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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245379, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339405

ABSTRACT

Abstract Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.


Resumo O crescimento populacional está aumentando rapidamente em todo o mundo, e para combater suas consequências precisamos produzir mais alimentos para suprir a demanda do aumento populacional. O mundo está enfrentando o aquecimento global devido à urbanização e industrialização e, nesse caso, plantas expostas continuamente a estresses abióticos, que é uma das principais causas do martelamento das safras todos os anos. Estresses abióticos consistem em seca, sal, calor, frio, oxidação e toxicidade de metais que prejudicam o rendimento da colheita continuamente. A seca e o estresse salino são afetados de maneira diversa pela planta e são a principal causa de redução da produtividade das culturas. As plantas respondem a vários estímulos sob condições de estresse abiótico ou biótico e expressam certos genes estruturais ou regulatórios que mantêm a integridade da planta. Os genes reguladores são principalmente os fatores de transcrição que exercem sua atividade ligando-se a certos elementos cis do DNA e, consequentemente, são regulados para cima ou para baixo para a expressão alvo. Esses fatores de transcrição são conhecidos como reguladores mestres porque sua única transcrição regula mais de um gene; nesse contexto, a palavra regulon é mais fascinante no âmbito dos fatores de transcrição. Progresso foi feito para entender melhor sobre o efeito dos regulons (AREB / ABF, DREB, MYB e NAC) sob estresses abióticos e uma série de regulons relatados como responsivos ao estresse e usados ​​como uma melhor ferramenta transgênica de Arabidopsis e Rice.


Subject(s)
Regulon/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Droughts
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Moths , Phosphorus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Insecticide Resistance , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Fertilizers , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Larva , Nitrogen
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1946-1952, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927829

ABSTRACT

In order to improve the salt tolerance of banana NHX genes, we cloned a MaNHX5 gene from Musa acuminata L. AAA group and predicted the key salt-tolerant amino acid sites and mutant protein structure changes of MaNHX5 by using bioinformatics tools. The 276-position serine (S) of MaNHX5 protein was successfully mutated to aspartic acid (D) by site-directed mutagenesis, and the AXT3 salt-sensitive mutant yeast was used for a functional complementation test. The results showed that after the mutated MaNHX5 gene was transferred to AXT3 salt-sensitive mutant yeast, the salt tolerance of the mutant yeast was significantly improved under 200 mmol/L NaCl treatment. It is hypothesized that Ser276 of MaNHX5 protein plays an important role in the transport of Na+ across the tonoplast.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Musa/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927692

ABSTRACT

Salt stress may cause primary osmotic stress and ion toxicity, as well as secondary oxidative stress and nutritional stress in plants, which hampers the agricultural production. Salt stress-responsive transcription factors can mitigate the damage of salt stress to plants through regulating the expression of downstream target genes. Based on the soil salinization and its damage to plants, and the central regulatory role of transcription factors in the plant salt stress-responsive signal transduction network, this review summarized the salt stress-responsive signal transduction pathways that the transcription factors are involved, and the application of salt stress-responsive transcription factors to enhance the salt tolerance of plants. We also reviewed the transcription factors-regulated complex downstream gene network which is formed by forming homo- or heterodimers between transcription factors and by forming complexes with regulatory proteins. This paper provides a theoretical basis for understanding the role of salt stress-responsive transcription factors in the salt stress regulatory network, which may facilitate the molecular breeding for improved stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Osmotic Pressure , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified , Salt Stress , Salt Tolerance , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243692, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278520

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vegetables are an important source of income and high-value crops for small farmers. Chilli (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most economically important vegetables of Pakistan and it is grown throughout the country. It is a rich source of nutrition especially vitamins A, B, C and E along with minerals as folic acid, manganese (Mn), potassium (K) and molybdenum (Mo). Chilli possesses seven times more amount of vitamin C than an orange. Vitamin A, C and beta-carotenoids are strong antioxidants to scavenge the free radicals. Chilli production is restricted due to various biotic factors. Among these viruses, Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV) is one of the most destructive and menacing agents that inflicts heavy and colossal losses that accounted for 50% yield loss both in quality and quantity. Pathogen-Derived Resistance (PDR) approach is considered one of the effective approaches to manage plant viruses. In this study, ChiVMV was characterized on a molecular level, the coat protein (CP) gene of the virus was stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transgenic plants were challenged with the virus to evaluate the level of resistance of plants against the virus. It was observed that the plants expressing CP gene have partial resistance against the virus in terms of symptoms' development and virus accumulation. Translation of this technique into elite chilli varieties will be resulted to mitigate the ChiVMV in the crop as well as an economic benefit to the farmers.


Resumo Vegetais são uma importante fonte de renda e culturas de alto valor para os pequenos agricultores. A pimenta-malagueta (Capsicum spp.) é uma das hortaliças mais importantes economicamente do Paquistão e é cultivada em todo o país. É uma rica fonte de nutrição, especialmente vitaminas A, B, C e E com minerais como ácido fólico, manganês (Mn), potássio (K) e molibdênio (Mo). O pimentão possui sete vezes mais vitamina C do que a laranja. Vitaminas A e C e betacarotenoides são antioxidantes fortes para eliminar os radicais livres. A produção de pimenta é restrita devido a vários fatores bióticos. Entre esses vírus, o ChiVMV é o agente mais destrutivo e ameaçador que inflige perdas pesadas e colossais que representam 50% da perda de rendimento, tanto em qualidade quanto em quantidade. A abordagem de resistência derivada de patógenos (PDR) é considerada uma das abordagens eficazes para gerenciar os vírus de plantas. Neste estudo, ChiVMV foi caracterizado em nível molecular e o gene CP do vírus foi transformado de forma estável em plantas Nicotiana benthamiana usando Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As plantas transgênicas foram desafiadas com o vírus para avaliar seu nível de resistência contra o vírus. Observou-se que as plantas que expressam o gene CP apresentam resistência parcial ao vírus em termos de desenvolvimento de sintomas e acúmulo de vírus. A tradução dessa técnica em variedades de pimenta de elite resultará na mitigação do ChiVMV na safra, bem como em benefícios econômicos para os agricultores em termos de melhor rendimento e baixo custo de produção.


Subject(s)
Tobacco/genetics , Potyvirus/genetics , Pakistan , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Disease Resistance
6.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 95-109, May. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343466

ABSTRACT

Chloroplast biotechnology has emerged as a promissory platform for the development of modified plants to express products aimed mainly at the pharmaceutical, agricultural, and energy industries. This technology's high value is due to its high capacity for the mass production of proteins. Moreover, the interest in chloroplasts has increased because of the possibility of expressing multiple genes in a single transformation event without the risk of epigenetic effects. Although this technology solves several problems caused by nuclear genetic engineering, such as turning plants into safe bio-factories, some issues must still be addressed in relation to the optimization of regulatory regions for efficient gene expression, cereal transformation, gene expression in non-green tissues, and low transformation efficiency. In this article, we provide information on the transformation of plastids and discuss the most recent achievements in chloroplast bioengineering and its impact on the biopharmaceutical and agricultural industries; we also discuss new tools that can be used to solve current challenges for their successful establishment in recalcitrant crops such as monocots.


Subject(s)
Transformation, Genetic , Biological Products , Chloroplasts , Crops, Agricultural , Biotechnology , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Plants, Genetically Modified
7.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 42-49, Jan. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins were reported to be related to adversity stress and drought tolerance. Lea-3 from Arachis hypogaea L. (AhLea-3) was previously found to be related to salt tolerance according to the result of transcriptome profiling and digital gene expression analysis. So, AhLea-3 was cloned and the salt tolerance was validated by transgenic peanut plants. RESULTS: AhLea-3 was isolated from M34, a salt-resistant mutant of peanut, with its cDNA as the template. AhLea-3 contains one intron and two extrons, and the full-length cDNA sequence contains 303 bp. AhLea3 was ligated to pCAMBIA1301 to obtain the overexpression vector pCAMBIA1301-AhLea-3, which was then transferred into peanut variety Huayu23. The expression level of AhLea-3, as determined by qRTPCR analysis, was >10 times higher in transgenic than in non-transgenic plants. Five days after they were irrigated with 250 mM NaCl, the transgenic plants showed less severe leaf wilting, higher activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase), and lower malonic dialdehyde content than non-transgenic plants. Relative to non-transgenic plants, the transgenic plants had a higher photosynthetic net rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate, and a lower intercellular CO2 concentration after salt stress treatment (250 mM NaCl). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that overexpression of AhLea-3 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic peanut plants. AhLea-3 might become a useful gene resource for the variety breeding of salinity tolerance in peanut.


Subject(s)
Arachis/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Salt Tolerance , Arachis/genetics , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Transformation, Genetic
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2845-2855, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887847

ABSTRACT

Production of biofuels such as ethanol from non-grain crops may contribute to alleviating the global energy crisis and reducing the potential threat to food security. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a commercial crop with high biomass yield. Breeding of starch-rich tobacco plants may provide alternative raw materials for the production of fuel ethanol. We cloned the small subunit gene NtSSU of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (NtAGPase), which controls starch biosynthesis in tobacco, and constructed a plant expression vector pCAMBIA1303-NtSSU. The NtSSU gene was overexpressed in tobacco upon Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of NtSSU gene promoted the accumulation of starch in tobacco leaves, and the content of starch in tobacco leaves increased from 17.5% to 41.7%. The growth rate and biomass yield of the transgenic tobacco with NtSSU gene were also significantly increased. The results revealed that overexpression of NtSSU gene could effectively redirect more photosynthesis carbon flux into starch biosynthesis pathway, which led to an increased biomass yield but did not generate negative effects on other agronomic traits. Therefore, NtSSU gene can be used as an excellent target gene in plant breeding to enrich starch accumulation in vegetative organs to develop new germplasm dedicated to fuel ethanol production.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Breeding , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/metabolism , Starch , Tobacco/metabolism
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4351-4362, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921511

ABSTRACT

To explore the function of a heat shock transcription factor gene (HSFB1) and its promoter in Amorphophallus, a 1 365 bp DNA sequence was obtained by homologous cloning from Amorphophallus albus. The gene expression level of AaHSFB1 determined by qRT-PCR indicated that AaHSFB1 gene is more sensitive to heat stress. The expression level of AaHSFB1 in roots increased followed by a decrease upon heat treatment, and the highest expression level was observed after heat treatment for 1 h. The expression level of AaHSFB1 in leaves reached the highest after heat treatment for 12 h. The expression level in bulbs did not change greatly during the heat treatment. Subcellular localization analysis showed that AaHSFB1 protein was localized in the nucleus. A 1 509 bp DNA sequence which contains the AaHSFB1 promoter was obtained by FPNI-PCR method. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the promoter contained heat stress response elements HSE and a plurality of cis-acting elements related to plant development and stress response. A prAaHSFB1::GUS fusion expression vector was constructed to further analyze the function of AaHSFB1 promoter. The expression vector was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method, and GUS staining analysis on transgenic plants after heat treatment was performed. The results showed that AaHSFB1 promoter had very high activity in the leaves. Therefore, we speculate that AaHSFB1 may play an important role in the stress resistance of A. albus, especially when encountering heat stress.


Subject(s)
Amorphophallus/metabolism , Arabidopsis/genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4329-4341, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921509

ABSTRACT

Dehydration-responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) are an important class of transcription factors related to plant stress tolerance. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus is an evergreen broadleaf shrub endemic to desert areas of northwest China, and it has a very high tolerance to harsh environments. In order to reveal the functions and mechanisms of the AmDREB1F gene from this species in enduring abiotic stresses, we performed subcellular localization test, expression pattern analysis, and stress tolerance evaluation of transgenic Arabidopsis harboring this gene. The protein encoded by AmDREB1F was localized in the nucleus. In laboratory-cultured A. mongolicus seedlings, the expression of AmDREB1F was induced significantly by cold and drought but very slightly by salt and heat stresses, and undetectable upon ABA treatment. In leaves of naturally growing shrubs in the wild, the expression levels of the AmDREB1F gene were much higher during the late autumn, winter and early spring than in other seasons. Moreover, the expression was abundant in roots and immature pods rather than other organs of the shrubs. Constitutive expression of AmDREB1F in Arabidopsis induced the expression of several DREB-regulated stress-responsive genes and improved the tolerance of transgenic lines to drought, high salinity and low temperature as well as oxidative stress. The constitutive expression also caused growth retardation of the transgenics, which could be eliminated by the application of gibberellin 3. Stress-inducible expression of AmDREB1F also enhanced the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to all of the four stresses mentioned above, without affecting its growth and development. These results suggest that AmDREB1F gene may play positive regulatory roles in response to abiotic stresses through the ABA-independent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Droughts , Ectopic Gene Expression , Fabaceae/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 251-257, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153347

ABSTRACT

Genetically modified plants are one of the tactics used in integrated pest management - IPM. There is great concern about the impact of these plants on non-target organisms. On the other hand, there is little information in the literature on the effects of transgenics (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt on populations of phytophagous mites, and the physiological responses that this attack promotes on plants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biology of the T. ludeni mite in Bt cotton, expressing the Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins. To evaluate the behavior of food and oviposition preference of the T. ludeni with Bt cotton and isohybrid. Verify if the physiological stress caused by T. ludeni's attack is differentiated in Bt cotton. The mites were reared in Bt cotton and isohybrid, in a total of 40 replicates in the completely randomized design and the biological cycle was evaluated. The food preference and oviposition analysis were done with 10 replicates, with choice. The physiological stress was evaluated through chlorophyll fluorescence, under greenhouse conditions. The data of the T. ludeni biology were analyzed by Student's t-test, for food and oviposition preference the chi-square test was performed. Regression models were fitted for the fluorescence parameters. The model identity test was used to evaluate the differences between Bt and isohybrid treatments. Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins have not affected the biology of T. ludeni. The photosynthetic parameters in Bt cotton plants were less influenced by T. ludeni infestation.


O uso de plantas geneticamente modificadas é uma das táticas utilizadas no manejo integrado de pragas - MIP. Observa-se grande preocupação com o impacto dessas plantas sobre organismos não alvos. Por outro lado, existe pouca informação na literatura sobre efeitos dos transgênicos (Bacillus thuringiensis) Bt em populações de ácaros fitófagos, e as respostas fisiológicas que esse ataque promove nas plantas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar a biologia do ácaro T. ludeni em algodoeiro Bt, expressando as proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac. Avaliar se há comportamento de preferência alimentar e postura de T. ludeni em relação ao algodoeiro Bt e seu iso-híbrido. E verificar se o estresse fisiológico causado pelo ataque de T. ludeni é diferenciado em algodoeiro Bt. Os ácaros foram criados em algodoeiro Bt e iso-híbrido, em um total de 40 repetições no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, onde foi avaliado o ciclo biológico. A análise de preferência alimentar e de posturas foi feita com 10 repetições, com escolha. O estresse fisiológico foi avaliando através da fluorescência da clorofila, em casa de vegetação. Os dados da biologia de T. ludeni foram analisados pelo teste t Student, para preferência alimentar e postura foi realizado o teste qui-quadrado. Para os parâmetros da fluorescência, foram ajustados modelos de regressão. Para testar as diferenças entre Bt e iso-híbrido foi utilizado o teste de identidade de modelos. As proteínas Cry1F e Cry1Ac não afetaram a biologia de T. ludeni. Os parâmetros fotossintéticos em plantas de algodoeiro Bt foram menos influenciados pela infestação de T. ludeni.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Tetranychidae/genetics , Stress, Physiological , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins , Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Larva
12.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200316, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278451

ABSTRACT

Abstract To discover and isolate a glyphosate-resistant gene from Fragaria vesca through gene mining. An open reading frame (ORF) of 1563 bp encoding EPSPSwas amplified from Fragaria vesca (FvEPSPS). FvEPSPS (Genebank: XP004306932.1) encodes a polypeptide of 520 amino acids and it has hightly homologous with EPSPS from other plants. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the FvEPSPS was expressed extensively in all tissues including leaves, roots and stems, with higher expression in leaves. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis Thaliana exhibited 10 mM glyphosate to resistance. Therefore, this research offers a new glyphosate-resistant gene for development of transgenic crops.


Subject(s)
Plants, Genetically Modified , Arabidopsis , Fragaria , Herbicides/adverse effects
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 72-82, sept. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Piercing/sucking insect pests in the order Hemiptera causes substantial crop losses by removing photoassimilates and transmitting viruses to their host plants. Cloning and heterologous expression of plantderived insect resistance genes is a promising approach to control aphids and other sap-sucking insect pests. While expression from the constitutive 35S promoter provides broad protection, the phloem-specific rolC promoter provides better defense against sap sucking insects. The selection of plant-derived insect resistance genes for expression in crop species will minimize bio-safety concerns. RESULTS: Pinellia ternata leaf agglutinin gene (pta), encodes an insecticidal lectin, was isolated and cloned under the 35S and rolC promoters in the pGA482 plant transformation vector for Agrobacterium-mediated tobacco transformation. Integration and expression of the transgene was validated by Southern blotting and qRT-PCR, respectively. Insect bioassays data of transgenic tobacco plants showed that expression of pta under rolC promoter caused 100% aphid mortality and reduced aphid fecundity up to 70% in transgenic tobacco line LRP9. These results highlight the better effectivity of pta under rolC promoter to control phloem feeders, aphids. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested the potential of PTA against aphids and other sap sucking insect pests. Evaluation of gene in tobacco under two different promoters; 35S constitutive promoter and rolC phloemspecific promoter could be successfully use for other crop plants particularly in cotton. Development of transgenic cotton plants using plant-derived insecticidal, PTA, would be key step towards commercialization of environmentally safe insect-resistant crops.


Subject(s)
Aphids/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological , Pinellia/chemistry , Plant Viruses , Tobacco , Blotting, Southern , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Plants, Genetically Modified , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Transgenes , Disease Resistance , Crop Protection
14.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 45: 1-9, May 15, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the most important crops worldwide and has been a target of nuclear-based transformation biotechnology to improve it and satisfy the food demand of the ever-growing global population. However, the maize plastid transformation has not been accomplished due to the recalcitrant condition of the crop. RESULTS: In this study, we constructed two different vectors with homologous recombination sequences from maize (Zea mays var. LPC13) and grass (Bouteloua gracilis var. ex Steud) (pZmcpGFP and pBgcpGFP, respectively). Both vectors were designed to integrate into rrn23S/rrn16S from an inverted repeat region in the chloroplast genome. Moreover, the vector had the mgfp5 gene driven by Prrn, a leader sequence of the atpB gene and a terminator sequence from the rbcL gene. Also, constructs have an hph gene as a selection marker gene driven by Prrn, a leader sequence from rbcL gene and a terminator sequence from the rbcL gene. Explants of maize, tobacco and Escherichia coli cells were transformed with both vectors to evaluate the transitory expression­an exhibition of green and red fluorescent light under epifluorescence microscopy. These results showed that both vectors were expressed; the reporter gene in all three organisms confirmed the capacity of the vectors to express genes in the cell compartments. CONCLUSIONS: This paper is the first report of transient expression of GFP in maize embryos and offers new information for genetically improving recalcitrant crops; it also opens new possibilities for the improvement in maize chloroplast transformation with these vectors.


Subject(s)
Tobacco/metabolism , Chloroplasts/genetics , Chloroplasts/metabolism , Zea mays/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Transformation, Genetic , Biotechnology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Plants, Genetically Modified , Plastids/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli , Genome, Chloroplast
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 643-651, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827004

ABSTRACT

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is an important vegetable crop in the world. Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic technology is an important way to study plant gene functions and improve varieties. In order to further accelerate the transgenic research and breeding process of cucumber, we described the progress and problems of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transgenic cucumber, from the influencing factors of cucumber regeneration ability, genetic transformation conditions and various additives in the process. We prospected for improving the genetic transformation efficiency and safety selection markers of cucumber, and hoped to provide reference for the research of cucumber resistance breeding and quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Metabolism , Breeding , Cucumis sativus , Genetics , Microbiology , Plants, Genetically Modified , Microbiology , Research , Transformation, Genetic
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 700-706, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826906

ABSTRACT

The responsibility of root is absorbing water and nutrients, it is an important plant tissue, but easily to be affected by biotic and abiotic stresses, affecting crop growth and yield. The design of a synthetic root-specific promoter provides candidate promoters for the functional analysis and efficient expression of stress-related genes in crop roots. In this study, a synthetic root-specific module (pro-SRS) was designed using tandem four-copies of root specific cis-acting elements (OSE1ROOTNODULE, OSE2ROOTNODULE, SP8BFIBSP8AIB, and ROOTMOTIFAPOX1), and fused with minimal promoter from the CaMV 35S promoter to synthesize an artificially synthetic SRSP promoter. The SRSP promoter was cloned in pCAMBIA2300.1 by replacing CaMV 35S promoter so as to drive GUS expression. The constructs with SRSP promoter were transformed in tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated method. SRSP promoter conferred root-specific expression in transgenic tobacco plants through Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) analysis and GUS histochemical staining analysis. It is indicated that the repeated arrangement of cis-acting elements can realize the expected function of the promoter. This study laid a theoretical foundation for the rational design of tissue-specific promoters.


Subject(s)
Agrobacterium , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Roots , Genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Genetics , Stress, Physiological , Tobacco , Genetics , Transformation, Genetic
17.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 707-715, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826905

ABSTRACT

OsRhoGDI2 was isolated as a putative partner of Rho protein family member OsRacD from rice panicles by yeast two-hybrid, but its function remains unknown. In order to identify the function of OsRhoGDI2, OsRhoGDI2 knockout mutants were created by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The results showed that two different homozygous mutants were obtained in T0 generation, and eight kinds homozygous mutants were identified in T1 generation. Sequence analysis revealed that the base substitution or base deletion occurred near the editing targets of the gene in knockout rice, and it could be expected that the truncated OsRhoGDI2 proteins lacking the RhoGDI conserved domain would be generated. Phenotype analysis showed that the OsRhoGDI2 knockout rice plants were significantly lower than the control plants. Statistical analysis confirmed that the significant decrease of plant height was due to the shortening of the second and third internodes, suggesting that OsRhoGDI2 gene may be related with rice height control.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genes, Plant , Genetics , Oryza , Genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified , rho Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor beta , Genetics
18.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20180428, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132198

ABSTRACT

Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/pathogenicity , Pest Control, Biological/methods , Gossypium/genetics , Endotoxins/genetics , Moths , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Plants, Toxic , Biological Assay , Plants, Genetically Modified
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(2): e8749, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055490

ABSTRACT

For a long time, vaccines have been the main mode of defense and protection against several bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. However, the process of production and purification makes them expensive and unaffordable to many developing nations. An edible vaccine is when the antigen is expressed in the edible part of the plant. This reduces the cost of production of the vaccine because of ease of culturing. In this article, various types of edible vaccines that include algal and probiotics in addition to plants are discussed. Various diseases against which research has been carried out are also reviewed. This article focused on the conception of edible vaccines highlighting the various ways by which vaccines can be delivered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Vaccines, Edible/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Edible/immunology , Vaccines, Edible/chemistry , Biotechnology/methods , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1886-1898, nov./dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049154

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to produce silage from intercropped RR glyphosate tolerant corn (RR - Roundup Ready) and RR soybeans under Brazilian Cerrado conditions. The research was carried out in off-season between February and June 2015, in Rio Verde, Goiás (Brazil). In the experimental period the rainfall was 865 mm and the average temperature of 23.7°C. Two trials were performed. The first had corn rows spaced in 1 m with a row of soybeans in the interrow. The second had double corn rows interspersed with one row of soybeans, all spaced in 0.50 m. In both trials, we used a randomized block design, in a 2x2+3 factorial scheme, with four replications. Primary factor consisted of two types of pre-sowing fertilization: one only in corn rows and the other over the total area. The secondary factor corresponded to two soybean varieties: medium and late cycle variety. In addition, three control treatments were made: one of corn and two of soybeans. The corn cutoff point was at the hard farinaceous stage when the milk line reaches half the grain, and in the sole crop soybean at the R5.5 final phase of grain filling. Silage was stored in PVC experimental silos for 60 days. The intercropped treatments, in both spatial arrangements, promoted increases in neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber contents. Soybean monoculture presented high values of crude protein and ethereal extract. There were higher effluent losses in medium-cycle soybean variety silage when it was grown in single cropping. However, the lowest effluent losses were recorded for silages of medium-cycle soybean intercropped under a double row pre-sowing corn fertilization system. The soybeans mixed silages produced together with corn under off-season conditions did not yield satisfactory results.


Objetivou-se neste trabalho adequar o sistema de consórcio entre milho com tolerância ao herbicida glifosato (RR - Roundup Ready) e soja RR para obtenção de silagem de qualidade em condições do Cerrado brasileiro. A pesquisa foi conduzida na safrinha entre fevereiro e junho de 2015, em Rio Verde, Goiás (Brasil). A pluviosidade do período experimental foi de 865mm e a temperatura média de 23,7°C. Realizou-se dois ensaios, adequando formas de adubação de semeadura, arranjo de plantas e cultivares. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, em fatorial 2x2+3, com quatro repetições, sendo o fator primário duas modalidades de adubação de semeadura na linha: somente no milho, e em área total; o fator secundário correspondeu a duas variedades de soja: ciclo médio e tardio; mais três testemunhas: uma de milho e duas de soja. O ponto de corte do milho foi no estádio farináceo duro quando a linha do leite atinge metade do grão, e na soja em monocultivo no estádio fenológico R5.5, fase final de enchimento de grãos. Armazenou-se a silagem em silos experimentais de PVC por 60 dias. Os tratamentos de consórcio em ambos os arranjos aumentaram os teores de fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido. Os monocultivos de soja obtiveram valores elevados de proteína bruta e extrato etéreo. Ocorreu maior perda por efluente na silagem da variedade de soja de ciclo médio cultivada em monocultivo. No entanto, as menores perdas por efluente foram registradas para silagens de culturas de soja de ciclo médio consorciadas sob um sistema de fertilização pré-semeadura de linha de milho, no arranjo de linha dupla. A inserção de soja para produzir silagens mista juntamente com o milho em condições de safrinha não teve resultados satisfatórios.


Subject(s)
Silage , Soybeans , Zea mays , Plants, Genetically Modified
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