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1.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Feb; 52 (1): 101-106
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157961

ABSTRACT

Four protocols viz., the trichloroacetic acid-acetone (TCA), phenol-ammonium acetate (PAA), phenol/SDS-ammonium acetate (PSA) and trisbase-acetone (TBA) were evaluated with modifications for protein extraction from banana (Grand Naine) roots, considered as recalcitrant tissues for proteomic analysis. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) separated proteins were compared based on protein yield, number of resolved proteins, sum of spot quantity, average spot intensity and proteins resolved in 4-7 pI range. The PAA protocol yielded more proteins (0.89 mg/g of tissues) and protein spots (584) in 2-DE gel than TCA and other protocols. Also, the PAA protocol was superior in terms of sum of total spot quantity and average spot intensity than TCA and other protocols, suggesting phenol as extractant and ammonium acetate as precipitant of proteins were the most suitable for banana rooteomics analysis by 2-DE. In addition, 1:3 ratios of root tissue to extraction buffer and overnight protein precipitation were most efficient to obtain maximum protein yield.


Subject(s)
Acetates/analogs & derivatives , Electrophoresis/methods , Musa/chemistry , Phenylacetates , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/enzymology , /methods
2.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Mar; 52(3): 252-260
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150355

ABSTRACT

Activity differences of the first (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL) and the last (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, CAD) enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway in the roots of resistant (Yangambi Km5 and Anaikomban) and susceptible (Nendran and Robusta) banana cultivars caused by root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae, were investigated. Also, the accumulation of phenolics and deposition of lignin polymers in cell walls in relation to resistance of the banana cultivars to the nematode were analyzed. Compared to the susceptible cultivars, the resistant cultivars had constitutively significantly higher PAL activity and total soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics than in susceptible cultivars. The resistant cultivars responded strongly to the infection of the nematode by induction of several-time higher PAL and CAD enzymes activities, soluble and wall-bound phenolics and enrichment of lignin polymers in cell wall and these biochemical parameters reached maximum at 7th day postinoculation. In addition, profiles of phenolic acid metabolites in roots of Yangambi Km5 and Nendran were analyzed by HPLC to ascertain the underlying biochemical mechanism of bananas resistance to the nematode. Identification and quantification of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids showed six metabolites and only quantitative, no qualitative, differences occurred between the resistant and susceptible cvs. and between constitutive and induced contents. A very prominent increase of p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids, which are precursors of monolignols of lignin, in resistant cv. was found. These constitutive and induced biochemical alterations are definitely the chemical defenses of resistant cvs. to the nematode infection.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Oxidoreductases/genetics , Alcohol Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Animals , Disease Resistance/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Musa/enzymology , Musa/genetics , Musa/growth & development , Musa/parasitology , Nematoda/genetics , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/metabolism , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase/genetics , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase/metabolism , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plant Diseases/parasitology , Plant Roots/enzymology , Plant Roots/metabolism , Polymers/chemistry , Propanols/chemistry , Propanols/metabolism
3.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2009 Feb; 47(2): 136-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60959

ABSTRACT

Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and polyamines (PAs) [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)] on mitosis in root tips of A. cepa was studied. Treatment with ABA (0.1 to 100 microM) for 24 hr suppressed the mitosis, measured as mitotic index (MI), in a concentration-dependent manner with approx. 50% suppression at 10 microM of ABA. Treatment with different PAs (1 to 100 microM) had differential mitosis suppression effect. Spm was most inhibitory followed by Spd and Put, respectively. The higher concentrations of PAs (1 mM Put; 0.1 and 1 mM Spd or Spm) caused cell distortion. Remarkably, a 24 hr pretreatment of root tips with PAs prior to ABA (100 microM) treatment resulted in a general concentration-dependent reversal of ABA-induced suppression of MI. Catalase (CAT) activity in the root tips, an indicator of redox metabolism, increased due to ABA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner, remained unaltered in response to Put and declined due to Spd and Spm (> or = 0.1 mM). However, all PAs, irrespective of their individual effects, generally antagonized the ABA-dependent increase in CAT activity. Data indicate the possibility of ABA-PA interaction in the regulation of mitosis.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Catalase/metabolism , Mitosis/drug effects , Onions/cytology , Onions/drug effects , Onions/enzymology , Plant Roots/cytology , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/enzymology , Polyamines/antagonists & inhibitors
4.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 40(2): 120-123, abr.-jun. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634590

ABSTRACT

The incorporation of biosolids to soil is a strategy aiming at the re-location of these materials in the environment with a useful end: soil fertilization. In this work, the response of two Argiudoll soils (one with more than 100 years of agriculture and the other, a virgin one) to biosolid incorporation was studied under laboratory conditions. To measure this response, soil enzymatic biodescriptors, such as dehydrogenase and urease activities, and tests related to plant physiology (the root elongation test) were employed. The addition of the biosolid to both soils had a stimulating effect though different on each soil according to the added dose. Adjustment of the regression line for dehydrogenase activity with root elongation was positive and statistically significant (p<0.001). Results suggest that biodescriptors employed were suitable for studying the impact of amended biosolids on different soils.


La incorporación de biosólidos al suelo es una estrategia que tiene como objetivo la reubicación de estos materiales en el ambiente con un fin útil, como es la fertilización del suelo. En este trabajo se estudió, en condiciones controladas de laboratorio, la respuesta de dos suelos Argiudoles (uno con más de 100 años de agricultura y otro virgen) frente a la perturbación físico-química y biótica que genera la incorporación de un biosólido. Para medir esta respuesta se emplearon dos biodescriptores edáficos (las actividades deshidrogenasa y ureasa) y un tercero referido a la fisiología vegetal, la prueba de elongación de raíces. La incorporación del biosólido en ambos suelos, en general no deprimió el funcionamiento de las actividades enzimáticas estudiadas; contrariamente, según la dosis aportada tuvo un efecto estimulante, aunque diferente, entre ambos suelos. El ajuste de la recta de regresión de la actividad deshidrogenasa con la elongación de las plántulas fue positivo y altamente significativo, lo que indica la complementaridad de ambos descriptores. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que los biodescriptores empleados resultaron aptos para estudiar el impacto que produce la incorporación de biosólidos a suelos agrícolas.


Subject(s)
Oxidoreductases/metabolism , Plant Roots/enzymology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Sewage , Soil , Urease/metabolism , Argentina
5.
J Biosci ; 2008 Jun; 33(2): 185-93
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-110994

ABSTRACT

A set of Ds-element enhancer trap lines of Arabidopsis thaliana was generated and screened for expression patterns leading to the identification of a line that showed root-specific expression of the bacterial uidA reporter gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS). The insertion of the Ds element was found to be immediately downstream to a glycosyltransferase gene At1g73160. Analysis of At1g73160 expression showed that it is highly root-specific. Isolation and characterization of the upstream region of the At1g73160 gene led to the definition of a 218 bp fragment that is sufficient to confer root-specific expression. Sequence analysis revealed that several regulatory elements were implicated in expression in root tissue. The promoter identified and characterized in this study has the potential to be applied in crop biotechnology for directing the root-specific expression of transgenes.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/enzymology , Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics , Base Sequence , DNA, Plant , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Glycosyltransferases/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Plant Roots/enzymology , Promoter Regions, Genetic
6.
J Environ Biol ; 2008 Jan; 29(1): 25-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113688

ABSTRACT

Root-surface phosphatase activities were measured in natural and semi-natural shrublands across an European climatic gradient of temperature and rainfall including Wales (WL), Denmark (DK), Netherlands (NL), Hungary (HU), Italy (IT) and Spain (SP). In each site a warming experiment was conducted since 1999 or 2001 by means of passive night-time warming using reflective curtains that covered the vegetation at night. The treatments increased yearly average soil temperatures around 0. 8 degrees C in most of sites. Root-surface phosphatase activity values ranged between 56 mg PNP g(-1) h(-1) in IT and 3.5 mg PNP g(-1) h(-1) in HU. Warming had no effect on root-surface phosphatase activity across the sites and only in Hungary a slight increase was detected. Plants at Mediterranean sites (IT, SP) showed a higher root-surface phosphatase activity than plants at temperate sites (WL, NL, DK). We suggest it might be an adaptation of plant species evolved under Mediterranean climate that allows them a) to compensate in wet period for the decrease in phosphatase activity, and thus P uptake, during drought periods, and/or b) to benefit from soluble organic P flushes following the frequent drying-rewetting episodes experienced by soils in Mediterranean ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Europe , Geography , Greenhouse Effect , Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/metabolism , Plant Roots/enzymology , Plants/enzymology , Rain , Soil/analysis
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(9): 1159-1169, Sept. 2006. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-435432

ABSTRACT

In mammals, hexokinase (HK) is strategically located at the outer membrane of mitochondria bound to the porin protein. The mitochondrial HK is a crucial modulator of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species generation. In plants, these properties related to HK are unknown. In order to better understand the physiological role of non-cytosolic hexokinase (NC-HK) in plants, we developed a purification strategy here described. Crude extract of 400 g of maize roots (230 mg protein) contained a specific activity of 0.042 æmol G6P min-1 mg PTN-1. After solubilization with detergent two fractions were obtained by DEAE column chromatography, NC-HK 1 (specific activity = 3.6 æmol G6P min-1 mg PTN-1 and protein recovered = 0.7 mg) and NC-HK 2. A major purification (yield = 500-fold) was obtained after passage of NC-HK 1 through the hydrophobic phenyl-Sepharose column. The total amount of protein and activity recovered were 0.04 and 18 percent, respectively. The NC-HK 1 binds to the hydrophobic phenyl-Sepharose matrix, as observed for rat brain HK. Mild chymotrypsin digestion did not affect adsorption of NC-HK 1 to the hydrophobic column as it does for rat HK I. In contrast to mammal mitochondrial HK, glucose-6-phosphate, clotrimazole or thiopental did not dissociate NC-HK from maize (Zea mays) or rice (Oryza sativa) mitochondrial membranes. These data show that the interaction between maize or rice NC-HK to mitochondria differs from that reported in mammals, where the mitochondrial enzyme can be displaced by modulators or pharmacological agents known to interfere with the enzyme binding properties with the mitochondrial porin protein.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Hexokinase/isolation & purification , Hexokinase/metabolism , Mitochondria/enzymology , Plant Roots/enzymology , Zea mays/enzymology , Brain/enzymology , Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose , Oryza , Solubility
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Jul; 42(7): 721-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56416

ABSTRACT

Glasshouse experiments were conducted to elicit biochemical substantiation for the observed difference in resistance to nematode infection in roots colonized by mycorrhiza, and susceptibility of the fresh flush of roots of the same plant that escaped mycorrhizal colonization. Tomato roots were assayed for their biochemical profiles with respect to total proteins, total phenols, indole acetic acid, activities of polyphenol oxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase and indole acetic acid oxidase. The roots of the same plant (one set) received Glomus fasciculatum and G. fasciculatum plus juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita separately; and half the roots of second set of plants received G. fasciculatum while the other half of roots did not receive any treatment. Roots colonized by G. fasciculatum recorded maximum contents of proteins and phenols followed by that of the roots that received G. fasciculatum plus M. incognita. However, IAA content was lowest in the roots that received mycorrhiza or mycorrhiza plus juveniles of root-knot nematode and correspondingly. Roots that received juveniles of root-knot nematode recorded maximum IAA content and per cent increase over healthy check and mycorrhiza-inoculated roots. The comparative assay on the activities of PPO, PAL and IAA oxidase enzymes in treated and healthy roots of tomato, indicated that PAL and IAA oxidase activities were maximum in G. fasciculatum colonized roots followed by the roots that received mycorrhiza plus juveniles of root-knot nematode, while the activity of PPO was minimum in these roots. The roots that received juveniles of root-knot nematode recorded minimum PAL and IAA oxidase activities and maximum PPO activity. Since the roots of same plant that received mycorrhiza and that did not receive mycorrhiza; and the plant that received nematode alone and mycorrhiza plus nematode recorded differential biochemical contents of proteins, total phenols and IAA, and differential activities of enzymes under study, it was evident that the biochemical defense response to mycorrhizal colonization against root-knot nematodes was localized and not systemic. This explained for the response of plant that differed in root galling due to nematode infection in presence of mycorrhizal colonization. The new or fresh roots which missed mycorrhizal colonization, got infected by nematodes and developed root galls.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catechol Oxidase/metabolism , Fungi/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzymology , Plant Roots/enzymology , Tylenchoidea/physiology
9.
J Environ Biol ; 2002 Jul; 23(3): 295-300
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113693

ABSTRACT

Efficiency of pretreatment as foliar spray of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and kinetin (6-furfuryl aminopurine) each ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-5) M in restoring the metabolic alterations imposed by NaCl salinity (E.C. value 4.0 m mhos/cm) was investigated in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Application of NaCl resulted in about 7% and 9% decrease in phenol content in mung bean leaf and root respectively. In leaf, NaCl caused 40% increase in polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity over the control set. This effect was accentuated in root, where salinity caused 200% increase in the enzyme activity. In leaf and root of mung-bean plant, ascorbic acid content decreased about 29% and 31% respectively under salinity stress as compared with control. Ascorbic acid oxidase enzyme activity increased under stress by about 55% and 23% respectively in leaf and root. It was noted that all the three growth regulators used in the present study were able to overcome to variable extents the adverse effects of stress imposed by NaCl solution.


Subject(s)
Adenine/administration & dosage , Fabaceae/physiology , Gibberellins/administration & dosage , Indoleacetic Acids/administration & dosage , Kinetin , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Plant Roots/enzymology , Sodium Chloride/adverse effects
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 49(3/4): 965-971, Sep.-Dec. 2001.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-333090

ABSTRACT

The induction of rooting in microshoots of Zingiber officinale cvs. Suprava, Turia local, Suruchi and V3S18 was achieved on half-strength basal Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 0.5-1.0 mg/l either indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 2 (w/v) sucrose within 7-9 days of culture. Rooting was inhibited when the microshoots were cultured under higher concentration of auxins. The microshoots cultured on medium supplemented with NAA induced large number of thin root hairs with friable calluses within 6-7 days. Peroxidase activity was determined during root induction (0-day to the 10th day at every 2 day interval) from microshoots derived in vitro. The activity was minimum in the inductive phase (primary) and at the maximum level during the root initiative phase. These finding may be useful in monitoring the rooting behaviour in microshoots derived from different subculture and peroxidase activity as a marker for root initiation.


Subject(s)
Ginger , Indoleacetic Acids , Peroxidase , Plant Shoots , Plant Roots/drug effects , Butyrates , Culture Media , Ginger , Indoleacetic Acids , Plant Growth Regulators , Plant Shoots , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots/enzymology , Plant Roots/growth & development
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 May; 38(5): 483-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55634

ABSTRACT

Pennisetum pedicellatum plants were inoculated with Glomus mosseae, G. aggregatum and Gigaspora margarita. There were both quantitative and qualitative changes in the protein pattern of inoculated plants. Gi. margarita induced increase in protein in the plants. Acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and chitinase activities were high at the beginning of infection, but declined as the infection advanced. Gi. margarita was an efficient fungus in enhancing enzyme activity and proteins in roots compared with G. mosseae and G. aggregatum. Protein profile revealed the presence of 12 peaks in mycorrhizal plants compared with 8 in nonmycorrhizal plants.


Subject(s)
Fungi/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plant Roots/enzymology , Poaceae/enzymology , Symbiosis
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