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Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17227, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039054


Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen, popularly known as sapoti or sapota (sapodilla), is a tree bearing an important fruit, in addition to different parts of the plant being widely used in folk medicine in the management of inflammation, pain, fevers, coughs, diarrhea, dysentery, among other ailments. This study aimed to conduct a pharmacobotany standardization study of M. zapota. Semi-permanent slides, containing transversal sections of stem, petiole, leaf blade and fruit; and paradermic sections of leaf blade were prepared, and analyzed by light microscopy. Histochemical tests were also performed in cross-sections of the leaf blade. Microscopic analysis allowed the identification of important elements in the diagnosis of the species; while the use of histochemical techniques on the leaf blade showed evidence of the presence of phenolic compounds, tannins, triterpenes and steroids, lipophilic compounds, starch, lignin and calcium oxalate crystals. The results presented contributed to characterization of the species.

Manilkara/anatomy & histology , Manilkara/drug effects , Plant Structures , Anatomy/classification
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 647-657, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977335


Abstract Mangroves represent an environment of great heterogeneity and low diversity of plant species that have structural and physiological adaptations linked to a high salinity environment. Laguncularia racemosa is a typical tree species in mangroves and transitional zones. This study aimed to compare the wood anatomy of L. racemosa (Combretaceae) in two different forests (mangroves and transitional forests), which have different soil conditions. For this, we obtained wood and soil samples in March 2016. We analyzed soil nutritional contents in one 15 cm deep soil sample per forest type. In addition, we selected five mangrove trees in each formation for wood anatomy analysis and took one wood sample per individual, per area. We prepared histological slides and separated materials following standard methods for wood anatomy studies. Soil analysis showed that mangrove soils had higher phosphorus, potassium and calcium contents. The transitional soil had lower pore water salinity and soil pH, probably due to high aluminum levels. Anatomical attributes differed between different forest populations. In the different wood aspects evaluated, we obtained higher values in mangrove individuals when compared to the transitional forest population: vessel elements length (375.79 mm), tangential vessels diameter (75.85 mm), frequency of vessels (11.90 mm) and fiber length (889.89 mm). Moreover, parenchyma rays height was larger in the samples of the transitional forest (392.80 mm), while the mangrove population presented wider rays (29.38 mm). The structure of the secondary xylem in the studied species apparently responds to edaphic parameters and shows variations that allow it to adjust to the environmental conditions. The population of the transitional forest showed a secondary xylem that invests more in protection than the mangrove population. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 647-657. Epub 2018 June 01.

Resumen Los manglares representan un ambiente de gran heterogeneidad y baja diversidad de especies vegetales que tienen adaptaciones estructurales y fisiológicas ligadas a un ambiente de alta salinidad. Laguncularia racemosa es una especie de árbol típico en los manglares y en zonas de transición. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la anatomía de la madera de L. racemosa (Combretaceae) en dos bosques distintos (manglares y bosques de transición) que tienen diferentes condiciones edáficas. Para esto se obtuvieron muestras de madera y suelo en marzo 2016. Se analizaron los contenidos nutricionales de una muestra de suelo de 15 cm de espesor por tipo de bosque. Además, se seleccionaron cinco árboles de mangle en cada formación para el análisis de la anatomía de la madera y se tomó una muestra de cada individuo por área. Se prepararon láminas histológicas y se separaron los materiales siguiendo métodos convencionales para estudios de anatomía de la madera. El análisis del suelo mostró que en el manglar hay mayor contenido de fósforo, potasio y calcio. El suelo del bosque de transición tiene menor salinidad del agua capilar y pH del suelo, probablemente debido a los altos niveles de aluminio. Los atributos anatómicos difirieron entre las distintas poblaciones de bosque. En los distintos aspectos de la madera evaluados, se obtuvieron valores más altos en los individuos del manglar comparados con los de la población del bosque de transición: longitud de los elementos de los vasos (375.79 mm), diámetro de los vasos tangenciales (75.85 mm), frecuencia de vasos (11.90 mm) y longitud de la fibra (889.89 mm). Además, la altura de los rayos de parénquima fue mayor en las muestras del bosque de transición (392.80 mm) mientras que la población de manglar presentó rayos más anchos (29.38 mm). La estructura del xilema secundario en la especie estudiada aparentemente responde a los parámetros edáficos y muestra variaciones que le permiten adecuarse a las condiciones ambientales. La población del bosque de transición mostró un xilema secundario que invierte más en protección que la población del manglar.

Trees/anatomy & histology , Wood/analysis , Plant Structures/anatomy & histology , Wetlands , Brazil
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2017; 16 (64): 141-152
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-189623


Background: Since the essential oil of lavender [Lavandula officinalis L.] was used for the treatment of diseases related to the nervous system and rheumatism, phytochemical evaluation of this plant is essential especially in terms of cultivation and production

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different culture media on the amount of essential components, chlorophyll content, nutrients, growth characteristics, and rooting of lavender

Methods: The experiment was done the basis of randomized complete blocks design [RCBD] in 10 treatments and 3 replications. Substrates and culture media for plant production in this study were Ml; sand, M2; sandiperlite [2:1], M3; sand:peat-moss [2:1], M4; sand:vermicompost [2:1], M5; sand:perlite:peat-moss [2:1:1], M6; sand:perlite:vermicompost [2:1:1], M7; sand:peat-moss:vermicompost [2:1:1] M8; sand:vermicompost:peat-moss:perlite [2:1:1:2], M9; sand:vermicompost:peat-moss:perlite [4:1:1:2], and M10; sand:vermicompost:peat-moss:perlite [6:1:1:2]

Results: Results showed that culture media had significant effect on the all characteristics of rooting, chlorophyll and nutrient content and essential oil components in lavender plants. Limonene, borneol, and camphor were the highest amount of essential oil compounds in lavender, respectively

The highest content of limonene and oxygenated monoterpenes in Ml, rooting percentage and number of main root in M3, camphor and chlorophyll content and root dry weight in M5, borneol content in M8, and hydrocarbon monoterpenes in M10 were observed. Conclusion: The application of different culture media in the production and propagation of lavender in addition to changes in morpho-physiological characteristics of lavender can directly alter the properties of essential oil and phytochemical compounds

Phytochemicals , Culture Media , Monoterpenes , Oils, Volatile , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts , Phytotherapy , Plant Structures , Camphor
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1317-1320
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189699


Abstract: Extracts from green and black cardamom have been used to evaluate their antioxidant potential for sunflower oil samples for a period of 45 days. Synthetic antioxidants BHA/ BHT were also used parallel over a period of 45 days for comparison. Antioxidant potential of natural and synthetic antioxidants were evaluated by measuring free fatty acids [FFA], peroxide value [PV] and iodine value [IV] values by ambient storage of sunflower oil. The results showed that green cardamom extracts were more effective compared to black cardamom extracts. However compared to BHA and BHT [200ppm], these were found to be effective at higher concentrations

Antioxidants , Sunflower Oil , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1321-1325
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189700


The present work was carried out to study bacterial pathogens isolated from wheat field water and also effect of some plant extracts on these bacterial pathogens. Five bacterial strains were isolated from wheat field water. Different morphological and biochemical tests were performed to identify and characterize bacterial pathogens. Among isolated strains two belonged to genus Staphylococcus sp., other two were Pseudomonas spp. and one strain belonged to genus Salmonella sp. Effect of various parameters such as temperature, pH, antibiotics and heavy metals of these pathogens were also studied. Optimum temperature for all bacterial strains was 37°C and optimum pH was 7 except strain 3 which had pH 6. Different antibiotics with different potency were applied to check the resistance of bacterial strains against them. Among these antibiotics Cloxacillin and Teicoplanin were most potent while Oxacillin was as less potent antibiotic because three bacterial strains were resistant against it. While remaining antibiotics proved as potent. Seven heavy metals which were zinc [Zn[+2]], copper [Cu[+2]], Ferrous [Fe[+2]], mercury [Hg[+2]], Nickel [Ni[+2]], chromium [Cr[+2]]and cobalt [Co[+2]] with different concentrations were applied to bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of heavy metals for all bacterial was different. Different plant extracts [Artemezia incise, Colebrookia oppositifolia, Rhynchosia pseudocajan] checked for their antibacterial activity against these pathogens. These plant extracts showed antibacterial activity against antibiotic and metal resistant bacterial isolates

Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Staphylococcus , Pseudomonas , Salmonella
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1327-1334
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189701


Natural resources right from the beginning of the human civilization has paved the way to human being to combat different challenges. The big challenge was to safe the human being from diseases and shortage of food. Plants helped the man in both areas very efficiently. No doubt when plants are used as food actually we are also taking lot of compounds of medicinal values in an excellent combination which naturally reduce the risk of diseases. Extraction and purification of several medicinally important compounds also gave the way to develop pharmaceutical industry in addition to its own therapeutic effects against different lethal diseases. Pumpkin is one of the several medicinal important vegetables used in different way on the behalf of its admirable power to combat different diseases. Antioxidant and biological studies showed very important results. A good coherence was found among extraction yield [10.52 to 18.45%], total phenolics [1.13 to 6.78 mg GAE/l00g], total flavonoids [0.23 to 0.72mg CE/l00g] and antioxidant potential [-70%]. Antibacterial assays of peel and puree extracts advocated good potential to stop the growth and division of pathogenic bacteria. Further biological activity study was carried out using MDBK cancer cell line. The growth inhibitory effect on cancer cell line using MTT assay showed methanol extracts of peel and puree both remained efficient to inhibit growth [-35%] and cell division of cancer cells. Our results showed that extracts of pumpkin puree and its waste, peel, may be utilize to prepare functional food against pathogenic born diseases and most active compounds may also be extracted, concentrated and converted into tablets or suspension form for therapeutic purposes

Antioxidants , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Cell Line, Tumor , In Vitro Techniques
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1341-1344
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189703


In the present study, anti-Avian influenza virus H9N2 activity of aqueous extracts [5, 10, 15, 20, 25%] of Zingiber officinalis and Allium sativum was evaluated. Embryo-toxicity was evaluated by histopathological scoring of Chorio-allantoic membrane of chick embryos. Cytotoxicity of extracts was determined by MTT assay on Vero cells. Aqueous extract of ginger had antiviral activity at 10, 15, 20 and 25% while garlic had activity at 15, 20 and 25%. Histopathological scoring of chorio-allantoic membrane for aqueous extracts [5, 10, 15, 20, 25%] of ginger [0.66+/-0.57, 1.33+/-0.57, 1.66+/-0.57, 2.66+/-0.57, 3.66+/-0.57, respectively] and garlic [1.00+/-0.00, 1.33+/-0.57, 2.00+/-0.00, 2.33+/-0.57, 3.66+/-0.57, respectively] was concentration dependant. MTT assay revealed cytotoxicity of both plants was also concentration dependent. Extracts of ginger [5, 10, 15, 20, 25%] had lower cytotoxicity [71, 59, 28, 22, 0 % cell survival, respectively] as compared to garlic [61, 36. 20, 11, 3% cell survival, respectively]. Overall results revealed that concentration of aqueous extract of ginger [10%], showing antiviral activity against H[9]N2, was less toxic to vero cells [> 50% cell survival]. It is insinuated that ginger may have anti- Avian influenza virus H9N2 potential and its active compounds needs further investigations

Influenza in Birds , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Plant Extracts , Garlic , Plant Structures , Chick Embryo
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1357-1362
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189706


Phragmites australis [P. australis], a world wide distributed wetland grass, is traditionally used as food-making helper and spice in China. The pharmacological effect of this plant is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-induced production of inflammatory mediators nitric oxide [NO] and reactive oxygen species [ROS], and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-a [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-lp [IL-1P] in RAW264.7 macrophage were significantly inhibited by the crude extract. The inflammation pertinent signaling extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 [Erkl/2], P38MAPK, C-Jun and NF-kappaB [NF-KB] activated by LPS could be dramatically inhibited by this extract. It also remarkably inhibited bovine herpes virus type 1 [BoHV-1] replication in MDBK cells. Taken together, here, for the first time we provided P. australis

Spices , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antiviral Agents , Complex Mixtures , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , In Vitro Techniques
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1371-1376
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189708


This paper presents the anti-microbial potentials of methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, butanol and water extracted samples from the stem of Euphorbia heliscopia against S. aureus [Gram positive], B. subtilis [Gram positive], P. aeruginosa [Gram negative], K. pneumonia [Gram negative], E. coli [Gram negative], C. albicans [fungal specie] by discs diffusion susceptibility assay using 0.5 and Img disc[+1] concentrations. Our results showed that all the extracted samples from the stem of E. heliscopia exhibited varying degree of antimicrobial activity. Ethyl acetate extracted samples measured maximum activity against the studies microbial species followed by the n-butanol and crude methanolic extract, n-hexane extracted samples inhibited the growth of all microbial species except P. aeruginosa and E. coli at lower concentration. Aqueous fractions showed inhibitory activity against B. subtilis, K. pneumonia and C. albicans. The most susceptible gram positive bacteria were S. aureus while B. subtilis was the most resistant one. Among Gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa showed more susceptibility while K. pneumonia was resistant

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antifungal Agents , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , In Vitro Techniques , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Plant Stems
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (4): 1383-1388
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189710


Dioscorea opposita is an edible and medicinal plant available in many areas of China. This study aimed to assess in vitro immune potentials of a water-soluble polysaccharide extract from D. opposita planted in Henan Province, China. In vitro effects of the extract on three immune cells [macrophages, natural killer cells and splenocytes] from mice and secretion of eight immune-related molecules in macrophages and splenocytes were evaluated. In total, the extract exhibited a dose-dependent manner on these immunological responses. The extract at dose level of 50ug/ml enhanced respective splenocyte proliferation, macrophage phagocytosis, and natural killer cell activity by 150%, 18% and 47%, increased secretion of interleukin-2 and interferon-y [from 41.4 and 24.6 pg/ml to 48.8 and 91.5 pg/ml, respectively] but decreased secretion of interleukin-4 [from 38.9 to 27.9 pg/ml] in splenocytes. The extract at the same dose level also stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and lysozyme in macrophages, and enhanced secretion of interleukin-6, interleukin-1 p and tumor necrosis factor-a [from 26.6, 73.4 and 39.6 pg/ml to 60.2, 131.0 and 144.7 pg/ml, respectively]. It is concluded that water-soluble polysaccharides from D. opposita have immune potentials to the body, via activating immune cells and regulating the secretion of immune-related molecules

Animals, Laboratory , In Vitro Techniques , Immunity , Plant Extracts , Polysaccharides , Plant Structures , Mice , Macrophages , Killer Cells, Natural
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2047-2052
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189713


In the present study hydrodistilled essential oil and total methanol extracts of Tanacetum argenteum subsp. flabellifolium have been evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant effects. The chemical composition of the oil and the crude extract were determined by GC/FID, GC/MS and LC/DAD/ESI-MS systems respectively. [3-thujone [47.1%], a-pinene [19.1%] and a-thujone [10.5%] were the main compounds of the essential oil while the 5-0-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid were identified as flavonoid content of the crude extract. The oil and the methanol extract were demonstrated moderate antimicrobial effects [MIC range; 0,062-2,0 mg/mL] against 21 different pathogenic micro organism. Total phenolic content was determined as 63 mg GAE in g extract and the DPPH radical scavenging effect was determined as 0.16 mg/mL [IC[50]] and TEAC was determined as 0.21mMol

Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antioxidants , Complex Mixtures , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Candida
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2067-2074
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189716


Opioid addiction is associated with oxidative cell injury in neuronal cells. In this study, Bacopa monnieri [L.], a reputed nootropic plant, was evaluated against morphine-induced histopathological changes in the cerebellum of rats. B. monnieri methanolic extract [mBME] [40 mg/kg, p.o] and ascorbic acid [50 mg/kg, i.p] were administered two hours before morphine [20 mg/kg, i.p] for 14 and 21 days. The in vitro antioxidant activity of mBME was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] free-radical scavenging assay. Morphine produced vacuolization of basket and stellate cells and reduced the size of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum after 14 days. However, treatment for 21 days was associated with severe shrinkage of Purkinje cells with loss of their characteristic flask-shaped appearance as well as degeneration of basket, stellate and granule cells. Pretreatment with mBME and ascorbic acid for 14 and 21 days attenuated the morphine-induced histopathological changes in the cerebellum. The EC50 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay of mBME [39.06 [microg/mL] as compared to ascorbic acid [30.25 microg/mL] and BHT [34.34 microg/mL] revealed that mBME strongly scavenged the free-radicals and thus possessed an efficient antioxidant propensity. These results concluded that B. monnieri having strong antioxidant activity exerted a protective effect against morphine-induced cerebellar toxicity

Animals, Laboratory , Morphine , Cerebellum/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Antioxidants , Opioid-Related Disorders , Neuroprotective Agents , Free Radicals
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2151-2157
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189725


The antioxidant activities of methanol [M], ethyl acetate [E] and hexane [H] extracts from leaves [L] and seeds [S] of Moringa [Moringa peregrine] were evaluated using different model systems in vitro. Free radical scavenging activities were assessed by measuring the scavenging activities of leaves and seeds different polar extracts separately using ABTS, Hydroxyl [OH] and DPPH radicals. Effect of extracts on ferrous ions chelating ability and total antioxidant capacity were also investigated for each extract. In addition, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols content of Moringa leaves and seeds extracts were determined. The leaves methanol [LM] extract showed significantly the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity [IC[50]]value of 5.3+/-0.2microg/ml], followed by leaves ethylacetate extract [LE] and seeds methanolic extract [SM] with IC[50] values of 7.1+/-0.2 and 7.2+/-0.4microg/ml, respectively. LE extract showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity with IC5ovalue of 49.1+/-2.7p,g/ml, followed by LM extract with IC5ovalue of 61.2+/-1.2 microg/ml, whereas the highest hydroxyl radical [OH] inhibition activity was found for LM and SM extracts with IC5ovalues of 76.9+/-0.8 and 77.5+/- 1.2microg/ml, respectively. The total antioxidant activity was the highest in LM, LE and SM extracts [294.3, 244.5 and 231.6microg ascorbic acid equivalent for Img extract, respectively]. LM, LE and SM extracts at concentration of l00microg/mlshowed the highest chelating activity against ferrous ions [98.4, 91.1 and 90.7%, respectively]. All Moringa leaves and seeds extracts showed pronounced antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner and the effects depend strongly on the solvent used for extraction. The results showed that extracts of both leaves and seeds of Moringa exhibit antioxidant potential suggesting that M. peregrina is a promising plant

Antioxidants , Plant Extracts , Phytotherapy , Plant Structures , Phenols , Flavonoids , Flavonols , Plant Leaves , Seeds
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2167-2172
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189727


Cytotoxic and antiviral activity of aqueous leaves extracts of three plants: Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Moms alba against Foot and Mouth disease virus [FMDV] were determined using MTT assay [3-[4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]. Eight different concentrations of each plant were evaluated. Cytotoxic and antiviral activity of each extract was evaluated as cell survival percentage and results were expressed as Means +/- S.D. From the tested plant extracts, Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera exhibited cytotoxicity at 200 and 100 microg/ml respectively. In case of antiviral assay, Moringa oleifera showed potent antiviral activity [p<0.05] while Azadirachta indica showed significant antiviral activity in the range of 12.5-50 microg/ml and 50-100 microg/ml respectively. In contrast no anti-FMDV activity in the present study was observed with Morus alba, although all the tested concentrations were found to be safe

Azadirachta , Moringa oleifera , Sinapis , Plant Extracts , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Structures , Animals, Domestic , Plant Leaves , Antiviral Agents
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2183-2191
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189729


Ajwa, a variety of date palme Phoenix dactylifera L., has long been used and considered as one of the most popular fruits in the North Africa and Middle East region. For Muslims this fruit is of religious importance and is mentioned several times in Quran. Besides being a part of the Arabian essential diet, dates have been used traditionally for number of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible potential of Ajwa date extract to guard against carbon tetrachloride [CCL[4]-induced liver damage in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given Ajwa date extract and silymarin [a standard reference drug] at doses of 300 and 50mg/kg, p.o., respectively for 2 weeks before CCU [2 ml/kg, s. c., twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks], and concomitantly administered with CC1[4] for 8 consecutive weeks. Like silymarin, Ajwa date extract produced significant decrease in serum levels of alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP], total cholesterol, triglycerides [TG] and LDL-cholesterol as well as lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde [MDA], hydroxyproline and caspase-3 contents of liver tissue with marked increase in serum albumin, HDL-cholesterol and reduced glutathione [GSH] content as well as enzyme activities of super oxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT] and glutathione-S-transferase [GST]. In conclusion, Ajwa date extract afforded significant protection against CCLrinduced hepatocellular injury; an effect that could be attributed to its antioxidant, antiapoptotic and antifibrotic activities

Animals, Laboratory , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Phoeniceae , Plant Extracts , Phytotherapy , Plant Structures , Oxidative Stress , Apoptosis , Liver Function Tests
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2203-2209
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189731


The study was done to check the antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activity of different parts of Ballota pseudodictamnus [L.] Benth. These activities were then compared with the heavy metals toxicity of different parts, which plants accumulate in different concentrations in different parts. In in-vitro antileishmanial results ethanolic extract, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions in roots of Ballota pseudodictamnus [L.] Benth showed antileishmanial activity. The ethanol, w-butanol and ethyl acetate fraction in stem revealed inhibition of amastigote form of leishmania. The ethanolic extract, chloroform, and w-butanol fraction in leaves showed inhibition of leishmanial parasite. In heavy metals study, Chromium was above permissible value in all parts except in leaves. Nickel was above WHO limit in roots. Cadmium and lead were beyond permissible limits in entire plant parts. Results revealed that different parts of the plant have different inhibition properties. So each part of plant should be checked for antimicrobial and antiprotozoal assay separately. It is concluded that various metals accumulates with miscellaneous concentrations in different plant parts

In Vitro Techniques , Heavy Metal Poisoning , Metals, Heavy , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Antiprotozoal Agents , Phytotherapy , Anti-Infective Agents
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (6): 2211-2215
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189732


Amommum subulatum [Roxb.] or Cardamom extract is known to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects towards many gastrointestinal related problems. However, uptill now different fractions of cardamom extract on fibroblasts with respect to potassium channel activity have not been investigated. Therefore, present study investigated the effects of different tractions of cardamom extract on potassium channels in non-tumor NIH3T3 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of hydroalcoholic, n-hexane, butane and ethyl acetate fractions of cardamom extracts were purified and isolated by thin layer chromatography [TLC]. 3T3 cells were cultured and incubated with hydroalcohol [1-2 Hg/ml], n-hexane [1 microg/ml], butane [2 microg/ml] and ethyl acetate [1-2 microg/ml] for 5 hrs at 37°C. Modulation in potassium currents were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp method. The data showed two constituents Cineol [CioHigO] and Terpinyl acetate [CioHi[7]OOCCH[3]] by TLC method. The present study shows that the constituents in n-hexane, hydro alcohol [1 [microg/ml] and ethyl acetate [2 microg/ml] significantly increased [p<0.01] the potassium outward rectifying currents from NIH3T3 cells when compared to untreated controls cells. Where as, butanol fraction [2 microg/ml] significantly decreased [p<0.01] the inward rectifying currents when compared to controls. Moreover hydroalcoholic and n-hexane fractions have increased the proliferation in 3T3 cell line. On the other hand butanol and ethyl acetate did not induce proliferation in 3T3 cells. Taken together, our data suggested that cardamom extract contains constituents that increased K[+] currents, cell migration and proliferation and are involved in wound healing

Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Cell Proliferation , Potassium , Cell Line , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Neuroprotective Agents , NIH 3T3 Cells , Chromatography, Thin Layer
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(3): 785-794, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-785692


O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e as características bromatológicas dos estratos superior e inferior de gramíneas perenes em sistema contínuo de cortes. As cultivares avaliadas foram: Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst cv. Estrela-roxa; Cynodon dactilon (L.) Pears cv. Coast-cross 1; Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst cv. Tifton 68; Cynodon ssp. cv. Tifton 85; Cynodon dactilon sp. cv. Jiggs; Hemárthria altissima cv. Roxinha e Penissetum clandestinum cv. Quicuio. Todos os cortes foram realizados no momento em que cada cultivar alcançava 95% de interceptação luminosa. As cutivares Jiggs e Tifton 68, com 21.348 e 21.016kg ha-1, respectivamente, tiveram as maiores produções (P<0,05) de fitomassa seca acumulada. Na média geral dos cortes, o quarto corte apresentou a menor relação estrato superior:inferior em relação aos demais (P<0,05). Em relação ao estrato superior, a Tifton 85 apresentou o maior teor de PB, sendo superior estatisticamente (P<0,05) no primeiro, segundo e quarto cortes, enquanto no terceiro corte a Coast-cross apresentou o maior teor proteico. No geral, as cv. Jiggs e Tifton 68 apresentaram a maior produção de fitomassa acumulada. Já a cv. Tifton 85 foi responsável pelos maiores níveis de PB, enquanto os teores de carboidratos estruturais mantiveram padrão constante, tanto no estrato superior quanto inferior, em sistema de quatro cortes sucessivos.(AU)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the productivity and the bromatologic characteristics of the upper and lower strata of perennial grasses in four cut systems. The cultivars evaluated were: Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst cv. Estrela Roxa; Cynodon dactilon (L.) Pears cv. Coast-cross 1; Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst cv. Tifton-68; Cynodon ssp. cv. Tifton-85; Cynodon dactilon sp. cv. Jiggs; Hemárthria altissima cv. Roxinha, and Penissetum clandestinum cv. Quicuio. All cuts were made when each cv. reached 95% light interception. The cv. Jiggs and Tifton 68, with 21348 and 21016kg ha-1, respectively, were responsible for the higher yields (P<0.05) of accumulated dry biomass. The overall average of the cuts, the fourth cut had the lowest ratio upper stratum: lower compared to the others (P<0.05). Regarding the upper stratum, the cv. Tifton 85 had the highest CP content, statistically higher (P<0.05) in the first, second and fourth cut, while in the third cut the cv. Coast-cross had the highest protein content. In general, cv. Jiggs and Tifton 68 had the highest number of accumulated biomass. The cv. Tifton 85 was responsible for the higher levels of CP, whereas the levels of structural carbohydrates maintained a constant pattern, in both the upper and lower strata in four cut systems.(AU)

Cynodon , Food Analysis , Pasture , Poaceae , Bulking Agents , Plant Structures
Rev. cuba. plantas med ; 21(2): 223-233, abr.-jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-788939


INTRODUCCIÓN: diferentes extractos de Terminalia Catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) han demostrado de forma internacional, propiedades farmacológicas beneficiosas para la salud humana. Estas propiedades han sido atribuidas en lo fundamental a los polifenoles y glicósidos, encontrados en hojas, corteza y frutos. En Cuba esta especie es catalogada como una planta invasora y existen pocas investigaciones sobre su composición química y estudios farmacológicos. OBJETIVOS: identificar y cuantificar los ácidos polifenólicos presentes en el extracto metanólico de las hojas de T. catappa utilizándose la cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. MÉTODOS: las hojas amarillo-rojizas fueron secadas, molidas, desgrasadas con hexano y y con posterioridad extraídas con metanol en un baño ultrasónico. El extracto se filtró y el disolvente se eliminó al vacío. El extracto seco se hidrolizó con ácido clorhídrico y se extrajo con acetato de etilo. Se determinó el rendimiento de extracción, las características organolépticas y los polifenoles totales mediante el método de Follin-Ciocalteu. La composición química del extracto hidrolizado se llevó a cabo por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas, previa formación de los derivados trimetilsilil. RESULTADOS: se obtuvo un líquido de color pardo rojizo oscuro de olor característico. El contenido total de polifenoles fue 184,6 (mg Pirogalol/100 g Extracto). Se detectaron 37 compuestos por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas en el extracto metanólico hidrolizado. Este extracto está compuesto de manera general por ácidos polifenólicos como el ácido gálico; ácido vanílico; ácido 3,4-dihidroxibenzoico; ácido 2,5-dihidroxi-benzoico y ácido 4- hidroxibenzoico. También se detectaron otros compuestos con elevados contenidos como ácido elágico y ácido levulínico. CONCLUSIONES: el extracto metanólico de hojas de T. catappa que crece en Cuba mostró un elevado contenido de ácidos polifenólicos, donde los ácidos gálico y elágico fueron los mayoritarios. La presencia de estos compuestos pudiera justificar las propiedades medicinales atribuidas a esta especie, a la vez que servirían de base para continuar con futuras pruebas farmacológicas que avalen sus usos con fines farmacéuticos.

INTRODUCTION: Different extracts of Terminalia Catappa Linn. (Combretaceae) internationally have shown pharmacological properties beneficial to human health. These properties have been largely attributed to polyphenols and their glycosides found in the leaves, bark and fruits. In Cuba this species is listed as an invasive plant and there is limited research on its chemical composition and pharmacological studies. OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify the polyphenolic acids that could be present in the methanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. METHODS: The yellow-red leaves were dried, ground, defatted with hexane and then extracted with methanol in an ultrasonic bath. The extract was filtered and the solvent removed under vacuum. The dry extract was hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid and extracted with ethyl acetate. The extraction yield, the organoleptic characteristics and the total polyphenols by Follin-Ciocalteu method were determined. The chemical composition of the hydrolyzed extract was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after formation of trimethylsilyl derivatives. RESULTS: A dark reddish brown liquid with a characteristic odor was obtained. The total polyphenol content was 184.6 (mg Pyrogallol/100g extract). By mean of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry a total of 37 compounds were detected in the hydrolyzed methanol extract. This extract consists mainly of polyphenolic acids such as gallic acid; vanillic acid; 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 4- hydroxybenzoic acid. Other compounds with high content as ellagic acid and levulinic acid were also detected. CONCLUSIONS: The methanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Terminalia catappa growing in Cuba showed a high content of polyphenolic acids where gallic acid and ellagic predominated. The presence of these compounds could justify the medicinal properties attributed to this species, while providing the basis for further future pharmacological evidence to support its use for pharmaceutical purposes.

Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Structures , Combretaceae , Terminalia , Polyphenols/chemistry , Gallic Acid/chemical synthesis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97098


We investigated whether the consumption of Korean rice cakes enriched with dietary fiber with or without polyphenol rich plants might decrease the risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rice cakes were manufactured using fructooligosaccharides, resistant starch, and psyllium as sources of dietary fibers with and without polyphenol rich Artemisia annua and Gynura procumbens Merr. (RC+FP and RC+F, respectively), and prepared in three forms (songpyeon, seolgidduk, and chaldduk). Ninety subjects with at least one MetS risk factor were recruited for 6 weeks of dietary intervention. Sixty subjects were finally included for the analysis. Compared to the initial values, RC+FP group had decreased levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), HOMA-IR and blood pressure after 6 weeks, whereas RC+F group didn't have significant changes in them. Regarding the improvement of individual MetS risk factors, RC+FP group showed significant reduction in FBG and blood pressures but RC+F group only had reduction in systolic blood pressure. After the intervention, a reduction in the number of MetS risk factors was greatert in the RC+FP group than in the RC+F group. In conclusion, Dietary fiber enriched rice cakes with or without polyphenols decreased the number and/or the levels of MetS risk factors. Polyphenol rich plant components may provide additional health benefits in controlling FBG and blood pressure.

Artemisia annua , Artemisia , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Dietary Fiber , Fasting , Insurance Benefits , Plant Structures , Polyphenols , Psyllium , Risk Factors , Starch