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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246904, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345524

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Resumo A hiperidricidade é um distúrbio fisiológico sério e afeta a propagação in vitro de muitas plantas e também da Salvia santolinifolia. O material doador para iniciar a cultura in vitro foi o calo retirado dos brotos in vitro produzidos em meio Murashig e Skoogs (MS) a 4,0 mg / l BA. Esse calo formou numerosos rebentos hiperídricos em cultura no meio da mesma composição. O objetivo foi avaliar sistematicamente o efeito das citocininas (Benziladnina (BA) e N6 - (- 2-isopentenil) adenina (2iP), magnitude dos vasos de cultura, solidificação do meio, fonte de nitrogênio e cloreto de cálcio para o alívio da hiperidricidade. culturas de tecidos de S. santolinifolia BA e 2iP induziram hiperidricidade severa, quando outros fatores, como magnitude dos vasos de cultura e uma concentração adequada de ágar, nitrato de amônio (NH4NO3), nitrato de potássio (KNO3) e cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2.2H2O), não foram otimizados. Após 30 dias de cultura, observamos 83,82% de brotos hiperídricos em níveis aumentados (1,5 mg / l 2iP) e 81,59% em níveis reduzidos (1,0 mg / l 2iP). Por outro lado, a porcentagem de hiperidricidade diminuiu (0,4%) e em níveis aumentados (0,8%) de ágar foram 72,37% e 39,08%, respectivamente. A modificação do meio MS com NH4NO3 (412 mg / l), KNO3 (475 mg / l) e CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg / l) foi encontrada melhor hiperidricidade média a reduzida (23,6%).


Subject(s)
Salvia , Plant Shoots , Culture Media
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242596, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278487

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hops is a new culture in Brazil. Tissue culture can be an important technique for rapid hop propagation. This paper aims to characterize responses from different genotypes under different growth regulators through the interrelationship of response variables important to hop in vitro growth. Three genotypes were cultivated in six culture media with different combinations of growth regulators, BAP (6-benzylaminopurine), IAA (3-indolacetic acid) and GA3 (gibberellic acid). The means were compared by orthogonal contrasts and the interrelationship of the response variables was performed by path analysis. American genotypes showed favorable root development under the BAP + IAA combination, while the use of IAA improved shoot development. The origin of genotypes was important for defining the best protocol for in vitro cultivation. The path coefficient showed that the variable number of shoots has stronger direct effect on the number of nodal segments. Additionally, in tissue culture assays, the use of a covariable and proper error distribution significantly increased experimental accuracy.


Resumo O lúpulo é uma nova cultura no Brasil. A cultura de tecidos pode ser uma técnica importante para a propagação rápida do lúpulo. Este artigo tem como objetivo caracterizar respostas de diferentes genótipos sob diferentes reguladores de crescimento através da inter-relação de variáveis ​​de resposta importantes para o crescimento in vitro. Três genótipos foram cultivados em seis meios de cultura com diferentes combinações de reguladores de crescimento, BAP (6-benzilaminopurina), AIA (ácido 3-indolacético) e GA3 (ácido giberélico). As médias foram comparadas por contrastes ortogonais e a inter-relação das variáveis ​​de resposta foi realizada por análise de trilha. Os genótipos americanos apresentaram desenvolvimento radicular favorável sob a combinação BAP + AIA, enquanto o uso do AIA melhorou o desenvolvimento da parte aérea. A origem dos genótipos foi importante para definir o melhor protocolo para o cultivo in vitro. O coeficiente de trilha mostrou que a variável número de brotos tem um efeito direto mais forte no número de segmentos nodais. Adicionalmente, em experimentos com cultura de tecidos, o uso de uma covariável e distribuição de erro adequada aumentou significativamente a precisão experimental.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators , Brazil , Plant Shoots/genetics , Culture Media , Genotype
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol. (Online) ; 89: e00012021, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1393886

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effective temperature for overcoming the dormancy of 'Fuyu' persimmon tree buds. Stem samples were collected three times between 2013 and 2014. Stems were maintained in a climate incubator chamber at 3, 6, 9, and 12 °C. For each temperature, five numbers of additional chilling hours (CH) (0, 240, 384, 528, and 672 CH) were studied. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 × 4 factorial design (chilling hours × temperatures) with four replications with 10 cuttings. The maintenance of branches at cold temperatures from 3 to 12 °C intensified endodormancy of the buds when the plants were at the beginning of endodormancy. The most effective temperatures for overcome dormancy when the buds were in transition from paradormancy to endodormancy were from 3 to 6 °C. When the buds were already in endodormancy, temperatures of 3, 6, 9, and 12 °C were effective for the accumulation of cold and overcoming dormancy. The increase in the number of chilling hours from 3 to 12 °C induced budburst and the temperature of 12 °C was able to slowly induce and overcome bud dormancy.


Subject(s)
Cold Temperature , Plant Shoots/physiology , Diospyros , Plant Dormancy/physiology
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 48: 95-100, nov. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An efficient regeneration protocol is a priority for the successful application of plant biotechnology. Grape nodal explants were used to develop a micropropagation protocol for Thompson Seedless and Taify cvs. Explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with Kinetin or benzylaminopurine (BA) and indolebutyric acid (IBA). RESULTS: For both cultivars, axillary buds were grown, only, on a medium enriched with kinetin, moreover, shoot tip necrosis and callus formation were observed on Thompson Seedless cv. cultures grown on a medium with BA. Supplementing the growth medium with 100 mM (boron) B and 2.5 mM (calcium) Ca successfully help overcome these phenomena. The highest regenerated shoot numbers (14 and 6.2 explant 1 ) for Taify and Thompson Seedless cvs., respectively, were on media supplemented with 13.2 mM BA + 4.9 mM IBA and BA 13.2 mM + 5.8 mM IBA, respectively. Moreover, these media supported the developing shoots to have the heaviest dry weights (1.46 and 0.72 mg explant 1 ) for Taify and Thompson Seedless cvs., respectively. Thompson Seedless cv. regenerated shoot numbers and their dry weights were significantly increased by increasing the MS medium PO4 concentration. However, these two parameters were significantly decreased for Taify cv. Developing shoots were elongated and rooted on MS medium enriched with 4.9 mM, IBA 100 mM B and 2.5 mM Ca. Plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to the greenhouse conditions. CONCLUSIONS: A novel promising protocol for Thomson Seedless and Taify cvs. micropropagation using single nodes has been developed.


Subject(s)
Phosphates/chemistry , Boron/chemistry , Calcium/chemistry , Vitis/growth & development , Regeneration , Biotechnology , Plant Shoots , Necrosis/prevention & control
5.
NOVA publ. cient ; 17(32): 109-129, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056793

ABSTRACT

Resumen Una hormona vegetal o fitohormona es un compuesto producido internamente por una planta, que ejerce su función en muy bajas concentraciones y cuyo principal efecto se produce a nivel celular, cambiando los patrones de crecimiento de los vegetales y permitiendo su control. Los reguladores vegetales son compuestos sintetizados químicamente u obtenidos de otros organismos y son, en general, mucho más potentes que los análogos naturales. Es necesario tener en cuenta aspectos críticos como oportunidad de aplicación, dosis, sensibilidad de la variedad, condición de la planta, etc., ya que cada planta requerirá de unas condiciones específicas de crecimiento que pueden afectarse por la concentración de ellos en el medio. Los reguladores vegetales son productos sintéticos que se han convertido en las primeras herramientas capaces de controlar el crecimiento y actividad bioquímica de las plantas por lo que su uso ha aumentado en los últimos años. Esta revisión busca hacer una recopilación bibliográfica de los primeros acontecimientos de la aplicación de los reguladores de crecimiento vegetal. Se presentan las principales características fisiológicas que pueden desarrollar la aplicación de estos sobre el crecimiento vegetal a nivel celular y su repercusión a nivel fenotípico; además, se describen las principales fitohormonas más conocidas en la aplicación biotecnológica. Entre ellas se encuentran auxinas, giberelinas, citoquininas, ácido abscísico, ácido salicílico, poliaminas, jasmonatos y derivados, brasinoesteroides, etileno y estrigolactonas. Se detallan las principales funciones a nivel del metabolismo vegetal y sus posibles interacciones intra e intercelular.


Abstract A vegetal hormone or phytohormone is a compound produced inside by a plant, that work in low concentrations and whose mainly effect occurs at the cellular level, changing the patterns of grow in vegetal organism and allow their control. The plant grows regulators are synthetic chemical compounds that can be obtained by the organism different to the plants and are more stronger that natural analogues, is necessary have in consideration different aspects like application opportunity, concentration, sensibility, plant condition, it's because every plant requires specific conditions of grow that can be affected by phytohormonal concentration in the soil or medium. The vegetal regulators are synthetic products that it has been converted in the mainly tool available to control the growing and biochemical activity of the plant and for that reason their use are increased in the last years. This review makes a bibliography compilation of the first events in the beginning of vegetal plant regulators application and presents the mainly physiologic characteristics that can be developed by application of vegetal hormones and their action in cellular and phenotypic response, furthermore we explain some of the mechanisms of action of the mainly ten phytohormones more knowledge in the biotechnological application: auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, salicylic acid, polyamines, jasmonates and derived compounds, brassinosteroids, ethylene, and strigolactones. We describe their mainly functions to vegetal metabolism and their possible interactions intracellular and extracellular.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators , Biochemistry , Agricultural Cultivation , Plant Shoots , Plant Development , Growth
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 15-21, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984006

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resource amendments commonly promote plant invasions, raising concerns over the potential consequences of nitrogen (N) deposition; however, it is unclear whether invaders will benefit from N deposition more than natives. Growth is among the most fundamental inherent traits of plants and thus good invaders may have superior growth advantages in response to resource amendments. We compared the growth and allocation between invasive and native plants in different N regimes including controls (ambient N concentrations). We found that invasive plants always grew much larger than native plants in varying N conditions, regardless of growth- or phylogeny-based analyses, and that the former allocated more biomass to shoots than the latter. Although N addition enhanced the growth of invasive plants, this enhancement did not increase with increasing N addition. Across invasive and native species, changes in shoot biomass allocation were positively correlated with changes in whole-plant biomass; and the slope of this relationship was greater in invasive plants than native plants. These findings suggest that enhanced shoot investment makes invasive plants retain a growth advantage in high N conditions relative to natives, and also highlight that future N deposition may increase the risks of plant invasions.


Resumo As alterações de recursos geralmente promovem invasões de plantas, suscitando preocupações quanto às conseqüências potenciais da deposição de nitrogênio (N); No entanto, não está claro se os invasores se beneficiarão da deposição de N mais do que com os nativos. O crescimento é um dos traços inerentes mais fundamentais das plantas e, portanto, os bons invasores podem ter vantagens de crescimento superiores em resposta a alterações de recursos. Comparamos o crescimento e a alocação entre plantas invasivas e nativas em diferentes regimes de N, incluindo controles (concentrações ambientais de N). Descobrimos que as plantas invasivas sempre cresceram muito mais do que as plantas nativas em diferentes condições de N, independentemente das análises baseadas em crescimento ou filogenia, e que o primeiro atribuiu mais biomassa aos rebentos do que o segundo. Embora N aumentou o crescimento de plantas invasivas, esse aumento não aumentou com o aumento da adição de N. Através das espécies invasivas e nativas, as mudanças na alocação da biomassa do extrato foram correlacionadas positivamente com as mudanças na biomassa da planta inteira; e a inclinação desse relacionamento foi maior em plantas invasivas do que plantas nativas. Essas descobertas sugerem que o aumento do investimento em lançamentos faz com que as plantas invasivas mantenham uma vantagem de crescimento em altas condições de N em relação aos nativos, e também destacar que a futura deposição de N pode aumentar os riscos de invasões de plantas.


Subject(s)
Soil/chemistry , Magnoliopsida/growth & development , Introduced Species , Nitrogen/analysis , China , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Fertilizers/analysis
7.
Biol. Res ; 52: 3, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011433

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gymnema sylvestre is a medicinal woody perennial vine known for its sweetening properties and antidiabetic therapeutic uses in the modern and traditional medicines. Its over-exploitation for the therapeutic uses and to meet the demand of pharmaceutical industry in raw materials supply for the production of anti-diabetic drugs has led to considerable decline in its natural population. RESULTS: An efficient system of shoot bud sprouting from nodal segment explants and indirect plant regeneration from apical meristem-induced callus cultures of G. sylvestre have been developed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium amended with concentrations of cytokinins. Of the three growth regulators tested, N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) was the most efficient and 2.0 mg L-1 gave the best shoot formation efficiency. This was followed by thidiazuron (TDZ) and kinetin (Kin) but, most of the TDZ-induced micro shoots showed stunted growth. Multiple shoot formation was observed on medium amended with BAP or TDZ at higher concentrations. The produced micro shoots were rooted on half strength MS medium amended with auxins and rooted plantlets acclimatized with 87% survival of the regenerates. CONCLUSIONS: The developed regeneration system can be exploited for genetic transformation studies, particularly when aimed at producing its high yielding cell lines for the anti-diabetic phytochemicals. It also offers opportunities for exploring the expression of totipotency in the anti-diabetic perennial vine.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Regeneration/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Gymnema sylvestre/growth & development , Morphogenesis/drug effects , Phenylurea Compounds/pharmacology , Purines/pharmacology , Thiadiazoles/pharmacology , Benzyl Compounds/pharmacology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Gymnema sylvestre/drug effects , Kinetin/pharmacology
8.
Biol. Res ; 52: 39, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019503

ABSTRACT

In the growth condition(s) of plants, numerous secondary metabolites (SMs) are produced by them to serve variety of cellular functions essential for physiological processes, and recent increasing evidences have implicated stress and defense response signaling in their production. The type and concentration(s) of secondary molecule(s) produced by a plant are determined by the species, genotype, physiology, developmental stage and environmental factors during growth. This suggests the physiological adaptive responses employed by various plant taxonomic groups in coping with the stress and defensive stimuli. The past recent decades had witnessed renewed interest to study abiotic factors that influence secondary metabolism during in vitro and in vivo growth of plants. Application of molecular biology tools and techniques are facilitating understanding the signaling processes and pathways involved in the SMs production at subcellular, cellular, organ and whole plant systems during in vivo and in vitro growth, with application in metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways intermediates.


Subject(s)
Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Secondary Metabolism/physiology , Plants/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant/physiology , Cell Culture Techniques
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 495-507, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886920

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The preservation of banana genetic material is usually performed through seedlings. However, most banana cultivars do not produce seed and are propagated vegetatively. Therefore, cryopreservation is a feasible technique that allows the preservation of banana genotypes indefinitely. For the success of cryopreservation protocols, the selection of cryoprotectants and pre-freezing techniques are important factor. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the effects of different cryoprotectants with and without 1% phloroglucinol and pre-cooling periods on the development of a protocol for cryopreservation of in vitro rhizomes ofMusa accuminata(AAA) cv Grand Naine banana. The addition of 1% phloroglucinol to the cryoprotective solutions, such as PVS2 enhanced recovery of cryopreserved banana rhizomes. In addition, pre-cooling of explants in ice for 3 hours in PVS2 + 1% of phloroglucinol allowed efficient cryopreservation of banana rhizomes, followed by successful recovery and regeneration of in vitro shoots of banana cv Grand Naine.


Subject(s)
Phloroglucinol/pharmacology , Cryopreservation/methods , Cryoprotective Agents/pharmacology , Musa/cytology , Rhizome/cytology , Reference Values , Sucrose/pharmacology , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/physiology , Musa/drug effects , Rhizome/drug effects , Glycerol/pharmacology
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 521-528, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886894

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Among weeds, morning glories comprise a very important group of climbing plants that infest sugarcane crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shoot and root interference of Merremia cissoides on the initial growth of sugarcane cultivar RB 966928. The experiment consisted of five treatment groups: (i) sugarcane monocropping, (ii) morning glory monocropping, (iii) sugarcane intertwined with morning glory but inseparate boxes, (iv) sugarcane intertwined with morning glory in attached boxes and (v) sugarcane with morning glory in attached boxes with morning glory prevented from intertwining with the sugarcane. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with four replicates. Merremia cissoides adversely affected the initial growth of the RB 966928 sugarcane starting at 90 days after transplanting (DAT). This effect increased with the time of intercropping, reaching at 180 DAT with a reduction of 57.3% in height,15.5% in stalk diameter, 90.4% in leaf areas, 86.6 and 75.2% in stalk and leaf dry mass, respectively. These reductions primarily due to the weed intertwining with the sugarcane plants because the weed had a physical choking and shading effect. This negative effect of morning glory on the sugarcane plants increased when they shared the substrate (i.e., when they competed for space and water), which also adversely affected weed growth, reducing 50.2% leaf areas and 42.1% shoot dry mass. The leaf area and the stalk and leaf dry mass of sugarcane are the characteristics more sensitive to the weed interference. Thus, both the shoot and root of M. cissoides interferes negatively in the growth of sugarcane, with the effect proportional to the period of coexistence, highlighting the detrimental effect on the stem (greater economic interest), and may also compromise the mechanical harvesting of the crop.


Subject(s)
Plant Shoots/physiology , Plant Roots/physiology , Crops, Agricultural/physiology , Convolvulaceae/physiology , Saccharum/growth & development , Plant Weeds/physiology , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Analysis of Variance , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Plant Leaves/physiology , Plant Development/physiology , Host-Seeking Behavior
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 385-400, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886879

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic embryogenesis in juvenile explants of the THB papaya cultivar. Apical shoots and cotyledonary leaves were inoculated in an induction medium composed of different concentrations of 2,4-D (6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 µM) or 4-CPA (19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 µM). The embryogenic calluses were transferred to a maturation medium for 30 days. Histological analysis were done during the induction and scanning electron microscopy after maturing. For both types of auxin, embryogenesis was achieved at higher frequencies with cotyledonary leaves incubated in induction medium than with apical shoots; except for callogenesis. The early-stage embryos (e.g., globular or heart-shape) predominated. Among the auxins, best results were observed in cotyledonary leaves induced with 4-CPA (25 µM). Histological analyses of the cotyledonary leaf-derived calluses confirmed that the somatic embryos (SEs) formed from parenchyma cells, predominantly differentiated via indirect and multicellular origin and infrequently via synchronized embryogenesis. The secondary embryogenesis was observed during induction and maturation phases in papaya THB cultivar. The combination of ABA (0.5 µM) and AC (15 g L-1) in maturation medium resulted in the highest somatic embryogenesis induction frequency (70 SEs callus-1) and the lowest percentage of early germination (4%).


Subject(s)
Plant Shoots/physiology , Carica/embryology , Carica/physiology , Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Techniques/methods , Indoleacetic Acids/analysis , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/physiology , Germination/drug effects , Germination/physiology , Culture Media , Carica/anatomy & histology , Carica/drug effects
12.
Biol. Res ; 50: 20, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vegetative propagation of Fragaria sp. is traditionally carried out using stolons. This system of propagation, in addition to being slow, can spread plant diseases, particularly serious being viral. In vitro culture of meristems and the establishment of micropropagation protocols are important tools for solving these problems. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to develop in vitro propagation of the commercial strawberry in order to produce virus-free plants of high quality. These previous results can serve as the basis for developing in vitro-based propagation technologies in the less studied species Fragaria chiloensis. RESULTS: In this context, we studied the cultivation of meristems and establishment of a micropropagation protocol for F. chiloensis. The addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) improved the meristem regeneration efficiency of F. chiloensis accessions. Similarly, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) in the culture media increased the average rate of multiplication to 3-6 shoots per plant. In addition, the use of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), had low levels (near zero) of explant losses due to oxidation. However, plant height as well as number of leaves and roots were higher in media without growth regulators, with average values of 0.5 cm, 9 leaves and 4 roots per plant. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in Chilean strawberry, meristem culture demonstrated to be an efficient tool for eliminating virus from infected plants, giving the possibility to produce disease free propagation material. Also, the addition of PVP into the basal MS medium improved the efficiency of plant recovery from isolated meristems. Farmers can now access to high quality plant material produced by biotech tools which will improve their technological practices.


Subject(s)
Purines/pharmacology , Regeneration/drug effects , Benzyl Compounds/pharmacology , Plant Shoots/embryology , Meristem/growth & development , Fragaria/embryology , Chile , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Meristem/drug effects , Culture Media , Fragaria/drug effects
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 656-663, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785035

ABSTRACT

Abstract Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae) is a way to overcome difficulties in achieving large-scale plant production, given the recalcitrant nature of the seeds, irregular fructification and absence of natural vegetative propagation of the species. Cultures were established using nodal segments 2 cm in length, obtained from 1-2 year old seedlings, maintained in a greenhouse. Mercury chloride and Plant Preservative Mixture™ were used in the surface sterilizing stage, better results being achieved with Plant Preservative Mixture™ incorporation in culture medium, at any concentration. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, activated charcoal, cysteine, ascorbic acid or citric acid were added to the culture medium to avoid oxidation. After 30 days of culture, polyvinylpirrolidone and ascorbic acid gave better results, eliminating oxidation in most explants. For shoot multiplication, benzylaminopurine was used in concentrations of 4.4 and 8.8 µM in Woody Plant Medium, resulting in an average of 4.43 and 4.68 shoots per explant, respectively, after 90 days. Indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid were used to induce root formation, reaching a maximum rooting rate of 24% with 20µM α-naphthalene acetic acid. For acclimatization. the rooted plants were transferred to Plantmax® substrate and cultured in a greenhouse, reaching 79% of survival after 30 days and 60% after one year.


Resumo A micropropagação de Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae) é uma maneira de superar dificuldades para sua produção em larga escala, devido à natureza recalcitrante das sementes, frutificação irregular e ausência de propagação vegetativa natural da espécie. Culturas foram estabelecidas utilizando segmentos nodais com 2 cm de comprimento, obtidos de plantas com 1 a 2 anos de idade, mantidas em casa de vegetação. Cloreto de mercúrio e Plant Preservative Mixture™ foram utilizados durante a etapa de desinfestação, com melhores resultados alcançados com a incorporação de Plant Preservative Mixture™ ao meio de cultura. Polivinilpirrolidona, carvão ativado, cisteína, ácido ascórbico ou ácido cítrico foram adicionados ao meio de cultura para evitar a oxidação dos explantes. Após 30 dias de cultivo, o uso de polivinilpirrolidona ou ácido ascórbico proporcionou melhores resultados, eliminando a oxidação na maioria dos explantes. Para multiplicação das brotações, benzilaminopurina foi usada em concentrações de 4.4 e 8.8 µM em meio WPM, resultando em uma média de 4.43 e 4.68 brotações por explante, respectivamente, após 90 dias. Ácido indol-3-butírico e ácido α-naftaleno acético foram usados para a indução de raízes, alcançando um enraizamento máximo de 24% com o uso de 20µM de ácido α-naftaleno acético. As plantas enraizadas foram transferidas para substrato Plantmax® e cultivadas em casa de vegetação, alcançando 79% de sobrevivência após 30 dias e 60% após um ano.


Subject(s)
Seeds/growth & development , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Roots/growth & development , Calophyllum/growth & development , Culture Media
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(4): 1045-1052, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769662

ABSTRACT

Abstract High copper (Cu) levels in uprooted old vineyard soils may cause toxicity in transplanted young vines, although such toxicity may be reduced by inoculating plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMF on the plant growth, chlorophyll contents, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu and phosphorus (P) absorption in young vines cultivated in a vineyard soil contaminated by Cu. Commercial vineyard soil with high Cu levels was placed in plastic tubes and transplanted with young vines, which were inoculated with six AMF species (Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora gigantea, Acaulospora morrowiae, A. colombiana, Rhizophagus clarus, R. irregularis) and a control treatment on randomized blocks with 12 replicates. After 130 days, the mycorrhizal colonization, root and shoot dry matter (DM), height increment, P and Cu absorption, and chlorophyll contents were evaluated. The height increment, shoot DM and chlorophyll contents were not promoted by AMF, although the root DM was increased by R. clarus and R. irregularis, which had the greatest mycorrhizal colonization and P uptake. AMF increased Cu absorption but decreased its transport to shoots. Thus, AMF species, particularly R. clarus and R. irregularis, contribute to the establishment of young vines exposed to high Cu levels.


Subject(s)
Copper/growth & development , Copper/metabolism , Copper/microbiology , Fungi/growth & development , Fungi/metabolism , Fungi/microbiology , Mycorrhizae/growth & development , Mycorrhizae/metabolism , Mycorrhizae/microbiology , Phosphorus/growth & development , Phosphorus/metabolism , Phosphorus/microbiology , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Plant Shoots/microbiology , Soil Pollutants/growth & development , Soil Pollutants/metabolism , Soil Pollutants/microbiology , Vitis/growth & development , Vitis/metabolism , Vitis/microbiology
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(6): 1682-1691, nov./dec. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965121

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at identifying beans species for food sprouts yield and comparing them according to physical, physiological, microbiological quality, chemical composition, as well as verifying their acceptability. Determinations of water content, germination, vigor and water uptake curve in seeds were carried out. Microbiological analyses, acidity, protein, iron, calcium and tannin were also recorded in the sprouts and acceptability was measured by sensorial analysis. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 X 4). The mung and cowpea beans seeds have shown the best physiological quality. The sprouts have shown microbiological quality in accordance with law. The mung beans have shown the highest sprout yield (695.32 g) and were six times higher than their initial mass. The sprout yield with common and cowpea beans species were not statistically significant; thus, it is necessary to study new methodologies. The highest protein (21.17 g) and iron contents (9.25 mg) were observed in mung beans sprouts, while calcium (360 mg) and tannin contents (34.58%) were the highest in azuki beans sprouts. The mung and azuki beans sprouts have shown similar results in sensorial analysis and both showed good acceptability and satisfaction index above 70%.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar espécies de feijão utilizadas para a produção de brotos alimentícios e compara-las quanto à qualidade física, fisiológica, microbiológica e sua composição química, bem como verificar a aceitabilidade destes. Nas sementes foram realizadas determinações de teor de água, germinação, vigor e curva de absorção de água. Nos brotos, foram realizadas análises microbiológicas, acidez, proteína, ferro, cálcio, tanino. A aceitabilidade por análise sensorial. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado (4 X 4). As sementes do feijão mungo e do feijão caupi demonstraram melhor qualidade fisiológica. Os brotos apresentaram valores em conformidade com a legislação. O feijão mungo apresentou maior produtividade (695,32 g de broto), com produção referente a seis vezes de sua massa inicial. A produção de brotos com a espécie carioca e caupi não foi significativa, sendo necessário o estudo de novas metodologias. Maiores teores de proteína (21,17 g) e ferro (9,25 mg) foram observados nos brotos de mungo, enquanto que os teores de cálcio (360 mg) e tanino (34,58%) foram maiores nos brotos de feijão azuki. Os brotos de feijão mungo e azuki apresentaram resultados semelhantes na análise sensorial, e mostraram boa aceitabilidade, com índice de satisfação acima de 70%.


Subject(s)
Seeds , Plant Shoots , Germination , Fabaceae
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(4): 295-301, July 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757867

ABSTRACT

Background The effect of polyamines (PAs) along with cytokinins (TDZ and BAP) and auxin (IBA) was induced by the multiple shoot regeneration from leaf explants of gherkin (Cucumis anguria L.). The polyphenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial potential were studied from in vitro regenerated and in vivo plants. Results Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3% sucrose containing a combination of 3.0 µM TDZ, 1.0 µM IBA and 75 µM spermidine induced maximum number of shoots (45 shoots per explant) was achieved. Regenerated shoots elongated in shoot elongation medium containing 1.5 µM GA3 and 50 µM spermine. The well-developed shoots were transferred to root induction medium containing 1.0 µM IBA and 50 µM putrescine. Rooted plants were hardened and successfully established in soil with a 95% survival rate. Twenty-five phenolic compounds were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis The individual polyphenolic compounds, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant and antibacterial potential were significantly higher with in vitro regenerated plants than in vivo plants. Conclusions Plant growth regulators (PGRs) and PAs had a significant effect on in vitro plant regeneration and also a biochemical accumulation of flavonols, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in C. anguria. Due to these metabolic variations, the antioxidant and antibacterial activities were increased with in vitro regenerated plants than in vivo plants. This is the first report describing the production of phenolic compounds and biological activities from in vitro and in vivo regenerated plants of C. anguria.


Subject(s)
Cucumis/growth & development , Cucumis/chemistry , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antioxidants , Plant Growth Regulators , Regeneration , Biological Products , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Shoots , Phytochemicals
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 97-102, 05/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748258

ABSTRACT

Salinity is the leading abiotic stress hampering maize (Zea mays L.) growth throughout the world, especially in Pakistan. During salinity stress, the endogenous ethylene level in plants increases, which retards proper root growth and consequent shoot growth of the plants. However, certain bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, which converts 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (an immediate precursor of ethylene biosynthesis in higher plants) into ammonia and α-ketobutyrate instead of ethylene. In the present study, two Pseudomonas bacterial strains containing ACC-deaminase were tested separately and in combinations with mineral fertilizers to determine their potential to minimize/undo the effects of salinity on maize plants grown under saline-sodic field conditions. The data recorded at 30, 50 and 70 days after sowing revealed that both the Pseudomonas bacterial strains improved root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh weight, and root and shoot dry weight up to 34, 43, 35, 71, 55 and 68%, respectively, when applied without chemical fertilizers: these parameter were enhanced up to 108, 95, 100, 131, 100 and 198%, respectively, when the strains were applied along with chemical fertilizers. It can be concluded that ACC-deaminase Pseudomonas bacterial strains applied alone and in conjunction with mineral fertilizers improved the root and shoot growth of maize seedlings grown in saline-sodic soil.


Subject(s)
Plant Development , Plant Roots/physiology , Plant Shoots/physiology , Pseudomonas/growth & development , Soil Microbiology , Soil/chemistry , Zea mays/physiology , Amino Acids, Cyclic/metabolism , Ammonia/metabolism , Butyrates , Carbon-Carbon Lyases/metabolism , Fertilizers , Pakistan , Pseudomonas/enzymology , Salinity
18.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 177-183
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158412

ABSTRACT

We studied the influence of sucrose and nitrogen concentration on in vitro flowering and fruit setting in elongated shoots of Withania somnifera. BA (1.5 mg/l) and IAA (0.3 mg/l) on MS medium supplemented with 4% sucrose showed 67% of in vitro flower induction frequency, 9 flowers/shoot, 4 fruits/shoot and 11 seeds/fruit in elongated-shoots. Different concentrations of nitrogen sources (L-glutamine, adenine sulphate, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate 5-25 mg/l) were tested in combination with 4% sucrose and BA at 1.5 mg/l and IAA at 0.3 mg/l. Highest number of flowers (20 flowers/shoot; 2.2-fold) and fruits (16 fruits/shoot; 3.39-fold), fruit setting (12 seeds/fruit; 1.08-fold) at a higher frequency (88 %) were achieved on MS medium augmented with 15 mg/l adenine sulphate with same PGRs and sucrose concentration. The maximum production of withanolide A (0.68 mg/g DW) and withanolide B (0.77 mg/g DW) was recorded in in vitro fruits. Highest accumulation of withaferin A (2 mg/g DW) was quantified from in vitro flowers, whereas, it was low in in vitro fruits (0.49 mg/g DW withaferin A). However, withanone (0.23 mg/g DW) was found accumulated uniformly in both in vitro flowers and fruits compared to control.


Subject(s)
Adenine/metabolism , Adenine/pharmacology , Carbon/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Culture Media/pharmacology , Flowers/chemistry , Flowers/growth & development , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/growth & development , Germination/drug effects , Glutamine/metabolism , Glutamine/pharmacology , Hydroponics , Nitrates/metabolism , Nitrates/pharmacology , Nitrogen/metabolism , Plant Shoots/chemistry , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Sucrose/metabolism , Sucrose/pharmacology , Withania/chemistry , Withania/growth & development , Withania/metabolism , Withanolides/metabolism
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 86-94, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741617

ABSTRACT

Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Discovery , Industrial Waste/analysis , Nootropic Agents/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Shoots/chemistry , Stilbenes/isolation & purification , Vitis/chemistry , Agriculture/economics , Amyloid beta-Peptides/antagonists & inhibitors , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism , Benzofurans/analysis , Benzofurans/chemistry , Benzofurans/economics , Benzofurans/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , France , Industrial Waste/economics , Molecular Structure , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/economics , Neuroprotective Agents/isolation & purification , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Nootropic Agents/chemistry , Nootropic Agents/economics , Nootropic Agents/pharmacology , Protein Aggregation, Pathological , Peptide Fragments/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/economics , Plant Extracts/economics , Protein Aggregates/drug effects , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Stereoisomerism , Stilbenes/analysis , Stilbenes/chemistry , Stilbenes/economics , Stilbenes/pharmacology
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Feb; 53(2): 116-123
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158392

ABSTRACT

The heavy metal resistant bacterium isolated from field soil and identified as Enterobacter sp. RZS5 tolerates a high concentration (100-2000 mM) of various heavy metal ions such as Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, CO2+ and Fe2+ when grown in such environment and produces exopolysaccharides (EPS). Here, we have demonstrated EPS production by Enterobacter sp. RZS5 during 60 h of growth in yeast extract mannitol broth (YEMB). The yield increased by two fold after the addition of 60 M of Ca2+; 50 M of Fe2+ and 60 M of Mg2+ ions in YEMB, and the optimization of physico-chemical parameters. EPS was extracted with 30% (v/v) of isopropanol as against the commonly used 50% (v/v) isopropanol method. EPS-rich broth promoted seed germination, shoot height, root length, number of leaves and chlorophyll content of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seeds. The higher colony-forming unit of Enterobacter sp. in soil inoculated with EPS rich broth of Enterobacter sp. indicated the root colonizing potential and rhizosphere competence of the isolate. The FTIR spectra of the EPS extract confirmed the presence of the functional group characteristics of EPS known to exhibit a high binding affinity towards certain metal ions. This overall growth and vigour in plants along with the effective root colonization, reflected the potential of the isolate as an efficient bio-inoculant in bioremediation.


Subject(s)
Arachis/drug effects , Arachis/growth & development , Arachis/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental/drug effects , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Enterobacter/drug effects , Enterobacter/metabolism , Enterobacter/physiology , Germination/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Metals, Heavy/metabolism , Metals, Heavy/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Roots/microbiology , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/biosynthesis , Polysaccharides, Bacterial/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Soil Microbiology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Triticum/drug effects , Triticum/growth & development
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