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1.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e41995, jan.- mar.2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103904

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O desperdício é um grande problema enfrentado pelo Brasil, em função dos hábitos alimentares, sendo o aproveitamento de cascas de frutas, folhas e talos de hortaliças ainda baixo. Sabe-se, no entanto, que a utilização dessas partes tradicionalmente não aproveitadas pode contribuir para a produção de alimentos mais saudáveis, nutritivos e com menor impacto negativo para o meio ambiente. Objetivo: Aproveitar os vegetais na sua forma integral ou de suas partes alimentícias não convencionais, e caracterizar as farinhas obtidas, com vistas à alimentação humana. Métodos: As farinhas foram obtidas de banana verdes (casca e polpa), casca de tangerina, casca e polpa de berinjela e bagaço de uva oriundo da produção de suco de uva, que foram secas em estufa ventilada a 40°C por 48 horas. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas. Resultados: As farinhas apresentaram alto teor de fibras (17,7 a 48,94 g/100g) e compostos fenólicos (778,81 a 2708,11 mg EAG/100g), e baixo teor de lipídeos (0,70 a 3,40 g/100g). Para a quantidade de proteínas, a farinha de berinjela foi a que mais se destacou (13,81 g/100g), podendo ser uma alternativa aos indivíduos que não consomem produtos de origem animal. Conclusões: Todas as farinhas são seguras do ponto de vista microbiológico, de acordo com a legislação vigente, e portanto, podem ser utilizadas na alimentação humana para aumentar o aporte de nutrientes e diminuir os impactos da poluição, contribuindo para a manutenção do meio ambiente e gerando renda. (AU)


Introduction: Waste is a great problem faced by Brazil, due to dietary habits, with a low use of fruit peels, leaves and stems of vegetables. However, it is known that the use of these parts traditionally not used can contribute to the production of healthier and more nutritious food with less negative impact on the environment. Objective: Take advantage of vegetables in their entirety or from their non-conventional food parts, and to characterize the flours obtained, for human consumption. Methods: Flours were obtained from green bananas (peel and pulp), tangerine peel, eggplant peel and pulp and grape marc from grape juice production, which were dried in a ventilated oven at 40 ° C for 48 hours. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyzes were realized. Results: Flours showed a high fiber (17.7 to 48.94 g/100g) and phenolic compounds (778.81 to 2708.11 mg EAG/100g) content, and low lipid content (0.70 to 3.40 g/100g). For the amount of proteins, eggplant flour was the one that stood out the most (13.81g/100g), it can be an alternative to individuals who do not consume animal products. Conclusions: All flours are safe in a microbiological point of view, according to current legislation, and therefore they can be used in food to increase the supply of nutrients and reduce the impacts of pollution, contributing to the environment maintenance and income generating. (AU)


Subject(s)
Food Wastefulness , Whole Utilization of Foods , Plants, Edible , Garbage
2.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e43568, jan.- mar.2020. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1097301

ABSTRACT

As plantas alimentícias não convencionais (PANC) oferecem a oportunidade de superação de desafios que se impõem aos sistemas alimentares. Todavia, a escassez de dados sobre essas plantas e as lacunas encontradas na formação em Nutrição são gargalos que dificultam sua abordagem. Para abordar alguns desses limites, um projeto de horta comunitária foi desenvolvido em um curso de graduação em nutrição em uma universidade federal do nordeste do Brasil. Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os resultados obtidos com esta iniciativa em seus primeiros doze meses com o uso do método Aprendizagem Baseada em Hortas (ABH). Durante 2018, oito plantas foram estudadas. Os dados coletados sobre PANC pelos alunos incluíram: família botânica, nomes populares, origem, bioma de ocorrência, usos alimentícios e indicadores nutricionais. O uso da ABH envolveu algumas estratégias, tais como definição de tema, elaboração de um produto de culminância e promoção da pesquisa em múltiplas bases de evidência. O método ABH mediou o processo educacional implicado com conceitos, práticas e atitudes. As plantas estudadas têm potencial para contribuir com a Segurança Alimentar e Nutricional, devido a alguns critérios, como adequação ao bioma do ambiente de estudo e variedade de nutrientes. Reconhecer plantas alimentícias nativas e adaptadas, resilientes à paisagem da Caatinga, é essencial para melhorar a saúde ambiental e humana neste bioma. Os dados resultantes da experiência de ensino serviram de base para ações de promoção de dietas sustentáveis junto à comunidade inserida no projeto, por meio de conversas e atividades práticas na horta e oficinas culinárias. (AU)


Underutilized food plants (UFP) offer the opportunity to overcome issues that are currently facing sustainable food systems. The scarcity of data on them and the gaps found in the nutrition workforce are challenges that limit their approach. To addresses some of them, a community-based garden project was developed in an undergraduate program in nutrition at a federal university in northeastern Brazil. This paper aims to present the results obtained with this project in its first twelve months concerning the use of Garden-Based Learning (GBL). During 2018 eight plants were studied with the support of this method. The data gathered on UFP by students included: botanical family, vernacular names, origin, the biome of occurrence, food uses, and nutritional indicators. The use of GBL involved some strategies such as definition of theme, elaboration of a culmination product, and fostering the research of different kinds of knowledge. The GBL method mediated the educational process implied with concepts, practices, and attitudes. The plants studied have the potential to contribute with Food and Nutrition Security due some criteria such as adequacy to the biome of the study setting and variety of nutrients. Recognize native and adapted food plants resilient to the dry landscape is central to enhance environmental and human health. The resulting data served as a basis to promote sustainable diets with the surrounding community, from lectures to hands-on activities in the garden and kitchen. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plants, Edible , Problem-Based Learning , Biodiversity , Plants , Education, Higher , Food Security
3.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 15(1): e42725, jan.- mar.2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096636

ABSTRACT

As plantas alimentícias não convencionais, conhecidas pela sigla PANC, são hortaliças, frutas, flores ou ervas que crescem espontaneamente na natureza, mas que por serem desconhecidas para a maioria das pessoas, acabam sendo confundidas com plantas daninhas. Este estudo objetivou realizar um levantamento das pesquisas sobre PANC nos anais das últimas seis edições do Congresso Brasileiro de Nutrição (CONBRAN) e nos anais das últimas sete edições do Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Nutrição (SBAN), indicando o perfil dessas pesquisas no Brasil no campo da Nutrição. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, descritiva e exploratória. Foram identificados 25 trabalhos sobre o tema no CONBRAN e dez no Congresso SBAN, indicando que as PANC são tema ainda pouco explorado e abordado com pouca frequência nas pesquisas em Nutrição no Brasil. Destaca-se o potencial emergente de pesquisa que as PANC podem representar no campo da Alimentação em suas mais diversas vertentes: culinária, gastronomia, segurança alimentar, ciência de alimentos, entre outras. Esta pesquisa contribui para a ampliação do conhecimento e direcionamento dos estudos nesta área e, assim, poderá sinalizar uma agenda para estudos futuros. (AU)


Unconventional food plants, known by the acronym UFP (PANC, in Portuguese), are vegetables, fruits, flowers or herbs that grow spontaneously in nature, but because they are unknown to most people, they end up being confused with weeds. This study aimed to carry out a survey of the research on non-conventional food plants in the records of the last six editions of the Brazilian Congress of Nutrition (CONBRAN) and of the last seven editions of the Congress of the Brazilian Society of Nutrition (SBAN), indicating the profile of these studies in Brazil in the field of Nutrition. It is a qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research. Twenty-five studies on the subject at the CONBRAN Congress and ten at the SBAN Congress were identified, indicating that UFP still are little explored subject and rarely addressed in Nutrition research in Brazil. We highlight the emerging research potential that UFP can represent in the field of Food in its most diverse aspects: cooking, gastronomy, food safety, food science, among others. This research contributes to the expansion of knowledge and direction of studies in this area and it may also signal an agenda for future studies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plants, Edible , Biodiversity , Food Security
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(5): 593-605, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042700

ABSTRACT

Sólo un 30% de los hogares en México, presentan seguridad alimentaria, es decir, un gran porcentaje de los hogares y por ende de la población no satisfacen las necesidades básicas diarias de macro y micronutrimentos. Los quelites, que se definen como plantas silvestres comestibles (hojas, tallos y flores) son una fuente accesible, continua, económica y adecuada de nutrimentos. Sin embargo, su consumo ha disminuido por modificaciones en las preferencias alimentarias, derivadas de los cambios en estilos de vida. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue valorizar a los quelites como fuente de alimento. Los quelites, aportan proteínas, aminoácidos, minerales (Ca, Mg, Zn), vitaminas (E, C) y fibra. Además, son una excelente fuente de compuestos bioactivos, como ácidos fenólicos (ácido cafeico, ferúlico) y flavonoides (quercetina, kaempferol, espinacetina), carotenoides, ácido α-linolénico y betalainas, que presentan elevada actividad antioxidante. Su consumo habitual se ha relacionado con beneficios a la salud, tales como efectos antitumorales, antihiperlipidémicos y antidiabéticos. Los quelites, además de estar disponibles en forma silvestre, forman parte de las tradiciones culinarias de México, incorporados de forma cruda y cocida en los platillos regionales. Por lo tanto, la revalorización y reincorporación de los quelites en la dieta, puede coadyuvar a cubrir las necesidades nutrimentales, en poblaciones con poco acceso o inseguridad alimentaria, además de contribuir a proporcionar efectos adicionales a través de sus compuestos bioactivos.


Only 30% of households in Mexico present food security, which means a large percentage of households and the population does not meet their needs in terms of macro and micronutrients. Thus, quelites, which are defined as wild edible plants, are an accessible, continuous, economical and adequate source of nutrients. However, quelite consumption in Mexico has been decreasing in response to changes in food preferences and lifestyles, including increased exposure to hypercaloric foods. Therefore, the aim of this work was to discuss the value of quelites as a food source rich in nutrients, proteins, amino acids, minerals (Ca, Mg, Zn), vitamins (E, C) and fiber. We also discuss how quelites are good source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, spinacetin), carotenoids, α-linolenic acid and betalaines. There use have been mainly related to the anti-tumor, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic benefits. We further discuss topics related to the culinary traditions of Mexico and the incorporation of quelites in the raw and cooked form in regional markets. The revaluation and the reincorporation of quelites in the diet can help meet nutritional needs, in addition to possibly providing additional health benefits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Edible , Chenopodium/chemistry , Portulaca/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Plants, Medicinal , Food Supply , Mexico
5.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 582-588, oct 2019. fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046676

ABSTRACT

The species diversity of hydrophytes suitable for human consumption and the possibility of their introduction into the practice of organic farming and sustainable polyculture are explored in the article. The economic and environmental potential of shallow freshwater areas and waterlogged areas are discussed from the perspective of sustainable agriculture. The possibility of using some hydrophyte plants for food and drugs is indicated. The necessity of using the practice of traditional nature management by the native population in relation to water and near-water food plants is mentioned. The relevant issues of providing the growing population of the Earth with food and technical plant raw materials from hydrophytes are discussed. It has been established that a necessary condition for the operation of the market for wild-growing medicinal hydrophytes in accordance with the concept of sustainable development is its efficient legal regulation at all levels.


Subject(s)
Plants, Edible , Plants, Medicinal , Eating , Aquatic Flora , Cryptophyta , Livestock Industry/legislation & jurisprudence , Organic Agriculture/economics
6.
Acta amaz ; 49(3): 167-172, jul. - set. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119019

ABSTRACT

The Amerindian yam (Dioscorea trifida) is a food plant native to the Amazon region. Several local varieties are cultivated by traditional family farmers for consumption and local trade. However, socioeconomic processes may be causing species genetic erosion. Knowledge about species sexual reproduction is essential for its conservation and genetic improvement. The objective of this study was to observe the floral phenology, to assess the germination and dormancy of seeds, to conduct controlled pollinations and to select hybrid plants of D. trifida with agronomic potential. Seed dormancy was confirmed and was broken by after-ripening at 28 oC and 80% RH. We carried out controlled pollinations between local landraces and cultivated the resulting hybrid plants in the field. The new genotypes showed high phenotypic variability and tubers with new characteristics, which permitted the selection of genotypes with agronomic potential for further studies. The results contribute to the conservation of agrobiodiversity and genetic improvement for added value of Amazonian native food plants. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plants, Edible , Germination , Amazonian Ecosystem , Dioscorea , Pollination , Plant Breeding
7.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 691-699, may./jun. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048624

ABSTRACT

Pereskia aculeta Miller, commonly know as ora-pro-nóbis in some regions of Brazil, is a plant stands out due to its high protein content, presenting great potential for use. There is na increasing interest in the use of ora-pro-nóbis as raw material by the food industry like as concentrate form (deydrated and ground) or for direct consumption as leafy vegeTables by the population. So, is important to know the best way to propagate this specie. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of cutting position from stem and the substrate type under growth and development of ora-pro-nóbis during seedlings production. For incresing the seedlings production to supply the demand and the lack scientific studies on this theme, this study is important to development research to vegetative propagation and substrate to produce ora-pro-nóbis seedlings. For vegetative propagation three types of cutting were used: apical, median and from the basal part of the stem. The cuttings were planted in four types of substrate: S1 = soil; S2 = soil + clean sand (1:1); S3 = soil + clean sand + cattle manure (2:1:1) and S4 = Bioplant® commercial substrate. Sixty days after the experiment was set up, the cuttings were examined considering: the Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD) index, the number of leaves, the number of shoots, root length, and dry and fresh mass from the root and from the aerial part. The physiological maturation of the stem and the tested substrate type showed differences on the quality of the cutting. The cutting originated from the basal and medium part harvested from the branch of the year and the substrate soil + sand + manure allowed the best growth and development of the ora-pro-nóbis seedlings


Pereskia aculeta Miller, comumente chamada de ora-pro-nóbis em algumas regiões do Brasil, é uma planta que se destaca pelo seu alto teor de proteínas, com grande potencial de uso. Observa-se o crescente interesse pelo uso de ora-pro-nóbis como matéria-prima pela indústria alimentícia na forma de concentrado (desidratado e moído), e da popularização do consumo direto como hortaliça folhosa pela população, diante disto é importante conhecer a melhor forma de propagação da espécie. Objetivou-se com este estudo analisar a influência da posição da estaca retirada do ramo, e o tipo de substrato, sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento de ora-pro-nóbis durante a fase de produção de mudas. Com necessidade de um aumento deprodução de mudas para atender a demanda, e na ausência de trabalhos científicos sobre este assunto, econsiderando a necessidade de informações na literatura, torna-se necessário o desenvolvimento de pesquisas direcionadas para a propagação vegetativa e substrato para mudas de ora-pro-nóbis. Para a propagação vegetativa foram utilizadas três tipos de estacas: apicais, medianas e da parte basal do ramo. O plantio das estacas foi realizado em quatro tipos de substratos: S1= solo; S2= solo+areia lavada (1:1); S3= solo+areia lavada+esterco bovino curtido (2:1:1) e S4= substrato comercial Bioplant®. Após 60 dias a instalação do experimento, as mudas foram analisadas quanto ao: índice Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD), número de folhas, número de brotações, comprimento de raiz e massa da matéria fresca e seca da parte aérea e raiz. A maturação fisiológica do ramo e o tipo de substrato testado evidenciaram diferenças na qualidade de mudas de ora-pro-nóbis. A estaca oriunda da parte basal e mediana do ramo cultivada em solo+areia+esterco proporcionou melhor qualidade nas mudas de ora-pro-nóbis


Subject(s)
Cactaceae , Plants, Edible , Vitamins , Dietary Minerals , Proteins
8.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 775-783, may./jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048649

ABSTRACT

The revival of non-conventional edible plants enables important gains in nutritional, social, cultural, economic, and environmental points of view. Among them, sorrel ­ Rumex acetosa L. ­ has been deemed pleasant by consumers due to its acid taste. As we do not have a lot of phytotechnical andnutritional information about this plant, the objective was to assess the influence of different spacing sets and cattle manure dosages on their physical-chemical characteristics and bioactive compounds content with antioxidant action. Randomized blocks with four repetitions was chosen as experimental design, using ascheme of subdivided plots, with five dosages of weather-beaten cattle manure in the plots and two sets of spacing in the subplots. Data was submitted to a variance analysis with two factors (two-way ANOVA). It was not verified any significant effect (P>0.05) in the interaction Dosage x Spacing. Fertilization dosages and spacing sets did not have any effect on color and total soluble solids average contents, humidity, titratable acidity, and phenolic compounds. Increasing dosages of organic fertilizer, up to 75 kg ha-1, reduced the plant's pH; above that amount, pH rose. Presence of anthocyanins and vitamin C was not detected. The total carotenoids average content was not influenced by the manure factor, and the plant presented greater total carotenoids content in the smallest spacing. Antioxidant activity [1.0 mg mL-1], although inferior to the standards that were used (BHT, vitamin C and quercetin), was quite representative. A conclusion was reached that fertilizing with weather-beaten cattle manure had an effect only on pH, and cropping spacing had an influence only on carotenoids content. Other phytochemicals and physical-chemical characteristics were not influenced in sorrel plants with different levels of fertilization and sets of spacing.


O resgate das plantas comestíveis não convencionais possibilita ganhos importantes do ponto de vista nutricional, social, cultural, econômico e ambiental. Dentre estas, a azedinha, Rumex acetosa L. tem agradado o consumidor por seu sabor ácido. Como são poucas as informações fitotécnicas e nutricionais sobre esta planta objetivou-se avaliar a influência de diferentes espaçamentos e doses de esterco bovino em suas características físico-químicas e no teor de compostos bioativos com função antioxidante. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo cinco doses de esterco curtido de gado nas parcelas e dois espaçamentos nas subparcelas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância com dois fatores (two-way ANOVA). Não foi constatado efeito significativo (P>0,05) da interação Dose x Espaçamento. As doses de adubação e espaçamentos não afetaram a cor e os teores médios de sólidos solúveis totais, umidade, acidez titulável e compostos fenólicos. Doses crescentes de adubo orgânico, até 75 kg ha-1, reduziram o pH da planta, acima deste valor o pH elevou-se. Não foi detectada a presença de antocianinas e vitamina C. O teor médio de carotenoides totais não foi influenciado pelo fator esterco e no menor espaçamento a planta apresentou maior teor de carotenoides totais. A atividade antioxidante [1,0 mg mL-1], apesar de inferior aos padrões utilizados (BHT, vitamina C e quercetina), foi bastante representativa. Concluiu-se que a adubação com esterco de gado curtido afetou apenas o pH e que o espaçamento de cultivo exerceu influência apenas teor de carotenoides. Os demais fitoquímicos e características físico-químicas não foram influenciadas em plantas de azedinha com diferentes níveis de adubação e de espaçamento


Subject(s)
Plants, Edible , Rumex , Phytochemicals , Manure , Agricultural Cultivation , Antioxidants
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776909

ABSTRACT

Guided by TNF-α secretion inhibitory activity assay, four taraxastane-type triterpenoids, including two new ones, 22-oxo-20-taraxasten-3β, 30-diol (1) and 22α-hydroxy-20-taraxasten-30β, 30-triol (2), have been obtained from an active fraction of the petroleum ether-soluble extract of the the medicinal and edible plant Cirsium setosum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and CD data analysis. In the TNF-α secretion inhibitory activity assay, compounds 1 and 2 were active with the IC of 2.6 and 3.8 μmol·L, respectively. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 showed moderately selective cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer (A2780) and colon cancer (HCT-8) cell lines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Cirsium , Chemistry , Ether , Chemistry , Humans , Macrophages , Metabolism , Mice , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plants, Edible , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776908

ABSTRACT

The flower buds of Lonicera macranthoides (Shan Yin-Hua), represent an important traditional Chinese medicine and food ingredient. A phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the flower buds of L. macranthoides resulted in the isolation of 12 triterpenoids (1-12), including two new ursane-type nortriterpenes, 2α, 24-dihydroxy-23-nor-ursolic acid (1) and 2α, 4α-dihydroxy-23-nor-ursolic acid (2). Their structures were established by multiple spectroscopic methods and comparison with literature data. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited inhibitory effects on iNOS at the concentration of 30 μmol·L.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Ethanol , Chemistry , Flowers , Chemistry , Lonicera , Chemistry , Macrophages , Metabolism , Mice , Molecular Structure , Nitric Oxide , Metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plants, Edible , Chemistry , Triterpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology
11.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 34: 9-16, july. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026852

ABSTRACT

Background: Epigenetic modifications are key factors modulating the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of phytochemicals. The knowledge of plant epigenetic and genetic variations can contribute to enhance the production of bioactive compounds. These issues have been little explored thus far in Rorippa nasturtium var. aquaticum L. (watercress), an edible and medicinal plant. The aim of the current study was to determine and compare the phenolic composition and epigenetic and genetic variations between wild and cultivated watercress. Results: Significant differences were found in the quantitative phenolic composition between wild and cultivated watercress. The eight primer combinations used in the methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) method revealed different epigenetic status for each watercress type, the cultivated one being the most epigenetically variable. The genetic variability revealed by the EcoRI/MspI amplification profile and also by eight inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers was different between the two types of watercress. The results of the Mantel test showed that the correlation between genetic and epigenetic variations has diminished in the cultivated type. Cluster analyses showed that the epigenetic and genetic characterizations clearly discriminated between wild and cultivated watercress. Conclusions: Relevant chemical, epigenetic, and genetic differences have emerged between wild and cultivated watercress. These differences can contribute to fingerprint and develop quality control tools for the integral and safety use and the commercialization of watercress. The richness of epialleles could support the development of tools to manipulate the watercress epigenome to develop high bioproduct­producing cultivars


Subject(s)
Nasturtium/genetics , Nasturtium/chemistry , Plants, Edible , Genetic Variation , Cluster Analysis , Microsatellite Repeats , DNA Methylation , Brassicaceae/genetics , Brassicaceae/chemistry , Cytosine/metabolism , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis , Epigenomics , Phytochemicals
12.
Article in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-910296

ABSTRACT

El interés por introducir verdolaga (Portulaca oleracea L.) como planta cultivable se ha incrementado paulatinamente debido a sus propiedades medicinales. Sin embargo, estudios acerca de su distribución espacial y relación con el tipo de suelo son escasos. Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron determinar la probabilidad de ocurrencia de verdolaga, así como la relación entre su distribución espacial y las características edáficas en la Región Lagunera. Se obtuvieron datos de presencia/ausencia de esta planta y muestras de suelo superficial de sitios en distintas clases de tierra, y se determinaron las características físicas y químicas de los suelos. Los datos obtenidos se utilizaron para estimar la probabilidad de ocurrencia de verdolaga con una regresión logística y se cartografiaron. Los resultados muestran que la arena, la conductividad eléctrica y el pH influyen en la presencia de la verdolaga y su distribución espacial es diferente, donde los suelos de tierras blancas arenosas tuvieron la mayor probabilidad de ocurrencia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phytochemicals , Plants, Edible , Portulaca , Antioxidants , Mexico
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(4): 347-360, jul. 2017. mapas, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-882075

ABSTRACT

En el mundo, los sistemas agroalimentarios se han desarrollado sobre una base estrecha y de alta vulnerabilidad. En particular, en Venezuela, más de un tercio de la ingesta de calorías diarias es suplida por cereales procesados, y el consumo de frutas y hortalizas es limitado. En este trabajo se documenta la presencia de especies nativas o naturalizadas potenciales para el consumo en el norte del país. Se determinaron la frecuencia de uso, el destino de la producción, el origen y distribución de cada especie. Se registraron 46 especies alternativas con uso potencial para la alimentación. El lairén (Calathea allouia) y la pumalaca (Syzygium malaccense) mostraron las mayores frecuencias de uso. La mayor riqueza de especies alternativas es originaria o de amplia distribución en América tropical. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la relevancia para la producción, propagación y aprovechamiento de esta variedad de plantas que, además, pueden contribuir a la soberanía alimentaria a partir de pequeñas comunidades locales.


In the world, food systems have been developed on a narrow base and a high vulnerability. Particularly in Venezuela, more than a third of daily calories intake is supplemented by processed cereals, and the consume of fruits and green vegetables is restricted. This paper document the presence of native or naturalized species growth for consumption, in communities located in northern Venezuela. The frequency of use of alternative species, production fate, and origin and distribution of each species is presented. Up to 46 species were registered as potential alternative for food. The reported species included the lairén (Calathea allouia) and the pumalaca (Syzygium malaccense) with the highest frequency of use. These results show the relevance for production and consume of these wide variety of potentially useful plants for food, and concurrently strengthening food sovereignty of small communities.


Subject(s)
Food Supply , Plants, Edible , Plants, Medicinal , Rural Population , Biodiversity , Venezuela
14.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 4(1): 49-57, 20170600. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-882836

ABSTRACT

El selenio (Se) es un elemento esencial para el ser humano que se encuentra en pequeñas cantidades en los suelos, pero se acumula en ciertas plantas, proporcionando beneficios como antioxidante, antiinflamatorio y quemopreventivo por la presencia de unas 25 selenoproteínas que participan en diversas acciones de bienestar, lactancia, desarrollo, reproducción y salud de la progenie. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el contenido de Se en hojas de vegetales utilizados tradicionalmente en la alimentación guatemalteca. Se colectaron hojas de materiales cultivados para los mercados locales de nueve hierbas nativas (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrescens y Solanum wendlandii) y dos introducidas de reconocido uso alimenticio (Moringa oleifera y Spinacia oleracea), se secaron en un horno de convección forzada para lograr una humedad < 10% y se digirieron 0.25 ± 0.02 g de hojas en una mezcla de ácido nítrico y ácido perclórico que se calentó hasta la digestión total de la materia. El Se fue determinado por el método de reflexión total de rayos X, utilizando un estándar interno de itrio (Y) el que se midió utilizando reflectores de cuarzo en un espectrómetro de reflexión total de rayos X. De todas las especies evaluadas, únicamente A. hybridus demostró cantidades cuantificables de Se. Se determinó que 100 g de materia vegetal seca de A. hybridus proporciona 0.355 mg de Se, por lo que su consumo semanal puede contribuir con el requerimiento de este micronutriente para un adulto.


Selenium (Se) is an essential element for the human being; it is in small amounts in the soil but it accumulates in certain plants, providing benefits as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive, due to the presence of about 25 selenoproteins that participate in different welfare and development actions, lactation, reproduction and health of the progeny. This study aimed to assess Se content in leaves of nine native plants traditionally used in Guatemalan food (Amaranthus hybridus, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Crotalaria longirostrata, Dysphania ambrosioides, Lycianthes synanthera, Sechium edule, Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrescens and Solanum wendlandii) and two internationally uses herbs (Moringa oleifera, Spinacia oleracea). Se was determined by total reflection X-ray method. Plants were dried in a forced convection oven to constant weight, then were digested by weighing 0.25 ± 0.02 g of dry plant material with a mixture of nitric and perchloric acid, and warmed to achieve complete digestion. Using a yttrium (Y) internal standard were measured using quartz reflectors Spectrometer Total reflection X-ray. Of all native plant species tested, only A. hybridus there were measurable amounts of Se. It was determined that 100 g of dry plant material of A. hybridus provides 0.355 mg of Se, so its weekly consumption by an adult might contribute to satisfied the requirement of this microelement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rubidium/administration & dosage , Strontium/analysis , Amaranthus/growth & development , Plants, Edible/classification
15.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 43(4): 400-407, dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844493

ABSTRACT

Inga paterno is a tree legume present in various states of Mexico whose sheath is consumed in someplaces as a fruit due seed coat is sweet (Aryl). Seeds are not commonly consumed and there are few studies about its composition. The physical characteristics, nutritional and non-nutritional composition of Inga paterno seeds from México State and Puebla were analyzed. The seeds showed a significant proportion of protein and lipid. The oil from the seeds showed higher proportion of palmitic acid. Non-nutritional compounds such as phenolics, tannins, phytates, saponins and trypsin inhibitors were quantified. The seeds of the two sources of origin showed no statistically significant difference in their physical, chemical and non-nutritional characteristics; however, unlike other legumes, they exhibit high saponins content and high inhibitory trypsin activity.


Inga paterno es una leguminosa arbórea, que crece varios estados de México. La vaina se consume como fruto, debido a la cubierta dulce (Arilo) de la semilla. Ésta última, no es comúnmente consumida. Las características físicas, composición nutricional y el contenido de compuestos no nutricionales presentes en las semillas de Inga paterno provenientes de los Estados de México y Puebla fueron analizados, mostrando que las semillas son de 1.6 y 1.9 cm largo y 0.9 y 1.08 cm de ancho. Los componentes químicos principales son: proteína (20.42 y 21.59 g/100 g), carbohidratos (28.99 y 36.15 g/100 g), lípidos (9.62 y 8.55 g/100 g) para las procedentes de Ozumba y Tochimilco, respectivamente. Los aceites de las semillas de Inga paterno presentaron una proporción importante de ácido palmítico, así como ácidos 7-octadecanoico, oleico, linoleico y alfa linolénico. Se cuantificaron los compuestos no nutricionales como fenólicos (0.55 y 0.54 mg eq. de ácido gálico/g), taninos (1.46 y 1.51 mg eq. de (+)-catequina/g), fitatos (2.66 y 2.04 mg de ácido fítico/g), saponinas (32.35 y 33.38 mg de diosgenina/g) e inhibidores de tripsina (311.97 y 351.21 mg de tripsina pura inhibida/g de muestra). Ambas semillas analizadas no presentaron diferencia estadísticamente significativa en sus características físicas, químicas y no nutricionales; sin embargo, éstas presentan una elevada actividad inhibitoria de tripsina comparada con otras leguminosas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Quality , Food Composition , Fabaceae , Plants, Edible , Chemical Compounds
16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 43(2): 167-171, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-789446

ABSTRACT

Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) es una planta oleaginosa trepadora que crece en países como Perú, Bolivia y Colombia. Es una excelente fuente de ácidos grasos insaturados, fundamentalmente alfa linolénico (C18:3) y linoleico (C18:2), que representan aproximadamente 82% del contenido total del aceite. Sacha Inchi ha sido parte de la dieta de indígenas desde la antigüedad y es visto en la actualidad como un cultivo prometedor. Por su composición en ácidos grasos esenciales y su alto contenido en tocoferoles y antioxidantes, la recomendación de su consumo en la dieta habitual puede ser una estrategia encaminada a la prevención de enfermedades cardiovasculares en poblaciones de América Latina, en las que el consumo de aceite de oliva, reconocido por sus propiedades cardioprotectoras, es bajo. Este artículo tiene por objetivo hacer una revisión de la literatura publicada en relación con la inocuidad, aceptabilidad e impacto sobre la salud, del aceite de Sacha Inchi.


Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) is an oleaginous climbing plant thatgrows in countries like Peru, Bolivia and Colombia. It is an excellent source of unsaturated fatty acids, mainly alpha lino-lenic (C18:3) and linoleic (C18:2), which represent approximately 82% of total oil content. Sacha Inchi has been part of the diet of native people of the region since ancient times and is seen as a promising crop today Due to its composition of essential fatty acids and its high content of antioxidants and tocopherols, the re-commendation of its consumption in the diet can be a strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in populations of Latin America, as olive oil consumption known for its cardioprotective properties, is typically low in these populations. The aim of this article is to review the published literature regarding the safety, acceptability and health impact of Sacha Inchi oil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Edible , Cardiovascular Diseases , Whole Foods , Fatty Acids , Antioxidants , Eating , Nutritional Status
17.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 3(1): 91-92, ene.-jun. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868828

ABSTRACT

Recientemente se ha publicado el libro Plantas mesoamericanas subutilizadas en la alimentación humana. El caso de Guatemala: una revisión del pasadohacia una solución actual. Esta es una interesante obra por el tema que trata, pero más interesante cuando selee el capítulo II, que se refiere a la relación entre la biodiversidad y la seguridad alimentaria. Esta secciónproporciona un elemento diferencial con otras obras similares, ya que pone en relieve la relación cultural con las especies locales poco conocidas. A este respecto es importante considerar que Guatemala como país megadiverso, tiene en la parte de la agro biodiversidadmuchas especies útiles en la limentación, algunas de ellas como el maíz y el frijol de amplio uso. Sin embargo, hay otro gran número que tiene un uso restringido, unas menos conocidas y utilizadas que otras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Supply , Diet , Plants, Edible
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(1): 247-257, ene.-mar. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843275

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe biodiversity rich state of Meghalaya, India located in the realms of mega-biodiversity hotspots, is home to numerous species of wild edible macrofungi that are used extensively by the mycophillic ethnic population, as a part of their traditional cuisine and medicine systems. However, habitat loss, due to deforestation and climate change, is destroying the natural population of these mushrooms, depleting their availability to the local communities. In the present investigation, a GIS guided habitat search, using Lentinula edodes as a representative species, was used in mapping the habitats of wild edible macrofungi of the study region. Sampling of around 4 000 specimens per distinct morphological type available in the traditional markets and "sacred grove" forests indicated presence of ten common genera, belonging to nine different families of wild edible mushrooms. Nutritional profiling of the representative species Lentinula edodes was carried out by evaluation of its moisture, total fat, crude protein and carbohydrates contents by standard methods. Similarly, bioactive components determination was performed by estimation of total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopenes. Bioactivity of the mushrooms extracts was studied using the DPPH radical scavenging and Human Red Blood Cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization assays. The present investigation successfully attempted to explore remote sensing technologies and GIS (Geographic Information System) based system to predict the natural habitats of wild edible mushrooms of Meghalaya, India which we believe will lead to the generation of a mushroom specific non-wood forest resource mapping system in the near future. Results of nutritional profiling and biological activity studies on the representative species of wild edible mushrooms from the studied region revealed that it is a rich source of essential nutrients and antioxidants.


ResumenLa rica biodiversidad del estado de Meghalaya, India situado en los reinos de los hotspots mega-biodiversidad es el hogar de numerosas especies de macro hongos silvestres comestibles que se utilizan ampliamente por la población étnica micofílica como parte de su alimentación y medicina tradicional. Sin embargo, la pérdida de hábitat debido a la deforestación y el cambio climático está destruyendo la población natural de estos hongos, que agotan su disponibilidad para las poblaciones locales. En la presente investigación, se utilizó el SIG para la búsqueda guiada de hábitat usando Lentinula edodes como especie representativa en la cartografía de los hábitats de macrohongos silvestres comestibles de la región de estudio. Alrededor de cuatro mil ejemplares de distinto tipo morfológico fueron muestreados según su disponibilidad en los mercados tradicionales y los "sacred grove" (bosques sagrados) lo que indicó la presencia de diez géneros comunes pertenecientes a nueve familias de setas silvestres comestibles. Perfiles nutricionales de las especies representativas Lentinula edodes se llevaron a cabo mediante la evaluación de su humedad, grasa total, proteína cruda y contenido de carbohidratos. Del mismo modo, la determinación de componentes bioactivos se realizó por estimación de fenoles totales, flavonoides, ácido ascórbico, β-caroteno y licopeno. La bioactividad de los extractos de setas se estudió mediante la captación de radicales DPPH y el ensayo de estabilización de la membrana de glóbulos rojos de la sangre humana (hRBC). Los resultados de estudios de perfiles nutricionales y actividad biológica en hongos comestibles revelan que es una fuente rica en nutrientes esenciales y antioxidantes. La presente investigación ha intentado con éxito explorar las tecnologías de teledetección y SIG (Sistema de Información Geográfica) para predecir el hábitat natural de los hongos silvestres comestibles de Meghalaya, India que creemos dará lugar a la generación de un mapeo de los recursos forestales no madereros, específicamente de hongos, en el futuro cercano.


Subject(s)
Plants, Edible/chemistry , Shiitake Mushrooms/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Nutritive Value , Plants, Edible/classification , Forests , Shiitake Mushrooms/classification , Geographic Information Systems , Biodiversity , India
19.
Acta méd. peru ; 33(1): 50-64, ene.-mar.2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LIPECS, LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-790671

ABSTRACT

El Perú, es considerado como uno de los 12 países del mundo de gran diversidad biológica en plantas y animales, constituyéndose en uno de los centros mundiales de la agricultura y ganadería. Según el Ministerio de Agricultura, la inmensa flora está compuesta por más de 25 000 especies, que equivalen al 10% del total mundial, de las cuales más de 4 000 son plantas alimenticias y medicinales. La alimentación funcional, permite incorporar al organismo alimentos con propiedades no solo nutricionales, sino también quimiopreventivas. Actualmente y con el avance del conocimiento es posible la ingesta de fitoquímicos, capaces de reducir el riesgo de desarrollar diversas condiciones patológicas, entre ellas las enfermedades de base inflamatoria; siendo éste un factor de riesgo que puede modificarse con la ingesta de alimentos modulatorios del proceso. La presente revisión se basa en la búsqueda de evidencias asociadas a los principios activos con efecto antiinflamatorio encontrado en los alimentos de uso habitual...


Peru is considered as one of the 12 countries in the world with great biological diversity in plants and animals, making it one of the world centers for agriculture and livestock. According to the local Ministry of Agriculture, Peruvian exotic flora consists of more than 25,000 species, equivalent to 10% of the world total, and more of 4,000 of them are edible and medicinal plants. Functional feeding allows the incorporation of foods not only with nutritional properties, but also with chemopreventive action. Nowadays, with the advances in knowledge, it is possible to ingest phytochemicals, which are substances capable to reduce the risk for the development of some pathological conditions, including diseases with an inflammatory basis; being this a risk factor that may be modified with foods that may modulate these processes. This review is based in searching for evidence associated with the active ingredients with an anti-inflammatory effect of compounds found in commonly used foods...


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Plant Oils , Food , Seafood , Biodiversity , Plants, Edible , Peru
20.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(1): 41-52, ene. 2016. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-907516

ABSTRACT

Los cercos vivos urbanos tienen un rol significativo por ser reservorios de biodiversidad y por las funciones socioeconómicas que pueden sustentar. En Bariloche (Río Negro, Patagonia Argentina) se estudiaron 300 cercos familiares, la riqueza de especies leñosas componentes, sus usos medicinales y comestibles, presencia de aromaticidad, como así también su disponibilidad en comercios locales. Los cercos se componen de 86 especies, entre estas las más frecuentes son las exóticas: Cytisus scoparius, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Cupressus macrocarpa y Rosa sp., y las nativas: Chusquea culeou y Nothofagus antarctica. El 73 por ciento de las especies son medicinales, el 59 por ciento comestibles y el 33 por ciento. Solo el 24 por ciento de las especies están disponibles en comercios de la ciudad dedicados a la venta de alimentos y/o productos herbolarios. Se concluye que los cercos de Bariloche tienen un alto potencial para la complementación, diversificación de la dieta y el tratamiento de dolencias menores de los pobladores locales.


Urban hedges have a significant role to be reservoirs of biodiversity and socio-economic functions that it can sustain. In Bariloche (Río Negro, Patagonia Argentina) we studied 300 family hedges, the richness of woody components, their medicinal and edible uses, presence of aromaticity, as well as their availability in local stores. The hedges are composed of 86 species, among these the most common are the exotics: Cytisus scoparius, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Cupressus macrocarpa y Rosa sp., and the natives: Chusquea culeou and Nothofagus antarctica. 73 percent of these one are medicinal, 59 percent are edible and 33 percent are aromatic plants. Only 24 percent of the species are available in shops of the city dedicated to the sale of food and/or herbal products. We conclude that the hedges of Bariloche have a high potential for supplementation, dietary diversification, and treatment of minor ailments of the local people.


Subject(s)
Ethnobotany , Plants, Edible , Plants, Medicinal , Argentina , Biodiversity , Urban Area
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