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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e18310, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350230

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the anticholinesterase activities of extracts and fractions of Ocotea daphnifolia in vitro and characterize its constituents. The effects of hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanolic extracts on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity were determined with a spectrophotometry assay. All extracts inhibited cholinesterase activity, and the ethanolic extract (2 mg/mL) exhibited the highest inhibition of both enzymes (99.7% for BuChE and 82.4% for AChE). The ethanolic extract was fractionated by column chromatography resulting in 14 fractions that were also screened for their anticholinesterase effects. Fraction 9 (2 mg/mL) showed the highest activity, inhibiting AChE and BuChE by 71.8% and 90.2%, respectively. This fraction was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry which allowed the characterization of seven glycosylated flavonoids (containing kaempferol and quercetin nucleus) and one alkaloid (reticuline). In order to better understand the enzyme-inhibitor interaction of the reticuline toward cholinesterase, molecular modeling studies were performed. Reticuline targeted the catalytic activity site of the enzymes. Ocotea daphnifolia exhibits a dual cholinesterase inhibitory activity and displays the same pattern of intermolecular interactions as described in the literature. The alkaloid reticuline can be considered as an important bioactive constituent of this plant.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/analysis , Lauraceae/classification , Ocotea/adverse effects , Molecular Docking Simulation/instrumentation , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Acetylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Flavonoids , Butyrylcholinesterase/adverse effects , Alkaloids
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19130, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350226

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting a great part of population around the world. It is the fifth leading death causing disease in the world and its cases are increasing day by day. Traditional medicine is thought to have promising future in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In contrast to synthetic drugs phytochemicals are considered to be free from side effects. As one of the main class of natural products, alkaloids and their derivatives have been widely used as sources of pharmacological agents against a variety of medical problems. Many studies confirmed the role of alkaloids in the management of diabetes and numerous alkaloids isolated from different medicinal plants were found active against diabetes. Like other natural products, alkaloids regulate glucose metabolism either by inhibiting or inducing multiple candidate proteins including AMP-activated protein kinase, glucose transporters, glycogen synthase kinase-3, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase among the others. A comprehensive review of alkaloids reported in the literature with anti-diabetic activities and their target enzymes is conducted, with the aim to help in exploring the use of alkaloids as anti-diabetic agents. Future work should focus on rigorous clinical studies of the alkaloids, their development and relevant drug targets.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Alkaloids/analysis , Phytochemicals/analysis , Metabolism , Sterols/adverse effects , Biological Products , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Glucose-6-Phosphatase/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Synthetic Drugs
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17707, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142495

ABSTRACT

Solidago chilensis Meyen (= Solidago microglossa) popularly known as "Brazilian arnica" is used to treat of inflammatory disorders. S. chilensis is constant in the Therapeutic Memento of the Rio de Janeiro city and belongs to the medicinal species of Brazilian National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest of the Unified National Health System (SUS). There are no studies in the literature showing the direct activity of this plant species on immune system cells. The present study evaluated the chemical composition as well as the cytotoxic and pharmacological activity of the ether-ethanol extract from S. chilensis inflorescences (SCIE) in murine macrophage cell line J774A.1. The results showed that higher concentrations (50 to 200 µg/mL) of SCIE had significant cytotoxicity on J774A.1 cells, however, lower concentrations (from 10 to 0.1 µg/mL) did not produce significant cytotoxic effects and exhibited an inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated J774A.1 cell line. The chemical analysis by HPLC-UV-PDA indicated that the SCIE contains flavonoid derived from quercetin and kaempferol; and diterpenes, probably labdanes. These findings complement data in the literature regarding the activity of this plant species on an important cell from the immune system involved in the innate and acquired immune response, the macrophages.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Arnica/adverse effects , Asteraceae/classification , Quercetin/analysis , Flavonoids/adverse effects , Cells , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Immune System
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(2): e16098, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839473

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The bark tea of Ceiba speciosa, a tropical tree of the Malvaceae family, is used in the Northwestern Region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, to reduce blood cholesterol levels. However, there are no scientific data on the efficacy and safety of this plant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and toxic potential of bark extracts of C. speciosa. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and evaluated the oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, the radical scavenging effect, and genotoxicity of the lyophilized aqueous extract (LAECs) and the precipitate obtained from the raw ethanol extract (Cs1). The phytochemical profile demonstrated the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The LAECs and Cs1 prevented damage to lipids and proteins at concentrations of 50 and 10 µg/mL. They also showed a scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, no genotoxic effect was observed at concentrations of 10, 5 and 2 µg/mL in the Comet assay. The present study is the first evaluation regarding the characterization of C. speciosa and its safety, and the results demonstrate its antioxidant potential and suggest that its therapeutic use may be relatively safe.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Toxicity , Malvaceae/classification , Phenolic Compounds/classification , Antioxidants/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Comet Assay/statistics & numerical data
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e17298, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889413

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The essential oil composition of the Ocotea bicolor, native plant of Brazil, was studied for the first time. The essential oil of the leaf was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The analytical procedure revealed a predominance of sesquiterpenes, δ-cadinene (7.39%), ß-sesquiphellandrene (6.67%), ß-elemene (5.41%) and α-cadinol (5,23%). The essential oil was submitted to brine shrimp toxicity evaluation, antioxidant and antibacterial tests. The antioxidant activity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex method presented positive results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were higher than 1000 µg/mL for the microorganisms tested. Toxicity activity revealed LC50 results of 40.10 (µg/mL), being toxic to the organisms in this study


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile/analysis , Lauraceae/classification , Lauraceae/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Ocotea/adverse effects
6.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(3): 433-442, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828269

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa L.- Nyctaginaceae) is a promising drug to rejuvenate new cells in the body. It is well known in Ayurvedic medicine and locally called Tambadivasu. Superficially it is similar to other species of Boerhaavia and species of Trianthema and Sesuvium. Due to the minute morphological differences, the above plants are erroneously used in medicine as Punarnava, and at times on purpose as an adulterant. Therefore, it is necessary to highlight the anatomical features of Punarnava for proper identification of the medicinal plant species for local people and for scientific research. Due to the ambiguity in local names and similar apparent appearance, market samples of Punarnava are often adulterated with various species of Trianthema and Sesuvium. These adulterated samples contain neither the Punarnavine alkaloid, nor does it possess anisocytic stomata but possess paracytic stomata. Comparative study of stem anatomy showed two main characteristic differences. First, plenty of starch grains can be seen in both the ground parenchymatous tissues present in between successive cambia and xylem parenchyma of Punarnava which is not observed in species of Trianthema, and second, the phloem around the xylem of Punarnava root has semi-circular or eccentric patches, while that of Trianthema only has narrow strips. This study is focused on comparative SEM study of leaf morphologies and anatomy of leaf, stem, and root of Boerhaavia diffusa L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesuvium portulacastrum L.


Subject(s)
Comparative Study , Nyctaginaceae/anatomy & histology , Medicine, Ayurvedic , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology
7.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 408-414, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787946

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pseudobrickelliabrasiliensisis aspecies endemic toBrazil, popularlyknown as “arnica”/ “arnica-do-campo”/ “arnica-do-mato” and used for itsanalgesicand anti-inflammatoryproperties. The objective of this research was thephytochemical studyof the essential oilandhexaneandethyl acetateextracts of the leaves of this species. The essential oilwasextracted byhydrodistillation using a Clevengerapparatusand was analyzed byGC/MS, 25components were identified, with a predominance ofmonoterpenes. The extractswere subjected toclassicalchromatographyand the fractionswere analyzed byGC/MS, 1D 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 13C-NMR-DEPT 135.α-amyrin, α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin, β-amyrin acetate, lupeol, lupeolacetate, pseudotaraxasterol andtaraxasterol (triterpenes), andkaurenoicacid (diterpene) were identified.Theseterpenesarechemo-taxonomicallyrelated to theEupatorieaetribe(Asteraceae) and may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to the plant.


RESUMO Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis é uma espécie endêmica do Brasil, popularmente conhecida como “arnica”/ “arnica-do-campo”/ “arnica-do-mato” e usada por suas propriedades analgésica e antiinflamatória. O objetivo do trabalho foi o estudo fitoquímico do óleo essencial e dos extratos hexânico e em acetato de etila das folhas dessa espécie. O óleo essencial foi extraído por hidrodestilação em aparato de Clevenger e foi analisado por CG/EM, sendo identificados 25 componentes, com predomínio de monoterpenos. Os extratos foram submetidos a cromatografia clássica, e as frações foram analisadas por CG/EM, 1D 1H-RMN, 13C-RMN e 13C-RMN-DEPT 135. Foram identificados α-amirina, acetato de α-amirina, β-amirina, acetato de β-amirina, lupeol, acetato de lupeol, pseudotaraxasterol e taraxasterol (triterpenos) e o ácido caurenóico (diterpeno). Estes terpenos estão quimiotaxonomicamente relacionados a tribo Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) e podem ser responsáveis pela atividade antiinflamatória atribuída a planta.


Subject(s)
Asteraceae/chemistry , Solidago/chemistry , Phytochemicals/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Terpenes/classification
8.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 488-493, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787947

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Medicinal plants with essential oils in their composition havetypicallybeen shown to be promising in plant control. Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is cited for its allelopathic effects. This study evaluated the allelopathic potential of dried sage leaves in vegetation, soil and the development of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato), Panicum maximum Jacq. (guinea grass) and Salvia hispanica L. (chia) plants. Three seedlings were transplanted seven days after germination in 1 kg plastic containers with soil, in a greenhouse. The grinded dry mass of sage was placed at rates of 3.75; 7.5 15 t ha-1, and a control (no mass). After 30 days, the chlorophyll index of tomato and guinea grass plants were inhibited with 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 sage cover crops. Tomato shoot length was inhibited in all tested rates, and guinea grass plants showed some reduction in growth when using the highest rate of sage mass (15 t ha-1). The dry mass of tomato and guinea grass plants was reduced when using the15 t ha-1, and 7.5 and 15 t ha-1 of sage cover crops, respectively. It can be concluded that there was some effect of sage coverage on the soil in tomato and guinea grass, but no effect was observed on chia plants.


RESUMO As plantas medicinais que apresentam óleos essenciais em sua composição normalmente têm se mostrado promissoras no controle de plantas. A sálvia (Salvia officinalis L.) é citada por seus efeitos alelopáticos. Assim, esse estudo avaliou o potencial alelopático das folhas secas de sálvia na cobertura vegetal, no solo, sobre o desenvolvimento das plantas de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomate), Panicum maximum Jacq. (capim mombaça) e Salvia hispanica L. (chia). Três plântulas foram transplantadas, sete dias após germinação, em vasos plásticos de 1 kg, com terra, em casa de vegetação. Sobre elas foi disposta a massa seca triturada de sálvia nas proporções 3,75; 7,5 e 15 t ha-1, além da testemunha (sem massa). Após 30 dias, o teor de clorofila das plantas de tomate e capim mombaça foi inibido com 7,5 e 15 t ha-1 de sálvia em cobertura. O comprimento da parte aérea do tomate foi inibido em todas as proporções testadas e as plantas de capim mombaça apresentaram redução do crescimento quando se utilizou 15 t ha-1 de sálvia como cobertura. A massa seca das plantas de tomate e capim mombaça reduziu com o uso de 15 t ha-1 e, 7,5 e 15 t ha-1 de sálvia como cobertura, respectivamente. Finalmente, pode-se concluir que houve efeito da sálvia em cobertura sobre o solo em tomate e capim mombaça, mas não houve efeito da mesma sobre as plantas de chia.


Subject(s)
Allelopathy/physiology , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Salvia officinalis/classification , Lycopersicon esculentum/classification , Panicum/classification
9.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2,supl.1): 571-581, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-830063

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O presente trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo anatômico comparativo entre duas espécies de Euphorbia L. e duas de Phyllanthus L. conhecidas popularmente por quebra-pedra, a fim de contribuir com a identificação das espécies, visando o controle de qualidade e testes histoquímicos para conhecimento e localização de substâncias, com intuito de fornecer subsídios para futuros estudos. As quatro espécies estudadas foram coletadas na cidade de São Mateus-ES. Foram realizadas análises anatômicas e histoquímicas da lâmina foliar. Em vista frontal, E. prostrata apresenta paredes celulares poligonais, enquanto em E. hyssopifolia as paredes são sinuosas. As espécies de Euphorbia se diferenciam pela presença de canais laticíferos e estrutura Kranz. Somente nas espécies de Phyllanthus foram observados cristais de oxalato de cálcio. P. tenellus difere de P. amarus pela presença de cristais romboédricos e P. amarus por exibir cristais prismáticos no mesofilo. O estudo anatômico foliar foi de grande relevância para a diferenciação das espécies conhecidas por quebra-pedra, revelando ser um parâmetro eficaz e que pode auxiliar no controle de qualidade de plantas medicinais, bem como os testes histoquímicos podem fornecer informações para futuros estudos com quebra-pedra.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to compare the anatomical and histochemical perspective between two species of Euphorbia L. and two of Phyllanthus L., to contribute to their identification, aiming the quality control of medicinal plans. The four studied species were collected in the city of São Mateus, ES, Brazil. We performed anatomical and histochemical analyses of leaves, and all parameters were effective for species differentiation. In the anatomical analyses, we observed crystals only in the Phyllanthus species. Euphorbia species differed by the presence of laticifer channels and Kranz structure. In frontal and cross-sectional view, P. tenellus differs from P. amarus by the presence of rhombohedral crystals. In front view, E. prostate presents polygonal cell walls, while in E. hyssopifolia the walls are winding. In the histochemical tests conducted on the leaf blade, P. amarus stands out by presenting negative reaction to ferric chloride. The anatomical and histochemical studies of leaves are really important to the knowledge and differentiation of species known as stonebreaker. However, phytochemical studies are needed for more detailed knowledge of substances from the secondary metabolism of the plant.


Subject(s)
Euphorbia prostata/analysis , Immunohistochemistry/statistics & numerical data , Phyllanthus/anatomy & histology , Comparative Study , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology
10.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4): 543-549, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-763218

ABSTRACT

RESUMOO objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar o efeito do solo pré-cultivado com plantas aromáticas na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface cv. Simpson. A pesquisa foi realizada na Embrapa Hortaliças, Brasília, em bandejas mantidas em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e onze tratamentos: solo pré-cultivado com hortelã-comum (Mentha x villosa), hortelã-brava (Mentha arvensis), hortelã-pimenta (Mentha piperita), Mentha spp., capim-citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus), capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus), manjericão de folha larga (Ocimum basilicum), manjericão de folha roxa (Ocimum gratissimun), tomilho (Thymus vulgaris), sálvia (Salvia officinalis) e solo da mesma área sem cultivo prévio de planta aromática (controle). Aos 30 dias após o semeio, foram avaliadas: índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE), taxa de sobrevivência (TS), número de folhas (NF), comprimento da raiz principal (CRP) e da parte aérea (CPA), massa fresca da raiz (MFR) e da parte aérea (MFPA) e massa seca da raiz (MSR) e da parte aérea (MSPA). Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. Houve diferença significativa em relação ao IVE, sendo que o tratamento com C. citratus afetou negativamente a emergência das plântulas. O tratamento com M. arvensis apresentou uma TS de apenas 16% das plantas aos 30 dias após a semeadura. O NF foi menor no tratamento com M. arvensis, diferentemente de todos os demais, exceto S. officinalis. A MRF e MFF foram estimuladas pelo tratamento com T. vulgaris sendo superior a todos os outros tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que houve efeito negativo de M. arvensis e positivo de T. vulgaris no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de alface.


ABSTRACTThis study aimed to verify the outcomesof the soil previously treated with aromatic plants in the germination and early seedling growth of lettuce var. Simpson under greenhouse conditions. The trial was developed at Embrapa Vegetables, in Brasília, Brazil in a completely randomized design with three replications and composed by eleven treatments as follow: soil cultivated with apple-mint (Mentha x villosa), wild mint (Mentha arvensis), peppermint (Mentha piperita), Mentha spp., citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus), lemon grass (Cymbopogoncitratus), basil (Ocimum basilicum), african basil (Ocimum gratissimun), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), sage (Salvia officinalis) and soil from the same area without prior cultivation of aromatic plant (control). The emergence velocity index (IVE), the survival rate (SR), the number of leaves (NL), the length of the main root (CRP) and the shoot (CPA), the fresh mass of the root (MFR) and the shoot (MFPA) and the dry mass of the root (MSR) and the shoot (MSPA), were evaluated 30 days after the sowing. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey's test at 5% probability. There was a significant difference regarding the IVE, in which the treatment with C.citratus negatively affected seedlingappearance. The treatment with M. arvensis showeda TS of only 16%at 30 days after the sowing. The NF was lower in the treatment with M. arvensis, differently from all the others, excepting the cultivation withS. officinalis. The MFR and the MFPA were stimulated by the treatment with T. vulgaris, which was higher than all the other cultivations. The obtained results showed that M. arvensis had a negative influence,while T.vulgaris presented a positive outcome in the early development of lettuce seedlings.


Subject(s)
Germination , Lettuce/classification , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Soil Analysis , Allelopathy , Plant Exudates/analysis , Rhizosphere
11.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4): 622-630, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-763229

ABSTRACT

RESUMOO trabalho teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos dos estresses hídrico e salino na germinação de sementes de Petiveria alliacea , bem como definir os limites máximos de tolerância da espécie a esses estresses. As sementes foram submetidas aos agentes osmóticos NaCl, CaCl2 e PEG nos potenciais à 0; -0,1; -0,2; -0,3; -0,4; -0,5; -0,6; -0,7; -0,8; -0,9 e -1,0 MPa sob temperatura constante de 25˚C e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, com avaliações diárias durante 30 dias. As variáveis analisadas foram porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação, tempo médio de germinação, índice de sincronização e frequência relativa da germinação. As sementes de P. alliacea sob estresse osmótico apresentam menor porcentagem e velocidade de germinação com a redução dos potencias osmóticos, principalmente com CaCl2. Em potenciais osmóticos mais negativos que -0,4; -0,5 e -0,7 MPa, respectivamente nos agentes CaCl2, NaCl, e PEG, não ocorre germinação. O padrão de distribuição da frequência relativa aumentou a polimodalidade, o tempo médio de germinação e o índice de sincronização da germinação com a redução dos potencias osmóticos.


ABSTRACTThe study aimed to investigate the effects of water and salt stress on seed germination of Petiveria alliacea, as well as to define the limits of tolerance of the species to these stresses. The seeds were subjected to osmotic agents NaCl, CaCl2 and PEG in the potential 0; -0.1; -0.2; -0.3; -0.4; -0.5; -0.6; -0.7; -0.8; -0.9 and -1.0 MPa at a constant temperature of 25˚C and a photoperiod of 12 hours, with daily assessments for 30 days. The variables studied were germination percentage, germination velocity index, middle fear germination, synchronization index and relative frequency of germination. The seeds of P. alliacea under osmotic stress had lower percentage and speed of germination with the reduction of the the osmotic potential, especially with CaCl2. At more negative osmotic potentials than -0.4; -0.5 and -0.7 MPa, respectively in the CaCl2, NaCl, and PEG agents, the germination does not occur. The distribution pattern of the relative frequency increased the several modalities, , the average time of germination and the germination index of synchronization with the reduction of osmotic potential.


Subject(s)
Dehydration/physiopathology , Germination/physiology , Petiveria tetrandra/analysis , Guinea , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology
12.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(3): 444-453, Jul-Sep/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752556

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A espécie Arrabidaea chica pertencente à família Bignoniaceae é também conhecida popularmente como crajiru. É Utilizada tradicionalmente no tratamento de enfermidades da pele, inflamações, infecções, dentre outros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção de biomassa aérea, teor e rendimento de extrato de crajiru em função de diferentes fontes de adubo orgânico em Manaus, AM. As mudas foram formadas através de estacas e mantidas por 60 dias em casa de vegetação. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 5x3 com delineamento em blocos casualizados onde os níveis dos fatores foram as diferentes fontes de adubo orgânico: composto (5,0 kg/m2), esterco de aves (3,0 kg/m2), casca de guaraná (4,0 kg/m2), esterco de gado (4,0 kg/m2) e controle (ausência), e os três morfotipos de crajiru. Obedeceu-se o espaçamento de 1,0x1,0 m entre planta e 2,0 m entre blocos. Após 240 dias foram avaliadas a produção de folhas e caules, relação folha/caule, teor de extratos hexânico concentrado em evaporador rotativo obtido pela fórmula: (massa do extrato/massa da amostra total)x100; e o rendimento de extrato estimado pela equação: (%extrato x massa seca total das folhas)/100. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias ao Teste de Tukey (p<0,05). As fontes de adubo orgânico promoveram melhor desenvolvimento das plantas de, exceto para o morfotipo 1. O esterco de aves proporcionou maior produção de biomassa, teor e rendimento de extratos. Dessa forma, sugere-se que a adubação orgânica propicia maior produção de biomassa, teor e rendimento de extratos de A. chica.


ABSTRACT The Arrabidaea chicaspecies belongs to the Bignoniaceae family and is also popularly known as crajiru. It is traditionally used to treat skin diseases, inflammations and infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass production, the content and the yield of crajiru extract in face of different sources of organic fertilizer in Manaus, AM. The seedlings were formed by cuttings and kept for 60 days in a greenhouse. The trial was conducted in a 5x3 factorial design with randomized block organization where the factor levels were different sources of organic fertilizer: compound (5.0 kg / m 2), chicken manure (3.0 kg / m 2), bark guarana (4.0 kg / m2), cattle manure (4.0 kg / m 2) and control (absence), and the three morphotypes of crajiru. It was obeyed the spacing between the plants (1,0 x1,0m) and the blocks (2,0m) . After 240 days it were evaluated the production of leaves and stems, the leaf / stem ratio, and the content of hexane extracts concentrated by rotary evaporation obtained by the following formula: (mass of extract / mass of total sample) x100; and the yield estimated by the equation extract: (% extract x total dry mass of leaves) / 100. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and means to the Tukey"s test (p <0.05). The sources of organic fertilizer promoted better development of plants, except for the morphotype 1. The poultry manure provided higher biomass, content and yield of extracts. Thus, it is suggested that the organic fertilizer provides greater biomass production, content and yield of A. chica extracts.


Subject(s)
Bignoniaceae/classification , Biomass , Plant Extracts/analysis , Crops, Agricultural/classification , Manure/classification , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology
13.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(2): 262-266, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-746124

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The consumption of preparations of medicinal plants has been increasing during the last decades in occidental societies. The presence of toxigenic fungi in a plant product may represent a potential risk of contamination, because of aflatoxins and ochratoxins. In this study, 12 samples of medicinal plants were analyzed in relation to the level of fungal contamination, and the presence of producers of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins was assessed by visualization of fungi using a cromatovisor in coconut milk. Most of the species found belong to the genus Cladosporium, Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Species producing ochratoxin A were present in 2 samples (16.7%), Melissa and Hibiscus. Species producing aflatoxin were found in samples of Jacaranda decurrens (8.33%). This study suggests that herbs, if stored improperly, can provide the growth of fungi and should be examined before consumption.


RESUMO: O consumo das plantas medicinais vem aumentando nas últimas décadas nas sociedades ocidentais, porém, a presença de fungos toxigênicos nestas plantas pode representar um risco em potencial de contaminação devido à produção de aflatoxinas e ocratoxinas. Neste trabalho, 12 amostras de plantas medicinais foram analisadas em relação ao nível de contaminação por fungos, enquanto a presença de produtores de ocratoxina A e aflatoxinas foi avaliada pela visualização em cromatovisor dos fungos em meio de leite de coco. A maioria das espécies encontradas pertence aos gêneros Cladosporium, Fusarium, Aspergillus e Penicillium. Espécies produtoras de ocratoxina A estavam presentes em 2 amostras (16,7%), Melissa e Hibisco. Espécies produtoras de aflatoxina foram encontradas na amostra de Carobinha (8,33%). Este trabalho sugere que as ervas, sendo armazenadas inadequadamente, proporcionam o crescimento de fungos e, por isso, estes devem ser examinados antes do consumo.


Subject(s)
Mycotoxins , Aflatoxins/pharmacology , Aspergillus/classification , Ochratoxins/pharmacology , Penicillium/classification , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology
14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(1): 76-104, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742923

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as plantas medicinais de uso popular e o perfil socioeconômico de seus usuários em área urbana de Ouro Preto, MG. O levantamento utilizou entrevistas semiestruturadas e amostragem aleatória, perfazendo 10% das residências. O grau de conhecimento sobre plantas medicinais foi medido pelo número de espécies citadas. Analisou-se a relação entre o saber popular sobre as plantas medicinais e características socioeconômicas dos entrevistados (renda, escolaridade, sexo, idade e forma de aquisição do conhecimento). Foram questionadas 6.713 pessoas, onde mais de 90% usam plantas medicinais para se tratarem. Identificou-se 342 espécies, reunidas em 94 famílias. Para cada espécie foram referidos os nomes populares, hábito, procedência, uso medicinal, parte usada, e forma de preparo. As principais moléstias tratadas com plantas foram: diarreia, insônia, gripe, hidropisia, distúrbios hepáticos, renais e do trato respiratório. Há um grande número de espécies nativas utilizadas. Dentre as exóticas, a maioria é de origem europeia. O uso místico de espécies, embora presente na cultura popular do município, foi pouco citado. Algumas espécies identificadas figuram na lista das espécies ameaçadas de extinção. O grau de conhecimento sobre plantas medicinais pela população de Ouro Preto independe, tanto do nível econômico, como da escolaridade ou do sexo. A idade e a forma de aquisição do conhecimento influenciam no saber popular das ervas medicinais. As pessoas com maior saber popular sobre as plantas adquiriram esses conhecimentos principalmente pelo costume familiar, por livros, ou por outras pessoas. Pessoas mais jovens conhecem menos espécies medicinais que as mais idosas, sugerindo risco de perda desse conhecimento tradicional. A grande riqueza de plantas citadas neste trabalho denota a importância de estudos etnobotânicos no resgate do conhecimento tradicional em áreas urbanas, tanto pelo seu valor histórico-cultural, como pela importância científica.


This work aimed to identify the medicinal plants of popular use and the socioeconomic profile of the users in the urban area of Ouro Preto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The survey was carried out with random sampling and semi-structured interviews, amounting to 10% of households. The degree of knowledge about medicinal plants was measured by the number of species mentioned. The relationship between the popular knowledge about medicinal plants and the socioeconomic characteristics of the users (income, education, gender, age and type of knowledge acquisition) was also studied. In this survey, 6,713 inhabitants were questioned, of whom more than 90% use medicinal plants. A total of 342 species grouped in 94 families were identified. The popular names, growth habit, habitat, medicinal uses, part used and method of preparation are listed for each identified species. The main ailments treated with plants were diarrhea, insomnia, flu, dropsy and liver, renal and respiratory tract disorders. There is a large number of native species. Among the exotic ones, most are of European origin. The spiritual use of species, although present in the popular culture of the city, was negligible. Some species figure on the Brazilian red lists. It was noted that knowledge of medicinal plants by the population of Ouro Preto, in species richness, is not related to income, class, educational level and gender. The age and manner of acquisition of empirical knowledge about medicinal plants are associated with the number of species listed. Persons with greater popular knowledge about medicinal plants acquired information through family tradition, books and from other persons. Younger persons know fewer medicinal plants than the older ones, what suggests a loss of this traditional knowledge. The richness of the plants mentioned in this paper demonstrates the importance of ethnobotanical studies in the rescue of traditional knowledge in urban areas, for its scientific, historical and cultural values.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Social Class , Urban Area , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Ethnobotany/methods
15.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(1): 157-163, Jan-Mar/2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742932

ABSTRACT

A investigação de plantas medicinais como recurso terapêutico para combater o alcoolismo ainda é muito insipiente com poucas espécies investigadas. No presente trabalho avaliamos o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas da planta Piper caldense C. DC. com relação ao consumo de álcool e também a sua potencialidade ansiolítica. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar machos, os quais foram divididos em grupos controle (solução fisiológica) e tratado (extrato da planta nas doses de 25, 50 e 150 mg/kg, e diazepam 2 mg/kg). Os animais foram tratados através da via intraperitoneal 1 h antes dos experimentos. Os modelos animais utilizados foram: Labirinto em Cruz Elevado (LCE) e auto-administração de álcool (AA). No LCE o extrato não apresentou efeito ansiolítico do tipo benzodiazepínico. Por outro lado, no comportamento relacionado a auto-administração de solução de álcool, o extrato apresentou efeito significativo reduzindo o consumo de álcool em relação ao grupo controle. Apesar do extrato não ter apresentado efeito ansiolítico, o mesmo parece apresentar potencialidades para combater o abuso e a dependência de álcool.


The investigation of medicinal plants as therapeutic resources in the combat of alcoholism is still very incipient with few species being investigated. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Piper caldense C. DC. in relation to alcohol consumption and also its anxiolytic potentiality. Male Wistar rats, which had been separated into control group (saline) and treated group (Plant extract doses of 25, 50 and 150 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg of diazepam), were used. Animals were injected intraperitoneally 1 h before the tests. The following models were used: Elevated plus maze (EPM) and alcohol self-administration (ASA). In the EPM, the extract did not show benzodiazepine anxiolytic effect. On the other hand, in the behavior related to alcohol self-administration, the extract showed a significant effect, reducing alcohol consumption compared to the control group. Although the extract has not shown any anxiolytic effect, the results suggest that the plant has potential to combat alcohol abuse and addiction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alcohol Drinking/physiopathology , Piperaceae/anatomy & histology , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Rats , Therapeutics/classification
16.
Rojasiana ; 14(2): 33-39, 2015.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-965751

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El "ka'avotyre'y", Phoradendron obtusissimum (V iscaceae), es una especie empleada con fines medicinales en Paraguay para tratar enfermedades hepáticas. El presente trabajo se desarrolló dentro del marco del proyecto "Conservación, fortalecimiento y uso sostenible de la flora de Itá Azul y San Gervasio, Colonia Independencia, Reserva de Recursos Manejados Ybytyruzu, Paraguay" y tuvo por objetivo describir la morfoanatomía de P . obtusissimum. Los caracteres diferenciales son: estomas paracíticos en ambas epidermis, índice estomático en epidermis adaxial (5,71)-6,62-(8,33) y en epidermis abaxial (6,45)-1 1,20-(14,29); presencia de drusas en todo el mesófilo. Se presentan así elementos de diagnóstico útiles a la hora de identificar a la especie estudiada. Palabras clave: Phoradendron obtusissimum, morfoanatomía, planta medicinal.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Viscaceae/anatomy & histology , Phoradendron/anatomy & histology , Medicine, Traditional , Paraguay , Liver Diseases/drug therapy
17.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.1): 737-747, 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-770360

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A utilização de plantas medicinais para o tratamento de doenças tropicais como a malária na Amazônia Central é de suma importância, principalmente em locais onde o sistema único de saúde não se encontra presente como na maioria das comunidades ribeirinhas desta região. Sendo assim, investigar e resgatar o conhecimento popular a respeito de plantas medicinais utilizadas no tratamento de malária e males associados pelos moradores da comunidade Julião situada na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Tupé, Manaus-AM, torna-se importante no registro de como as populações locais se previnem e tratam essa doença tão prevalente e perigosa na região. O trabalho foi conduzido na forma de oficinas participativas, segregadas por gênero e complementadas com entrevistas semiestruturadas aliadas à técnica da turnê-guiada nos quintais e floresta adjacente à comunidade. Foram calculados os índices de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener, equitabilidade e concordância quanto ao uso principal (CUP). A partir da colaboração efetiva de 13 comunitários foram registradas 62 espécies vegetais pertencentes a 53 gêneros e 34 famílias botânicas que resultaram em índice de diversidade (H’) de 1,62 decits e equitabilidade de 0,9. As famílias mais representativas foram: Fabaceae (7 espécies), Asteraceae e Lamiaceae (4 espécies cada) e Solanaceae e Rutaceae (3 espécies cada). Vale destacar que 16 espécies (25,8%) foram citadas para tratamento de malária e males associados pela primeira vez em estudos etnobotânicos realizados na América Latina.


ABSTRACT The use of medicinal plants in order to treat tropical diseases such as malaria is of extreme importance, particularly in places where the public health system is not present as in most coastal communities of the Amazonia region. That being stated, investigating and rediscovering the popular knowledge of medicinal plants used to treat malaria and its associated diseases by the residents of the Julião community, located in RDS Tupé, Manaus-AM, becomes relevant in recording how local populations prevent and treat this disease so prevalent and dangerous in this region. In order to carry out this study, it was implemented an ethnobotanical survey through workshops organized in categories and semi-structured interviews as well as guided tours by residents of the community in their backyards and nearby forest areas. The Shannon-Wiener diversity indicators were calculated, measuring equitability and concurrence regarding its main use (CUP). From the effective collaboration of 13 community members, 62 plant species belonging to 53 types and 34 botanic families were observed,which resulted in a diversity index (H ‘) and equitability of 1.62 decits 0.9. The most significant botanical families shown in the survey were: Fabaceae (7 species), Asteraceae (4 species), Lamiaceae (4 species), Solanaceae (3 species) and Rubiaceae (3 species). It is worth to highlight that 16 species (25.8%) were mentioned for malaria treatment and associated diseases, for the first time in ethnobotanical studies conducted in Latin America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Community-Based Participatory Research/methods , Ethnobotany/methods , Malaria/diagnosis , Medicine, Traditional/statistics & numerical data , Neglected Diseases/classification , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology
18.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.1): 667-678, 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770366

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC (Apocynaceae) is used as a medicinal plant by the population. In order to contribute to the safe use of the plant as herbal medicine, this study aimed to morphoanatomically characterize the aereal vegetative organs of T. catharinensis and to evaluate the leaves’ mutagenic and antimutagenic activities. Histological blades of leaves and stem of T. catharinensis were performed; the methionine system (methG1) and Aspergillusnidulans conidia germination analysis were employed for mutagenic and antimutagenic evaluation. The morphoanatomic analysis did not show trichomes in the stem, petiole and leaf. Besides, it was observed both the presence of bi-collateral bundles - except in the foliar apex where the bundles were from the collateral type - as well as anamphistomatic leaf with paracyte stomata and sub-epidermal layer in the region of the leaf edges. The mutagenicity/antimutagenicity trial indicated a significant decrease of mutation frequency in comparison with the control group and showed that the T. catharinensis had antimutagenic activity within the type, time and form of treatment. Since the germination test showed that the conidia germination was accelerated from the bud phase, activities at the cell cycle level and polarized growth proved to be possible. The morphoanatomic analysis of the leaf and stem associated with the mutagenic and antimutagenic analyses contributes to the safe use of the plant by humans and also for the quality control of a possible phytotherapeutic drug.


RESUMO Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC (Apocynaceae) é utilizada como planta medicinal pela população. A fim de contribuir para o uso seguro da planta como medicinal, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente os órgãos vegetativos aéreos de T. catharinensis e avaliar a atividade mutagênica e antimutagênica de suas folhas. Foram realizados cortes histológicos da folha e do caule de T. catharinensis e, para a avaliação mutagênica e antimutagênica, foi utilizado o sistema metionina (methG1) e análise da germinação de conídios em Aspergillus nidulans. A análise morfoanatômica evidenciou a ausência de tricomas no caule, pecíolo e folha; presença de feixes bicolaterais, com exceção no ápice foliar cujos feixes são do tipo colateral; folha anfiestomática com estômatos paracíticos e camada subepidérmica na região do bordo foliar. O ensaio de mutagenicidade/antimutagenicidade mostrou uma diminuição significativa da frequência de mutação em relação ao controle, indicando que nesse tipo, tempo e forma de tratamento, T. catharinensis apresentou atividade antimutagênica. O ensaio de germinação evidenciou que houve aceleração da germinação dos conídios, a partir da fase de botão, indicando uma possível atuação em nível de ativação de ciclo celular e crescimento polarizado. A análise morfoanatômica da folha e do caule associados à análise mutagênica e antimutagênica, contribuem para o uso seguro da planta pela população e para o controle de qualidade de um possível fitoterápico.


Subject(s)
Antimutagenic Agents/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Tabernaemontana/classification , Genotoxicity/methods , Methionine/pharmacology
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(4): 856-865, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729894

ABSTRACT

A utilização de plantas medicinais é instintiva nos animais, visto que alguns destes buscam raízes, cascas, folhas ou frutos na tentativa de resolver seus males. O homem, por sua vez, aprendeu a utilizar estas informações empiricamente para fazer uso destes vegetais. A medicina popular é uma importante alternativa, provavelmente, a mais usada para a cura de doenças por parte de populações indígenas, quilombolas ou rurais. A Etnobotânica, por sua vez, encarrega-se de estudar e interpretar essa relação dos homens com o mundo vegetal. Devido ao seu grande potencial biológico e cultural, o Brasil apresenta uma infinidade de conhecimentos tradicionais e espécies vegetais importantes, o que torna esse país uma grande fonte de pesquisa na área. Visando avaliar o conhecimento tradicional da população rural do Sisal, Catu/Bahia, relacionado ao uso de plantas medicinais, este trabalho iniciou-se em julho de 2009, constando de entrevistas semi-estruturadas e estruturadas, gravações, registros fotográficos, coleta do material botânico indicado nas entrevistas com os informantes, tratamento do material coletado e incorporação ao Herbário da Universidade do Estado da Bahia (HUNEB). Foram identificadas e coletadas 54 espécies distribuídas em 46 gêneros e 28 famílias, sendo Lamiacaeae e Asteraceae as mais representativas. A maioria das plantas é constituída de ervas e cultivada nos quintais dos moradores. O estudo revelou que a comunidade apresenta uma medicina popular bastante rica, com grande diversidade de espécies vegetais e usos por parte da população.


The use of medicinal plants is instinctive in animals, since some of these seek roots, bark, leaves or fruits in an attempt to cure their diseases. Man, in turn, learned to use this information on the use of these plants empirically. Folk medicine is an important alternative, probably the most used to cure diseases by indigenous peoples, Afro-descendants and rural populations. Ethnobotany, in turn, undertakes to study and interpret the relationship of men with the plant world. Because of its great biological and cultural potential, Brazil has a wealth of traditional knowledge and important plant species, what makes this country a great source of research in the area. To evaluate the traditional knowledge of the rural population of Sisal, city of Catu, state of Bahia, Brazil, related to use of medicinal plants, this work began in July 2009, consisting of semi-structured and structured interviews, recordings, photographs, collection of botanical material indicated in the interviews with informants, treatment of the collected material and incorporation into the Herbarium of the University of Bahia (HUNEB). We identified and collected 54 species in 46 genera and 28 families, being Asteraceae and Lamiacaeae the most representative. Most plants are herbs grown in the backyards of the residents. The study revealed that the community has a very rich folk medicine, with a great diversity of plant species and uses by the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Ethnobotany/instrumentation , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Rural Population/classification , Knowledge , Medicine, Traditional/instrumentation
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(4): 896-904, oct.-dic. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729899

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência dos extratos aquosos das plantas medicinais alecrim, alho, cravo-da-índia, sálvia, capim-limão, orégano ou pimenta-do-reino no desenvolvimento in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e de Fusarium moniliforme. Os extratos foram obtidos pela infusão de 60 g de cada planta medicinal em 200 mL de água fervente. Cada extrato aquoso foi fracionado em concentrações de 0, 5, 10 e 20% (p:v) e incorporado ao meio de cultivo BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar) antes da esterilização em autoclave. Posteriormente, um disco de 8 mm de diâmetro de micélio fúngico de cada patógeno foi transferido para o centro de placas de Petri. Após 24, 48 e 96 horas de incubação em câmara de crescimento a 22 ± 2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas avaliou-se o crescimento micelial de F. moniliforme e de C. gloesporioides. No último período de incubação, também se quantificou o número de conídios de cada fungo. Para o teste de germinação adicionou-se nas cavidades de placas de teste Elisa, uma alíquota de 40 µL de cada extrato nas concentrações de 0, 5, 10 e 20%, e outra alíquota, da suspensão de conídios de cada patógeno. Após 24 horas a 22 ± 2 ºC, no escuro, a germinação dos conídios foi paralisada com a adição de 20 µL de lactofenol; avaliou-se então a porcentagem de germinação de conídios. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 7 x 4 (extratos de plantas medicinais x concentrações) com quatro repetições. Para ambos os patógenos o extrato aquoso de alho e cravo-da-índia apresentaram maior ou total inibição do crescimento micelial, respectivamente, quando comparado com os demais extratos. Para C. gloeosporioides, o extrato de cravo-da-índia apresentou menor número de conídios em todas as concentrações testadas, e para o extrato de alho a 20%, também não foi observada a germinação de conídios. O extrato de alho foi eficiente em reduzir o número e a germinação dos conídios de F. moniliforme na concentração de 20%. Os extratos de alecrim, cravo-da-índia, orégano e pimenta-do-reino, nas maiores concentrações, tiveram efeito positivo na redução da produção de conídios deste mesmo fungo.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plants rosemary, garlic, clove, sage, lemongrass, oregano and black pepper in the in vitro development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium moniliforme. The extracts were obtained by infusing 60 g of each medicinal plant in 200 mL of boiling water. Each aqueous extract was fractionated in the concentrations of 0, 5, 10 and 20% (w:v) and incorporated into the PDA (potato dextrose agar) culture medium before sterilization by autoclaving. Later, an 8 mm diameter disc of each pathogen mycelium was transferred to the center of the Petri dishes. After 24, 48 and 96 hours of incubation in a growth chamber at 22 ± 2 ºC and a photoperiod of 12 hours, we evaluated the mycelial growth of F. moniliforme, and C. gloesporioides. In the last period of incubation, we quantified the production of conidia of each fungus. For the germination test, we added, into the wells of an ELISA test plates, a 40 µL aliquot of each extract at the concentrations of 0, 5, 10 and 20% and another aliquot of a suspension of conidia of each pathogen. After 24 hours at 22 ± 2 ºC in the dark, the germination of the fungi was stopped with the addition of 20 µL of lactophenol. Then, we evaluated the germination of conidia. The experiments followed a completely randomized 7 x 4 factorial design (medicinal plants x concentrations) with four replications. For both pathogens, the aqueous extract of garlic and clove showed a greater or total inhibition of the mycelial growth, when compared to the other extracts. For the C. gloeosporioides, the clove extract showed a lower number of conidia at all concentrations tested, and the garlic extract at 20% showed not conidial germination. The garlic extract was efficient to reduce the conidial number and germination of F. moniliforme at 20%. Extracts of rosemary, clove, oregano and black pepper, in the highest concentrations, had positive effect in reducing the production of spores of the same fungus.


Subject(s)
Colletotrichum/growth & development , Fusarium/genetics , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/anatomy & histology , Fungi/classification , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Organic Agriculture/standards
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