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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888790

ABSTRACT

Three new coumarins, integmarins A-C (1-3), and a new coumarin glycoside, integmaside A (4) were isolated from the leaves and stems of Micromelum integerrimum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and MS data, and their absolute configurations were assigned according to the ECD data of the in situ formed transition metal complexes and comparison of experimental and calculated ECD data. Compounds 1 and 2 are two rare coumarins with butyl and propyl moieties at the C-6 position; compound 3 is a novel coumarin with a highly oxidized prenyl group, and compound 4 is a rare bisdihydrofuranocoumarin glycoside.


Subject(s)
Coumarins/isolation & purification , Glycosides/isolation & purification , Molecular Structure , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Rutaceae/chemistry
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190082, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132155

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart.) Barroso, commonly known as "imbuia", "canela-imbuia" or "imbuia-amarela" in Brazil, is a tree of the Southern Atlantic Forest. The present study investigates the anatomy of leaf and stem, volatile oil chemistry, as well as cytotoxicity and insecticidal activities of the essential oil of O. porosa. Species identification was achieved by anatomy features, mainly due to paracytic and anomocytic stomata; non-glandular trichomes; biconvex midrib and petiole with a collateral open arc vascular bundle; presence of a sclerenchymatous layer, starch grains and crystal sand in the stem; and the presence of phenolic compounds in the epidermis, phloem and xylem of the midrib, petiole and stem. The main volatile components of the essential oil were α-pinene (19.71%), β-pinene (13.86%) and bicyclogermacrene (24.62%). Cytotoxicity against human cancer cell (MCF-7), mouse cancer cell (B16F10) and mouse non-tumoral cell (McCoy) was observed as well as insecticidal activity of the essential oil against susceptible 'Ft. Dix' bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) by topical application.


Subject(s)
Bedbugs , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Ocotea/anatomy & histology , Ocotea/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Toxicity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Histocytochemistry
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180670, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132160

ABSTRACT

Abstract Studies evaluating the influence of nutrients on plant anatomy are very important because nutritional deficiencies can alter the thickness and shape of certain tissues, compromising their functionality what can explain the reduction of productivity. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical changes in cherry tomato plants subjected to calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) deficiencies. The experiment was conducted in nutrient solution and the plants subjected to three treatments: complete solution (Control), Ca restriction (1 mmol L-1 of Ca) and Mg omission (without Mg). The experimental design was completely randomized, with three repetitions. Sixty days after seedling transplanting leaves and stem were collected and submitted to anatomical evaluations. Ca or Mg deficiency promotes most evident anatomical changes in chlorophyllous and vascular tissues of the leaves, rather than in the stems. Leaves of 'Sindy' tomato plants with a concentration of 1.7 g kg-1 of Mg and visual symptoms of Mg deficiency present hyperplasia of both tissues, phloem and xylem. This deficiency also promotes increases in the thickness of mesophyll, spongy parenchyma and palisade parenchyma, and consequently of leaf thickness. The midrib of the leaves with a concentration of 10 g kg-1 of Ca, without visual symptoms of deficiency presented phloem hypertrophy and hyperplasia.


Subject(s)
Calcium/analysis , Lycopersicon esculentum/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Magnesium/analysis , Phloem/metabolism , Xylem/metabolism
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 879-884, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039268

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The multi-enzyme complex (crude extract) of white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Trametes versicolor, Pycnosporus sanguineus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were characterized, evaluated in the hydrolysis of pretreated pulps of sorghum straw and compared efficiency with commercial enzyme. Most fungi complexes had better hydrolysis rates compared with purified commercial enzyme.


Subject(s)
Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Sorghum/chemistry , Cellulases/chemistry , Fungi/enzymology , Lignin/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Sorghum/microbiology , Cellulases/metabolism , Biocatalysis , Fungi/chemistry , Hydrolysis , Lignin/metabolism
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 601-608, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951599

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work describes the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial, molluscicidal, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities from leaf (LECF) and stem bark alcoholic extracts (BECF) of the species Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as capixingui or tapixingui. BECF presented significant toxicity (LC50 = 89.6 μg/ml) in the Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) bioassay, whereas LECF did not show activity (LC50 > 1000 μg/ml). From DPPH method, the values of IC50 for the LECF and BECF were 61.2 μg/ml and 62.2 μg/ml, respectively, showing that C. floribundus has an expressive antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by microdilution technique and only BECF was active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39.6 μg/ml). The extracts did not present molluscicidal activity against snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Both extracts revealed the presence of several components with an inhibiting capacity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme on the bioautographic assay. C. floribundus showed to be a promising species considering that it exhibited good biological activity in the most assays performed.


Resumo Este trabalho descreve a avaliação preliminar das atividades citotóxica, antimicrobiana, moluscicida, antioxidante e anticolinesterásica de extratos alcoólicos das folhas (LECF) e das cascas do caule (BECF) da espécie Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularmente conhecida como capixingui ou tapixingui. No bioensaio com Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), BECF apresentou toxicidade significante (LC50 = 89,6 µg/ml), enquanto que LECF não apresentou atividade (LC50 > 1000 µg/ml). A partir do método de DPPH, os valores de IC50 para o LECF e BECF foram 61,2 µg/ml e 62,2 µg/ml, respectivamente, evidenciando que C. floribundus tem uma atividade antioxidante expressiva. A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pela técnica de microdiluição e apenas BECF foi ativo contra Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39,6 mg/ml). Os extratos não apresentaram atividade moluscicida contra o caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Ambos os extratos revelaram a presença de componentes com capacidade inibidora da enzima acetilcolinesterase no ensaio bioautográfico. C. floribundus mostrou ser uma espécie promissora considerando que exibiu boa atividade biológica na maioria dos ensaios testados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemia/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Phytochemicals/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 64-67, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039270

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous alkali-treated Brachiaria straw for the cultivation of appropriate species of oyster mushroom. The substrate used in the cultivation of various Pleurotus spp. was soaked for 20 min by using two different procedures: (i) 0.5-2.0% Ca(OH)2 in 100 L water, and (ii) 50-250 L water. As a result, 1% Ca(OH)2 dissolved in 100 L water and 3.5 kg of Brachiaria straw presented the best production. The most suitable species for the application of the present method were P. pulmonarius and P. sapidus. The success of this technique is directly related to the concentration of Ca(OH)2 and water, the species, and the origin and quality of raw material used as the substrate in the production of oyster mushroom.


Subject(s)
Pleurotus/growth & development , Culture Media/chemistry , Brachiaria/chemistry , Crop Production/methods , Biodegradation, Environmental , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Pleurotus/metabolism , Culture Media/metabolism , Brachiaria/metabolism , Brachiaria/microbiology , Crop Production/instrumentation , Hydrolysis
7.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 27: 14-24, May. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010154

ABSTRACT

Background: Jatropha curcas is a wide-spreading latex-rich biodiesel plant with high oil content in seeds that have always been under intense studies. However, studies are lacking on the latex component that is considered rich in proteins with potentially important physiological functions and secondary metabolites that are a promising source for new drugs. The proteomic analysis, which would be the first step to study these substances, was hampered by the presence of interfering components. Phenol extraction and Trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/ acetone extraction, two major plant proteomic isolation methods, were used and compared in this study. Results: We identified 459 proteins from the J. curcas latex proteome using the combination of the two extraction techniques. Although more number of latex proteins were identified by the phenol extraction (401 proteins vs. 123 proteins by the TCA/acetone extraction), only 65 proteins were commonly isolated by both methods. Analysis of the biochemical properties revealed that relatively more number of lower isoelectric point (pI) proteins were isolated by the TCA/acetone method (pI mode: 4.79, 6.51 for phenol). Moreover, GO, COG, and KEGG analyses showed that certain classes/categories/pathways annotated more number of proteins than others, and most of them had proportionally comparable protein counts by both the methods, however, with exemplified exceptions. Conclusions: A large number of proteins were found and exclusively identified by either method, indicating that a better proteome coverage of plant samples in a similar context needs the combined use of multiple isolation methods. In addition, the core biological function of the latex may be uncovered by certain GO, COG, and KEGG classes/categories/pathways that annotate more proteins.


Subject(s)
Plant Proteins/analysis , Plant Stems/chemistry , Jatropha , Proteomics/methods , Latex/chemistry , Acetone/chemistry , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Chromatography, Liquid , Phenol/chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 489-496, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780830

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sugarcane straw has become an available lignocellulosic biomass since the progressive introduction of the non-burning harvest in Brazil. Besides keeping this biomass in the field, it can be used as a feedstock in thermochemical or biochemical conversion processes. This makes feasible its incorporation in a biorefinery, whose economic profitability could be supported by integrated production of low-value biofuels and high-value chemicals, e.g., xylitol, which has important industrial and clinical applications. Herein, biotechnological production of xylitol is presented as a possible route for the valorization of sugarcane straw and its incorporation in a biorefinery. Nutritional supplementation of the sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as a function of initial oxygen availability was studied in batch fermentation of Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The nutritional supplementation conditions evaluated were: no supplementation; supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, and full supplementation with (NH4)2SO4, rice bran extract and CaCl2·2H2O. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, 30 °C, 200 rpm, for 48 h in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing either 25 or 50 mL of medium in order to vary initial oxygen availability. Without supplementation, complete consumption of glucose and partial consumption of xylose were observed. In this condition the maximum xylitol yield (0.67 g g-1) was obtained under reduced initial oxygen availability. Nutritional supplementation increased xylose consumption and xylitol production by up to 200% and 240%, respectively. The maximum xylitol volumetric productivity (0.34 g L-1 h-1) was reached at full supplementation and increased initial oxygen availability. The results demonstrated a combined effect of nutritional supplementation and initial oxygen availability on xylitol production from sugarcane straw hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.


Subject(s)
Xylitol/biosynthesis , Candida/metabolism , Saccharum/microbiology , Xylose/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plant Stems/microbiology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Culture Media/metabolism , Saccharum/metabolism , Saccharum/chemistry , Fermentation , Hydrolysis
9.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(3): 182-191, May. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907534

ABSTRACT

La decocción de la planta de Tarenaya hassleriana es utilizada en la región del Río de La Plata por sus propiedades como rubefaciente, digestiva, y antiescorbútica. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar caracteres de la hoja y tallo para identificar esta especie a partir de muestras enteras o fragmentadas. Se emplearon técnicas habituales de microscopia óptica y análisis histoquímico para identificar almidón, sustancias lipofílicas, fenólicas y mirosina. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron: en la hoja, folíolos con venación eucamptódroma, con estomas anomocíticos presentes en ambas caras; tricomas glandulares uniseriados y pluriseriados, con cabezas unicelulares y pluricelulares conteniendo sustancias lipofílicas; mesofilo dorsiventral; en el tallo, la corteza primaria formada por varias capas de colénquima tangencial seguido de parénquima; el cilindro vascular secundario rodea la médula sólida, en cuyo parénquima se halló almidón, cristales poliédricos y esferocristales. Se detectaron idioblastos de mirosina en la epidermis y parénquimas de la hoja y el tallo. Los parámetros micrográficos descriptos garantizan una correcta identificación de T. hassleriana.


Plant decoction of Tarenaya hassleriana is used as a traditional medicine in the Río de La Plata area. It has rubefacient, digestive, and antiscorbutic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate leaf and stem microcharacters to identify this species from whole or fragmented samples. The usual techniques of optical microscopy were employed. Histochemical tests for starch, lipophilic substances, phenolic substances, and mirosina were used. The main differential traits were: leaflets with eucamptodromous venation, amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata type; uniseriate and pluriseriate glandular trichomes, with unicellular and pluricellular heads containing lipophilic substances; dorsiventral mesophyll; stem with a primary cortex formed by tangential collenchyma followed by parenchyma; the secondary vascular cylinder surrounding the pith with starch, polyhedral microcrystals and spherocrystals. Idioblast of myrosin were detected in the epidermis and parenchyma of leaves and stems. The micrographic parameters described ensure a correct identification of T. hassleriana.


Subject(s)
Brassicaceae/anatomy & histology , Brassicaceae/chemistry , Plant Leaves/anatomy & histology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/anatomy & histology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Argentina
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(6): 449-455, Nov. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907506

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents of essential oils obtained from leaves, stems and roots of Zingiber gramineum Noronha ex Blume and Zingiber rufopilosum Gagnep collected from Vietnam have been studied. The determination of essential oil components was performed by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituents of the leaves oil of Zingiber gramineum were zingiberene (19.5 percent), beta-cubebene (12.9 percent), beta-sesquiphellandrene (12.9 percent) and beta-elemene (11.6 percent) while the stems oil was dominated by benzyl benzoate (22.6 percewnt), beta-elemene (9.7 percent) and beta-selinene (8.8 percent). However, upsilon-terpinene (17.9 percent), alpha-terpinene (17.1 percent), terpinen-4-ol (13.0 percent) and 1,8-cineole (12.8 percent) were the present in the root oil. In addition, beta-agarofuran (13.7 percent), alpha-humulene (8.8 percent) and alpha-pinene (8.7 percent) were the main compounds identified in the leaves of Zingiber rufopilosum. The stems comprised of alpha-cadinol (15.1 percent), beta-muurolol (12.1 percent) and endo-1-bourbonanol (9.9 percent) while (E,E)-farnesol (11.6 percent), alpha-pinene (10.0 percent), bornyl acetate (6.6 percent) and beta-pinene (6.2 percent) were the significant compounds of the root oil. This is the first report on the volatile compositions of these plant species.


El presente estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar el efecto del extracto metanólico acuoso a partir de los componentes químicos de los aceites esenciales obtenidos de las hojas, tallos y raíces de Zingiber gramineum Noronha ex Blume y Zingiber rufopilosum Gagnep recogidos de Vietnam. La determinación de componentes de aceites esenciales se realizó por cromatografía de gases-detector de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). Los principales componentes del aceite de hojas de Zingiber gramineum fueron zingibereno (19,5 por ciento), beta-cubebene (12,9 por ciento), beta-sesquiphellandrene (12,9 por ciento) y beta-elemene (11,6 por ciento), mientras que el aceite de tallos fue dominada por benzoato de bencilo (22,6 por ciento), beta-elemene (9,7 por ciento) y beta-selineno (8,8 por ciento). Sin embargo, ipsilon-terpineno (17,9 por ciento), alfa-terpineno (17,1 por ciento), terpinen-4-ol (13,0 por ciento) y 1,8-cineol (12,8 por ciento) fueron los presentes en el aceite de la raíz. Además, beta-agarofuran (13,7 por ciento), alfa-humuleno (8,8 por ciento) y alfa-pineno (8,7 por ciento) fueron los principales compuestos identificados en las hojas de Zingiber rufopilosum. Los tallos componen de alfa-cadinol (15,1 por ciento), beta-muurolol (12,1 por ciento) y endo-1-bourbonanol (9,9 por ciento), mientras que (E, E)-farnesol (11,6 por ciento), alfa-pineno (10,0 por ciento), acetato de bornilo (6,6 por ciento) y beta-pineno (6,2 por ciento) fueron los compuestos significativos del aceite de la raíz. Este es el primer informe sobre las composiciones volátiles de estas especies de plantas.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Monoterpenes/analysis , Plant Roots/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/analysis
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(1): 42-47, ene.2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-795832

ABSTRACT

Essential oils from leaves and stems of Eperua duckeana Cowan (Fabaceae) were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. Sixteen and nineteen components were identified by comparison by their retention indices (RI) and mass spectra. The major components identified in leaves were (E)-caryophyllene (31.8 percent), caryophyllene oxide (25.7 percent) and alpha- humulene (4.4 percent), and stems (E)-caryophyllene (34.5 percent) and germacrene D (25.9 percent). The stems oil essential showed high cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines of leukemia (HL-60). This is the first report regarding the essential oil composition and citotoxicy activity of the essential oil of Eperua duckeana Cowan...


Óleos essenciais de folhas e galhos de Eperua duckeana Cowan (Fabaceae) foram extraídos por hidrodestilação e analisados por CG-DIC e CG-EM. Dezesseis e dezenove componentes foram identificados por comparação com seus índices de retenção (IR) e espectros de massas. Os componentes principais identificados nas folhas foram o (E)-cariofileno (31,8 por cento), óxido de cariofileno (25,7 por cento) e o alfa- humuleno (4,4 por cento), nos galhos (E)-cariofileno (34,5 por cento) e o D-germacreno (25,9 por cento). O óleo essencial dos galhos mostrou alta citoxicidade contra linhagens de células de leucemia (HL-60). Esse é a primeiro relato abordando a composição dos óleos essenciais e a atividade citotóxica do óleo essencial de Eperua duckeana Cowan...


Subject(s)
Humans , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Brazil , Chromatography, Gas , Cell Line, Tumor , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Plant Stems/chemistry
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1082-1089
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153794

ABSTRACT

Sorghum is one of the commercially feasible lignocellulosic biomass and has a great potential of being sustainable feedstock for renewable energy. As with any lignocellulosic biomass, sorghum also requires pretreatment which increases its susceptibility to hydrolysis by enzymes for generating sugars which can be further fermented to alcohol. In the present study, sorghum biomass was evaluated for deriving maximum fermentable sugars by optimizing various pretreatment parameters using statistical optimization methods. Pretreatment studies were done with H2SO4, followed by enzymatic saccharification. The efficiency of the process was evaluated on the basis of production of the total reducing sugars released during the process. Compositional analysis was done for native as well as pretreated biomass and compared. The biomass pretreated with the optimized conditions could yield 0.408 g of reducing sugars /g of pretreated biomass upon enzymatic hydrolysis. The cellulose content in the solid portion obtained after pretreatment using optimised conditions was found to be increased by 43.37% with lesser production of inhibitors in acid pretreated liquor.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Carbohydrates/isolation & purification , Cellulase/pharmacology , Fermentation , Hydrochloric Acid/pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Nitric Acid/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Stems/drug effects , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Sorghum/chemistry , Sorghum/drug effects , /pharmacology , Temperature , Xylose/isolation & purification
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(5): 488-497, sept.2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-786495

ABSTRACT

Chemical compositions of P. stylosum and P. ribesioides essential oils, and their antioxidant, antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibition activities were determined. GC and GC–MS analysis of essential oils from leaves and stems of P. stylosum resulted in the identification of 50 (89.2 percent) and 45 (88.8 percent) components, respectively. The major components were aromadendrene (leaves 26.6 percent; stems 18.8 percent), sabinene (leaves 13.8 percent; stems 6.7 percent) and beta-caryophyllene (leaves 11.5 percent; stems 17.9 percent). A total of 60 (87.0 percent) and 39 (82.9 percent) components were identified from leaves and stems of P. ribesioides, respectively. The most abundant components were beta-caryophyllene (leaves 20.0 percent; stems 14.4 percent), camphene (leaves 16.3 percent; stems 12.3 percent) and delta-cadinene (leaves 4.4 percent; stems 7.8 percent). Antioxidant activity using DPPH and total phenolic content were tested for essential oils. However, the essential oils showed low antioxidant activity and phenolic content, compared to BHT. Studies of tyrosinase inhibition showed that the essential oils of P. ribesioides leaves had the highest inhibition (30.0 percent), although were lower than the control (kojic acid 81.8 percent). The evaluation of antimicrobial activities revealed that P. ribesioides essential oils showed strong activity against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, both with MIC value 62.5 micrograms/mL.


Se determinaron las composiciones químicas, las actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana, y el contenido total de fenoles de los aceites esenciales de P. stylosum y P. ribesioides. El análisis GC y GC-MS de los aceites esenciaales de hojas y tallos de P. stylosum permitió la identificación de 50 (89.2 por ciento) y 45 (88.8 por ciento) de components, respectivamente. Los principales componentes fueron aromadendreno (hojas 26.6 por ciento; tallos 18.8 por ciento), sabineno (hojas 13.8 por ciento; tallos 6.7 por ciento) y beta-cariofileno (hoja 11.5 por ciento; tallo 17.9 por ciento). Se identificaron 60 (87.0 por ciento) y 39 (82.9 por ciento) components en los aceites esenciales de hojas y tallos de P. ribesioides. Los componentes más abundantes fueron beta-cariofileno (hojas 20.0 por ciento; tallos 14.4 por ciento), canfeno (hojas 16.3 por ciento; tallos 12.3 por ciento) y delta-cadineno (hojas 4.4 por ciento; tallos 7.8 por ciento). Los aceites esenciales se ensayaron para determinar sus actividades antioxidantes con DPPH y el contenido de fenoles totales. Para los aceites esenciales obtenidos se determinaron valores bajos en la actividad antioxidante con DPPH y el contenido total de fenoles, en comparación con BHT. Sin embargo, los ensayos de inhibición de tirosinasa most raron que el aceite esencial de las hojas de P. ribesioides presento la mayor inhibición (30.0 por ciento), aunque mas baja que el compuesto control (Àcido Kójico, 81.8 por ciento). Para el aceite esencial de P. ribesioides se determinó una MIC 62.5 mg/mL contra Bacillus cereus y Staphylococcus aureus.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Piper/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus cereus , Free Radical Scavengers , Phenols/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Stems/chemistry
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(4): 324-335, jul. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785450

ABSTRACT

Berberis microphylla (G. Forst) is a native plant growing in Patagonia. In recent years Patagonia Berberis are becoming important due to their interesting biological properties related to their alkaloids content. The aim of this study was determine the distribution and proportion of isoquinoline alkaloids in leaves, stems and roots of B. microphylla collected in two different climatic zones from Chilean Patagonia. Using by HPLC ESI-MS/MS isocorydine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine, reticuline, scoulerine, tetrahydroberberine and thalifendine were detected for the first time in this specie, and the presence of allocryptopine, berberine, calafatine and protopine, previously isolated in B. microphylla was corroborated. The alkaloids profile showed differences of compounds in samples collected in two climatic zones, where more compounds were detected in plants from Lago Deseado than Cerro Sombrero. Furthermore, a greater number of alkaloids were found in stem and root extracts and berberine and thalifendine were detected in higher proportion in these structures.


Berberis microphylla (G. Forst) es un arbusto nativo que crece en la Patagonia. Actualmente, esta planta ha sido foco de estudio dada las propiedades biológicas que presenta, atribuidas principalmente al contenido de alcaloides. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la distribución y proporción de alcaloides isoquinolínicos en hojas, tallos y raíces de B. microphylla colectadas en dos zonas climáticas de la Patagonia chilena. Mediante CLAE IES-MS/MS se informa por primera vez la presencia de isocoridina jatrorrizina, palmatina, reticulina, escoulerina, tetrahidroberberina y talifendina en esta especie y se confirma la presencia de allocriptopina, berberina, calafatina y protopina, identificados previamente en B. microphylla. El perfil de alcaloides mostró diferencias en la presencia de compuestos en las muestras colectas en las dos zonas climáticas, observándose un mayor número de compuestos en plantas provenientes de Lago Deseado. Además, un mayor número de compuestos se identificó en extractos de tallos y raíces donde berberina y talifendina fueron detectados en mayor proporción.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/analysis , Berberis/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Roots/chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Plant Stems/chemistry
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(2): 205-212, mar. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767364

ABSTRACT

The piperidine alkaloid composition from young stems of Lobelia polyphylla Hook & Arn. was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The tentative structures, without the stereochemistry, were obtained by the analysis of the fragmentation patterns of the mass spectra of each compound. The stems contained a mixture of lobeline (1), norlobelanidine (2), 1-(1-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-1-methylpiperidin) butane-2-ol (3), 8-propyl-10-phenyl lobelionol (4), 1-(6-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)-1-methylpiperidin) butane-2-one (5), 1-(6-(2-hidroxypentyl)-1-ethylpiperidin) butane-2-one (6) and 1-methyl-2-piperidinemethanol (7). The role of these alkaloids in the toxic, narcotic and hallucinogenic effects, produced after smoking the aerial parts of this species is discussed.


La composición de alcaloides piperidínicos de tallos jóvenes de Lobelia polyphylla Hook & Arn. se determinó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas (CG-EM). Las estructuras tentativas sin incluir la estereoquímica, se obtuvieron mediante el análisis de los patrones de fragmentación de los espectros de masas de cada compuesto. Los tallos contienen una mezcla de lobelina (1), norlobelanidina (2), 1-(1-(2-hidroxi-2-feniletil)-1-metilpiperidin) butano-2-ol (3), 8-propil-10-fenil lobelionol (4), 1-(6-(2-hidroxi-2-feniletil)-1-metilpiperidin) butano-2-ona (5), 1-(6-(2-hidroxypentyl)-1-etilpiperidin) butano-2-ona (6) y 1-metil-2-piperidinmetanol (7). Se discute el posible papel de estos alcaloides en los efectos tóxicos, estupefacientes y alucinógenos, producidos después de haber fumado la parte aérea de esta especie.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/analysis , Lobelia/chemistry , Piperidines/analysis , Plant Stems/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
16.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-5, 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the seasonal changes of total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in samples taken from leaves (April, July, October) and stems (April, July, October, January) of some almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) varieties (Nonpareil, Ferragnes and Texas). RESULTS: It was indicated that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in leaves and stems of Nonpareil, Ferragnes and Texas showed seasonal differences. Antioxidant activity IC50 of these varieties reached the highest value in April for leaves whereas in October for stems. The highest level of total phenolic compounds was in January for stems while in October for leaves. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that total antioxidant activity and phenolics in leaves and stems of almond varieties changed according to season and plant organ.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Phenols/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Prunus/chemistry , Seasons , Antioxidants/metabolism , Free Radicals , Phenols/metabolism , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Turkey
17.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-9, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current study has been designed to evaluate the chemical composition of essential and fixed oils from stem and leaves of Perovskia abrotanoides and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of these oils. RESULTS: GC-MS analysis of essential oil identified 19 compounds with (E)-9-dodecenal being the major component in stem and hexadecanoic acid in leaves. In contrast, GC-MS analysis of fixed oil showed 40 constituents with α-amyrin the major component in stem and α-copaene in leaves. The antioxidant activity showed the highest value of 76.7% in essential oil from leaves in comparison with fixed oil from stem (45.9%) through inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The antimicrobial assay tested on different microorganisms (e.g. E. coli, S. aureus, B. cereus, Nitrospira, S. epidermis, A. niger, A. flavus and C. albicans) showed the higher inhibition zone at essential oil from leaves (15.2 mm on B. cereus) as compared to fixed oil from stem (8.34 mm onS. aureus) and leaves (11.2 mm on S. aureus). CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the fact that essential oil analyzed from Perovskia abrotanoides stem and leaves could be a promising source of natural products with potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as compared to fixed oil.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Stems/chemistry , Alkanes/analysis , Alkanes/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Bacillus cereus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methyl Ethers/analysis , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Oleanolic Acid/analysis , Oleanolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Palmitic Acid/analysis , Palmitic Acid/pharmacology , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/analysis , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Plant Oils/chemistry , Reducing Agents/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/analysis , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Stearic Acids/analysis , Stearic Acids/pharmacology
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(6): 592-602, nov. 2013. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-726593

ABSTRACT

Plants belonging to the genus Cinchona L. (Rubiaceae), whose active ingredient is quinine, was used for centuries to treat malaria. Plants of this genus are a potential source of new structural templates in the search for new antimalarial candidates. This study aimed to the identification, quantification of quinine and other metabolites present in extracts of different polarity of the stems of Cinchona pubescens Vahl. , oxoquinovic acid isolation, antiplasmodial activity, and measuring its cytotoxic effect. The results show a high activity to antiplasmodial alkaloids extract (IC50 = 2.20 +/- 0.0325 ug/mL), cytotoxicity (CC50 = 80.2 +/- 12.2 ug/mL), and a quinine content of 21.3+/-0.0247 ppm. The compound known as acid antiplasmodial activity oxoquinovic presented in IC50 = 11.3 +/- 0.741 ug/mL, and cytotoxicity CC50 = 72.4 +/- 3.85 ug/mL. These results motivate phytochemical studies in the search for active structural analogues quinine and quinolinic core as a source of new antimalarial agents.


Las plantas pertenecientes al género Cinchona L. (familia Rubiaceae), cuyo principio activo es la quinina, fueron utilizadas durante siglos para tratar la malaria. Este género es una fuente potencial de nuevas plantillas estructurales en la búsqueda de nuevos candidatos antimaláricos. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo la identificación y, cuantificación de la quinina y de otros metabolitos presentes en los extractos de diferente polaridad, de los tallos de Cinchona pubescens Vahl. , el aislamiento del ácido oxoquinóvico, la actividad antiplasmodial y, además, la medición de su efecto citotóxico. Los resultados muestran una alta actividad antiplasmodial para el extracto de los alcaloides (IC50 = 2,20 +/- 0,0325 ug/mL), una baja citotoxicidad (CC50 = 80,2 +/- 12,2 ug/mL), y un alto contenido de quinina el cual fue 21,3+/-0,0247 ppm. El compuesto ácido oxoquinóvico presentó una actividad antiplasmodial de IC50 = 11,3 +/- 0.741 ug/mL, y una citotoxicidad de CC50 = 72,4 +/- 3,85 ug/mL. Estos resultados motivan los estudios fitoquímicos en la búsqueda de principios activos y análogos estructurales en diferentes especies de Cinchonas como una fuente de nuevos agentes antimaláricos.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/chemistry , Cinchona/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Quinine/isolation & purification , Quinine/pharmacology , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmodium falciparum , Quinine/chemistry , Toxicity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(5): 537-542, sept. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-726552

ABSTRACT

Three phenolic aristolactams, aristolactam AII (3), velutinam (4) and piperolactam A (5), were identified from the leaves and stems of Aristolochia chilensis Bridges ex Lindl. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using a combination of HPLC-DAD, GC-MS and NMR experiments.


Tres aristolactamas fenólicas aristolactama AII(3), velutinam(4) y piperolactama A(5), se identificaron en hojas y tallos de Aristolochia chilensis Bridges ex Lindl. Las estructuras de estos compuestos se determinaron por combinación de CLAE-DAD, CG-EM y experimentos de RMN.


Subject(s)
Aristolochia/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Lactams/analysis , Lactams/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Stems/chemistry
20.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Aug; 51(8): 661-669
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149369

ABSTRACT

Administration of ethanol extract of stem bark from Z. rhoifolium (EEtOH-ZR) induced hypotension associated with a dual effect in heart rate in normotensive rats. This response was highlighted in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In rat superior mesenteric artery rings, the cumulative addition of EEtOH-ZR (0.1–750 µg/mL) on a phenylephrine-induced pre-contraction (10-5 M) promoted a vasorelaxant effect by a concentration-dependent manner and independent of vascular endothelium. A similar effect was obtained on KCl-induced pre-contractions (80 mM). EEtOH-ZR attenuated contractions induced by cumulative addition of CaCl2 (10-6–3 × 10-2 M) in depolarizing medium without Ca2+ only at 500 or 750 µg/mL. Likewise, on S-(–)-Bay K 8644-induced pre-contractions (10-7 M), the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxant effect was attenuated. EEtOH-ZR (27, 81, 243 or 500 µg/mL) inhibited contractions induced by cumulative addition of phenylephrine (10-9 - 10-5 M) in endothelium-denuded preparations or by a single concentration (10-5 M) in a Ca2+-free medium. The involvement of K+ channels was evaluated by tetraethylammonium (3 mM); the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxation was not attenuated. Thus, calcium influx blockade through voltage-operated calcium channels (CaVL) and inhibition of calcium release from intracellular stores are probably underlying EEtOH-ZR-induced cardiovascular effects.


Subject(s)
3-Pyridinecarboxylic acid, 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-nitro-4-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-, Methyl ester/pharmacology , Animals , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Calcium Channel Agonists/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/drug effects , Calcium Chloride/pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Ethanol/chemistry , Male , Phenylephrine/pharmacology , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Stems/chemistry , Potassium Channels/drug effects , Potassium Chloride/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Inbred SHR , Rats, Wistar , Vasoconstrictor Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilation/drug effects , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Zanthoxylum/chemistry
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