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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 324-338, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343496

ABSTRACT

In this present study, we investigated the influence of various extraction methods including maceration, sonication, infusion, decoction, and microwave extraction, on the chemical and biological potential of phytochemicals extracted from three medicinal plants (Ageratum conyzoides, Plantago majorand Arctium lappa L). The results were subsequently analyzed by variance analysis. Our results suggested that sonication is the most effective extraction method among the five methods tested herein, for the extraction of phytochemicals that have a high antioxidant potential and high phenolic content. The three plants employed for this study had a high concentration of flavonoids and phenolics which was compatible with the chemosystematics of the species. All the samples possessed a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of less than 6. Interestingly, a maximum reaction time of approximately 20 min was noted for the complexation of AlCl3 with the flavonoids present in the phytochemical extract during analyses of the kinetic parameters. We finally identified that the Ageratum conyzoides extract, prepared by sonication, possessed a significant pharmacological potential against hepatocarcinoma tumour cells, whose result can guide further studies for its therapeutic efficacy.


En el presente estudio, investigamos la influencia de varios métodos de extracción, incluyendo maceración, sonicación, infusión, decocción y extracción por microondas, sobre el potencial químico y biológico de los fitoquímicos extraídos de tres plantas medicinales (Ageratum conyzoides, Plantago majory Arctium lappa L). Los resultados se analizaron posteriormente mediante análisis de varianza. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la sonicación es el método de extracción más eficaz entre los cinco métodos aquí probados, para la extracción de fitoquímicos que tienen un alto potencial antioxidante y un alto contenido fenólico. Las tres plantas empleadas para este estudio tenían una alta concentración de flavonoides y fenólicos que era compatible con la quimiosistemática de las especies. Todas las muestras poseían un factor de protección solar (SPF) menor a 6. Curiosamente, se observó un tiempo máximo de reacción de aproximadamente 20 min para la complejación de AlCl3con los flavonoides presentes en el extracto fitoquímico durante los análisis de los parámetros cinéticos. Finalmente, identificamos que el extracto de Ageratum conyzoides, elaborado por sonicación, posee un importante potencial farmacológico frente a las células tumorales del hepatocarcinoma, cuyo resultado puede orientar nuevos estudios sobre su eficacia terapéutica.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plantago/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Cell Survival , Analysis of Variance , Ageratum/chemistry , Arctium/chemistry
2.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-031114, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147345

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As transições epidemiológica e nutricional têm contribuído para o crescimento exponencial do câncer. Assim, com o intuito de potencializar a atividade das drogas antineoplásicas, aumentou o número de estudos utilizando plantas medicinais para tratamento do câncer. Objetivo: Identificar as plantas medicinais e os compostos com possível ação no processo de tratamento do câncer. Método: Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa. Para a busca bibliográfica, foram utilizados os descritores "neoplasias" e "plantas medicinais" e o qualificador "tratamento" para a palavra câncer, especificando-a. O levantamento dos artigos foi feito nas seguintes bases de dados: Scientific Electronic Library OnLine (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) e Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval Sistem Online (MEDLINE) via PubMed. Resultados: A busca e a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão resultaram na seleção de 93 artigos. As principais características dos estudos incluídos eram ensaios in vitro, com a linhagem de células de câncer de mama e publicados em inglês. Foi possível identificar seis compostos que se destacaram em razão da sua atividade pró-apoptótica em vários tipos de câncer, a exemplo da curcumina, da epicatequina, do lupeol, do ácido cafeico, do ácido ursólico e da berberina. Conclusão: O presente trabalho oferece subsídios para que pesquisas futuras possam associar a utilização de compostos presentes em plantas medicinais ao tratamento convencional, com o intuito de melhorar o prognóstico de pacientes oncológicos.


Introduction: The epidemiological and nutritional transitions have been contributing for the exponential growth of cancer. Thus, in order to enhance the activity of antineoplastic drugs, the number of studies using medicinal plants for cancer treatment has increased. Objective: To identify medicinal plants and compounds with possible action in the cancer treatment process. Method: An integrative review was carried out. For the bibliographic search, the descriptors "neoplasms" and "medicinal plants" and the qualifier "treatment" for the word cancer were used, specifying it. The articles were surveyed in the following databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System on-line (MEDLINE) from the PubMed. Results: The search and application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria resulted in the selection of 93 articles. The main characteristics of the studies included were in vitro assays, with breast cancer cell line and published in English. It was possible to identify six compounds that stood out due to their pro-apoptotic activity in various types of cancer such as curcumin, epicatechin, lupeol, caffeic acid, ursolic acid and berberine. Conclusion: The present work offers inputs so that future studies can associate the use of compounds present in medicinal plants with conventional treatment, in order to improve the prognosis of cancer patients.


Introducción: Las transiciones epidemiológica y nutricional han contribuido al crecimiento exponencial del cáncer. Por lo tanto, para mejorar la actividad de los fármacos antineoplásicos utilizados para tratar la enfermedad, ha aumentado el número de estudios que utilizan plantas medicinales para este propósito. Objetivo: Identificar plantas medicinales y compuestos con posible acción en el proceso de tratamiento del cáncer. Método: Se realizó una revisión integradora, utilizando los términos de búsqueda validados y utilizados: "neoplasias" y "plantas medicinales". El calificador "tratamiento" se usó para la palabra cáncer, especificándolo. Los artículos fueron encuestados en las siguientes bases de datos: Biblioteca Científica Electrónica en Línea (SciELO), Literatura Latinoamericana y Caribeña en Ciencias de la Salud (LILACS) y Sistema de Análisis y Recuperación de Literatura Médica en Línea (MEDLINE) vía PubMed. Resultados: La búsqueda y la aplicación de los criterios de inclusión y exclusión dieron como resultado la selección de 93 artículos. Las características principales de los estudios incluidos fueron ensayos in vitro, con linaje celular de cáncer de mama y publicados en inglés. En relación con los estudios, fue posible identificar seis compuestos que se destacaron por su actividad contra diferentes tipos de cáncer: curcumina, epicatequina, lupeol, ácido cafeico, ácido ursólico y berberina, induciendo la apoptosis por varios mecanismos. Conclusión: El presente trabajo, nos permite ofrecer subsidio para que la investigación futura pueda asociar el uso de compuestos presentes en plantas medicinales con el tratamiento convencional, para mejorar el pronóstico de los pacientes con cáncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Complementary Therapies , Neoplasms/therapy
3.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 8(1): 10-23, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1348245

ABSTRACT

Neurolaena lobata es utilizada tradicionalmente en Centroamérica para tratar la mordedura de serpiente, pero su efectividad para contrarrestar el envenenamiento producido por Bothrops asper ha sido poco estudiada. Se evaluó la capacidad del extracto etanólico de sus hojas para inhibir las actividades proteolítica, fosfolipasa A2 (PLA2; evaluada como hemólisis indirecta) y coagulante del veneno in vitro. El material vegetal fue colectado en Izabal, Guatemala, secado, se hicieron extracciones con etanol y se evaluó la presencia de actividades proteolítica, PLA2 y coagulante in-trínsecas en ensayos de concentración-actividad. Los efectos inhibitorios de la actividad proteolítica y PLA2 del veneno se evaluaron después de pre-incubar concentraciones variables del extracto con concentraciones fijas de veneno. La inhibición de la actividad coagulante del veneno no fue evaluada porque el extracto presentó actividad anticoagulante intrínseca dependiente de la concentración. El extracto inhibió completamente las actividades proteolítica (CE50 = 15.7 µg/µl) y PLA2 (CE50 = 32.5 µg/µl) del veneno. El análisis fitoquímico utilizando ensayos macro y semimicrométricos de cromatografía en capa fina, demostró la presencia de flavonoides, cumarinas, saponinas, taninos, sesquiterpenlactonas y aceites esenciales en el extracto. Su efecto sobre las proteínas del veneno se evaluó por electroforesis SDS-PAGE, mostrando cambios en el patrón electroforético atribuidos a la formación de complejos moleculares con los metabo-litos del extracto. Los resultados indican que el extracto podría inhibir los efectos tóxicos del veneno inducidos por las metaloproteinasas dependientes de zinc (SVMPs) y PLA2s, pero podría afectar las alteraciones en la coagulación, coadyuvando en la desfibrinogenación inducida por el veneno.


Neurolaena lobata has been used by traditional healers in Central America to treat snakebite, but its ability to neutralize Bothrops asper envenomations needs to be proved. This study evaluated the inhibitory potential of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of N. lobata against proteolytic, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and coagulant activities of the venom in vitro. Leaves were collected in Izabal, Guatemala, dried, extracted with ethanol and concentration-response assays were conducted to detect intrinsic proteolytic, PLA2 (evaluated as indirect hemolysis) and coagulant activities. Assays for anti-proteolytic and anti-PLA2 activities were performed after pre-incubation of several amounts of extract with a fixed concentration of venom. Inhibition assay for the coagulant effect of the venom was not tested because pre-incubation of thrombin with the extract prolonged the clotting time of plasma in a concentration-dependent manner. Proteolytic (EC50 = 15.7 µg/µl) and PLA2 (EC50 = 32.5 µg/µl) activities of the venom resulted completely inhibited by the extract. Phytochemical profiles, determined by micrometric assays and semi microanalysis by thin layer chro-matography, showed the presence of flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, tannins, sesquiterpene lactones and essential oils in the extract. SDS-PAGE was used to assess the action of the extract on the venom proteins. Results showed changes in the electrophoretic profile, probably due to the formation of insoluble complexes with plant specialized metabolites. These findings demonstrated that the extract could be able to inhibit toxic effects triggered by zinc-dependent snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) y PLA2s but might aggravate the alterations induced by the venom in coagulation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Coagulants/analysis , Bothrops , Phospholipase A2 Inhibitors/supply & distribution , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Saponins/chemistry , Snake Bites/therapy , Tannins/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Crotalid Venoms/antagonists & inhibitors , Guatemala , Medicine, Traditional/methods
4.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190253, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153292

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Essential oils from populations of B. dracunculifolia were investigated. β-pinene and (E)-nerolidol were the main compounds in B. dracunculifolia populations. The difference in the chemical profile of the essential oils is quantitative only. There is a negative correlation between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol.


Abstract Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. is a Brazilian native plant, presenting wide chemical diversity and numerous pharmaceutical and industrial applications. This research assessed the yield, antioxidant activity and the chemical similarity of essential oils from 10 populations of B. dracunculifolia in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. The extraction of the volatile compounds was carried out by hydrodistillation, the chemical composition was determined by GC/FID and GC/MS and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH method. The essential oil yield of wild B. dracunculifolia populations ranged from 0.14 to 0.87%. The oils were predominantly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (34.16 - 51.01%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (18.02 - 46.17%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (9.60 - 17.70%). The major compounds found in all populations were β-pinene (7.65 - 29.8%) and (E)-nerolidol (9.11 - 21.68%). Essential oil solutions (20%) from different populations presented antioxidant capacity ranging from 27.78 to 91.67%. A negative correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and spathulenol (r = -0.696). Multivariate analyses separated the populations into three groups: (1) low concentrations of α-pinene (2.02 - 2.06%), (2) high concentrations of α-pinene (4.17 - 4.61%) and β-pinene (22.54 - 29.80%), and (3) intermediate concentrations of α-pinene (2.38 - 3.31%), β-pinene (12.77 - 19.03%) and spathulenol (6.02 - 9.06%).


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Baccharis/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Oils/isolation & purification , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
5.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104199

ABSTRACT

Gypsies have been in Brazil since the 16th century and today they are more than 800,000 in the country. This article describes the veterinary use of plants by Calon gypsies living in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The research was carried out with 23 people (> 40 years old), using semi-structured forms and the snowball technique. The cited species were collected during guided tours, identified and deposited at the IPA and UFP herbaria. Ten plants were indicated for veterinary use: Agave sisalana (Asparagaceae), Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Apocynaceae), Apodanthera congestiflora (Cucurbitaceae), Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae), Lippia alba (Verbenaceae), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae), Passiflora cincinnata (Passifloraceae), Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae), and Solanum paniculatum (Solanaceae). The participants cited various methods of preparation and therapeutic indications for ectoparasitic infections, digestive disorders, and eye and respiratory infections in farm animals. Apodanthera congestiflora and H. indicum stood out for prophylaxis and treatment of Newcastle disease in fowl.


Los gitanos están en Brasil desde el siglo XVI y hoy, son más de 800.000 en el país. Este artículo describe el uso veterinario de plantas por gitanos Calon que viven en Pernambuco, Noreste de Brasil. La encuesta fue realizada con 23 personas (> 40 años), utilizando formularios semi-estructurados y la técnica bola de nieve. Las especies citadas fueron recolectadas en giras guiadas, identificadas y depositadas en los herbarios IPA y UFP. Diez plantas fueron citadas para uso veterinario: Agave sisalana (Asparagaceae), Aspidosperma pyrifolium (Apocynaceae), Apodanthera congestiflora (Cucurbitaceae), Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae), Lippia alba (Verbenaceae), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae), Passiflora cincinnata (Passifloraceae), Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae) y Solanum paniculatum (Solanaceae). Los participantes citaron varios modos de preparación e indicaciones terapéuticas para infecciones ectoparasitarias, disturbios digestivos, infecciones oculares y respiratorias en animales domésticos. Apodanthera congestiflora y H. indicum se destacaron en la profilaxis y tratamiento de la enfermedad de Newcastle en aves.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Veterinary Medicine , Rome , Medicine, Traditional , Brazil , Ethnopharmacology
6.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 207-220, mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104204

ABSTRACT

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo confirmar la evidencia científica existente de las propiedades terapéuticas de plantas chilenas que son utilizadas como medicamento por Machis de las regiones de La Araucanía y Los Ríos. El estudio se realizó en dos períodos en cuatro comunidades mapuches de esas regiones, entre Julio 2015 a marzo 2016 y segunda etapa entre agosto a diciembre 2017. Se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con las Machis, donde las informaciones entregadas sobre las aplicaciones medicinales fueron consensuadas entre los participantes. Las plantas identificadas fueron comparadas en sus propiedades con la evidencia experimental conocida, verificando científicamente las propiedades indicadas. Los resultados ofrecen un criterio adicional para la selección y uso de plantas en dolencias existentes en la población chilena. Los resultados de este estudio corroboran para algunas especies de plantas utilizadas, sus propiedades medicinales declaradas en enfermedades oncológicas. Dichos efectos exigen un estudio clínico necesario para su uso terapéutico.


The objective of this study was to confirm the existing scientific evidence of the therapeutical properties of Chilean plants to be used as medicine by Machis of the Araucanía and Los Ríos Chilean regions. The study was performed in two periods at four mapuche communities of these regions, between July 2015 to March 2016 and the second stage from August to December 2017. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the Machis, where the information delivered on the medicinal applications it was agreed among all participants. The identified plants were compared in their properties with the experimental evidence reported, verifying the indicated properties. The results offer an additional criteria for selecting plants to be used in the corresponding diseases of Chilean population. The results of this study support for some species of plants used their medicinal properties on oncological diseases. These facts require the necessary clinical support in order to prove as therapeutic treatment.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Indians, South American , Culture , Chile
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 221-235, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104211

ABSTRACT

Santiago Quiotepec, one of the oldest communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (México), has a great tradition using medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the medicinal species used by the inhabitants of Santiago Quiotepec and evaluate the antibacterial activity. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out, 60 informants mentioned that 66 species of plants are being used in the treatment of different diseases. Fifteen species were selected to evaluate the antibacterial activity in possible bacterial originated diseases treatment. The lowest values were presented in the hexane extract of Plumbago pulchella, with a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis as well as the hexanic extract of Echinopterys eglandulosa showed a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Pseudomona aeruginosa.


Santiago Quiotepec es una de las comunidades más antiguas del valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán (México), y tiene una gran tradición en el uso de plantas medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un inventario de las especies medicinales utilizadas por los habitantes de Santiago Quiotepec y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Se realizó un estudio etnobotánico de plantas medicinales, 60 informantes mencionaron 66 especies de plantas utilizadas en el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades. Quince especies utilizadas en la comunidad para tratar enfermedades de posible origen bacteriano fueron seleccionadas para evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Los valores más bajos se presentaron en el extracto hexánico de Plumbago pulchella, con una CMI de 0.25 mg/ml sobre Staphylococcus aureus y S. epidermidis, así como el extracto hexánico de Echinopterys eglandulosa mostró una CMI de 0.25 mg/mL sobre Pseudomona aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Ethnobotany , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Biological Assay , Mexico
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(4): 378-391, jul. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008176

ABSTRACT

The content of certain metals in 13 medicinal teas made from 16 plant species was measured by flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrometer with flame methods. The measurements were evaluated against metal intake levels recommended by health authorities. The results indicate that the medicinal teas tested, regularly consumed by inhabitants of the Urubueua de Fátima River Community, Abaetetuba-Para, Brazil, present no risk of poisoning people older than six months. However, decoctions of Mentha sp., Eleutherine bulbosa, Euterpe oleracea, Piper callosum and Hyptis mutabilis, mostly given to children, had Mn values potentially exceeding the recommended maximum intake for infants in the 0-6 months age group, in the quantities customarily administered. Consequently, studies are needed to assess bioavailability for safe human consumption. Results also showed the consumption of medicinal tea alone is not enough to supply an adult's daily metal requirements or treat deficiencies. Additionally, cures emphasized by interviewed Community members might be associated with the bioactivity of organic substances that the medicinal teas contain.


El contenido de algunos metales en 13 tés medicinales de las 16 especies consumidas por los habitantes de la comunidad del Río Urubueua de Fátima, Abaetetuba-Para, Brasil, se evaluó mediante un fotómetro de llama y un espectrómetro de absorción atómica con métodos de llama, y se comparó con los niveles recomendados por las agencias de la salud. Los tés medicinales evaluados no mostraron riesgo de intoxicación para las personas mayores de seis meses de edad, sino las decocciones de Mentha sp., Eleutherine bulbosa, Euterpe oleracea, Piper callosum y Hyptis mutabilis, en su mayoría dirigidos a la ingesta de niños, informaron valores de Mn superiores a la ingesta máxima recomendada para el grupo de infantes (0-6 meses), debido a que estos estudios son necesarios para evaluar la biodisponibilidad para un consumo humano seguro. Los resultados también mostraron que solo el consumo de té medicinal no es suficiente para satisfacer las necesidades diarias recomendadas de ingesta de minerales o para tratar las deficiencias. Además, los informes de curación, enfatizados por los habitantes, indican que la bioactividad observada podría estar asociada a sustancias orgánicas presentes en el té.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Teas, Medicinal , Metals/analysis , Reference Values , Brazil
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(5): 1733-1742, Mai. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001809

ABSTRACT

Resumo É expressivo o crescimento do número de programas de fitoterapia no SUS desde 2006, quando lançada a Política Nacional de Plantas Medicinais e Fitoterápicos. Como esses programas se distribuem no território e como expressam diversidades regionais? A pesquisa analisou como os usos do território condicionam a existência desses programas e como estes promovem maior sinergia técnica (saber local e saber universalizado) e política (estratégias e atores) na produção, circulação, distribuição e dispensação de plantas medicinais e fitoterápicos no sistema público de saúde. A análise envolveu referencial teórico da geografia crítica e saúde coletiva, revisão bibliográfica conceitual e temática, análise documental, levantamento de dados primários e secundários, destacando-se extenso trabalho de campo. Os resultados apontam que o crescimento dos programas foi acompanhado pela opção por fitoterápicos industrializados, concentrando-se espacialmente no Sul e Sudeste. Foram identificadas duas fases nesse processo: 1980-2008, caracterizada por ações mais horizontais ligadas a diversidades regionais; e 2008-atual, caracterizada por ações mais verticalizadas na escala nacional. Conclui-se: a Política Nacional possibilitou aumento do número de programas, mas pouco fomentou suas expressões regionais.


Abstract There has been significant growth in the number of municipal phytotherapy programs in the Unified Health System since the launch of the National Policy of Medicinal Plants in 2006. The aim of the research was to analyze how these programs are distributed throughout Brazil, how they express regional diversity and how land use can influence these programs and promote broad technical synergy (local knowledge and universal knowledge) and policy (strategy and actors) in the production, circulation, distribution and dispe sation of medicinal plants in the public health system. The analysis involved a theoretical framework of critical geography and public health, conceptual and thematic literature review, document analysis, survey of primary and secondary data along with extensive fieldwork. The results show that the growth of programs was accompanied by the choice of industrialized herbal medicines, spatially concentrated in the South and Southeast. Two phases were identified in this process: 1980-2008 characterized by horizontal actions linked to regional diversities; 2008 to the present characterized by verticalized actions on a national scale. The National Policy made it possible to increase the number of programs but did little to promote greater regional diversity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Phytotherapy/methods , Medicine, Traditional/methods , Brazil , Health Policy , Phytotherapy/trends , National Health Programs/organization & administration
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 223-238, mayo 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007927

ABSTRACT

Plants of the genera Werneria (Asteraceae) and Xenophyllum (genus extracted from Werneria) are used in traditional medicine of Latin America for the treatment of mountain sickness, hypertension and gastrointestinal disorders. Only a small number of species of these genera have been studied, leading to the isolation of compounds belonging to the classes of benzofurans, chromenes, acetophenones, coumarates, diterpenes and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Some of the plant extracts and/or compounds have shown antimicrobial, anti-HIV, hypotensive and photoprotective activities.


Las plantas de los géneros Werneria (Asteraceae) y Xenophyllum (género extraido de Werneria) son usadas en la medicina tradicional de América Latina para el tratamiento del mal de montaña, hipertensión y desórdenes gastrointestinales. Solo un pequeño número de especies de estos géneros ha sido investigado, lográndose aislar compuestos que pertenecen a las clases de benzofuranos, cromenos, acetofenonas, cumaratos, diterpenos y alcaloides pirrolizidínicos. Algunos de los extractos y/o compuestos de dichas plantas han mostrado actividades antimicrobianas, anti-HIV, hipotensoras y fotoprotectoras.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Asteraceae/chemistry , Acetophenones/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Benzopyrans/chemistry , Flavonoids/chemistry , Chlorogenic Acid/chemistry , Coumaric Acids/chemistry , Alkaloids/chemistry , Altitude Sickness/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Medicine, Traditional
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 239-264, mayo 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007935

ABSTRACT

Tillandsia L. genus comprises 649 species, with different uses at different times. T. usneoides L. uses are reported since the late- archaic and pre-Columbian cultures. In XIX-XX centuries, T. usneoides was used in some manufactured products, as polish and packing fruit. Tillandsia has a favorable reputation as medicine: for leucorrhea, rheumatism, ulcers, hemorrhoid treatment, as an anti-diabetic remedy, emetic, analgesic, purgative, contraceptive, antispasmodic and diuretic. Tillandsia chemical composition includes cycloartane triterpenes and hydroxy-flavonoids, which are present in at least 24 species. Several extracts and compounds from Tillandsia spp. have been reported with pharmacological actions, as anti-neoplasia, hypolipidemic, antifungal, anti-HSV-1, hypoglycemic and microbicide. This review communicates the economic importance, ethnobotany, chemistry composition and biological activities of the Tillandsia genus, and analyze its biological and economic perspective. Tillandsia genus has cultural, economic and pharmacological relevance, with a high potential in many essential aspects of the modern society.


El género Tillandsia L. comprende 649 especies, con diferentes usos en diferentes épocas. T. usneoides L. se han reportado desde el arcáico tardío hasta las culturas precolombinas. En los siglos XIX-XX, T. usneoides se usó en productos manufacturados: como abrasivo y embalaje de fruta. Como medicina tradicional, el género Tillandsia se reporta para leucorrea, reumatismo, úlceras, hemorroides, remedio antidiabético, emético, analgésico, purgante, anticonceptivo, antiespasmódico y diurético. Su composición química incluye triterpenos de tipo ciclo-artano e hidroxi-flavonoides, presentes en al menos 24 especies. Los extractos y compuestos del género Tillandsia se han reportado con propiedades antineoplásicas, hipolipidémicas, antifúngicas, anti-HSV-1, hipoglucemiantes y microbicidas. Esta revisión comunica la importancia económica, etnobotánica, composición química y las actividades biológicas del género Tillandsia, y analiza su perspectiva biológica y potencial económica. Tillandsia tiene importancia cultural, económica y farmacológica, con gran potencial en muchos aspectos esenciales de la sociedad moderna.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Ethnobotany , Tillandsia/chemistry , Triterpenes/analysis , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Bromeliaceae/chemistry
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1439-1450, abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001757

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão integrativa da literatura sobre a prevalência do uso da fitoterapia durante a gestação. Foi realizado um levantamento nas bases de dados SciELO, Medline e Science Direct com os descritores "herbal and pregnancy", "plant and gestation" e seus correspondentes em português: "planta e gestação"; "erva e gravidez". Dentre os artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2015, 46 estudos clínicos preencheram os critérios de inclusão e exclusão e foram selecionados para esta revisão. Destes, 11 foram realizados na Europa, 10 na Ásia, 5 na África, 3 na Oceania, 16 na América e, apenas um, foi de caráter multinacional. Na maioria dos estudos (67,39%) o método utilizado foi o de entrevista. A prevalência do uso da fitoterapia descrita nas publicações foi muito variável. Ademais, a camomila, o gengibre, o alho, a menta e a equinácea foram as espécies mais utilizadas pelas gestantes. Os dados mostram que o uso da fitoterapia durante a gestação é uma prática disseminada entre mulheres de todo o mundo, independentemente das variáveis socioeconômicas e étnico-culturais que eventualmente possam distingui-las.


Abstract The scope of this study is to present an integrative review of the prevalence of the use of phytotherapy during pregnancy. A review of the topic was made by research in the Scielo, Medline and Science Direct databases using the following key words: "herbs and pregnancy," "plant and gestation," with their respective terms in Portuguese. Forty-six articles published between 2000 and 2015 met the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of these, 11 were carried out in Europe, 10 in Asia, 5 in Africa, 3 in Oceania, 16 in America and only one of which was a multinational study. In most of these (67.39%), the interview method was used. A substantial variability in the prevalence of phytotherapy use was reported in the articles. In addition, camomile, ginger, garlic, mint and echinacea were the species most used by pregnant women. Despite the socioeconomic and ethnic-cultural variables among women worldwide, phytotherapy use during gestation is a widespread practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy/methods , Pregnancy Complications/drug therapy
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 197-203, mar. 2019. tab, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007815

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of the Balkan endemic species Thymus longedentatus was studied by GC-MS. Twenty eight compounds, consisting 98.2% of the total components were detected in amounts exceeding 0.1%. The oil was characterized by relatively high concencentration of oxygentated monoterpenes (78.7%), among which citral isomers neral (27.5%) and geranial (30.3%) were the principal ones. In addition, 1,8-cineole (7.8%), trans-ß-ocimene (7.5%), and ß-myrcene (3.7%) were detected in significant ammounts. Germacrene D (4.4%) was found to be the main sesquiterpene in the essential oil.


Se estudió mediante GC-MS la composición química del aceite esencial obtenido de las partes aéreas de Thymus longedentatus, especie endémica de los Balcanes. Se detectaron veintiocho compuestos, que representaban un 98,2% del total de compuestos y que se encontraban en cantidades superiores al 0,1%. El aceite se caracterizó por una concentración relativamente alta de monoterpenos oxigenados (78.7%), entre los cuales los isómeros de citral, neral (27.5%) y geranial (30.3%) eran los principales. Además, se detectó 1,8-cineol (7,8%), trans-ß-ocimeno (7,5%) y ß-mirceno (3,7%) en cantidades significativas. Se encontró que Germacreno D (4.4%) es el principal sesquiterpeno en el aceite esencial.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Thymus Plant/chemistry , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/isolation & purification , Balkan Peninsula , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
14.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(2): 130-143, mar. 2019. tab, ilus, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007715

ABSTRACT

This work presents a distribution of medicinal plants and active substances from Cajamarca Department (Peru) under a bioclimatic criterion. The results show that 108 medicinal plants are spread among five bioclimatic belts: infratropical, thermotropical, mesotropical, supratropical and orotropical. As a statistical analysis shows (non-metric multidimensional scaling, MDS), most of them are concentrated in the mesotropical belt and a subhumid precipitation range. In addition a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), using the altitude (m), the thermicity index (It) and annual precipitation (P) as environmental variables, indicates how active substances are also distributed with tendencies of them, showing phenolic substances and essential oils as mesotropical products, and complex alkaloids to the highest It values, while simple alkaloids to the lowest It values. Most of these molecular compounds are generated under the highest values of the subhumid and humid precipitation intervals. This bioclimatic method can led us to find new medicinal plants and active molecules.


Este trabajo presenta una distribución de plantas medicinales y principios activos en el departamento de Cajamarca (Perú) bajo un criterio bioclimático. Los resultados muestran que 108 plantas medicinales están repartidas entre cinco pisos bioclimáticos: infratropical, termotropical, mesotropical, supratropical y orotropical. Como muestra el análisis estadístico realizado MDS (non-metric multidimensional scaling), la mayoría de plantas se concentra en el piso mesotropical y en el intervalo subhúmedo de precipitaciones. Además, un análisis canónico de correspondencias (CCA), donde intervienen la altitud (h), el índice de termicidad (It) y las precipitaciones anuales (P) como variables ambientales, indica cómo los principios activos también se distribuyen según tendencias de estas, mostrando a los compuestos fenólicos y aceites esenciales como productos mesotropicales, los alcaloides complejos hacia los valores más elevados de It, mientras que los alcaloides simples hacia los más bajos. Asimismo, la mayoría de estos compuestos tienen su óptimo en los valores más elevados del intervalo subhúmedo y el intervalo húmedo de precipitaciones. Este método bioclimático nos puede llevar a encontrar nuevas plantas medicinales y principios activos.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Climate , Peru , Phytochemicals , Geography
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(1): 87-99, Jan.-Mar 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983999

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by inhabitants of the Rodeadouro Island, Jatoba Island and Massangano Island, located in The Submedium São Francisco River Valley. Also phytochemicals and preliminary pharmacological tests were performed to species most cited by the community. Ethnobotanical data were collected through observation visits and semi-structured interviews with 12 key informants. We calculated the relative importance (RI), the percentage of agreement related to the main uses (cAMU) and use value (UV). The aerial parts of Rhaphiodon echinus (Ness & Mart.) Schauer were used to obtain the lyophilizate (LYO-Re), crude ethanol extract (CEE-Re) and their hexanic (HEX-Re), chloroform (CLO-Re) and ethyl acetate (EA-Re) fractions. The microdilution technique was used for determining Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for selected microorganisms. Already the spasmolytic effect was evaluated in isolated uterus fragments of Wistar rats, pre contracted with KCl 60 mM. We found 34 species cited, belonging to 22 families. The most plants were grown by locals. There were 51 different diseases, but the main indication was infectious and parasitic diseases. The species R. echinus was the most reported and it was indicated for urinary tract infection and dysmenorrhea. The screening revealed a higher prevalence of flavonoids, tannins, lignans and saponins in LYO-Re and AE-Re. Already terpene compounds were more present in HEX-Re and CLO-Re. The RE-Re fraction stood out with strong effect against E. coli and S. aureus while CEE-Re has moderate effect against gram-negative bacteria. The evaluation of the spasmolytic activity showed that LYO-Re, CEE-Re and HEX-Re fractions have similar activity, with partial effect and concentration-dependent response. This work brought about knowledge and use of medicinal plants by the riparian of the São Francisco River. It also revealed the importance of other methodologies for scientific evidence for the popular use of R. echinus.


Resumo Objetivou-se realizar um levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas nas ilhas do Massangano, Jatobá II e Rodeadouro, localizadas entre Petrolina-PE e Juazeiro-BA, no submédio do rio São Francisco e posterior investigação fitoquímica e farmacológica da espécie mais citada, conforme a indicação da comunidade. Realizaram-se visitas de observação nas ilhas e os dados etnobotânicos foram coletados por entrevistas semiestruturadas com 12 informantes-chave. Calculou-se a Importância Relativa (IR), a Porcentagem Corrigida de Concordância quanto ao Uso Principal (CUPc) e o Valor de Uso (VU). Utilizaram-se as partes aéreas da espécie mais citada para obtenção do extrato etanólico bruto (EEB-Re), suas frações hexânica (HEX-Re), clorofórmica (CLO-Re) e acetato de etila (AE-Re); o produto liofilizado (LIO-Re) e o óleo essencial (OE-Re). A técnica de microdiluição foi usada para determinar a Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) para microorganismos selecionados. A atividade espasmolítica foi avaliada em fragmentos isolados de útero de ratas Wistar pré-contraídos com KCl 60 mM. Foram relatadas 34 espécies, contidas em 22 famílias diferentes. A maioria das plantas era cultivada pelos moradores. Registraram-se 51 enfermidades diferentes, mas a principal indicação foi doenças parasitárias e infecciosas. A espécie Rhaphiodon echinus (Ness & Mart.) Schauer foi a mais citada, com principal indicação para tratar infecção do trato urinário e dismenorreia. O screening fitoquímico revelou prevalência de flavonoides, taninos, lignanas e saponinas em LIO-Re e AE-Re e compostos terpênicos em HEX-Re e CLO-Re. Os testes antibacterianos mostraram que AE-Re é mais atuante contra E. coli e S. aureus do que para P. aeruginosa. O EEB-Re tem efeito parcial contra bactérias gram-negativas e OE-Re possui moderada resposta para todos microorganismos testados. LIO-Re, EEB-Re e HEX-Re possuem atividade espasmolítica dependente da concentração, sem diferença significativa e sem relaxamento total. Este trabalho trouxe conhecimento sobre o uso de plantas medicinais pelos ribeirinhos do rio São Francisco e revela a importância de estudos mais aprofundados para a comprovação científica do uso popular da R. echinus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Bacteria/drug effects , Lamiaceae/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Uterus/drug effects , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rats, Wistar , Ethnobotany
16.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(5): 443-454, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950482

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Nature has always provided an unlimited source of biologically-active compounds. Since the beginning of mankind, humans have sought resources in fauna and flora to treat eye diseases. However, it was only after the Industrial Revolution that extracts of plants and substances of animal origin could be used safely, as has been determined by controlled interventional studies. Two major challenges faced by ocular pharmacology are the following: developing drugs that are able to reduce blindness due to glaucoma; and controlling the pain associated with eye surgery. The search for a drug that effectively lowers intraocular pressure and controls the progression of glaucoma has led to the development of various ocular hypotensive agents, such as physostigmine from the Physostigma venenosum plant. The anesthetic properties of cocaine, extracted from Erythroxylon coca, finally enabled surgical procedures in the eye. Several new natural compounds have been investigated in an attempt to identify substances with the potential to provide additional benefits to eye tissue and vision. Emerging evidence of anti-inflammatory, wound-healing, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, and antiangiogenic properties attributed to plant extracts and animal tissues has encouraged more investment in research in this area. Despite technological advances in synthesizing drugs, the pharmaceutical industry still seeks new active compounds from natural sources as well as from revisiting already-established naturally derived compounds. Although a large number of naturally-occurring compounds is known, this review article focuses on the bioactive substances with scientifically-proven benefits for ocular tissues.


RESUMO A natureza sempre se forneceu uma fonte inesgotável compostos biologicamente ativos. Desde o início da humanidade, os homens buscaram recursos na fauna e flora para tratar as doenças oculares. Porém, foi somente após a Revolução Industrial que extratos de plantas e substâncias de origem animal puderam ser utilizados com segurança, como foi determinado por estudos controlados de intervenção. Dois grandes desafios enfrentados pela farmacologia foram: desenvolver drogas capazes de reduzir a cegueira pelo glaucoma; e controlar a dor associada à cirurgia ocular. A busca por uma droga que efetivamente reduza a pressão intraocular e controle a progressão do glaucoma levou ao desenvolvimento de diversos hipotensores oculares, como a physostigmine da planta Physostigma venenosum. As propriedades anestésicas da cocaína, extraídas da Erythroxylon coca, finalmente permitiram procedimentos cirúrgicos no olho. Vários novos compostos naturais foram investigados na tentativa de identificar substâncias com potencial para fornecer benefícios adicionais ao tecido ocular e à visão. Evidências emergentes de propriedades anti-inflamatórias, de cicatrização de feridas, antimicrobianas, antioxidantes, antitumorais e antiangiogênicas atribuídas a extratos de plantas e tecidos animais estimularam mais investimentos em pesquisas nessa área. Apesar dos avanços tecnológicos na síntese de drogas, a indústria farmacêutica ainda busca novos princípios ativos a partir de fontes naturais, bem como revisita drogas derivadas já estabelecidas. Embora um grande número de compostos que ocorrem naturalmente seja conhecido, este artigo de revisão concentra-se nas substâncias bioativas com benefícios cientificamente comprovados para os tecidos oculares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Eye Diseases/drug therapy
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(3): 270-285, mayo 2018. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915369

ABSTRACT

Twenty-eight native plants mainly used to cure diseases related to microbial infection and stress oxidative disorders were selected to test the antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and C. albicans using diffusion and microdilution methods. The antioxidant activity was determined by scavenging DPPH free-radical and phytochemical evaluation was performed for plants with promising activities. Twenty-seven plants showed antibacterial activity, four had anti-Candida activity, and four showed antioxidant activity. It was found that Oreocallis grandiflora, Gentianella weberbaueri, Gamochaeta americana, Hypericum laricifolium, Loricaria ferruginea, Muehlenbeckia volcanica, and Oenothera multicaulis, showed promising biological activity and contained alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, catecholic or gallic tannins. This study leaves evidence about the medicinal potential of wild high-Andean plants; thus, further pharmacological, phytochemical, ecological and biotechnological studies will contribute to promote their conservation and sustainable use; especially since they are highly vulnerable and risk extinction.


Se seleccionó veintiocho plantas nativas usadas principalmente para tratarcurar enfermedades relacionadas principalmente con infecciones microbianas y desordenes oxidativos. A estas plantas se para ser evaluóados en su actividad antimicrobiana sobre E. coli, P. auriginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis, y C. albicans usando métodos de difusión y microdilución. Se determinó la actividad antioxidante mediante el ensayo del libre radical DPPH y se realizó la evaluación fitoquímica de las plantas con actividades promisorias. Veinte siete plantas mostraron actividad antibacteriana, cuatro mostraron actividad anti-Candida, y cuatro actividad antioxidante. Oreocallis grandiflora, Gentianella weberbaueri, Gamochaeta americana, Hypericum laricifolium, Loricaria ferruginea, Muehlenbeckia volcanica, y Oenothera multicaulis mostraron actividad biológica promisoria, y se encontró que contienen alcaloides, compuestos fenólicos, flavonoides, taninos gálicos y catecólicos. Este estudio deja evidencia del potencial medicinal de las plantas silvestres alto andinas; por lo tanto, los estudios farmacológicos, fitoquímicos, ecológicos y biotecnológicos contribuirían en la promoción de su conservación y uso sustentable debido a su alta vulnerabilidad y riesgo de extinción.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Peru , Bacteria/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Free Radical Scavengers , Andean Ecosystem , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry
19.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(1): 17-29, ene. 2018. graf, ilus, mapas
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-914989

ABSTRACT

Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) is a medicinal and aromatic herb widely distributed in South America. From 2000 to the present numerous articles on this species have been published, mainly in the last decade where the pharmacological studies and articles on its secondary metabolites have risen sharply. S. chilensis has potential beneficial effects on human health, particularly as an anti- inflammatory because of its high flavonoid content. This work describes the research carried out on this species with emphasis on biological and phytochemical studies.


Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae) es una hierba aromática y medicinal, ampliamente difundida en Sudamérica. A partir del año 2000 se publicaron numerosos estudios sobre esta planta, particularmente en la última década donde se incrementó sensiblemente el estudio de sus propiedades farmacológicas y de la química de sus metabolitos secundarios. Es una planta con propiedades potencialmente beneficiosas para la salud humana, destacándose particularmente por su actividad antiinflamatoria que puede ser atribuida al elevado contenido en flavonoides. En este trabajo revisamos exhaustivamente los antecedentes de esta planta desde un enfoque cronológico, con énfasis en los estudios biológicos y fitoquímicos.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Solidago/chemistry , Medicine, Traditional , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Quercetin/analysis , South America , Asteraceae
20.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 3901/01/2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100215

ABSTRACT

The phytochemical profile of essential oils and extracts from Casearia sylvestris leaves, flowers and fruits have been investigated here. Leaf and flower extracts were prepared by sonication and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The phenolic content was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Leaves, flowers, and fruits essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation. The highest extracts yields were 20.3 % (leaves) and 23.4 % (flowers) with ethanol 70 %. Essential oil extraction yields were 0.3 % (leaves) and 0.1 % (flowers and fruits). Bicyclogermacrene was the major component in all essential oil. Thin-layer chromatography suggests a chemical profile similar for leaves and flowers. The leaves and flowers phenolic content were similar (14.0 and 15.0 %, respectively). Chromatography analyses indicated the predominance of casearin clerodane diterpenes in leaves (λmax 232-235), whereas in flowers, diterpenes with a different standard diene in side-chain C13(16) and C14 (λmax 223-229). The different phytochemical profile of C. sylvestris flowers as compared to the leaves could be explored by the search for new bioactive components. This is the first report on the fruit and flower C. sylvestris essential oil composition. These data could be used as quality control of herbal medicine derived from C. sylvestris leaves.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Oils, Volatile , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Casearia/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Diterpenes, Clerodane/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry
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