive correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. We tentatively identified 18 phenolic compounds by HPLC-MS, mostly phenolic acids, one of which was present only in the Hoya population at the vegetative stage and one only in the Piltri population at the flowering and fruiting stages. Phenolic compounds in subterranean organs of V. carnosa vary qualitatively (between populations/stages) and quantitatively at intra- and inter-population level at different phenological stages. In both populations, on average a higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity were recorded at the flowering and fruiting stages.

En este estudio se analizó el contenido total de compuestos fenólicos en extractos de raíces y rizomas provenientes de dos poblaciones de Valeriana carnosa Sm. (Caprifoliaceae) en tres estadios fenológicos. El contenido total de fenoles se determinó sobre muestras secas, mediante el método de Folin-Ciocalteu, que varió de 3.56-11.68 mg GAE/g entre individuos. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante utilizando el radical estable 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazilo (DPPH) y se observó una correlación positiva significativa entre la actividad antioxidante y el contenido total de fenoles. Identificamos tentativamente 18 compuestos fenólicos mediante HPLC-MS, principalmente ácidos fenólicos, dos de los cuales estuvieron presentes en la población Hoya en la etapa vegetativa y en la población Piltri en las etapas de floración y fructificación. Los compuestos fenólicos en órganos subterráneos de V. carnosa varían cualitativamente (entre poblaciones/estadios) y cuantitativamente a nivel intra- e inter-poblacional en diferentes estadios fenológicos. En ambas poblaciones, en promedio se registró un mayor contenido de fenoles y actividad antioxidante en las etapas de floración y fructificación.

Phenols/analysis , Valerian/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Free Radical Scavengers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Roots/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(3): 259-269, mayo 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-915349


Berberis darwinii Hook es una especie que habita el sur de Chile y la Patagonia. Siendo utilizada por la etnia mapuche para el tratamiento de procesos inflamatorios, estados febriles, y dolor estomacal. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue evaluar in vitro las propiedades del extracto de alcaloides de raíz de B. darwinii sobre respuestas celulares en monocitos desde sangre periférica de rata. Los resultados de la cuantificación del extracto muestran una concentración de alcaloides totales de 1,67 mg/g y la caracterización por HPLC- MS determinó la presencia de berberina y palmatina. In vitro se observó que los extractos disminuyeron la capacidad de adhesión y la actividad fagocítica de los monocitos e inhibieron la translocación del factor nuclear NF-κB asociado a la modulación de la inflamación, pero no así la producción de anión superóxido. Estos resultados indicarían que los alcaloides totales de B. darwinii inhiben algunos mecanismos específicos de defensa celular.

Berberis darwinii Hook is a species that inhabits southern Chile and Patagonia. This is being used by the Mapuche ethnic group for the treatment of inflammatory processes, febrile states, and stomach pain. The purpose of the following study was to evaluate in vitro the properties of an alkaloid extract of B. darwinii root on cellular responses in monocytes from the rat peripheral blood. The results of the quantification of the extract showed a total alkaloid concentration of 1.67 mg/g and the characterization by HPLC-MS determined the presence of berberine and palmatine. In vitro, it was observed that the extracts decreased the adhesion capacity and phagocytic activity of the monocytes and inhibited the translocation of the nuclear factor NF-κB associated with the modulation of inflammation, but not the production of superoxide anion. These results indicate that the total alkaloids of B. darwinii inhibit some specific mechanisms of cellular defense.

Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Berberis/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Monocytes/drug effects , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Alkaloids/analysis
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 632-641, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888770


Abstract The halophyte species Plantago coronopus has several described ethnomedicinal uses, but few reported biological activities. This work carried out for the first time a comparative analysis of P. coronopus organs in terms of phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of organic and water extracts from roots, leaves and flowers. The leaves contents in selected nutrients, namely amino acids and minerals, are also described. Roots (ethyl acetate and methanol extracts) had the highest radical scavenging activity (RSA) towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, while leaves (hexane extract) had higher RSA on nitric oxide radical and iron chelating ability. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis identified eighteen phenolics from which salicylic acid and epicatechin are here firstly described in Plantago species. Leaves had mineral levels similar to those of most vegetables, proving to be a good source for elements like calcium, sodium, iron and magnesium, and also for several of the essential amino acids justifying it use as food. Our results, especially those regarding the phenolics composition, can explain the main traditional uses given to this plantain and, altogether, emphasize the potential of P. coronopus as a source of bioactive molecules particularly useful for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases.

Resumo A espécie halófita Plantago coronopus tem vários usos etnomedicinais já descritos, mas em relação à bioatividade a informação é escassa. Este trabalho efetuou, pela primeira vez, uma análise comparativa dos órgãos de P. coronopus em termos de compostos fenólicos e atividade antioxidante de extratos orgânicos e aquosos provenientes das raízes, folhas e flores da planta, bem como o conteúdo de determinados nutrientes, aminoácidos e minerais, nas folhas da planta. As raízes (extratos de acetato de etila e metanol) apresentaram a maior atividade de captação para os radicais 1,1-difenil-2-picril hidrazil (DPPH) e 2,2'-azino-bis(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfónico) (ABTS), enquanto as folhas (extrato de hexano) mostraram maior atividade captadora para o radical óxido nítrico bem como maior capacidade quelante do ferro. A análise por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiência (CLAE) identificou dezoito compostos fenólicos e, destes, o ácido salicílico e a epicatequina são aqui descritos pela primeira vez em espécies de Plantago. As folhas desta planta halófita mostraram ainda conter minerais em níveis semelhantes aos da maioria dos vegetais, provando ser uma boa fonte de elementos como o cálcio, sódio, ferro e magnésio, bem como de vários dos aminoácidos essenciais o que justifica seu uso na alimentação. Os resultados, particularmente aqueles relacionados à composição fenólica, podem justificar os principais usos medicinais atribuídos a esta espécie e, na sua totalidade, demonstram o potencial de P. coronopus como fonte de moléculas bioativas particularmente úteis na prevenção de doenças relacionadas com estresse oxidativo.

Phenols/analysis , Plantago/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 26: 20-26, Mar. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1009753


Background: Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite in ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture can reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of species of ginsenosides is reduced and their contents are lower in the adventitious roots of ginseng than in the roots of ginseng cultivated in the field. Results: In this study, 147 strains of ß-glucosidase-producing microorganisms were isolated from soil. Of these, strain K35 showed excellent activity for converting major ginsenosides into rare ginsenosides, and a NCBI BLAST of its 16S rDNA gene sequence showed that it was most closely related to Penicillium sp. (HQ608083.1). Strain K35 was used to ferment the adventitious root extract, and the fermentation products were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the content of the rare ginsenoside CK was 0.253 mg mL-1 under the optimal converting conditions of 9 d of fermentation at pH 7.0 in LL medium, which was significantly higher than that in the adventitious roots of ginseng. Conclusion: These findings may not only solve the problem of low productivity of metabolite in ginseng root culture but may also result in the development of a new valuable method of manufacturing ginsenoside CK.

beta-Glucosidase/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Panax/metabolism , Penicillium , Biotransformation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Roots/chemistry , Bioreactors , Ginsenosides/isolation & purification , Fermentation , Panax/growth & development , Panax/chemistry
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36482


It has been known that Arak, Salvadora persica, has a number of medicinal properties. We tried to investigate in vitro scolicidal effect of root extracts of this plant against protoscolices from hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. S. persica root extract was used in 10, 30, and 50 mg/ml concentration for 10, 20, and 30 min. The viability of protoscolices was ascertained by 0.1% eosin staining. Scolicidal activity of S. persica extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was 36.3%, 50.3%, and 70.8% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The scolicidal effect of this extract at a concentration of 30 mg/ml was 52.9%, 86.7%, and 100% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. S. persica extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml, meanwhile, killed 81.4%, 100%, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Also, the cytotoxic potential of S. persica was assessed on human liver cells (HepG2) using trypan blue exclusion test. No cytotoxic effect was observed on HepG2 cell line. The present study confirmed for the first time that the ethanolic extract of S. persica has high scolicidal power in vitro. However, in vivo effect of this material remains to be studied for treatment of echinococcosis in humans and herbivorous animals.

Animals , Cell Survival/drug effects , Echinococcosis/drug therapy , Echinococcus granulosus/drug effects , Ethanol/chemistry , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Salvadoraceae/chemistry
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(8): e5282, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787378


Sida tuberculata (Malvaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we aimed to investigate the different extractive techniques on phytochemical parameters, as well as to evaluate the toxicity and antioxidant capacity of S. tuberculata extracts using in silico and in vitro models. Therefore, in order to determine the dry residue content and the main compound 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) concentration, extracts from leaves and roots were prepared testing ethanol and water in different proportions. Extracts were then assessed by Artemia salina lethality test, and toxicity prediction of 20E was estimated. Antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenger assays, ferric reducing power assay, nitrogen derivative scavenger, deoxyribose degradation, and TBARS assays. HPLC evaluation detected 20E as main compound in leaves and roots. Percolation method showed the highest concentrations of 20E (0.134 and 0.096 mg/mL of extract for leaves and roots, respectively). All crude extracts presented low toxic potential on A. salina (LD50 >1000 µg/mL). The computational evaluation of 20E showed a low toxicity prediction. For in vitro antioxidant tests, hydroethanolic extracts of leaves were most effective compared to roots. In addition, hydroethanolic extracts presented a higher IC50 antioxidant than aqueous extracts. TBARS formation was prevented by leaves hydroethanolic extract from 0.015 and 0.03 mg/mL and for roots from 0.03 and 0.3 mg/mL on egg yolk and rat tissue, respectively (P<0.05). These findings suggest that S. tuberculata extracts are a considerable source of ecdysteroids and possesses a significant antioxidant property with low toxic potential.

Animals , Male , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Malvaceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Computer Simulation , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Rats, Wistar , Toxicity Tests , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Malvaceae/toxicity , Ecdysterone/toxicity , Antioxidants/toxicity
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1103-1110, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769653


Abstract We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Aspilia latissima - an abundant plant from the Brazilian Pantanal region - against Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The crude extracts and fractions showed activity in all tested microorganisms. The chloroform fraction of the leaves and roots showed the most antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, with an MIC of 500 μg/mL. This fraction was submitted to bioautographic assays to characterize the activity of the compounds. Two bands from the leaves (L-A and L-B) and three bands from the roots (R-C, R-D and R-E) were bioactive. Within the root-derived bands, the terpene derivatives stigmasterol, kaurenoic acid and kaura-9(11), 16-dien-18-oic acid were identified. Antibiotic activity of A. latissima is reported for the first time.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Asteraceae/drug effects , Asteraceae/pharmacology , Bacteria/chemistry , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/pharmacology , Brazil/chemistry , Brazil/drug effects , Brazil/pharmacology , Fungi/chemistry , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/pharmacology , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(6): 449-455, Nov. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907506


The chemical constituents of essential oils obtained from leaves, stems and roots of Zingiber gramineum Noronha ex Blume and Zingiber rufopilosum Gagnep collected from Vietnam have been studied. The determination of essential oil components was performed by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaves oil of Zingiber gramineum were zingiberene (19.5 percent), beta-cubebene (12.9 percent), beta-sesquiphellandrene (12.9 percent) and beta-elemene (11.6 percent) while the stems oil was dominated by benzyl benzoate (22.6 percewnt), beta-elemene (9.7 percent) and beta-selinene (8.8 percent). However, upsilon-terpinene (17.9 percent), alpha-terpinene (17.1 percent), terpinen-4-ol (13.0 percent) and 1,8-cineole (12.8 percent) were the present in the root oil. In addition, beta-agarofuran (13.7 percent), alpha-humulene (8.8 percent) and alpha-pinene (8.7 percent) were the main compounds identified in the leaves of Zingiber rufopilosum. The stems comprised of alpha-cadinol (15.1 percent), beta-muurolol (12.1 percent) and endo-1-bourbonanol (9.9 percent) while (E,E)-farnesol (11.6 percent), alpha-pinene (10.0 percent), bornyl acetate (6.6 percent) and beta-pinene (6.2 percent) were the significant compounds of the root oil. This is the first report on the volatile compositions of these plant species.

El presente estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el efecto del extracto metanólico acuoso a partir de los componentes químicos de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas, tallos y raíces de Zingiber gramineum Noronha ex Blume y Zingiber rufopilosum Gagnep recogidos de Vietnam. La determinación de componentes de aceites esenciales se realizó por cromatografía de gases-detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Los principales componentes del aceite de hojas de Zingiber gramineum fueron zingibereno (19,5 por ciento), beta-cubebene (12,9 por ciento), beta-sesquiphellandrene (12,9 por ciento) y beta-elemene (11,6 por ciento), mientras que el aceite de tallos fue dominada por benzoato de bencilo (22,6 por ciento), beta-elemene (9,7 por ciento) y beta-selineno (8,8 por ciento). Sin embargo, ipsilon-terpineno (17,9 por ciento), alfa-terpineno (17,1 por ciento), terpinen-4-ol (13,0 por ciento) y 1,8-cineol (12,8 por ciento) fueron los presentes en el aceite de la raíz. Además, beta-agarofuran (13,7 por ciento), alfa-humuleno (8,8 por ciento) y alfa-pineno (8,7 por ciento) fueron los principales compuestos identificados en las hojas de Zingiber rufopilosum. Los tallos componen de alfa-cadinol (15,1 por ciento), beta-muurolol (12,1 por ciento) y endo-1-bourbonanol (9,9 por ciento), mientras que (E, E)-farnesol (11,6 por ciento), alfa-pineno (10,0 por ciento), acetato de bornilo (6,6 por ciento) y beta-pineno (6,2 por ciento) fueron los compuestos significativos del aceite de la raíz. Este es el primer informe sobre las composiciones volátiles de estas especies de plantas.

Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Monoterpenes/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 May; 53(5): 297-304
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158455


A comparative study was done on the production of 4-ipomeanol from root tubers of Ipomoea batatas and its rhizogenic callus. Best callusing response was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 11 µM NAA (α-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and 1 µM KIN (Kinetin). Effect of various elicitors (Fusarium solani, chitin and chitosan) on the production of 4-ipomeanol was studied. Methanol extract of the samples were purified by column chromatography and detected using TLC. Identification of 4-ipomeanol was confirmed using HPLC and quantified spectrophotometrically. A mass spectrum was recorded to confirm the presence of 4-ipomeanol. The calli grown under chitin produced highest (6.61mg g-1) amount of 4-ipomeanol. This is the first report on in vitro production of 4-ipomeanol from I. batatas. Since 4-ipomeanol is reported to be present only in I. batatas, this study would help in standardizing protocols for large scale production without affecting its natural flora.

Antineoplastic Agents/biosynthesis , Chitin/biosynthesis , Chitosan/chemical synthesis , Culture Techniques/methods , Ipomoea batatas/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Tubers/chemistry , Terpenes/biosynthesis
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 819-824, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77280


PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the additive effect of the Hedera helix (HH) and Rhizoma coptidis (RC) extracts mixture on antitussive and expectorant activities in animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expectorant assay was performed with phenol red secretion in mice trachea. Mice or guinea pigs were randomly divided into groups of 8 each, including negative and positive control groups. After gastric administration of the test extracts in mice, 2.5% phenol red solution (0.2 mL) was intraperitoneally injected. Trachea was dissected and optical density of tracheal secretion was measured. After gastric administration of the test extracts in guinea pigs, the antitussive activities were assessed using a citric acid-induced cough measurement. RESULTS: The extracts of HH and RC significantly increased tracheal secretion and inhibited cough. The mixture of HH and RC extracts in a 1:1 concentration at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed a more potent effect on phenol red secretion (25.25+/-3.14) and cough inhibition (61.25+/-5.36) than the individual use of each extracts [phenol red secretion; HH 13.39+/-4.22 (p=0.000), RC 20.78+/-2.50 (p=0.010), cough inhibition; HH 9.89+/-4.14 (p=0.010), RC 30.25+/-7.69 (p=0.000)]. A 3:1 ratio mixture of HH to RC demonstrated an optimal expectorant effect (p<0.001), and this mixture showed expectorant and antitussive effects in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for antitussive and expectorant effect of a 3:1 mixture of HH and RC, which may be a useful therapeutic option for respiratory diseases.

Animals , Antitussive Agents/administration & dosage , Behavior, Addictive , Cough/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Ethanol , Expectorants/administration & dosage , Guinea Pigs , Hedera/chemistry , Male , Mice , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Trachea/drug effects