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Braz. j. biol ; 82: e256277, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364494


The wax apple or jambu madu, is a non-climacteric tropical fruit from Myrtaceae family and widely cultivated in South East Asia. The limited availability of good quality seedlings of wax apple is the main problem to development of flourish it's market share in the current fruit industry. Therefore, in order to produce good quality planting materials, a study aimed at optimizing propagation and adventitious rooting technique and survivability of wax apple air layer was conducted. In this study, four different levels of Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) concentration (0, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg L-1) and three rooting media (sphagnum moss, vermicompost and garden soil) were applied after removal of bark (phloem) on the shoot to determine the effect on rooting and survivability of the wax apple air layer under field conditions. The results showed that the wax apple shoots treated with 2000 mg L-1 IBA produced the significantly higher number of roots, increased length of root, diameter of branch, length of branch, number of leaf and leaf area of air layers. In addition, the highest chlorophyll content and stomatal aperture were recorded in 2000 mg L-1 IBA treatment compared to other treatments including control. Vermicompost medium was better than garden soil and sphagnum moss in respect of rooting and survivability of air layers. The results showed that the combination of 2000 mg L-1 IBA and vermicompost as rooting media give the best combination to root initiation, root number, root length and survival rate (100%) of wax apple air layers. From this study, it can be concluded that 2000 mg L-1 IBA and vermicompost treatment enhance the root initiation, early establishment and survivability of wax apple air layered under field conditions.

A maçã de cera, ou jambu madu, é uma fruta tropical não climatérica da família Myrtaceae e amplamente cultivada no Sudeste Asiático. A disponibilidade limitada de mudas de macieira de boa qualidade é o principal problema para o desenvolvimento de sua participação de mercado na fruticultura atual. Portanto, com o objetivo de produzir materiais de plantio de boa qualidade, foi realizado um estudo visando otimizar a técnica de propagação e enraizamento adventício e a sobrevivência da camada aérea da cera de macieira. Neste estudo, quatro diferentes níveis de concentração de ácido indol-3-butírico (AIB) (0, 1000, 1500 e 2000 mg L-1) e três meios de enraizamento (musgo esfagno, vermicomposto e solo de jardim) foram aplicados após a remoção da casca (floema) na parte aérea para determinar o efeito no enraizamento e capacidade de sobrevivência da camada de ar da macieira em condições de campo. Os resultados mostraram que os brotos de macieira tratados com 2000 mg L-1 de AIB produziram significativamente maior número de raízes, maior comprimento de raiz, diâmetro de galho, comprimento de galho, número de folhas e área foliar das camadas aéreas. Além disso, o maior teor de clorofila e abertura estomática foram registrados no tratamento 2000 mg L-1 IBA em comparação com outros tratamentos, incluindo o controle. O meio de vermicomposto foi melhor do que o solo de jardim e o musgo esfagno em relação ao enraizamento e capacidade de sobrevivência das camadas aéreas. Os resultados mostraram que a combinação de 2000 mg L-1 de AIB e vermicomposto como meio de enraizamento proporciona a melhor combinação para iniciação radicular, número de raízes, comprimento radicular e taxa de sobrevivência (100%) das camadas aéreas de macieira. A partir deste estudo, pode-se concluir que 2.000 mg L-1 de AIB e tratamento com vermicomposto melhoram a iniciação radicular, o estabelecimento precoce e a capacidade de sobrevivência de macieiras em camadas de ar em condições de campo.

Agricultural Cultivation , Plant Roots/growth & development , Malus/growth & development , Fertilizers
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 17-27, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343317


BACKGROUND: In order to produce an effective callus in Echinacea purpurea L.; determination of the explant type and growth regulators that best respond to callus induction and the optimization of the culture conditions to increase the amount of caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) in the obtained callus. CADs contents of callus cultures of E. purpurea were evaluated by establishing an effective callus induction system in vitro. RESULTS: Various medium containing different growth regulators were tested using leaf, petiole, cotyledon and root as the explants. The best callus development was achieved in MS medium with 1.0 mg l 1 2,4- D + 2.0 mg l 1 BAP in leaf, 1.0 mg l 1 NAA + 0.5 mg l 1 TDZ in petiole, 2.0 mg l 1 NAA + 1.0 mg l 1 TDZ in cotyledon and 0.5 mg l 1 NAA + 0.5 mg l 1 BAP in roots. Upon optimisation of callus growth, each type of explant was cultured for 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks in medium for the analyses of caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and chicoric acid contents. The highest amounts of caftaric acid (4.11 mg/g) and chicoric acid (57.89 mg/g) were found from petiole explants and chlorogenic acid (8.83 mg/g) from root explants at the end of the 10-week culture time. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the present study, the production of caffeic acid derivatives was performed by providing the optimization of E. purpurea L. callus cultures. Effective and repeatable protocols established in this study may offer help for further studies investigating the production of caffeic acid derivatives in vitro.

Caffeic Acids , Echinacea , Plant Growth Regulators , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Cotyledon/growth & development , Culture Techniques
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190359, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132226


Abstract Leaves of mate is one of the main non-timber forest products marketed in South America, which makes establishment of new plantations of great interest. However, vegetative propagation of mate plantlets presents difficulties, which may be associated with the complexity of adventitious root formation. The aims of this study were to anatomically characterize the adventitious roots of mate-clone mini-cuttings and investigate the relationship of phenols and starch with adventitious rooting competence in mini-cuttings treated or not with indole-butyric acid (IBA). The mini-cuttings of four clones were collected at 0, 30, and 60 days of cultivation, fixed in a solution containing 1% glutaraldehyde and 4% formaldehyde, pre-infiltrated and infiltrated in (2-hydroxyethyl) methacrylate, and sectioned in a microtome. Ferric chloride and toluidine blue were used to detect phenolic compounds and lugol to identify starch. Adventitious roots formed in mini-cuttings treated with IBA presented disorganized xylem and phloem and poles irregularly but exhibited sclerenchyma vessel elements and tracheid cells indicating functionality. Differences in the rhizogenic ability of mate clones mini-cuttings were not due to the presence of anatomical barriers or the accumulation of phenolic compounds but be associated with the presence and distribution of starch grains in vegetative propagules.

Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/drug effects , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , Ilex paraguariensis/growth & development , Ilex paraguariensis/drug effects , Time Factors
Biol. Res ; 52: 19, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011421


BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that circular RNAs (circRNAs) may play important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Plant roots are the main organs of nutrient and water uptake. However, whether circRNAs involved in the regulation of plant root growth remains to be elucidated. METHODS: LH9, XN979 and YN29 are three Chinese wheat varieties with contrasting root lengths. Here, the root circRNA expression profiles of LH9, XN979 and YN29 were examined by using high-throughput sequencing technology. RESULTS: Thirty-three and twenty-two differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) were identified in the YN29-LH9 comparison and YN29-XN979 comparison, respectively. Among them, ten DECs coexisted in both comparisons. As the roots of both LH9 and XN979 were significantly larger and deeper than YN29, the ten DECs coexisting in the two comparisons were highly likely to be involved in the regulation of wheat root length. Moreover, three of the ten DECs have potential miRNA binding sites. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of the potential binding miRNAs exhibited significant differences between the long root plants and the short root plants. CONCLUSIONS: The expression levels of some circRNAs exhibited significant differences in wheat varieties with contrasting root phenotypes. Ten DECs involved in the regulation of wheat root length were successfully identified in which three of them have potential miRNAs binding sites. The expression levels of putative circRNA-binding miRNAs were correlated with their corresponding circRNAs. Our results provide new clues for studying the potential roles of circRNAs in the regulation of wheat root length.

Triticum/growth & development , RNA/physiology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Triticum/physiology , Down-Regulation/physiology , Up-Regulation/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Circular
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 685-694, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974282


ABSTRACT To mitigate the deleterious effects of abiotic stress, the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria along with diazotrophic bacteria has been increasing. The objectives of this study were to investigate the key enzymes related to nitrogen and carbon metabolism in the biological nitrogen fixation process and to elucidate the activities of these enzymes by the synergistic interaction between Bradyrhizobium and plant growth-promoting bacteria in the absence and presence of salt stress. Cowpea plants were cultivated under axenic conditions, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium and co-inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. and Actinomadura sp., Bradyrhizobium sp. and Bacillus sp., Bradyrhizobium sp. and Paenibacillus graminis, and Bradyrhizobium sp. and Streptomycessp.; the plants were also maintained in the absence (control) and presence of salt stress (50 mmolL-1 NaCl). Salinity reduced the amino acids, free ammonia, ureides, proteins and total nitrogen content in nodules and increased the levels of sucrose and soluble sugars. The co-inoculations responded differently to the activity of glutamine synthetase enzymes under salt stress, as well as glutamate synthase, glutamate dehydrogenase aminating, and acid invertase in the control and salt stress. Considering the development conditions of this experiment, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. and Bacillus sp. in cowpea provided better symbiotic performance, mitigating the deleterious effects of salt stress.

Carbon/metabolism , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Vigna/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Sodium Chloride/analysis , Actinobacteria/physiology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Bradyrhizobium/physiology , Agricultural Inoculants/physiology , Vigna/growth & development , Vigna/microbiology , Amino Acids/metabolism , Nitrogen Fixation
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(1): 67-78, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889191


ABSTRACT The use of dark septate fungi (DSE) to promote plant growth can be beneficial to agriculture, and these organisms are important allies in the search for sustainable agriculture practices. This study investigates the contribution of dark septate fungi to the absorption of nutrients by rice plants and their ensuing growth. Four dark septate fungi isolates that were identified by Internal transcribed spacer phylogeny were inoculated in rice seeds (Cv. Piauí). The resulting root colonization was estimated and the kinetic parameters Vmax and Km were calculated from the nitrate contents of the nutrient solution. The macronutrient levels in the shoots, and the NO3--N, NH4+-N, free amino-N and soluble sugars in the roots, sheathes and leaves were measured. The rice roots were significantly colonized by all of the fungi, but in particular, isolate A103 increased the fresh and dry biomass of the shoots and the number of tillers per plant, amino-N, and soluble sugars as well as the N, P, K, Mg and S contents in comparison with the control treatment. When inoculated with isolates A103 and A101, the plants presented lower Km values, indicating affinity increases for NO3--N absorption. Therefore, the A103 Pleosporales fungus presented the highest potential for the promotion of rice plant growth, increasing the tillering and nutrients uptake, especially N (due to an enhanced affinity for N uptake) and P.

Fungi/physiology , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/microbiology , Ascomycota/classification , Ascomycota/genetics , Ascomycota/isolation & purification , Ascomycota/physiology , Biomass , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Nitrogen/metabolism , Oryza/metabolism , Phosphates/metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Potassium/metabolism
Biol. Res ; 51: 43, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983944


BACKGROUND: CircRNAs are widespread in plants and play important roles in response to abiotic stresses. Low nitrogen (LN) promotes the growth of plant root system, allowing it to explore more nitrogen. However, whether circRNAs involved in the response to LN stress and the regulation of LN-promoted root growth in wheat remains unclear. METHODS: Two wheat varieties (LH9 and XN979) with contrasting root phenotypes to LN stress were used as materials to identify circRNAs under control and LN conditions by using high-throughput sequencing technology. RESULTS: Six differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) involved in the common response to LN stress and 23 DECs involved in the regulation of LN-promoted root growth were successfully identified. GO analysis of the DEC-host genes involved in the regulation of LN-promoted root growth showed that GO terms related to biological regulation, responses to stimuli and signalling were significantly enriched. Moreover, seven DECs were predicted to have miRNA binding sites and may serve as miRNA sponges to capture miRNAs from their target genes. CONCLUSIONS: LN stress altered the expression profiles of circRNAs in wheat. This is the first report of LN stress responsive circRNAs in plants. Our results provided new clues for investigating the functions of circRNAs in response to LN stress and in the regulation of LN-promoted wheat root growth.

Stress, Physiological/physiology , Triticum/growth & development , RNA/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/growth & development , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Nitrogen/metabolism , Triticum/physiology , RNA/metabolism , RNA, Circular
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 40-46, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974339


Abstract Bacterial endophytes are considered to have a beneficial effect on host plants, improving their growth by different mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the capacity of four endophytic Bacillus strains to solubilize iron phosphate (Fe-P), produce siderophores and indole-acetic acid (IAA) in vitro, and to evaluate their plant growth promotion ability in greenhouse conditions by inoculation into pearl millet cultivated in a P-deficient soils without P fertilization, with Araxá rock phosphate or soluble triple superphosphate. All strains solubilized Fe-P and three of them produced carboxylate-type siderophores and high levels of IAA in the presence of tryptophan. Positive effect of inoculation of some of these strains on shoot and root dry weight and the N P K content of plants cultivated in soil with no P fertilization might result from the synergistic combination of multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. Specifically, while B1923 enhanced shoot and root dry weight and root N P content of plants cultivated with no P added, B2084 and B2088 strains showed positive performance on biomass production and accumulation of N P K in the shoot, indicating that they have higher potential to be microbial biofertilizer candidates for commercial applications in the absence of fertilization.

Bacillus/metabolism , Food/metabolism , Pennisetum/growth & development , Pennisetum/microbiology , Endophytes/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Phosphates/analysis , Phosphates/metabolism , Bacillus/genetics , Siderophores/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Pennisetum/metabolism , Endophytes/genetics , Iron/metabolism
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(2): 1027-1040, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886675


ABSTRACT We attempted to study the compatibility among plant beneficial bacteria in the culture level by growing them near in the nutrient agar plates. Among all the bacteria tested, Rhizobium was found to inhibit the growth of other bacteria. From the compatible group of PGPR, we have selected one biofertilizer (Azospirillum brasilense strain TNAU) and one biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PF1) for further studies in the pot culture. We have also developed a bioformulation which is talc powder based, for individual bacteria and mixed culture. This formulation was used as seed treatment, soil application, seedling root dip and foliar spray in groundnut crop in vitro germination conditions. A. brasilense was found to enhance the tap root growth and P. fluorescens, the lateral root growth. The other growth parameters like shoot growth, number of leaves were enhanced by the combination of both of the bacteria than their individual formulations. Among the method of application tested in our study, soil application was found to be the best in yielding better results of plant growth promotion.

Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/microbiology , Pseudomonas fluorescens/physiology , Azospirillum brasilense/physiology , Fertilizers , Rhizobium/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Azotobacter/physiology , Bacillus megaterium/physiology , Bacillus subtilis/physiology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Leaves , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/microbiology
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 656-663, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785035


Abstract Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae) is a way to overcome difficulties in achieving large-scale plant production, given the recalcitrant nature of the seeds, irregular fructification and absence of natural vegetative propagation of the species. Cultures were established using nodal segments 2 cm in length, obtained from 1-2 year old seedlings, maintained in a greenhouse. Mercury chloride and Plant Preservative Mixture™ were used in the surface sterilizing stage, better results being achieved with Plant Preservative Mixture™ incorporation in culture medium, at any concentration. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, activated charcoal, cysteine, ascorbic acid or citric acid were added to the culture medium to avoid oxidation. After 30 days of culture, polyvinylpirrolidone and ascorbic acid gave better results, eliminating oxidation in most explants. For shoot multiplication, benzylaminopurine was used in concentrations of 4.4 and 8.8 µM in Woody Plant Medium, resulting in an average of 4.43 and 4.68 shoots per explant, respectively, after 90 days. Indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid were used to induce root formation, reaching a maximum rooting rate of 24% with 20µM α-naphthalene acetic acid. For acclimatization. the rooted plants were transferred to Plantmax® substrate and cultured in a greenhouse, reaching 79% of survival after 30 days and 60% after one year.

Resumo A micropropagação de Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae) é uma maneira de superar dificuldades para sua produção em larga escala, devido à natureza recalcitrante das sementes, frutificação irregular e ausência de propagação vegetativa natural da espécie. Culturas foram estabelecidas utilizando segmentos nodais com 2 cm de comprimento, obtidos de plantas com 1 a 2 anos de idade, mantidas em casa de vegetação. Cloreto de mercúrio e Plant Preservative Mixture™ foram utilizados durante a etapa de desinfestação, com melhores resultados alcançados com a incorporação de Plant Preservative Mixture™ ao meio de cultura. Polivinilpirrolidona, carvão ativado, cisteína, ácido ascórbico ou ácido cítrico foram adicionados ao meio de cultura para evitar a oxidação dos explantes. Após 30 dias de cultivo, o uso de polivinilpirrolidona ou ácido ascórbico proporcionou melhores resultados, eliminando a oxidação na maioria dos explantes. Para multiplicação das brotações, benzilaminopurina foi usada em concentrações de 4.4 e 8.8 µM em meio WPM, resultando em uma média de 4.43 e 4.68 brotações por explante, respectivamente, após 90 dias. Ácido indol-3-butírico e ácido α-naftaleno acético foram usados para a indução de raízes, alcançando um enraizamento máximo de 24% com o uso de 20µM de ácido α-naftaleno acético. As plantas enraizadas foram transferidas para substrato Plantmax® e cultivadas em casa de vegetação, alcançando 79% de sobrevivência após 30 dias e 60% após um ano.

Seeds/growth & development , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Roots/growth & development , Calophyllum/growth & development , Culture Media
Braz. j. biol ; 76(2): 531-538, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781389


Abstract The loss of leaves by plant species found in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) is an energetically expensive process due to adverse environmental conditions and predation by herbivory. The mature leaves have adaptations which minimize these events. However, the young individuals lack these structures and produce high leaf concentrations of secondary metabolites as a form of protection. These compounds can be used in bioprospection of natural herbicides. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles (Triticum aestivum L.) and evaluate the potential phytotoxic of ethyl acetate extract on germination, growth and cell size of metaxylem of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seedlings. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the elongation of wheat coleoptiles at all concentrations; however, the most promising results were observed in coleoptile fragments treated with the ethyl acetate extract. This treatment changed the mean germination time and the synchrony of sesame seeds, inhibited the growth of shoots and roots, reduced the dry weight of seedlings, led to abnormalities in the seedlings and reduced the length of the metaxylem cells in the sesame seedlings. These results demonstrated the phytotoxic potential of young leaf extracts of B. salicifolius and the high phytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate extract in the initial development of S. indicum.

Resumo A perda das folhas pelas plantas do Cerrado é um processo energeticamente custoso devido às condições ambientais adversas e intensa predação por herbivoria. As folhas maduras possuem adaptações que minimizam esses eventos. Entretanto, os indivíduos jovens carecem dessas estruturas e produzem elevadas concentrações foliares de metabólitos secundários como forma de proteção. Esses compostos podem ser utilizados na bioprospecção de herbicidas naturais. Dessa forma, objetivamos com este estudo avaliar a fitotoxicidade dos extratos hexânico, acetato etílico e aquoso de folhas jovens de Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg sobre o alongamento de coleóptilos estiolados de Triticum aestivum L. (trigo) e avaliar o potencial fitotóxico do extrato acetato etílico sobre a germinação, crescimento e comprimento das células do metaxilema de Sesamum indicum (gergelim). Os extratos hexânico e acetato etílico inibiram o alongamento dos coleóptilos em todas as concentrações testadas, entretanto os resultados mais promissores foram observados nos fragmentos submetidos ao extrato acetato etílico. Este extrato alterou o tempo médio de germinação e a sincronia das sementes de gergelim, inibiu o crescimento da parte aérea e subterrânea com redução da massa seca das plântulas, levou ao surgimento acentuado de anomalias e causou redução no comprimento médio das células do metaxilema de plântulas de gergelim. Assim, ficou comprovado o potencial fitotóxico dos extratos de folhas jovens de B. salicifolius e a acentuada fitotoxicidade do extrato acetato etílico sobre o desenvolvimento inicial de S. indicum.

Triticum/drug effects , Triticum/physiology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Germination/drug effects , Myrtaceae , Hexanes/pharmacology , Acetates/pharmacology , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Seedlings/drug effects , Herbicides/pharmacology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1045-1052, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769662


Abstract High copper (Cu) levels in uprooted old vineyard soils may cause toxicity in transplanted young vines, although such toxicity may be reduced by inoculating plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMF on the plant growth, chlorophyll contents, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu and phosphorus (P) absorption in young vines cultivated in a vineyard soil contaminated by Cu. Commercial vineyard soil with high Cu levels was placed in plastic tubes and transplanted with young vines, which were inoculated with six AMF species (Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora gigantea, Acaulospora morrowiae, A. colombiana, Rhizophagus clarus, R. irregularis) and a control treatment on randomized blocks with 12 replicates. After 130 days, the mycorrhizal colonization, root and shoot dry matter (DM), height increment, P and Cu absorption, and chlorophyll contents were evaluated. The height increment, shoot DM and chlorophyll contents were not promoted by AMF, although the root DM was increased by R. clarus and R. irregularis, which had the greatest mycorrhizal colonization and P uptake. AMF increased Cu absorption but decreased its transport to shoots. Thus, AMF species, particularly R. clarus and R. irregularis, contribute to the establishment of young vines exposed to high Cu levels.

Copper/growth & development , Copper/metabolism , Copper/microbiology , Fungi/growth & development , Fungi/metabolism , Fungi/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Mycorrhizae/metabolism , Mycorrhizae/microbiology , Phosphorus/growth & development , Phosphorus/metabolism , Phosphorus/microbiology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Plant Shoots/microbiology , Soil Pollutants/growth & development , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/microbiology , Vitis/growth & development , Vitis/metabolism , Vitis/microbiology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 977-989, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769669


Abstract A total of 48 endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues of the medicinal plant Lonicera japonica, which is grown in eastern China; six strains were selected for further study based on their potential ability to promote plant growth in vitro (siderophore and indoleacetic acid production). The bacteria were characterized by phylogenetically analyzing their 16S rRNA gene similarity, by examining their effect on the mycelial development of pathogenic fungi, by testing their potential plant growth-promoting characteristics, and by measuring wheat growth parameters after inoculation. Results showed that the number of endophytic bacteria in L. japonica varied among different tissues, but it remained relatively stable in the same tissues from four different plantation locations. Among the three endophytic strains, strains 122 and 124 both had high siderophore production, with the latter showing the highest phosphate solubilization activity (45.6 mg/L) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (47.3 nmol/mg/h). Strain 170 had the highest indoleacetic acid (IAA) production (49.2 mg/L) and cellulase and pectinase activities. After inoculation, most of the six selected isolates showed a strong capacity to promote wheat growth. Compared with the controls, the increase in the shoot length, root length, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content was most remarkable in wheat seedlings inoculated with strain 130. The positive correlation between enzyme (cellulose and pectinase) activity and inhibition rate on Fusarium oxysporum, the IAA production, and the root length of wheat seedlings inoculated with each tested endophytic strain was significant in regression analysis. Deformity of pathogenic fungal mycelia was observed under a microscope after the interaction with the endophytic isolates. Such deformity may be directly related to the production of hydrolytic bacterial enzymes (cellulose and pectinase). The six endophytic bacterial strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth.

Bacillus/classification , Bacillus/genetics , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/metabolism , Bacillus/microbiology , China/classification , China/genetics , China/growth & development , China/isolation & purification , China/metabolism , China/microbiology , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/genetics , Endophytes/growth & development , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/metabolism , Endophytes/microbiology , Indoleacetic Acids/classification , Indoleacetic Acids/genetics , Indoleacetic Acids/growth & development , Indoleacetic Acids/isolation & purification , Indoleacetic Acids/metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids/microbiology , Lonicera/classification , Lonicera/genetics , Lonicera/growth & development , Lonicera/isolation & purification , Lonicera/metabolism , Lonicera/microbiology , Molecular Sequence Data/classification , Molecular Sequence Data/genetics , Molecular Sequence Data/growth & development , Molecular Sequence Data/isolation & purification , Molecular Sequence Data/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data/microbiology , Paenibacillus/classification , Paenibacillus/genetics , Paenibacillus/growth & development , Paenibacillus/isolation & purification , Paenibacillus/metabolism , Paenibacillus/microbiology , Phylogeny/classification , Phylogeny/genetics , Phylogeny/growth & development , Phylogeny/isolation & purification , Phylogeny/metabolism , Phylogeny/microbiology , Plant Roots/classification , Plant Roots/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/isolation & purification , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Siderophores/classification , Siderophores/genetics , Siderophores/growth & development , Siderophores/isolation & purification , Siderophores/metabolism , Siderophores/microbiology , Triticum/classification , Triticum/genetics , Triticum/growth & development , Triticum/isolation & purification , Triticum/metabolism , Triticum/microbiology
Salud colect ; 11(3): 331-349, jul.-sep. 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-761805


Desde una perspectiva sociológica, este trabajo aborda una de las aristas de la intervención pública de ciertos sectores del catolicismo en la elaboración y sanción de leyes de salud. En particular se hace foco en el debate en comisiones parlamentarias sobre la llamada ley de "muerte digna" (Ley 26742) en el cual se convocó a un grupo de expertos en bioética para asesorar a los senadores sobre los alcances y límites de la ley. La mayoría de los expertos invitados pregonan la perspectiva de la bioética personalista, un desarrollo teológico de la bioética del catolicismo contemporáneo. En el debate no participaron representantes de otros credos consolidando la ampliamente estudiada imbricación entre el catolicismo y lo político en Argentina.

This paper discusses from a sociological perspective one of Catholicism's fronts of public intervention in the development and enactment of health legislation. In particular we analyze the debate in parliamentary committees on the so-called "death with dignity" law (No. 26742), for which a group of bioethics experts was convened to counsel senators regarding the scope and limits of the law. The majority of the invited experts advocated a personalist bioethics perspective, which is a theological bioethics development of contemporary Catholicism. In the debate no representatives of other faiths were present, reinforcing the widely studied overlap between Catholicism and politics in Argentina.

Mesembryanthemum/physiology , RNA, Plant/genetics , Salinity , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Arabidopsis/drug effects , Arabidopsis/growth & development , Genes, Plant , Mesembryanthemum/genetics , Plant Roots/growth & development , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(4): 301-307, jul. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907493


La evidencia empírica obtenida por los agricultores del sector de Huechelepún (comuna de Melipeuco, Región de La Araucanía, Chile) indica que la especie Dasyphyllum diacanthoides, además de presentar propiedades medicinales, es una alternativa forrajera invernal. Esta propiedad junto con su condición de especie endémica de los bosques de Chile obliga a compatibilizar el uso y la conservación de esta especie. El objetivo de este estudio fue propagar D. diacanthoides mediante esquejes semilignificados y determinar el efecto de la presencia de espinas en los esquejes y la exposición Norte o Sur de las plantas madres en el enraizamiento. El estudio se realizó utilizando recursos endógenos, por lo que las variables evaluadas se determinaron sobre la base del conocimiento de los agricultores. El diseño experimental incluyó cuatro tratamientos: T1: estacas de plantas con exposición sur y espinas, T2: estacas de plantas con exposición sur sin espinas, T3: estacas de plantas con exposición norte sin espinas y T4: estacas de plantas con exposición norte con espinas. Cada tratamiento constó de 25 réplicas y se utilizó un diseño completo aleatorio para la ubicación de las estacas en el invernadero. Las estacas de plantas en laderas Norte tuvieron porcentajes mayores de sobrevivencia, enraizamiento y formación de callos que las de plantas en laderas S. La prueba U de Mann- Whitney evidenció diferencias significativas entre estacas con y sin espinas con exposición norte sólo para la longitud de raíces (p ≤ 0,05). La propagación vegetativa de D. diacanthoides mediante esquejes semilignificados es factible. Los mejores resultados se obtienen con estacas sin espinas de plantas madres con exposición Norte.

The empirical evidence obtained by farmers of Huechelepún area (commune of Melipeuco, La Araucania, Chile) indicates that the specie Dasyphyllum diacanthoides, besides presenting medicinal properties, is a winter forage alternative. This property along with its status as endemic forests of Chile requires reconciling the use and conservation of this species. The aim of this study was to propagate D. diacanthoides by semi lignified cuttings and determine the effect of the presence of thorns in the cuttings and North or South exposure mother plants in rooting. The study was performed using endogenous resources, so the evaluated variables were determined on the basis of knowledge of farmers. The experimental design included four treatments: T1: cuttings of plants with southern exposure and thorns, T2: Stakes southern exposure plants without thorns, T3: cuttings of plants with northern exposure spineless and T4: cuttings of plants with northern exposure with thorns. Each treatment consisted of 25 replicates and a complete randomized design for location of the cuttings in the greenhouse was used. Cuttings from plants in North slopes had higher percentages of survival, rooting and callus formation the plant on hillsides South. Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between stakes with and without spines north only exposure length roots (p ≤ 0.05). The vegetative propagation of cuttings D. diacanthoides by semi lignified is feasible. The best results are obtained with stakes thornless plants mothers with Northern exposure.

Agriculture/methods , Asteraceae/growth & development , Plant Roots/growth & development , Chile , Rural Population , Sustainable Agriculture
Rev. bras. enferm ; 68(2): 311-319, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-752510


RESUMO Objetivo: descrever as contribuições da simulação clínica para aprendizagem de atributos cognitivos e procedimentais, por meio do debriefing, na perspectiva dos estudantes de enfermagem. Método: estudo descritivo exploratório. Participaram 20 estudantes de Graduação em Enfermagem de uma universidade do interior paulista. Na coleta de dados, realizada na etapa do debriefing, foi registrada a percepção do aluno sobre a simulação, aspectos positivos e o que poderia ser feito de forma diferente. Os relatos foram agrupados em categorias temáticas centrais, segundo referencial de análise de conteúdo de Bardin (2011), analisadas por meio de estatística descritiva. Resultados: identificada valorização da aprendizagem ativa, crítica e reflexiva (47,5%) em decorrência da aproximação à realidade assistencial (20,3%), manifestação dos sentimentos vivenciados durante a simulação (16,9%) e composição do cenário (15,3%). Conclusão: a simulação clínica seguida do debriefing favorece a compreensão da relação entre ação e resultados alcançados na aprendizagem. .

RESUMEN Objetivo: describir las contribuciones de simulación clínica para aprender atributos cognitivos y de procedimiento, a través de debriefing, desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes de enfermería. Método: estudio exploratorio descriptivo. 20 estudiantes participaron en el Pregrado en Enfermería de una universidad de São Paulo. Durante la recolección de datos, que se aplicó durante el debriefing, fue grabado en la percepción de los estudiantes de la simulación, los aspectos positivos y lo que podría hacerse de otra manera. Los informes de los estudiantes se agrupan de acuerdo a los temas centrales, según el referencial de análisis de contenido de Bardin (2011) y analizados mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: identificado la mejora de aprendizaje activo, crítico y reflexivo (47,5%) debido a la aproximación a la realidad en la atención de enfermería (20,3%), un resultado de la composición del escenario (16,9%), lo que favorece el desarrollo de sentimientos experimentados durante la simulación (15,3%). Conclusión: la simulación clínica seguida de debriefing favorece la comprensión de la relación entre la acción y los resultados obtenidos en el aprendizaje. .

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the contributions of clinical simulation for learning cognitive and procedural attributes through debriefi ng, from the perspective of nursing students. Method: descriptive exploratory study. Twenty nursing undergraduate students from a university in the interior of the state of São Paulo participated in this study. Data collection was performed at the debriefi ng stage. Student’s perceptions about the simulation, positive aspects and what they could have done differently were registered. The students’ statements were grouped according to the central themes and the framework of Bardin’s content analysis (2011) and were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: enhancement of active, critical and refl ective learning (47.5%) was identifi ed due to the closeness to reality in nursing care (20.3%), manifestation of feelings experienced during the simulation (15.3%) and composition of the scenario (15.3%). Conclusion: the clinical simulation followed by debriefi ng promotes the understanding of the link between action and achievements in learning. .

Arabidopsis Proteins/metabolism , Arabidopsis/growth & development , Arabidopsis/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Plant Immunity/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Arabidopsis/genetics , Blotting, Western , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Molecular Sequence Data , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/immunology , Plant Roots/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Signal Transduction
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 116-123
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158392


The heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from field soil and identified as Enterobacter sp. RZS5 tolerates a high concentration (100-2000 mM) of various heavy metal ions such as Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, CO2+ and Fe2+ when grown in such environment and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we have demonstrated EPS production by Enterobacter sp. RZS5 during 60 h of growth in yeast extract mannitol broth (YEMB). The yield increased by two fold after the addition of 60 M of Ca2+; 50 M of Fe2+ and 60 M of Mg2+ ions in YEMB, and the optimization of physico-chemical parameters. EPS was extracted with 30% (v/v) of isopropanol as against the commonly used 50% (v/v) isopropanol method. EPS-rich broth promoted seed germination, shoot height, root length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds. The higher colony-forming unit of Enterobacter sp. in soil inoculated with EPS rich broth of Enterobacter sp. indicated the root colonizing potential and rhizosphere competence of the isolate. The FTIR spectra of the EPS extract confirmed the presence of the functional group characteristics of EPS known to exhibit a high binding affinity towards certain metal ions. This overall growth and vigour in plants along with the effective root colonization, reflected the potential of the isolate as an efficient bio-inoculant in bioremediation.

Arachis/drug effects , Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental/drug effects , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Enterobacter/drug effects , Enterobacter/metabolism , Enterobacter/physiology , Germination/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/biosynthesis , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Triticum/drug effects , Triticum/growth & development
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1271-1281, Oct.-Dec. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741277


Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans) and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp.) of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato) inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system.

Bacillales/isolation & purification , Capsicum/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Solanum lycopersicum/microbiology , Plant Development , Pantoea/isolation & purification , Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Biomass , Bacillales/classification , Bacillales/genetics , Bacillales/metabolism , Capsicum/physiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/genetics , India , Islands , Solanum lycopersicum/physiology , Molecular Sequence Data , Pantoea/classification , Pantoea/genetics , Pantoea/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , /genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Seedlings/growth & development
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Dec; 52(12): 1206-1210
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153813


Chromium (Cr) contamination in soil is a growing concern in sustainable agriculture production and food safety. We performed pot experiment with chromium (30 mg/ soil) to assess the accumulation potential of Zea mays and study the influence of four fertilizers, viz. Farm Yard Manure (FYM), NPK, Panchakavya (PK) and Vermicompost (VC) with respect to Cr accumulation. The oxidative stress and pigment (chlorophyll) levels were also examined. The results showed increased accumulation of chromium in both shoots and roots of Zea mays under FYM and NPK supply, and reduced with PK and VC. While the protein and pigment contents decreased in Cr treated plants, the fertilizers substantiated the loss to overcome the stress. Similarly, accumulation of Cr increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) indicating the enhanced damage control activity. However, these levels were relatively low in plants supplemented with fertilizers. Our results confirm that the maize can play an effective role in bioremediation of soils polluted with chromium, particularly in supplementation with fertilizers such as farm yard manure and NPK.

Biodegradation, Environmental , Catalase/metabolism , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Chromium/metabolism , Ecosystem , Fertilizers/classification , Manure , Oxidative Stress , Peroxidase/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Zea mays/growth & development , Zea mays/metabolism
European J Med Plants ; 2014 Dec; 4(12): 1534-1542
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164217


Mangrove forests continue to disappear all over the world due to a number of reasons. This is the study made to screen the anatomical and biochemical changes during the rooting process. Two important mangrove species have been examined based on their salt relationship natures: Avicennia officinalis subsp. australasica (salt excreting plant) and Excoecaria agallocha L (salt accumulating plant). The plants were treated with different root promoting hormones like IBA, IAA and NAA at different concentrations for three minutes each. After 45 days of the growth period root growth and anatomical changes were observed. The roots originated from the deeper zone of the secondary xylem after several anatomical variations in the hormone treated plants. This is the first trial which may help to determine the mass propagation of these commercial and medicinally important mangroves.

Avicennia/anatomy & histology , Avicennia/drug effects , Avicennia/growth & development , Euphorbiaceae/anatomy & histology , Euphorbiaceae/drug effects , Euphorbiaceae/growth & development , Plant Growth Regulators , Plant Roots/anatomy & histology , Plant Roots/drug effects , Plant Roots/growth & development , Rhizophoraceae/anatomy & histology , Rhizophoraceae/drug effects , Rhizophoraceae/growth & development