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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-28, 2023. map, tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468919

ABSTRACT

Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of [...].


A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das [...].


Subject(s)
Ethnobotany/economics , Ethnobotany/trends , Plants, Medicinal/classification
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-11, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468493

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research is to make a survey of the socio-environmental characteristics and the ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in a traditional community in the Brazilian Northeast, Alagoas. The study was made based on visits with the application of a questionnaire with questions related to the socio-economic element and on the diversity of plants used in herbal medicine. The research was made from March/2019 to February/2020, where families and interviewed plant exhibitors were interviewed for botanical identification. The studied community, which were 24 interviewees, was compiled by residents of the Quilombola community from Pau D'arco in Arapiraca city - Alagoas. Residents interviewed, 15 (62.5%) attended between 56 to 80 years, 11 interviewees about 46% were born in the community and 13 (54%) had a fundamentally incomplete nature. At the end, there were mentioned 30 plant species used for phytotherapeutic purposes, from which presents bigger usage as plants against arterial hypertension (Salvia rosmarinus Schleid), diabetes Mellitos (Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth), pain and inflammation (Alternanthera tenella Colla), present the biggest number of species in the community. The species cited are related to numerous medicinal uses, among which there will be predominant associations associated with cardiovascular and inflammatory processes. The tea is the main way of preparing plants. It is perceived that medicinal plants are only widely used by this Quilombola community of and growth of the crops in the backyard are considered a tradition.


Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento das características socioambientais e estudo etnobotânico de plantas medicinais utilizadas por uma comunidade tradicional do nordeste brasileiro, Alagoas, Brasil. O estudo se deu por meio de visitas com aplicação de um questionário contendo perguntas relacionadas aos fatores socio-econômicos e sobre a diversidade das plantas utilizadas como medicinais. O trabalho foi realizado no período de março/2019 a fevereiro/2020, onde foram entrevistadas famílias e catalogadas amostras de plantas para identificação botânica. A população estudada, com 24 entrevistados, foi composta por moradores da comunidade Quilombola Pau D’arco da cidade de Arapiraca - Alagoas. Dos moradores entrevistados, 15 (62,5%) apresentavam idade entre 56 e 80 anos, 11 dos entrevistados cerca de 46%, são naturais da comunidade e 13 (54%) possuíam ensino fundamental incompleto. Ao todo, foram citadas 30 espécies de plantas utilizadas para fins terapêuticos, das quais apresentam maior utilização as plantas contra a hipertensão arterial (Salviaros marinus Schleid), diabetes Mellitos (Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth), dor e inflamação (Alternanthera tenella Colla). As espécies citadas estão relacionadas a inúmeras utilizações medicinais, entre os quais predominaram as doenças associadas ao aparelho cardiovascular e processos inflamatórios. O chá é principal forma de preparo das plantas. Percebe-se que as plantas medicinais são amplamente utilizadas por essa comunidade quilombola e o cultivo no quintal é considerado uma tradição.


Subject(s)
Ethnobotany/classification , Medicine, Traditional , Plants, Medicinal/classification
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e21609, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420501

ABSTRACT

Abstract The potential of the biome caatinga (exclusive from northeastern Brazil) has been evaluated in recent research for application in the pharmaceutical industry. Among the species of medicinal plants from caatinga, one can highlight the Commiphora leptophloeos (umburana), which has been used as infusions and syrups by the regional population for inflammatory and infectious diseases. Essential oils from umburana leaves and barks were obtained in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by spectrophotometric analysis. It was observed that a large part of the major compounds present in the essential oil is described as having antitumor activity, enabling research in investigational oncology with umburana (C. leptophloeos). In addition, some little explored components have been identified, such as cadinene, alpha-selinene, and elemenone. Despite being easily found in several plants, there are no clinical trials involving their biological activity in a well-defined isolated form, which could make exploring new studies possible. Furthermore, the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids allows future studies about the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plant Leaves/classification , Bursera/adverse effects , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Drug Industry/classification
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 221-235, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104211

ABSTRACT

Santiago Quiotepec, one of the oldest communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (México), has a great tradition using medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the medicinal species used by the inhabitants of Santiago Quiotepec and evaluate the antibacterial activity. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out, 60 informants mentioned that 66 species of plants are being used in the treatment of different diseases. Fifteen species were selected to evaluate the antibacterial activity in possible bacterial originated diseases treatment. The lowest values were presented in the hexane extract of Plumbago pulchella, with a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis as well as the hexanic extract of Echinopterys eglandulosa showed a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Pseudomona aeruginosa.


Santiago Quiotepec es una de las comunidades más antiguas del valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán (México), y tiene una gran tradición en el uso de plantas medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un inventario de las especies medicinales utilizadas por los habitantes de Santiago Quiotepec y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Se realizó un estudio etnobotánico de plantas medicinales, 60 informantes mencionaron 66 especies de plantas utilizadas en el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades. Quince especies utilizadas en la comunidad para tratar enfermedades de posible origen bacteriano fueron seleccionadas para evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Los valores más bajos se presentaron en el extracto hexánico de Plumbago pulchella, con una CMI de 0.25 mg/ml sobre Staphylococcus aureus y S. epidermidis, así como el extracto hexánico de Echinopterys eglandulosa mostró una CMI de 0.25 mg/mL sobre Pseudomona aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Ethnobotany , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Biological Assay , Mexico
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 29-64, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102866

ABSTRACT

The study of the relationship between man and nature can reveal the potential of plant resources. In the present study we used non-probabilistic sampling and snowball technique in communities of the Soure Marine Extractive Reserve-Pará, namely, Caju-Úna Community, Céu Settlement, and Pesqueiro Village, in order to analyze the medicinal plants used by these peoples, focusing on the diversity, consensual use and cultural importance of species, and providing ethnopharmacological information available in the scientific literature. To this end, participant observation, semi-structured interviews and free lists were used, as well as ethnobotanical indices and scientific studies retrieved from databases. We identified 90 species, among which Ruta graveolens, Maytenus obtusifolia and Libidibia ferrea stood out. The species were distributed in 50 families, mainly Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. The most frequent diseases treated with these plants, mainly with preparations in the form of teas, were flu, inflammations and stomach problems. The Caju-Úna Community had the highest indices of total species diversity and evenness. Nine species stood out in the consensus factor and importance value and pharmacological studies corroborated 35% of the popular indications.


El estudio de la relación entre el hombre y la naturaleza puede revelar el potencial de los recursos vegetales. En el presente estudio utilizamos técnicas de muestreo no probabilístico y de bola de nieve en las comunidades de la Reserva Extractiva Marina de SourePará, que incluyeron a la Comunidad Caju-Úna, el Establecimiento de Céu y el Pueblo de Pesqueiro, ello con el propósito de analizar las plantas medicinales utilizadas por estos pueblos. El estudio se centró en la diversidad, el uso consensual y la importancia cultural de las especies, sobre la base de información etnofarmacológica disponible en la literatura científica. Con este fin, se utilizaron observaciones de los participantes, entrevistas semiestructuradas y información de acceso libre, así como índices etnobotánicos y estudios científicos obtenidos de bases de datos. Se identificaron 90 especies, entre las que destacan Ruta graveolens, Maytenus obtusifolia y Libidibia ferrea. Las especies se distribuyeron en 50 familias, principalmente Lamiaceae, Asteraceae y Fabaceae. Las enfermedades más frecuentes tratadas con estas plantas, principalmente mediante infusiones fueron gripe, inflamaciones y problemas estomacales. La comunidad de Caju-Úna tuvo los índices más altos de diversidad y uniformidad total de especies. Se destacaron 9 en el factor consenso y valor de importancia, y los estudios farmacológicos corroboraron el 35% de las indicaciones populares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Ethnobotany , Ethnopharmacology , Brazil , Natural Reservations
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18327, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132053

ABSTRACT

Hypericum sinaicum L. is an endangered Egyptian medicinal plant of high importance due to the presence of naphthodianthrones (hypericins), which have photodynamic properties and pharmaceutical potential. We sought to assess H. sinaicum ability to develop hairy roots that could be cultured in contained conditions in vitro and used as a source for hypericin production. We used four A. rhizogenes strains differing in their plasmids and chromosomal backgrounds to inoculate excised H. sinaicum root, stem and leaf explants to induce hairy root development. Additionally, inoculum was applied to shoots held in Rockwool cubes supporting their stand after removal of the root system. All explant types were susceptible to A. rhizogenes although stem explants responded more frequently (over 90%) than other explant types. The A4 and A4T A. rhizogenes strains were highly, and equally effective in hairy root induction on 66-72% of explants while the LBA1334 strain was the most effective in transformation of shoots. Sonication applied to explants during inoculation enhanced the frequency of hairy root development, the most effective was 60 s treatment doubling the percentage of explants with hairy roots. However, shoot transformation was the most effective approach as shoots developed hairy roots within 10 days after inoculation. Molecular analyses confirmed that the established hairy root cultures in vitro were indeed obtained due to a horizontal gene transfer from bacteria. These cultures grew fast and the hypericin content in hairy roots was about two fold higher than in H. sinaicum plants as determined by HPLC.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plant Roots/adverse effects , Hypericum/adverse effects , Agrobacterium/metabolism , Plasmids , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods
7.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 613-620, oct 2019. tab, fig, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046788

ABSTRACT

In searching for alternatives to traditional chemical medicines, including feed antibiotics, scientists around the world are developing a new generation of medicines, phytobiotics. This work was aimed at studying the phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) production technology using the method of low-temperature vacuum water-ethanol extraction of Siberian medicinal plants, followed by low-temperature vacuum drying and determination of the main biologically active substances that had the required pharmacological effect on the organisms of farm animals and poultry. The objects of the study in this work were Siberian medicinal plants and ready phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances). The article describes the technological conditions for obtaining pharmaceutical substances and their properties concerning the content of biologically active substances. It has been found that for obtaining pharmaceutical substances, extraction should be performed in three stages: two water extractions and ethanol- water extraction. The article provides a list of medicinal plants and the amounts of biologically active substances that ensure certain pharmacological effects on the set of economically useful qualities in farm animals and poultry and contained in phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) based on extracts from medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Poultry , Technology , Biopharmaceutics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/classification , Food Additives , Animals, Domestic
8.
Hig. aliment ; 33(288/289): 475-479, abr.-maio 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1481979

ABSTRACT

Plantas nativas são utilizadas na alimentação humana e na cura de enfermidades. No que diz respeito às plantas medicinais, o emprego das substâncias nelas contidas, advém do conhecimento empírico. Já as PANC’s são conhecidas pela infinidade de benefícios à saúde, no entanto, há uma variedade de compostos desconhecidos por parte da comunidade científica. Diante do mencionado, objetivou-se coletar informações acerca das plantas com propriedades benéficas e, posteriormente dissipar este conhecimento. Foram feitas visitas in loco para obtenção de dados, e estes tratados pela técnica estatística de análise de correspondência. Foi feito, ainda, uma pesquisa na literatura para a comprovação dos dados encontrados na análise, e, por fim foram criadas cartilhas contendo as informações em relação a utilização das plantas endêmicas da região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Empirical Research , Plants, Edible/adverse effects , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Data Interpretation, Statistical
9.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(3): 118-123, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001124

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão de literatura teve como objetivo principal identificar as plantas medicinais utilizadas por gestantes capazes de provocar efeitos nocivos à gestação, assim como descrever os principais metabólitos secundários responsáveis por estes efeitos. Foram utilizados artigos escritos entre os anos de 2011 e 2018, disponíveis em bases de dados eletrônicas como Scielo, Periódicos Capes, Lilacs, Medline e Science Direct. Foram selecionadas 98 publicações, destas 52 foram excluídos por apresentarem problemas metodológicos ou não se adequarem ao tema, sendo 46 artigos aproveitados. Foram apresentadas as plantas medicinais frequentemente utilizadas por mulheres durante o período gestacional, as quais acredita-se não provocarem danos a gestação. Plantas como boldo, sene, camomila, carqueja, angélica, arruda e outras são comumente utilizadas pela população gestante a fim de aliviar os desconfortos desse período, como enjoo, flatulência, insônia, azia, depressão, insônia, dores articulares, emagrecimento, dentre outros. No entanto, as plantas medicinais possuem metabólitos secundários que são considerados tóxicos e capazes de provocar efeitos embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo, quando utilizados durante a gestação. Diante do que foi pesquisado, avaliando a relação risco/benefício, onde os estudos apontam muitos riscos oferecidos pelas plantas medicinais utilizadas na gestação, sugere-se o uso controlado destes tratamentos durante o período gestacional com o devido acompanhamento médico.


This literature review had as main objective to identify the medicinal plants used by pregnant women capable of causing harmful effects to gestation, as well as to describe the main secondary metabolites responsible for these effects. Articles used in this review were written between the years 2011 and 2018 and are available in electronic databases such as Scielo, Periodical Capes, Lilacs, Medline and Science Direct. A total of 98 publications were selected, of which 52 were excluded because they presented methodological problems or did not fit the theme, with 46 articles being used. The medicinal plants frequently used by women during the gestational period were shown, which are believed not to cause pregnancy damage. Plants such as boldo, sene, camomile, carqueja, angelica, arruda and others are commonly used by the pregnant population to relieve the discomforts of this period, such as nausea, flatulence, insomnia, heartburn, depression, joint pain, weight loss, among others. However, medicinal plants have secondary metabolites that are considered to be toxic and capable of causing embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortive effects when used during pregnancy. In the light of the research, evaluating the risk / benefit relationship, where the studies point out many risks offered by the use of medicinal plants during pregnancy, it is suggested controlled use of these treatments during the gestational period with the appropriate medical follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnant Women
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 583-603, nov. 2018. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007363

ABSTRACT

Ethnobotanical studies focusing on the documentation of folk therapies employed for pneumonia are almost non-existence in Africa and elsewhere. Data on plants used to treat this ailments was obtained through informed consent semi-structured face-to-face interview and field observations with 128 conveniently selected Bapedi traditional healers (THs) residing in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 57 plant species distributed across 54 genera and 32 botanical families, mostly the Asteraceae (21.8%) and Fabaceae (18.7%) were used by THs to treat pneumonia and related symptoms. Therapeutic uses of larger number of the documented species are not recorded elsewhere in literature as treatments of these ailments. Overall, the most widely used species by all interviewed THs were Acacia erioloba, Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Enicostema axillare, Lasiosiphon caffer and Stylochaeton natalensis. Ethnopharmacological studies validating the reported therapeutic claims of the species by Bapedi THs should be a subject of future investigation.


Los estudios etnobotánicos que se centran en la documentación de las terapias populares empleadas para la neumonía son casi inexistentes en África y en otros lugares. Los datos sobre plantas utilizadas para tratar estas dolencias se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas personales semiestructuradas con consentimiento informado y observaciones de campo a 128 curanderos tradicionales (TH) convenientemente seleccionados que residen en la provincia de Limpopo, Sudáfrica. Las TH utilizaron un total de 57 especies de plantas distribuidas en 54 géneros y 32 familias botánicas, en su mayoría Asteraceae (21.8%) y Fabaceae (18.7%) para tratar la neumonía y los síntomas relacionados. Los usos terapéuticos de un gran número de las especies documentadas no se registran en ninguna otra parte de la literatura como tratamientos para estas dolencias. En general, las especies más utilizadas por todos los TH entrevistados fueron Acacia erioloba, Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Enicostema axillare, Lasiosiphon caffer y Stylochaeton natalensis. Los estudios etnofarmacológicos que validan las afirmaciones terapéuticas informadas de las especies por parte de Bapedi TH deben ser un tema de investigación futura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Ethnobotany , South Africa , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Medicine, African Traditional , Phytotherapy
11.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1,supl.1): 763-778, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886940

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The development of our society has been based on the use of biodiversity, especially for medicines and nutrition. Brazil is the nation with the largest biodiversity in the world accounting for more than 15% of all living species. The devastation of biodiversity in Brazil is critical and may not only cause the loss of species and genes that encode enzymes involved in the complex metabolism of organisms, but also the loss of a rich chemical diversity, which is a potential source for bioeconomy based on natural products and new synthetic derivatives. Bioeconomy focus on the use of bio-based products, instead of fossil-based ones and could address some of the important challenges faced by society. Considering the chemical and biological diversity of Brazil, this review highlights the Brazilian natural products that were successfully used to develop new products and the value of secondary metabolites from Brazilian biodiversity with potential application for new products and technologies. Additionally, we would like to address the importance of new technologies and scientific programs to support preservation policies, bioeconomy and strategies for the sustainable use of biodiversity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Biological Products , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Biodiversity , Brazil
12.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2018. 60 p. il., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-905283

ABSTRACT

Os micro-organismos estão cada vez mais resistentes aos medicamentos disponíveis tanto na medicina quanto na odontologia, e esta resistência é ainda maior quando estão organizados em biofilmes mono ou multiespécies, de modo que o estudo de antimicrobianos alternativos, como fitoterápicos, estão em crescente ascensão. A interação entre leveduras e bactérias está intimamente presente na cavidade bucal, em que nichos como dentes, língua, mucosa e bolsa periodontal, nutrientes e temperatura adequados promovem condições favoráveis para formação do biofilme. Com isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de Pfaffia paniculata K (pfaffia), Hamamelis virginiana L. (hamamelis), Stryphnodendron barbatiman (barbatimão) e Gymnema sylvestre (gimena) em biofilmes heterotípicos de Candida albicans (ATCC 18804) com Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35688), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 4083) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442). Para isso, suspensões padronizadas em 107 cels/mL dos micro-organismos testes, foram distribuídos em placas de microtitulação de 96 poços, juntamente 100 µL de caldo BHI. As placas foram incubadas em estufa bacteriológica a 37ºC/48h (5% de CO2 para S. mutans) e, após, os biofilmes foram submetidos ao tratamento com os extratos por 5 min e 24 h, nas respectivas concentrações de 100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL e 25 mg/mL. Foi utilizado solução salina 0,9% (5 min) ou caldo BHI (24 h) nos grupos controles. Após, os biofilmes foram lavados e desagregados do fundo da placa e diluições seriadas foram semeadas em ágar seletivo para cada micro-organismo. Foram realizadas contagens de UFC/mL (log10) após 24 h de incubação e analisadas estatisticamente pelo método Kruskal-Wallis suplementado pelo teste de Dun's (p<0.05). Os resultados obtidos indicaram reduções significativas promovidas pelos extratos nos dois tempos de tratamento analisados. Foi observado que o extrato de H. virginiana apresentou redução de todos os grupos analisados no tempo de tratamento de 24 h. Conclui-se que os extratos de P. paniculata, H. virginiana, S. barbatiman e G. sylvestre apresentaram ação antimicrobiana sobre biofilmes muliespécie de C. albicans com as bactérias de interesse médico-odontológico, nos tempos de tratamento de 5 min e 24 h. (AU)


Microorganisms are increasingly resistant to drugs available in both medicine and dentistry, and this resistance is even greater when they are organized into mono or multispecies biofilms, so that the study of alternative antimicrobials, such as herbal medicines, are on the rise. The interaction between yeasts and bacteria is intimately present in the oral cavity, in which niches such as teeth, tongue, mucosa and periodontal pocket, food and adequate temperature promote adequate conditions for biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of extracts of Pfaffia paniculata K., Hamamelis virginiana L., Gymnema sylvestre and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M. in heterotopic biofilms of Candida albicans (ATCC 18804) with Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35688). Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 4083), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442). Standardized suspensions at 107 cells/mL of the test microorganisms were distributed in 96 well microtiter plates together with 100 µL of BHI broth, the plates were incubated in a bacteriological oven at 37°C/48h (5% CO2 for S. mutans). After the incubation time, treatments were performed at 5 min and 24 h times, applying the respective extracts at the concentrations of 100 mg, 50 mg and 25 mg/mL and applying 0.9% saline solution or BHI broth in the control groups. After the biofilms were washed and disaggregated from the bottom of the plate, performing serial dilutions for later seeding in selective agar. UFC/ml (log10) counts were performed after 24 h of incubation and statistically analyzed Kruskal-Wallis method supplemented by the Dun's test (p<0.05%). The obtained results indicated significant reductions promoted by extracts in the two treatment times analyzed. It was observed that the extract of H. virginiana showed reduction of all the analyzed groups without treatment time of 24 h. It is concluded that the extracts of P. paniculata, H. virginiana, S. barbatiman and G. sylvestre presented antimicrobial action after analysis of the heterotypic biofilms of C. albicans with the bacteria of medical and dental interest, in the treatment times of 5 min and 24 h. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Candida albicans/growth & development , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Plants, Medicinal/classification
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e18028, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974417

ABSTRACT

Several studies have revealed that certain naturally occurring medicinal plants inhibit the growth of various cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate cytotoxicity and apoptotic induction potential of Myristica fragrans Houtt mace extract. The cytotoxic activity of the Myristica fragrans Houtt mace acetone extract was assayed by MTT assay on human oral epidermal carcinoma KB cell lines. KB cells were incubated with different concentration of mace extract ranging from 25 to 125 µg/mL for 24hrs. The apoptotic induction potential was also studied by the analysis of Bcl-2 protein and gene expression in mace extract incubated KB cell lines using western blotting technique and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The mace extract exhibited cytotoxicity and anticancer effect against KB cell lines and it also suppressed the growth of cancer cells, therefore growth inhibitory effect was noted in extract treated cell lines. The apoptotic potential of mace extract was accompanied by reduced gene expression of Bcl-2 compared to the untreated KB cells. The mace extract shows the cytotoxic activity and induced the apoptosis through the modulation of its target genes Bcl-2 in the KB cell lines, suggesting the potential of mace as a candidate for oral cancer chemoprevention. This can be further investigated in vivo for its anticancer potential.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , KB Cells , Myristica/anatomy & histology , Cytotoxins/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Apoptosis , Genes, bcl-2/physiology
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17075, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001578

ABSTRACT

Generally, Plants have immense potential in the wounds management and treatment.In Chinese herbology, Hibiscus plant is a potent herb and have a good medicinal values but not scientifically approached. The present study aims to investigate the wound healing and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus hirtus Linn.(HH). Wound healing activity was carried out by excision, incision and burn wound models. Antimicrobial activity was determined by cup plate method. Healing rate was assessed from the rate of wound contraction, epithelialization rate, tensile strength, hexosamine and hydroxyproline content. From the obtained results, it was indicated that the wound contraction and increased tensile strength of Hibiscus hirtus extract exhibits potent wound healing capacity. Hexosamine and hydroxyproline expression were also correlative with the pattern of healing observed. Histological observation indicates that the wounds treated with Hibiscus hirtus extract and povidone iodine have reduced scar formation and enhances fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, keratinization and epithelialization. The Hibiscus hirtus extract has excellent antimicrobial activity against the various organisms. Wound healing activity of our ethanolic extract of Hibiscus hirtus has shown the good effect which has proved by different physical, histological, biochemical parameters. Significant antimicrobial activity shown may be due to major active constituents present in plant.


Subject(s)
Wound Healing , Plant Extracts/analysis , Hibiscus/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/classification
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2675-2685, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886846

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Much of the Brazilian semiarid region faces a considerable process of degradation of natural resources, and ethnobotanical studies have collaborated with important information about the use and traditional knowledge, serving as a tool to design conservation strategies of native plant species. Thus, this study aimed to determine medicinal species meriting conservation priorities in a "Caatinga" area in the northeastern of Brazilian territory. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key subjects selected through the "snowball" technique. The availability and species conservation priority was verified by relative density, risk of collection, local use and use of diversity in the forest fragment sampled. It was recorded 42 native medicinal plants and conservation priority score was calculated for seven species, including Mimosa tenuiflora, Hymenaea courbaril, Ximenia americana and Amburana cearensis need immediate conservation and attention, since their collection does not occur in a sustainable way. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the species and the sustainability of traditional therapeutic practice there needs to be a development of conservation practices of caatinga remaining to better conserve the species of the biome.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Conservation of Natural Resources , Brazil , Forests , Ethnobotany
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 794-802, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888818

ABSTRACT

Abstract Herein the use of medicinal plants by the population of the 3rd Sanitary District of Maceió-AL city is reported. Transversal description was conducted from February 2013 to January 2014, with a sample of 116 individuals of both Gender Genders aged over 18 years. The ethnobotanical information interviews ethnobotanical information were obtained through semi - structured questionnaire featuring the use of medicinal plants and social and economical data. Descriptive statistics was applied for quantitative variables as mean and standard deviation and proportions for qualitative variables in the frequency table format. The results showed that 85.34% of the interviewees used plants for medicinal purposes. As the majority of these were (73.28%) females in the age group between 30-60 years of old. Among a total of 45 identified plant species, the highest use frequency were for Boldus Peumus (bilberry), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), and Mentha piperita (mint). The most widely used plant foliage part was (53.53%) prepared as an infusion (55.5%). The use of medicinal plants in Maceió cityis widespread, highlighting the importance of ethnobotanical knowledge for the study of medicinal plants.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil de utilização de plantas medicinais dos indivíduos residentes no 3º Distrito Sanitário do município de Maceió, Alagoas. Trata-se de um estudo observacional, descritivo de caráter transversal que foi realizado no período de fevereiro de 2013 a janeiro de 2014, com amostra de 116 indivíduos, maiores de 18 anos de ambos os gêneros. As informações etnobotânicas foram obtidas através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas realizadas por meio de questionário semiestruturado para traçar o perfil de utilização de plantas medicinais e dados socioeconômicos e demográficos dos entrevistados. A estatística descritiva foi aplicada para as variáveis quantitativas na forma de média e desvio padrão e proporções para variáveis qualitativas no formato de tabelas de frequência. Os resultados evidenciaram que 85,34% dos entrevistados utilizavam plantas para finalidades medicinais. Sendo a maioria destes, (73,28%) do Gênero feminino estando na faixa etária de 30 a 60 anos de idade. De um total de 45 espécies vegetais identificadas, as de maior frequência de utilização foram o Peumus boldus (boldo), a Melissa officinalis (erva-cidreira) e a Menta piperita (hortelã). A parte mais utilizada das plantas foi às folhas (53,53%) sendo ainda esta preparada sob forma de infusão (55,5%). A utilização de plantas medicinais no município de Maceió, Alagoas é bastante difundida, reforçando a importância de estudos etnobotânicos a fim de trabalhar com o resgate do conhecimento popular aliado a literatura científica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Ethnobotany/statistics & numerical data , Phytotherapy/psychology , Phytotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2461-2469, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886781

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The dichloromethane extract of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a tradicional medicinal plant, showed antibiotic activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.4 mg.mL-1 and 100 percent of biofilm inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections. Based on these antibacterial activities, in addition to ethnopharmacological reports from healing men and farmers in Brazil, an herbal soap was produced from this active extract and was tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo assays conducted on these herbal soaps led to results similar to those previously conducted with the active extract. These results indicated the great potential of this plant for use as an excipient by preparing herbal antibacterial soaps as an alternative veterinary medicine aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections on small Brazilian farms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plectranthus/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Cattle , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plectranthus/classification , Mastitis, Bovine
18.
Lima; s.n; 2017. 129 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-880124

ABSTRACT

El estudio se realizó en tres comunidades nativas Asháninkas: Churingaveni, Shankivironi y Bajo Quimiriki. Se desarrollaron entrevistas estructuradas a 56 informantes de las comunidades, quienes transmitieron sus conocimientos sobre plantas medicinales e información relevante sobre las mismas. La investigación se realizó a través de metodologías cualitativa y cuantitativa, considerando el diseño descriptivo y etnográfico. Se logró registrar 48 especies medicinales, comprendidas en 43 géneros y 26 familias botánicas. Las familias medicinales más representativas usadas por los informantes de las comunidades fueron Asteraceae (14.6%), Piperaceae y Solanaceae 8.3%, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae y Rubiaceae 6,3%, estos utilizados para tratar sus dolencias y enfermedades. El resultado de la valoración de especies medicinales con tendencia al deterioro de sus poblaciones naturales muestra que la comunidad Churingaveni presenta niveles altos de deterioro (37.5%), seguido por Shankivironi (27%) y Bajo Quimiriki (18.8%). En cuanto a las causas que afectan la conservación de especies medicinales se observa que: en relación a densidad, Churingaveni presenta 39.6% de baja densidad, superior a Quimiriki 22.9% y Shankivironi 20.8%; referente a demandas de uso, la utilización medicinal más frecuente, Churingaveni 77.1%, B. Quimiriki 70.8% y Shankivironi 77.1% y respecto a la variable calidad de hábitat, 67.4% de especies se desarrollan en comunidades azonales (alteración de hábitats). Lo expuesto en el estudio demuestra que varias especies medicinales en las comunidades nativas estudiadas se encuentran con tendencia a la reducción de sus poblaciones naturales, o se encuentran muy restringidas en el ámbito local. Por lo tanto, se valida la hipótesis planteada en el estudio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ethnobotany , Indigenous Peoples , Medicine, Traditional , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Data Collection
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e15063, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839465

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In the present study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been used for the quantitative determination of lycorine in the aerial parts and bulbs of G. elwesii Hook. A simple method for the extraction of lycorine in low mass plant samples was employed utilizing pre-packed columns with diatomaceous earth (Extrelut(r)). The chromatographic separation was performed using an isocratic system with a mobile phase of trifluoroacetic acid-water-acetonitrile (0.01:92.5:7.5, v/v/v) applied at a flow rate 1 mL min-1 using diode array detector. The content of lycorine in the bulbs and aerial parts of G. elwesii collected from Demirci (Manisa) was found as 0.130 and 0.162 %, respectively. Additionally, in the bulbs of the specimens collected from Sogucak (Balikesir), lycorine was quantified as 0.055 %, whereas in the aerial parts, it was determined as 0.006 %. The method was validated partially with respect to system specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ). Validation procedures displayed that the method was specific, accurate and precise.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Amaryllidaceae/anatomy & histology , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Validation Study
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00177, 2017. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889406

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aegle marmelos (L.) (Rutaceae) commonly known as bael is an important medicinal fruit tree. The present study focused on the effects of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos (AEAM) on the testis and sperm characteristics induced by cyclophosphamide (CPA) in mice. Thirty six adult Parke's strain mice were divided into six groups: group I given only distilled water (control); group II administered with AEAM alone once in a week for five weeks; group III administered with CPA (200 mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally) once in a week for five weeks and group IV-VI CPA along with AEAM (400, 500 and 600 mg/kg b.w., orally). CPA was found to reduce gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm counts, motility, viability, antioxidant activities and induced histopathological changes of testis. In the group administered AEAM with CPA an exacerbation of sperm count, motility and viability of the cauda epididymis, GSI, antioxidant activities and architecture of testis was observed. The results suggest that the administration of AEAM may aggravate CPA-induced reproductive toxicity. It may be helpful in preparation of natural male contraceptives.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/analysis , Aegle/adverse effects , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Reproduction/immunology , Sperm Count/instrumentation , Testis , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology
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