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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200568, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278450

ABSTRACT

Abstract Sweet potato (SP) starchy roots have a broad range of colors, high-quality nutritional composition including bioactive substances (anthocyanins and β-carotene), vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and starch. Several studies report the versatility of this root crop as part of the human diet and its possible health benefits. In this review the SP chemical composition, nutritional properties and its potential use in food processing for developing nutritious and healthy products are explored. Due to the adaptation of sweet potatoes to several agricultural managing conditions, accepting low technology /low cost with reasonable performance, it has called attention as a strong candidate of accessible functional food market.


Subject(s)
Starch , Ipomoea batatas , Plant Tubers , Flour , Phytochemicals
2.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0532019, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1130103

ABSTRACT

Chemical management is the most widely adopted technique to control weeds in sugarcane crops. Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is among the most difficult species to control. Herbicides need to be absorbed and translocated in a sufficient amount for the tuber chain to be effective. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the herbicides sulfentrazone, diclosulam, imazapic, imazapyr, halosulfuron, ethoxysulfuron, monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA), and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in controlling C. rotundus and reducing the viability of its tubers. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments and four replications. The herbicides sulfentrazone (800 g active ingredient ­ ai·ha?1), diclosulam (193.17 g ai·ha?1), imazapic (133 g ai·ha?1), and imazapyr (500 g acid equivalent ­ ae·ha?1) were applied in preemergence at five days after planting the tubers, while halosulfuron (112.5 g ai·ha?1), ethoxysulfuron (135 g ai·ha?1), MSMA (1,975 g ai·ha?1), and 2,4-D (1,340 g ae·ha?1) were applied in postemergence (4 to 5 leaves). The parameters visual control, shoot dry matter, number of tubers and bulbs, weight of tubers + bulbs, number of epigeal manifestations, and tuber viability were analyzed. The herbicides diclosulam, halosulfuron, and ethoxysulfuron provided 100% control of the shoot at 90 days after application (DAA). All herbicides reduced the number of bulbs, weight of tubers + bulbs, and shoot dry matter. The herbicides sulfentrazone, imazapic, halosulfuron, ethoxysulfuron, and MSMA provided the highest reduction in tuber viability.(AU)


O manejo químico é o mais adotado para o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cana-de-açúcar. Entre as espécies de difícil controle está a tiririca (Cyperus rotundus L.). Os herbicidas utilizados precisam ser absorvidos e transportados para a cadeia de tubérculos em quantidades suficientes para serem eficazes. Assim, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a eficácia dos herbicidas sulfentrazona, diclosulam, imazapique, imazapir, halossulfurom, etoxissulfurom, metano arseniato ácido monossodico (MSMA) e ácido diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D) no controle de C. rotundus e na redução da viabilidade de seus tubérculos. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente randomizado, com nove tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os herbicidas sulfentrazone (800 g ingrediente ativo ­ i.a.·ha-1), diclosulam (193,17 g i.a.·ha-1), imazapique (133 g i.a.·ha-1) e imazapir (500 g equivalente ­ e.a.·ha-1) foram aplicados cinco dias após o plantio dos tubérculos em pré-emergência, enquanto que o halossulfurom (112,5 g i.a.·ha-1), etoxissulfurom (135 g i.a.·ha-1), MSMA (1.975 g i.a.·ha-1) e 2,4-D (1.340 g e.a.·ha-1) foram aplicados em pós-emergência (4 a 5 folhas). Foram feitas avaliações visuais de controle, massa seca da parte aérea, número de tubérculos e bulbos, peso de tubérculos + bulbos, número de manifestações epígeas e viabilidade de tubérculos. Aos 90 dias após a aplicação (DAA) os herbicidas diclosulam, halossulfurom e etoxissulfurom propiciaram 100% de controle da parte aérea. Todos os herbicidas reduziram o número de bulbos, peso de tubérculos + bulbos e massa seca da parte aérea. Sulfentrazona, imazapic, halossulfurom, etoxissulfurom e MSMA foram os herbicidas que mais reduziram a viabilidade dos tubérculos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Saccharum , Plant Weeds , Weed Control , Herbicides , Pest Control , Cyperus , Plant Tubers , Insecticides
3.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0692019, 2020. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-1145886

ABSTRACT

Four deutonymphs of bulb mites (hypopus) from Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze & Robin) (Acari: Acaridae) were found attached to the head of Atta sexdens in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This mite species is commonly associated with ornamental plants and trees with bulbs, corms and tubers. The results of this study provided an insight into the phoretic relationship between mites and ants, indicating the role of the latter in the dispersion of the first. Despite the abundant and diverse mite fauna existing in ants, little is known about their diversity, biology, ecology and the nature of their associations.(AU)


Quatro deutoninfas de ácaros do bulbo (hipopus) da espécie Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze & Robin) (Acari: Acaridae) foram encontradas fixadas na cabeça de formigas da espécie Atta sexdens no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Essa espécie de ácaro está comumente associada a plantas ornamentais e plantas com bulbos e tubérculos. Os resultados desse estudo fornecem uma visão sobre a relação forética entre ácaros e formigas, indicando o papel destas últimas na dispersão dos primeiros. Apesar da abundância e da fauna diversa do ácaro em formigas, pouco se sabe sobre a diversidade, a biologia, a ecologia e a natureza dessa associação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Ants , Medulla Oblongata , Mites , Arthropods , Agricultural Pests , Acaridae , Plant Tubers , Insecta
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828012

ABSTRACT

To better understand the formation mechanism of Gastrodia elata traits, the agronomic traits of aboveground tissues and tubers were measured and analyzed in this study. It has shown that the color and thickness of the stems of the 39 samples of the G. elata collected are affected by the germplasm and variation. Clustering analysis of 39 agronomic traits of G. elata was conducted with Ward's method and Euclidean distance. The threshold of 11.0 was divided into three groups, namely hybrid G. elata, G. elata f. elata and G. elata f. glauca. Simultaneously, the correlation analysis, coefficient of variation analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis of 13 agronomic traits of 105 G. elata tuber samples were carried out. The results showed that the weight of G. elata was significantly positively correlated with tuber length and width. The agronomic traits of tuber were highly variable, and the depth of variability of the scar was the largest and 13 agronomic traits could be divided into 6 types of factors and the contribution up to 89.348%, furthermore, tuber length factor, width and weight factor contributed more than 20%, indicating that it is of great significance for distinguishing G. elata germplasm. Cluster analysis was performed by Ward's method and Euclidean distance, with 8.0 as the threshold can be divided into three categories in the light of the origin of the source, 33 samples from Shanxi and Hubei are clustered into one category, and 19 samples from Yunnan and Guizhou are clustered into one group, and the remaining samples are grouped into one category. This study will provide a basis for the identification and purification of G. elata germplasm and germplasm resources.


Subject(s)
China , Gastrodia , Phenotype , Plant Tubers
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827983

ABSTRACT

Gastrodia elata is a kind of precious traditional Chinese medicine. In artificial cultivation, it has not got rid of its dependence on forest resources. In order to maintain the balance of the ecological system and reduce the waste of resources as much as possible, based on the information from field investigation at many places, this paper introduced the new ecological circulation planting patterns of G. elata, such as "forest-G. elata" supporting planting, G. elata-edible mushroom rotation, forest-G. elata-edible mushroom three-dimensional planting, fungus material classification planting technology, and so on. In this paper, we expounded the ecological problems solved by several planting patterns in G. elata production and analyzed their shortcomings. Finally, based on the exis-ting models, a complete ecological planting system of G. elata was summarized. This planting system emphasizes: ① The follow-up forests should be started before the planting of G. elata. And the economic forests were used to cultivation of G. elata. ② The classified utilization of fungus-growing materials. The leaves were used to cultivate germination bacteria of G. elata, the small branches were used to cultivate protocorm and juvenile tuber, the large branches were used to cultivate immature tuber, and the tree trunk was used to cultivate mature tuber. ③ Recycle utilization G. elata fungus material. The old fungus materials were used to produce strains or cultivate edible fungus. This design project not only solves the problems of the source of G. elata fungus material, the efficient utilization of fungus material and land resources, but also enriches the industrial structure. Using limited time and land resources to obtain greater economic benefits. It has certain guiding significance for poverty alleviation and ecological improvement.


Subject(s)
Agaricales , Bacteria , Gastrodia , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Tubers
6.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(2): 609-619, mar./apr. 2019. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048614

ABSTRACT

The tubers of three orchidaceous plants, includingPleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe, have been used as 'Shan-Ci-Gu' in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections and cancers for thousands of years. In this study, the effects of an acetoacetate (EtOAc) extract of P. bulbocodioides on the cell viability and apoptosis of THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell line) cells and its interaction with possible apoptotic pathways were investigated. THP-1 cells were treated with the EtOAc extract of P. bulbocodioides at different concentrations. The results showed that THP-1 cell viability was significantly inhibited by the EtOAc extract ofP. bulbocodioides with an IC50 of 51.37±2.68 µ g/ mL at 24 h. The examination of cytotoxic effects on healthy cells showed that the EtOAc extract of P. bulbocodioidesdid not show any effect on healthy Vero cells. Selectivity indexes were greater than 15.57, suggesting that the EtOAc extract of P. bulbocodioides had selective toxicity against THP-1 cells. The results of annexin V-FITC/PI and DAPI staining showed that the EtOAc extract of P. bulbocodioides induced cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The apoptotic rate was increased in the treatment groups compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The distribution of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle increased along with typical cell apoptosis-induced morphological changes. The levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 increased with increasing concentration of acetoacetate extract of P. bulbocodioides, while the anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 was downregulated. Cyt c and AIF, which are characteristic proteins of the mitochondria-regulated intrinsic apoptosis pathway, also increased in the cytosol with increasing concentrations of the EtOAc extract of P. bulbocodioides. These results showed that the EtOAc extract of P. bulbocodioidessignificantly inhibits cell viability and induces cell apoptosis in the human leukemia cell line THP-1 through a mitochondria-regulated intrinsic apoptotic pathway


Os tubérculos de três plantas orquidáceas, incluindo Pleione bulbocodioides (Franch.) Rolfe, têm sido usados como "Shan-Ci-Gu" na medicina tradicional chinesa para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas e cânceres por milhares de anos. Neste estudo, os efeitos de um extrato de acetoacetato (EtOAc) de P. bulbocodioides na viabilidade celular e apoptose de células THP-1 (linhagem celular de leucemia monocítica aguda humana) e sua interação com possíveis vias apoptóticas foram investigados. As células THP-1 foram tratadas com o extrato EtOAc de P. bulbocodioides em diferentes concentrações. Os resultados mostraram que a viabilidade das células THP-1 foi significativamente inibida pelo extrato EtOAc de P. bulbocodioides com IC50 de 51,37 ± 2,68 µ g/mL às 24 h. O exame dos efeitos citotóxicos em células saudáveis mostrou que oextrato de EtOAc de P. bulbocodioides não mostrou nenhum efeito sobre células Vero saudáveis. Os índices de seletividade foram maiores que 15,57, sugerindo que o extrato de EtOAc de P. bulbocodioides teve toxicidade seletiva contra as células THP-1. Os resultados da coloração da anexina V-FITC/PI e DAPI mostraram que o extrato de EtOAc de P. bulbocodioides induziu a apoptose celular de maneira dose-dependente. A taxa de apoptose foi aumentada nos grupos de tratamento em comparação com o grupo controle (P <0,05). A distribuição de células na fase G2 do ciclo celular aumentou juntamente com alterações morfológicas típicas induzidas pela apoptose celular. Os níveis das proteínas pró-apoptóticas Bax, PARP clivada e caspase-3 clivada aumentaram com o aumento da concentração do extrato acetoacetato de P. bulbocodioides, enquanto a proteína anti-apoptose Bcl-2 foi regulada negativamente. Cyt c e AIF, que são proteínas características da via de apoptose intrínseca regulada por mitocôndrias, também aumentaram no citosol com concentrações crescentes do extrato de EtOAc de P. bulbocodioides. Estes resultados mostraram que o extrato de EtOAc de P. bulbocodioides inibe significativamente a viabilidade celular e induz a apoptose na linha celular de leucemia humana THP-1 através de uma via apoptótica intrínseca regulada por mitocôndrias.


Subject(s)
Leukemia , Cell Survival , Apoptosis , Orchidaceae , Mitochondria , Plant Tubers , THP-1 Cells , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Acetoacetates
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777534

ABSTRACT

To research the correlation between accumulation of triterpenoids and expression of key enzymes genes in triterpenoid biosynthesis of Alisma orientale,the study utilized UPLC-MS/MS method to detect eight triterpenoids content in the tuber of A. orientale from different growth stages,including alisol A,alisol A 24 acetate,alisol B,alisol B 23 acetate,alisol C 23 acetate,alisol F,alisol F 24 acetate and alisol G,and then the Real time quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of key enzymes genes HMGR and FPPS in triterpenoid biosynthesis. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive relation between the total growth of these eight triterpenoids and the average relative expression of HMGR and FPPS(HMGR: r = 0. 998,P<0. 01; FPPS: r = 0. 957,P<0. 05),respectively. Therefore,the study preliminarily determined that HMGR and FPPS genes could regulate the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in A. orientale,which laid a foundation for further research on the biosynthesis and regulation mechanism of triterpenoids in A. orientale.


Subject(s)
Alisma , Chemistry , Genetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Geranyltranstransferase , Genetics , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-Reductases, NADP-dependent , Genetics , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Plant Tubers , Chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triterpenes
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773260

ABSTRACT

According to the data of Pinellia ternate transcriptome,two calmodulin genes were cloned and named as Pt Ca M1 and PtCa M2 respectively. The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that Pt Ca Ms genes contained a 450 bp open reading frame,encoding149 amino acids.The identity of the coding sequences was 80%,and the identity of amino acids sequence was 91%. Pt Ca Ms genes contained EF-hand structure domain,belonging to the Ca M families. The Real-time PCR analysed the expression patterns of Pt Ca Ms in different tissues and different treatments. RESULTS:: showed that Pt Ca M1 and Pt Ca M2 gene were the highest expression level in tuber. Under Ca Cl2 treatment,the expressions of Pt Ca Ms were significantly higher than the control. Under EGTA,La Cl3 and TFP treatments,the expression level of Pt Ca Ms decreased gradually. In this study,the Pt Ca Ms gene were successfully cloned from P. ternate,which laid a foundation for the functional characteristic of Pt Ca Ms gene and the synthesis of alkaloids from P. ternata for further study.


Subject(s)
Calmodulin , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Plant , Pinellia , Genetics , Plant Tubers , Genetics
9.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 31(4): 423-432, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041273

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the centesimal composition of minerals, fatty acids and vitamin C of leaves and tubers of crem, and to discuss the nutritional potential of the T. pentaphyllum species. Methods The centesimal composition of protein, lipid, fiber, ash and carbohydrate was determined by gravimetric analysis. Mineral composition was determined by optical emission spectrometry. Vitamin C was determined by dinitrophenylhydrazine method. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. The percentage of recommended dietary intake of leaves and tubers of crem was calculated for each nutrient. Results A high content of fibrous fraction (63.07g/100g), potassium (4.55g/100g), magnesium (553.64mg/100g) and sulfur (480.79mg/100g) was observed in the chemical composition of leaves. In tubers, a high carbohydrate content was observed, with 62.60g/100g of starch and 3.43g/100g of fiber, as well as high potassium (0.58g/100g), sulfur (447.14g/100), calcium (205.54g/100g) and phosphorus (530.07g/100g) levels. The vitamin C content of tubers was 78.43mg/100g and the linoleic acid content was 0.455g/100g. The intake of 100g of crem leaves may contribute with 65% of the recommended dietary intake of sulfur. The intake of 100g of crem tuber may contribute with 106% of the recommended dietary intake of sulfur and 21% of the recommended dietary intake of Vitamin C. Conclusion The chemical composition of crem (Tropaeolum pentaphyllum Lam.) tubers and leaves demonstrated an important contribution of nutrients, mainly sulfur, vitamin C and linoleic acid in its tubers, indicating a high nutritional potential of this species.


RESUMO Objetivo Este estudo teve por objetivo determinar a composição centesimal, mineral, vitamina C e ácidos graxos de folhas e tubérculos de crem, e discutir o potencial nutricional da espécie T. pentaphyllum. Métodos A composição centesimal em proteínas, lipídeos, fibras, cinzas e carboidratos foi determinada por análise gravimétrica. A composição mineral foi determinada por espectrometria de emissão óptica. A vitamina C foi determinada pelo método dinitrofenilhidrazina. Os ácidos graxos foram determinados por cromatografia a gás. A porcentagem da ingestão dietética recomendada de folhas e tubérculos de crem foi calculada para cada nutriente. Resultados Na composição química das folhas verificou-se alto conteúdo de fração fibrosa (63,07g/100g), potássio (4,55g/100g), magnésio (553,64mg/100g) e enxofre (480,79mg/100g). Nos tubérculos verificou-se alto conteúdo de carboidratos, com 62,60g/100g de amido e 3,43g/100g de fibras, além de alto teor de potássio (0,58g/100g), enxofre (447,14g/100), cálcio (205,54g/100g) e fósforo (530,07g/100g). O conteúdo de vitamina C no tubérculo de crem foi de 78,43mg/100g, e o de ácido graxo linoleico foi de 0,455 g/100g. A ingestão de 100g de folhas de crem poderá contribuir com 65% da ingestão diária recomendada de enxofre. A ingestão de 100g de tubérculo de crem poderá contribuir com 106% da ingestão diária recomendada de enxofre e com 21% da ingestão diária recomendada de Vitamina C. Conclusão A composição química de tubérculos e folhas de crem apresentou um aporte expressivo de nutrientes, principalmente de enxofre, além de vitamina C e ácido linoleico nos tubérculos, indicando um alto potencial nutricional da espécie.


Subject(s)
Food Analysis , Nutrients , Tropaeolaceae , Plant Tubers , Chemical Phenomena , Nutritive Value
10.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 68(2): 175-183, jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1016703

ABSTRACT

Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, conocida comúnmente como taro o malanga se cultiva en los trópicos húmedos en varios países de África, América y Asia y su tubérculo es un alimento esencial para humanos y animales. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar física y nutricionalmente la harina del tubérculo de malanga cultivada en Actopan, Edo. De Veracruz, México. Se llevaron a cabo análisis químico proximal, aminoácidos, fracciones de fibra, minerales, actividad de agua, color, factores antinutricionales y contenido de fenoles totales. Los resultados indican un contenido de humedad de 6,87 g/100 g, proteína cruda de 5,93 g/100 g, extracto etéreo 1,25 g/100 g, fibra dietaria 12,08 g/100g, cenizas 3,47 g/100 g y extracto libre de nitrógeno 77,27 g/100g. El contenido de fenoles totales fue de 113,57±14 expresado como miligramos de equivalente de ácido gálico (mg EAG/100g). La harina de malanga presentó un alto contenido de K (1743 mg/100 g) y bajo en Na (9,25 mg/100 g). Se concluye que a pesar de no ser una fuente importante de proteína el perfil de aminoácidos esenciales supera los valores de FAO, en relación a la fibra dietética total podría ser un ingrediente en formulaciones alimenticias que además aportaría K, Ca y Mg. De acuerdo a las fracciones de fibra la harina es una alternativa para la elaboración de alimentos balanceados. El contenido de fenoles totales abre la posibilidad de que se complemente con la identificación de su actividad antioxidant(AU)


Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, commonly known as taro, malanga or yam, is grown in the humid tropics in several countries in Africa, America and Asia and its tuber is an essential food for humans and animals. The objective of this study was to characterize malanga meal physicochemically and content of phenolic compounds cultivated in Actopan, Edo. Veracruz, Mexico. The proximal chemical analyzes, aminoacid, fiber fractions, minerals, water activity, color, antinutritional factors and total phenol content were carried out. The results indicate a moisture content of 6.87g /100 g, crude protein of 5.93 g /100 g, ether extract 1.25g /100g, dietary fiber 12.08 g /100 g, ash 3.47g/100g and nitrogen-free extract 77.27g/100g The total polyphenol content in this study was 113.57 ± 14 expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalent (mg EAG/100g). It concluded that despite not being an important source of protein the profile of essential amino acids exceeds the values of FAO, in relation to total dietary fiber could be an ingredient that in food formulations that also provide K, Ca and Mg. According to fiber fractions, meal is an alternative for the elaboration of balanced foods. The content of total phenols opens the possibility that it complements with the identification of its antioxidant activity(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Colocasia , Plant Tubers , Nutritive Value , Dietary Fiber , Diet, Food, and Nutrition
11.
Ocotal, Nueva Segovia; s.n; maio 2018. 64 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015430

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Caracterizar los pacientes con diagnóstico de recaídas de tuberculosis, de los Establecimientos de salud, Región Sanitaria Metropolitana Distrito Central Tegucigalpa, Honduras, años 2015-2016. DISEÑO: Estudio descriptivo, en los establecimientos de salud, el universo es de 35 pacientes, muestra de 22 casos BK positivos años 2015-2016. Las principales variables: edad, sexo, control de baciloscopías, cumplimiento de tratamiento, y condición de egreso. RESULTADOS: La media de edad es de 48,3 con ± 12.5 años, el de menor edad 27 y mayor edad de 74 años, el 31,8% en edades de 35 a 44 años y de 45 a 54 años el 36,4%; predominio del sexo masculino (86%), procedentes de zona urbana el 55%, el 45,5% sin empleo y los que desarrollan actividades laborales son panaderos, vendedores ambulantes, camionero, las redes de salud que mayor registran casos son Las Crucitas, Zambrano, El Sitio. La comorbilidad se registra VIH, Hipertensión arterial, diabetes, Cáncer, otros factores son el alcoholismo, privados de libertad. El cumplimiento de la baciloscopía el 63,6% en el segundo mes y el 40,9% en el quinto mes y al finalizar el tratamiento en el esquema básico primario; el cumplimiento del tratamiento el 40,9% en la primera fase y el 36,4% en la segunda fase. Los meses de tratamiento recibido del esquema básico primario el 4,5% dos meses y el 45,5% al sexto mes. Los controles de BAAR en el esquema básico secundario se cumple el 90,9% en el 3er y 5to mes y al finalizar el 8,8%. La tasa de curación de esquema básico secundario es de 86,4%. CONCLUSIONES: Hay debilidades en el cumplimiento según la normativa de control de Tuberculosis, en la realización de control bacilíferos en el esquema básico primario y secundario. Asimismo, en el cumplimiento de los esquemas según el tiempo establecido; algunos de ellos prolongado a más de seis meses en el esquema primario; la tasa de curación es inferior a la que se establece en la normativa de control de Tuberculosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Dropouts , Plant Tubers , Epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812431

ABSTRACT

The underground cane of Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) has long been used by Chinese ethnic minority as a constituent of anti-cancer formulae. Saponins are abundant secondary metabolic products located in the underground cane of this plant. The potential therapeutic effects of total saponins isolated from Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) (SSPH) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were tested in vitro in human liver cancer cell lines, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7404. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined using flow cytometry, caspase activation was determined by ELISA, and PARP, cleaved PARP, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression and phosphorylation were measured using Western blotting analysis. In vivo anti-HCC effects of SSPH were verified in nude mouse xenograft model. SSPH exerted markedly inhibitory effect on HCC cell proliferation in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, SSPH significantly induced apoptosis through caspase-dependent signaling and arrested cell cycle at G/M phase. These anti-proliferation effects of SSPH were associated with up-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (Erk1/2) and c-jun-NH2-kinase-1/2 (JNK1/2) and reduced phosphorylation of p38MAPK. Furthermore, inhibitors of ERK, UO126, and JNK, SP600125 inhibited the anti-proliferation effects by SSPH, suggesting that Erk and JNK were the effector molecules in SSPH induced anti-proliferative action. During in vivo experiments, SSPH was found to inhibit xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, with a similar mechanism in vitro. Our study confirmed that SSPH exerted antagonistic effects on human liver cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Molecular mechanisms underlying SSPH action might be closely associated with MAPK signaling pathways. These results indicated that SSPH has potential therapeutic effects on HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Apoptosis , Caspases , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Dioscoreaceae , Chemistry , Heterografts , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Liver Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , Mice, Nude , Phosphorylation , Plant Tubers , Chemistry , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 , Metabolism , Saponins , Pharmacology , Toxicity
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812422

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the chemical constituents of the stem tuber of Pinellia pedatisecta. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Three new alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, and 3) were obtained and identified as 9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-amine (1), 4-(2-(2, 5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl)phenyl acetate (2), and N-(9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-yl)acetamide (3). These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Compounds 1 and 3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells with IC values being 3.02 ± 0.54 and 7.16 ± 0.62 μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , HeLa Cells , Humans , Pinellia , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Plant Tubers , Chemistry
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773641

ABSTRACT

The underground cane of Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) has long been used by Chinese ethnic minority as a constituent of anti-cancer formulae. Saponins are abundant secondary metabolic products located in the underground cane of this plant. The potential therapeutic effects of total saponins isolated from Schizocapsa plantaginea (Hance) (SSPH) on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were tested in vitro in human liver cancer cell lines, SMMC-7721 and Bel-7404. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were determined using flow cytometry, caspase activation was determined by ELISA, and PARP, cleaved PARP, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression and phosphorylation were measured using Western blotting analysis. In vivo anti-HCC effects of SSPH were verified in nude mouse xenograft model. SSPH exerted markedly inhibitory effect on HCC cell proliferation in time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, SSPH significantly induced apoptosis through caspase-dependent signaling and arrested cell cycle at G/M phase. These anti-proliferation effects of SSPH were associated with up-regulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (Erk1/2) and c-jun-NH2-kinase-1/2 (JNK1/2) and reduced phosphorylation of p38MAPK. Furthermore, inhibitors of ERK, UO126, and JNK, SP600125 inhibited the anti-proliferation effects by SSPH, suggesting that Erk and JNK were the effector molecules in SSPH induced anti-proliferative action. During in vivo experiments, SSPH was found to inhibit xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, with a similar mechanism in vitro. Our study confirmed that SSPH exerted antagonistic effects on human liver cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Molecular mechanisms underlying SSPH action might be closely associated with MAPK signaling pathways. These results indicated that SSPH has potential therapeutic effects on HCC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Apoptosis , Caspases , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cell Survival , Dioscoreaceae , Chemistry , Heterografts , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Liver Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Mice , Mice, Nude , Phosphorylation , Plant Tubers , Chemistry , Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 , Metabolism , Saponins , Pharmacology , Toxicity
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773632

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the chemical constituents of the stem tuber of Pinellia pedatisecta. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Three new alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, and 3) were obtained and identified as 9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-amine (1), 4-(2-(2, 5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl)phenyl acetate (2), and N-(9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-yl)acetamide (3). These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Compounds 1 and 3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells with IC values being 3.02 ± 0.54 and 7.16 ± 0.62 μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , HeLa Cells , Humans , Pinellia , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Plant Tubers , Chemistry
16.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 67(1): 62-67, mar. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1022403

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente estudio fue el de conocer la composición nutricional de los tubérculos de la papa de aire (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) especie subutilizada en la agricultura campesina panameña. Se seleccionaron 18 muestras obtenidas de parcelas de prueba ubicadas en comunidades campesinas del distrito de Donoso, provincia de Colón, en Panamá, durante los años 2012 y 2013. A las muestras seleccionadas se les determinó humedad, proteínas, azúcares, almidón, lípidos, cenizas y contenido energético. En el segundo año se incluyó el análisis de vitamina C, compuestos fenólicos y actividad antioxidante. No se encontraron diferencias significativas de los valores entre comunidades, tipo de parcela y año de cultivo, lo cual evidencia una alta estabilidad de estos valores nutricionales en las condiciones del trópico muy húmedo de Panamá. Los resultados obtenidos presentan un contenido nutricional similar al de otros tubérculos utilizados en la dieta campesina de Panamá. Los valores de actividad antioxidante y contenido de compuestos fenólicos encontrados le confieren características de alimento funcional(AU)


The goal of this study was to determine the nutritional composition of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera L.) tubers, underutilized specie in the Panamanian peasant agriculture. The samples were obtained from test plots located in rural communities in the district of Donoso, Province of Colon in Panama, during the years 2012 and 2013. Contents of moisture, protein, sugars, starch, lipids, ashes and energetic were determined to the 18 selected samples. In the second year were included analysis of vitamin C, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. No significant differences of the values between communities, type of land and crop year were found, which suggest high stability of these nutritional values of air potato, in the very humid tropics conditions of Panama. The results show that the air potato tubers have a nutritional value similar to other tubers used in the peasant diet of Panama. The levels of antioxidant activity and phenolic content found, give D. bulbifera characteristics as a functional food(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Solanum tuberosum , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritive Value , Plant Tubers , Food Analysis
17.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e17006, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889417

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Dioscorea pentaphylla L., a wild tuber is used both as food and medicines among different ethnic groups of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India. Tubers are used against skin infections. In order to establish and confirm tribal claims, methanol extract was subjected to fractionation. The active fraction (DP1) was subsequently used for further purification and NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) characterization. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponin groups. The antibacterial activity of DP1 was done against selected bacterial strains (Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Vibrio cholerae) using DD (disc diffusion), AWD (agar well diffusion) and broth dilution assay. The activity was compared with antibiotics Penicillin and Kanamycin. It was observed that DP1 showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested bacteria. The characterization of DP1 through NMR analysis and presence of proton in carbon position at C-3, C-19, C-18, C-21 and C-27 was same as the known compound "Diosgenin". Therefore, isolated compound was confirmed to be Diosgenin. The study for the first time showed that, diosgenin present in D. pentaphylla tuber was responsible for antibacterial and antioxidant potential. Present study highlights the importance of Dioscorea species as sources of diverse secondary metabolites for the isolation of active compound(s).


Subject(s)
Dioscorea/adverse effects , India , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Plant Tubers , Transcription Factor DP1/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants/analysis
18.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 43(3): 284-289, set. 2016. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830137

ABSTRACT

Coatings are defined as edible products which form a thin layer on the food, and are characterized by it constitute a semipermeable barrier to gases and water vapor retarding food spoilage, improve the mechanical properties, help maintain the structural integrity of the product wrapping, to retain volatile compounds and can act as a vehicle for food additives. We evaluated the performance of the biofilms on melon through the determination of physico-chemical and sensory properties. The results show that all the variables are significantly influenced by the biomolecule employed "modified starch", noting a favorable performance in the edible biofilms.


Los recubrimientos se definen como productos comestibles que forman una fina capa sobre el alimento y se caracterizan por que constituyen una barrera semipermeable a los gases y al vapor de agua que retrasa el deterioro del alimento, mejoran las propiedades mecánicas, ayudan a mantener la integridad estructural del producto que envuelven, ayudan a retener compuestos volátiles y pueden actuar como vehículo de aditivos alimentarios. Se evaluó el desempeño de los biorecubrimientos sobre el melón mediante la determinación de propiedades sensoriales y fisicoquímicas. Los resultados muestran que todas las variables están significativamente influenciadas por la biomolécula empleada "almidón modificado", observando un desempeño favorable en los biorecubrimientos comestibles.


Subject(s)
Starch , Succinic Anhydrides , Cucurbitaceae , Food Preservation , Plant Tubers
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812565

ABSTRACT

The present study isolated 17 compounds from the tubers of Bletilla striata (Orchidaceae), using various chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified based on their physical-chemical properties and spectroscopic analyses. Among them, two new 2-isobutylmalates, named bletimalates A (1) and B (2), together with other fifteen known compounds (3-17), were isolated and identified. Additionally, compounds 3, 4, and 8 were isolated from this plant for the first time.


Subject(s)
Malates , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Orchidaceae , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plant Tubers , Chemistry
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(6): 1738-1749, nov./dec. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965129

ABSTRACT

Yacon is a tuberous root that has bioactive components in its composition, such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS). The objective of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and sensory characteristics of diet and conventional cakes made with yacon in natura and its respective flour. Cakes were prepared in chocolate and carrot flavors with the addition of 50% yacon in natura and 70% yacon flour. Cakes prepared with 50% yacon in natura with the addition of sucrose in the formula showed physical aspects closer to conventional cakes. The yield of the cakes was considered satisfactory at around 90%, regardless of yacon in natura or yacon flour usage. The chocolate cakes had higher ratings regarding the sensory attributes and the purchase intent in relation to the carrot cakes, especially when using yacon in natura in the formula. The cakes containing sweetener were rated as good as those with sucrose, especially in regards to the flavor of the chocolate cakes. According to the chemical composition, cakes with 70% yacon flour had higher dietary fiber content as well as FOS, giving credit to their claim as a bioactive component.


O yacon é uma raiz tuberosa que possui em sua composição, componentes bioativos como frutooligossacarídeos (FOS). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar características físico-químicas e sensoriais de bolos diet e convencionais elaborados com yacon in natura e sua respectiva farinha. Foram elaborados bolos, nos sabores chocolate e cenoura, com adição de 50% de yacon in natura e 70% de farinha de yacon. Os bolos elaborados com 50% de yacon in natura, com a adição de sacarose na formulação apresentaram aspectos físicos mais próximos aos bolos convencionais. O rendimento dos bolos, em torno de 90% foi considerado satisfatório, independente da utilização do yacon in natura ou farinha. Os bolos de chocolate obtiveram notas mais elevadas quanto aos atributos sensoriais e intenção de compra, em relação aos bolos de cenoura, em especial quando se utilizou o yacon in natura nas formulações. Os bolos contendo adoçante foram tão bem avaliados quanto àqueles que possuíam sacarose, em especial, em relação ao sabor dos bolos de chocolate. De acordo com a composição química, os bolos com 70% de farinha yacon apresentaram maiores teores de fibra alimentar bem como de FOS, sendo considerados alimentos com alto teor de fibras, sugerindo-se também sua alegação como um componente bioativo.


Subject(s)
Oligosaccharides , Plant Tubers , Nutritional Sciences , Flour
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