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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 221-235, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104211

ABSTRACT

Santiago Quiotepec, one of the oldest communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (México), has a great tradition using medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the medicinal species used by the inhabitants of Santiago Quiotepec and evaluate the antibacterial activity. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out, 60 informants mentioned that 66 species of plants are being used in the treatment of different diseases. Fifteen species were selected to evaluate the antibacterial activity in possible bacterial originated diseases treatment. The lowest values were presented in the hexane extract of Plumbago pulchella, with a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis as well as the hexanic extract of Echinopterys eglandulosa showed a MIC of 0.25 mg/mL over Pseudomona aeruginosa.


Santiago Quiotepec es una de las comunidades más antiguas del valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán (México), y tiene una gran tradición en el uso de plantas medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar un inventario de las especies medicinales utilizadas por los habitantes de Santiago Quiotepec y evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Se realizó un estudio etnobotánico de plantas medicinales, 60 informantes mencionaron 66 especies de plantas utilizadas en el tratamiento de diferentes enfermedades. Quince especies utilizadas en la comunidad para tratar enfermedades de posible origen bacteriano fueron seleccionadas para evaluar la actividad antibacteriana. Los valores más bajos se presentaron en el extracto hexánico de Plumbago pulchella, con una CMI de 0.25 mg/ml sobre Staphylococcus aureus y S. epidermidis, así como el extracto hexánico de Echinopterys eglandulosa mostró una CMI de 0.25 mg/mL sobre Pseudomona aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Ethnobotany , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Biological Assay , Mexico
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(1): 29-64, ene. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102866

ABSTRACT

The study of the relationship between man and nature can reveal the potential of plant resources. In the present study we used non-probabilistic sampling and snowball technique in communities of the Soure Marine Extractive Reserve-Pará, namely, Caju-Úna Community, Céu Settlement, and Pesqueiro Village, in order to analyze the medicinal plants used by these peoples, focusing on the diversity, consensual use and cultural importance of species, and providing ethnopharmacological information available in the scientific literature. To this end, participant observation, semi-structured interviews and free lists were used, as well as ethnobotanical indices and scientific studies retrieved from databases. We identified 90 species, among which Ruta graveolens, Maytenus obtusifolia and Libidibia ferrea stood out. The species were distributed in 50 families, mainly Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. The most frequent diseases treated with these plants, mainly with preparations in the form of teas, were flu, inflammations and stomach problems. The Caju-Úna Community had the highest indices of total species diversity and evenness. Nine species stood out in the consensus factor and importance value and pharmacological studies corroborated 35% of the popular indications.


El estudio de la relación entre el hombre y la naturaleza puede revelar el potencial de los recursos vegetales. En el presente estudio utilizamos técnicas de muestreo no probabilístico y de bola de nieve en las comunidades de la Reserva Extractiva Marina de SourePará, que incluyeron a la Comunidad Caju-Úna, el Establecimiento de Céu y el Pueblo de Pesqueiro, ello con el propósito de analizar las plantas medicinales utilizadas por estos pueblos. El estudio se centró en la diversidad, el uso consensual y la importancia cultural de las especies, sobre la base de información etnofarmacológica disponible en la literatura científica. Con este fin, se utilizaron observaciones de los participantes, entrevistas semiestructuradas y información de acceso libre, así como índices etnobotánicos y estudios científicos obtenidos de bases de datos. Se identificaron 90 especies, entre las que destacan Ruta graveolens, Maytenus obtusifolia y Libidibia ferrea. Las especies se distribuyeron en 50 familias, principalmente Lamiaceae, Asteraceae y Fabaceae. Las enfermedades más frecuentes tratadas con estas plantas, principalmente mediante infusiones fueron gripe, inflamaciones y problemas estomacales. La comunidad de Caju-Úna tuvo los índices más altos de diversidad y uniformidad total de especies. Se destacaron 9 en el factor consenso y valor de importancia, y los estudios farmacológicos corroboraron el 35% de las indicaciones populares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Ethnobotany , Ethnopharmacology , Brazil , Natural Reservations
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 613-620, oct 2019. tab, fig, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046788

ABSTRACT

In searching for alternatives to traditional chemical medicines, including feed antibiotics, scientists around the world are developing a new generation of medicines, phytobiotics. This work was aimed at studying the phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) production technology using the method of low-temperature vacuum water-ethanol extraction of Siberian medicinal plants, followed by low-temperature vacuum drying and determination of the main biologically active substances that had the required pharmacological effect on the organisms of farm animals and poultry. The objects of the study in this work were Siberian medicinal plants and ready phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances). The article describes the technological conditions for obtaining pharmaceutical substances and their properties concerning the content of biologically active substances. It has been found that for obtaining pharmaceutical substances, extraction should be performed in three stages: two water extractions and ethanol- water extraction. The article provides a list of medicinal plants and the amounts of biologically active substances that ensure certain pharmacological effects on the set of economically useful qualities in farm animals and poultry and contained in phytobiotics (pharmaceutical substances) based on extracts from medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Poultry , Technology , Biopharmaceutics , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/classification , Food Additives , Animals, Domestic
4.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 26(3): 118-123, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001124

ABSTRACT

Esta revisão de literatura teve como objetivo principal identificar as plantas medicinais utilizadas por gestantes capazes de provocar efeitos nocivos à gestação, assim como descrever os principais metabólitos secundários responsáveis por estes efeitos. Foram utilizados artigos escritos entre os anos de 2011 e 2018, disponíveis em bases de dados eletrônicas como Scielo, Periódicos Capes, Lilacs, Medline e Science Direct. Foram selecionadas 98 publicações, destas 52 foram excluídos por apresentarem problemas metodológicos ou não se adequarem ao tema, sendo 46 artigos aproveitados. Foram apresentadas as plantas medicinais frequentemente utilizadas por mulheres durante o período gestacional, as quais acredita-se não provocarem danos a gestação. Plantas como boldo, sene, camomila, carqueja, angélica, arruda e outras são comumente utilizadas pela população gestante a fim de aliviar os desconfortos desse período, como enjoo, flatulência, insônia, azia, depressão, insônia, dores articulares, emagrecimento, dentre outros. No entanto, as plantas medicinais possuem metabólitos secundários que são considerados tóxicos e capazes de provocar efeitos embriotóxico, teratogênico e abortivo, quando utilizados durante a gestação. Diante do que foi pesquisado, avaliando a relação risco/benefício, onde os estudos apontam muitos riscos oferecidos pelas plantas medicinais utilizadas na gestação, sugere-se o uso controlado destes tratamentos durante o período gestacional com o devido acompanhamento médico.


This literature review had as main objective to identify the medicinal plants used by pregnant women capable of causing harmful effects to gestation, as well as to describe the main secondary metabolites responsible for these effects. Articles used in this review were written between the years 2011 and 2018 and are available in electronic databases such as Scielo, Periodical Capes, Lilacs, Medline and Science Direct. A total of 98 publications were selected, of which 52 were excluded because they presented methodological problems or did not fit the theme, with 46 articles being used. The medicinal plants frequently used by women during the gestational period were shown, which are believed not to cause pregnancy damage. Plants such as boldo, sene, camomile, carqueja, angelica, arruda and others are commonly used by the pregnant population to relieve the discomforts of this period, such as nausea, flatulence, insomnia, heartburn, depression, joint pain, weight loss, among others. However, medicinal plants have secondary metabolites that are considered to be toxic and capable of causing embryotoxic, teratogenic and abortive effects when used during pregnancy. In the light of the research, evaluating the risk / benefit relationship, where the studies point out many risks offered by the use of medicinal plants during pregnancy, it is suggested controlled use of these treatments during the gestational period with the appropriate medical follow-up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnant Women
5.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 583-603, nov. 2018. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007363

ABSTRACT

Ethnobotanical studies focusing on the documentation of folk therapies employed for pneumonia are almost non-existence in Africa and elsewhere. Data on plants used to treat this ailments was obtained through informed consent semi-structured face-to-face interview and field observations with 128 conveniently selected Bapedi traditional healers (THs) residing in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 57 plant species distributed across 54 genera and 32 botanical families, mostly the Asteraceae (21.8%) and Fabaceae (18.7%) were used by THs to treat pneumonia and related symptoms. Therapeutic uses of larger number of the documented species are not recorded elsewhere in literature as treatments of these ailments. Overall, the most widely used species by all interviewed THs were Acacia erioloba, Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Enicostema axillare, Lasiosiphon caffer and Stylochaeton natalensis. Ethnopharmacological studies validating the reported therapeutic claims of the species by Bapedi THs should be a subject of future investigation.


Los estudios etnobotánicos que se centran en la documentación de las terapias populares empleadas para la neumonía son casi inexistentes en África y en otros lugares. Los datos sobre plantas utilizadas para tratar estas dolencias se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas personales semiestructuradas con consentimiento informado y observaciones de campo a 128 curanderos tradicionales (TH) convenientemente seleccionados que residen en la provincia de Limpopo, Sudáfrica. Las TH utilizaron un total de 57 especies de plantas distribuidas en 54 géneros y 32 familias botánicas, en su mayoría Asteraceae (21.8%) y Fabaceae (18.7%) para tratar la neumonía y los síntomas relacionados. Los usos terapéuticos de un gran número de las especies documentadas no se registran en ninguna otra parte de la literatura como tratamientos para estas dolencias. En general, las especies más utilizadas por todos los TH entrevistados fueron Acacia erioloba, Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Enicostema axillare, Lasiosiphon caffer y Stylochaeton natalensis. Los estudios etnofarmacológicos que validan las afirmaciones terapéuticas informadas de las especies por parte de Bapedi TH deben ser un tema de investigación futura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Ethnobotany , South Africa , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Medicine, African Traditional , Phytotherapy
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(3): e18028, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974417

ABSTRACT

Several studies have revealed that certain naturally occurring medicinal plants inhibit the growth of various cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate cytotoxicity and apoptotic induction potential of Myristica fragrans Houtt mace extract. The cytotoxic activity of the Myristica fragrans Houtt mace acetone extract was assayed by MTT assay on human oral epidermal carcinoma KB cell lines. KB cells were incubated with different concentration of mace extract ranging from 25 to 125 µg/mL for 24hrs. The apoptotic induction potential was also studied by the analysis of Bcl-2 protein and gene expression in mace extract incubated KB cell lines using western blotting technique and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The mace extract exhibited cytotoxicity and anticancer effect against KB cell lines and it also suppressed the growth of cancer cells, therefore growth inhibitory effect was noted in extract treated cell lines. The apoptotic potential of mace extract was accompanied by reduced gene expression of Bcl-2 compared to the untreated KB cells. The mace extract shows the cytotoxic activity and induced the apoptosis through the modulation of its target genes Bcl-2 in the KB cell lines, suggesting the potential of mace as a candidate for oral cancer chemoprevention. This can be further investigated in vivo for its anticancer potential.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , KB Cells , Myristica/anatomy & histology , Cytotoxins/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Apoptosis , Genes, bcl-2/physiology
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17075, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001578

ABSTRACT

Generally, Plants have immense potential in the wounds management and treatment.In Chinese herbology, Hibiscus plant is a potent herb and have a good medicinal values but not scientifically approached. The present study aims to investigate the wound healing and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus hirtus Linn.(HH). Wound healing activity was carried out by excision, incision and burn wound models. Antimicrobial activity was determined by cup plate method. Healing rate was assessed from the rate of wound contraction, epithelialization rate, tensile strength, hexosamine and hydroxyproline content. From the obtained results, it was indicated that the wound contraction and increased tensile strength of Hibiscus hirtus extract exhibits potent wound healing capacity. Hexosamine and hydroxyproline expression were also correlative with the pattern of healing observed. Histological observation indicates that the wounds treated with Hibiscus hirtus extract and povidone iodine have reduced scar formation and enhances fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, keratinization and epithelialization. The Hibiscus hirtus extract has excellent antimicrobial activity against the various organisms. Wound healing activity of our ethanolic extract of Hibiscus hirtus has shown the good effect which has proved by different physical, histological, biochemical parameters. Significant antimicrobial activity shown may be due to major active constituents present in plant.


Subject(s)
Wound Healing , Plant Extracts/analysis , Hibiscus/adverse effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/classification
8.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1,supl.1): 763-778, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886940

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The development of our society has been based on the use of biodiversity, especially for medicines and nutrition. Brazil is the nation with the largest biodiversity in the world accounting for more than 15% of all living species. The devastation of biodiversity in Brazil is critical and may not only cause the loss of species and genes that encode enzymes involved in the complex metabolism of organisms, but also the loss of a rich chemical diversity, which is a potential source for bioeconomy based on natural products and new synthetic derivatives. Bioeconomy focus on the use of bio-based products, instead of fossil-based ones and could address some of the important challenges faced by society. Considering the chemical and biological diversity of Brazil, this review highlights the Brazilian natural products that were successfully used to develop new products and the value of secondary metabolites from Brazilian biodiversity with potential application for new products and technologies. Additionally, we would like to address the importance of new technologies and scientific programs to support preservation policies, bioeconomy and strategies for the sustainable use of biodiversity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Biological Products , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Biodiversity , Brazil
9.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2018. 60 p. il., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-905283

ABSTRACT

Os micro-organismos estão cada vez mais resistentes aos medicamentos disponíveis tanto na medicina quanto na odontologia, e esta resistência é ainda maior quando estão organizados em biofilmes mono ou multiespécies, de modo que o estudo de antimicrobianos alternativos, como fitoterápicos, estão em crescente ascensão. A interação entre leveduras e bactérias está intimamente presente na cavidade bucal, em que nichos como dentes, língua, mucosa e bolsa periodontal, nutrientes e temperatura adequados promovem condições favoráveis para formação do biofilme. Com isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de Pfaffia paniculata K (pfaffia), Hamamelis virginiana L. (hamamelis), Stryphnodendron barbatiman (barbatimão) e Gymnema sylvestre (gimena) em biofilmes heterotípicos de Candida albicans (ATCC 18804) com Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35688), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 4083) e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442). Para isso, suspensões padronizadas em 107 cels/mL dos micro-organismos testes, foram distribuídos em placas de microtitulação de 96 poços, juntamente 100 µL de caldo BHI. As placas foram incubadas em estufa bacteriológica a 37ºC/48h (5% de CO2 para S. mutans) e, após, os biofilmes foram submetidos ao tratamento com os extratos por 5 min e 24 h, nas respectivas concentrações de 100 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL e 25 mg/mL. Foi utilizado solução salina 0,9% (5 min) ou caldo BHI (24 h) nos grupos controles. Após, os biofilmes foram lavados e desagregados do fundo da placa e diluições seriadas foram semeadas em ágar seletivo para cada micro-organismo. Foram realizadas contagens de UFC/mL (log10) após 24 h de incubação e analisadas estatisticamente pelo método Kruskal-Wallis suplementado pelo teste de Dun's (p<0.05). Os resultados obtidos indicaram reduções significativas promovidas pelos extratos nos dois tempos de tratamento analisados. Foi observado que o extrato de H. virginiana apresentou redução de todos os grupos analisados no tempo de tratamento de 24 h. Conclui-se que os extratos de P. paniculata, H. virginiana, S. barbatiman e G. sylvestre apresentaram ação antimicrobiana sobre biofilmes muliespécie de C. albicans com as bactérias de interesse médico-odontológico, nos tempos de tratamento de 5 min e 24 h. (AU)


Microorganisms are increasingly resistant to drugs available in both medicine and dentistry, and this resistance is even greater when they are organized into mono or multispecies biofilms, so that the study of alternative antimicrobials, such as herbal medicines, are on the rise. The interaction between yeasts and bacteria is intimately present in the oral cavity, in which niches such as teeth, tongue, mucosa and periodontal pocket, food and adequate temperature promote adequate conditions for biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of extracts of Pfaffia paniculata K., Hamamelis virginiana L., Gymnema sylvestre and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M. in heterotopic biofilms of Candida albicans (ATCC 18804) with Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35688). Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 4083), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442). Standardized suspensions at 107 cells/mL of the test microorganisms were distributed in 96 well microtiter plates together with 100 µL of BHI broth, the plates were incubated in a bacteriological oven at 37°C/48h (5% CO2 for S. mutans). After the incubation time, treatments were performed at 5 min and 24 h times, applying the respective extracts at the concentrations of 100 mg, 50 mg and 25 mg/mL and applying 0.9% saline solution or BHI broth in the control groups. After the biofilms were washed and disaggregated from the bottom of the plate, performing serial dilutions for later seeding in selective agar. UFC/ml (log10) counts were performed after 24 h of incubation and statistically analyzed Kruskal-Wallis method supplemented by the Dun's test (p<0.05%). The obtained results indicated significant reductions promoted by extracts in the two treatment times analyzed. It was observed that the extract of H. virginiana showed reduction of all the analyzed groups without treatment time of 24 h. It is concluded that the extracts of P. paniculata, H. virginiana, S. barbatiman and G. sylvestre presented antimicrobial action after analysis of the heterotypic biofilms of C. albicans with the bacteria of medical and dental interest, in the treatment times of 5 min and 24 h. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteria , Candida albicans/growth & development , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Plants, Medicinal/classification
10.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 2675-2685, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886846

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Much of the Brazilian semiarid region faces a considerable process of degradation of natural resources, and ethnobotanical studies have collaborated with important information about the use and traditional knowledge, serving as a tool to design conservation strategies of native plant species. Thus, this study aimed to determine medicinal species meriting conservation priorities in a "Caatinga" area in the northeastern of Brazilian territory. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews with key subjects selected through the "snowball" technique. The availability and species conservation priority was verified by relative density, risk of collection, local use and use of diversity in the forest fragment sampled. It was recorded 42 native medicinal plants and conservation priority score was calculated for seven species, including Mimosa tenuiflora, Hymenaea courbaril, Ximenia americana and Amburana cearensis need immediate conservation and attention, since their collection does not occur in a sustainable way. In order to ensure the perpetuation of the species and the sustainability of traditional therapeutic practice there needs to be a development of conservation practices of caatinga remaining to better conserve the species of the biome.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/classification , Conservation of Natural Resources , Brazil , Forests , Ethnobotany
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 794-802, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888818

ABSTRACT

Abstract Herein the use of medicinal plants by the population of the 3rd Sanitary District of Maceió-AL city is reported. Transversal description was conducted from February 2013 to January 2014, with a sample of 116 individuals of both Gender Genders aged over 18 years. The ethnobotanical information interviews ethnobotanical information were obtained through semi - structured questionnaire featuring the use of medicinal plants and social and economical data. Descriptive statistics was applied for quantitative variables as mean and standard deviation and proportions for qualitative variables in the frequency table format. The results showed that 85.34% of the interviewees used plants for medicinal purposes. As the majority of these were (73.28%) females in the age group between 30-60 years of old. Among a total of 45 identified plant species, the highest use frequency were for Boldus Peumus (bilberry), Melissa officinalis (lemon balm), and Mentha piperita (mint). The most widely used plant foliage part was (53.53%) prepared as an infusion (55.5%). The use of medicinal plants in Maceió cityis widespread, highlighting the importance of ethnobotanical knowledge for the study of medicinal plants.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil de utilização de plantas medicinais dos indivíduos residentes no 3º Distrito Sanitário do município de Maceió, Alagoas. Trata-se de um estudo observacional, descritivo de caráter transversal que foi realizado no período de fevereiro de 2013 a janeiro de 2014, com amostra de 116 indivíduos, maiores de 18 anos de ambos os gêneros. As informações etnobotânicas foram obtidas através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas realizadas por meio de questionário semiestruturado para traçar o perfil de utilização de plantas medicinais e dados socioeconômicos e demográficos dos entrevistados. A estatística descritiva foi aplicada para as variáveis quantitativas na forma de média e desvio padrão e proporções para variáveis qualitativas no formato de tabelas de frequência. Os resultados evidenciaram que 85,34% dos entrevistados utilizavam plantas para finalidades medicinais. Sendo a maioria destes, (73,28%) do Gênero feminino estando na faixa etária de 30 a 60 anos de idade. De um total de 45 espécies vegetais identificadas, as de maior frequência de utilização foram o Peumus boldus (boldo), a Melissa officinalis (erva-cidreira) e a Menta piperita (hortelã). A parte mais utilizada das plantas foi às folhas (53,53%) sendo ainda esta preparada sob forma de infusão (55,5%). A utilização de plantas medicinais no município de Maceió, Alagoas é bastante difundida, reforçando a importância de estudos etnobotânicos a fim de trabalhar com o resgate do conhecimento popular aliado a literatura científica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Ethnobotany/statistics & numerical data , Phytotherapy/psychology , Phytotherapy/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Lima; s.n; 2017. 129 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-880124

ABSTRACT

El estudio se realizó en tres comunidades nativas Asháninkas: Churingaveni, Shankivironi y Bajo Quimiriki. Se desarrollaron entrevistas estructuradas a 56 informantes de las comunidades, quienes transmitieron sus conocimientos sobre plantas medicinales e información relevante sobre las mismas. La investigación se realizó a través de metodologías cualitativa y cuantitativa, considerando el diseño descriptivo y etnográfico. Se logró registrar 48 especies medicinales, comprendidas en 43 géneros y 26 familias botánicas. Las familias medicinales más representativas usadas por los informantes de las comunidades fueron Asteraceae (14.6%), Piperaceae y Solanaceae 8.3%, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae y Rubiaceae 6,3%, estos utilizados para tratar sus dolencias y enfermedades. El resultado de la valoración de especies medicinales con tendencia al deterioro de sus poblaciones naturales muestra que la comunidad Churingaveni presenta niveles altos de deterioro (37.5%), seguido por Shankivironi (27%) y Bajo Quimiriki (18.8%). En cuanto a las causas que afectan la conservación de especies medicinales se observa que: en relación a densidad, Churingaveni presenta 39.6% de baja densidad, superior a Quimiriki 22.9% y Shankivironi 20.8%; referente a demandas de uso, la utilización medicinal más frecuente, Churingaveni 77.1%, B. Quimiriki 70.8% y Shankivironi 77.1% y respecto a la variable calidad de hábitat, 67.4% de especies se desarrollan en comunidades azonales (alteración de hábitats). Lo expuesto en el estudio demuestra que varias especies medicinales en las comunidades nativas estudiadas se encuentran con tendencia a la reducción de sus poblaciones naturales, o se encuentran muy restringidas en el ámbito local. Por lo tanto, se valida la hipótesis planteada en el estudio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Ethnobotany , Population Groups , Medicine, Traditional , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Data Collection
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00215, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889399

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Various benefits of flavonoids for ameliorating cardiovascular diseases have been demonstrated. However, the lowering effects on blood pressure caused by antiproliferative potentials of flavonoids in vascular smooth muscle cells are rare. In this study, the antihypertensive effects of total flavonoids from Ampelopsis megalophylla were investigated. The dynamic pressure values and the rate of media thickness versus lumen diameter were measured by the tail-cuff system and H&E staining in vivo, respectively. The mRNA expressions of ACE, Ang II, eNOS, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and p27Kip1 in thoracic aorta or A7r5 cells were measured by qPCR, respectively. The protein expressions of c-Myc, Cyclin D1, p27Kip1 and ß-catenin in tissues or A7r5 cells were measured by Western blot assay. Total flavonoids of A. megalophylla (TFAM) reduced the expressions of ACE and Ang II, and elevated the content of eNOS in thoracic aorta cells of SHRs. Furthermore, TFAM decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of c-Myc and cyclin D1 by repressing the Wnt/ß-catenin-mediated TCF/LEF transcriptional activation both in vivo and in vitro, which is synergetic with the up-regulation of p27Kip1 expression. Our study provided evidence for developing flavonoids from A. megalophylla as herbal supplements to prevent against cardiovascular diseases by suppressing vascular remodeling


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Flavonoids/adverse effects , Ampelopsis/classification , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Rats, Inbred SHR , Antihypertensive Agents/analysis
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e15063, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839465

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In the present study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been used for the quantitative determination of lycorine in the aerial parts and bulbs of G. elwesii Hook. A simple method for the extraction of lycorine in low mass plant samples was employed utilizing pre-packed columns with diatomaceous earth (Extrelut(r)). The chromatographic separation was performed using an isocratic system with a mobile phase of trifluoroacetic acid-water-acetonitrile (0.01:92.5:7.5, v/v/v) applied at a flow rate 1 mL min-1 using diode array detector. The content of lycorine in the bulbs and aerial parts of G. elwesii collected from Demirci (Manisa) was found as 0.130 and 0.162 %, respectively. Additionally, in the bulbs of the specimens collected from Sogucak (Balikesir), lycorine was quantified as 0.055 %, whereas in the aerial parts, it was determined as 0.006 %. The method was validated partially with respect to system specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ). Validation procedures displayed that the method was specific, accurate and precise.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/instrumentation , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Amaryllidaceae/anatomy & histology , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Validation Study
15.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00177, 2017. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889406

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Aegle marmelos (L.) (Rutaceae) commonly known as bael is an important medicinal fruit tree. The present study focused on the effects of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos (AEAM) on the testis and sperm characteristics induced by cyclophosphamide (CPA) in mice. Thirty six adult Parke's strain mice were divided into six groups: group I given only distilled water (control); group II administered with AEAM alone once in a week for five weeks; group III administered with CPA (200 mg/kg b.w., intraperitoneally) once in a week for five weeks and group IV-VI CPA along with AEAM (400, 500 and 600 mg/kg b.w., orally). CPA was found to reduce gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm counts, motility, viability, antioxidant activities and induced histopathological changes of testis. In the group administered AEAM with CPA an exacerbation of sperm count, motility and viability of the cauda epididymis, GSI, antioxidant activities and architecture of testis was observed. The results suggest that the administration of AEAM may aggravate CPA-induced reproductive toxicity. It may be helpful in preparation of natural male contraceptives.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/analysis , Aegle/adverse effects , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Reproduction/immunology , Sperm Count/instrumentation , Testis , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology
16.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e17072, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889419

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Interactions between herbs and drugs may increase or decrease the pharmacological or toxicological effects of either component. Experimental data on the pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal products and drugs are limited. This study attempted to investigate the effect of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi) formulation on the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline in rats. In this study, rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 6 each) which were served as a control (amitriptyline alone) and treatment group (amitriptyline with B. monnieri), respectively. Rats in the treatment group received B. monnieri (31 mg/kg/day) whereas the control group received normal saline by oral gavage for seven days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg amitriptyline. Plasma concentrations of amitriptyline were measured up to 24 h after its administration by a developed and validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Pretreatment with B. monnieri produced a significant increase in the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC0-t) and elimination half-life (t1/2) of amitriptyline by 16.8%, 26.5%, and 15.5%, respectively, compared to amitriptyline alone. Moreover, oral clearance and volume of distribution (Vss) were decreased by 26.2% and 15.5% respectively. This study concluded that B.monnieri significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of amitriptyline in rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Bacopa/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Amitriptyline/pharmacokinetics , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Biological Availability , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3,supl): 2461-2469, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886781

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The dichloromethane extract of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a tradicional medicinal plant, showed antibiotic activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.4 mg.mL-1 and 100 percent of biofilm inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections. Based on these antibacterial activities, in addition to ethnopharmacological reports from healing men and farmers in Brazil, an herbal soap was produced from this active extract and was tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo assays conducted on these herbal soaps led to results similar to those previously conducted with the active extract. These results indicated the great potential of this plant for use as an excipient by preparing herbal antibacterial soaps as an alternative veterinary medicine aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections on small Brazilian farms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plectranthus/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Cattle , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plectranthus/classification , Mastitis, Bovine
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 703-712, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829669

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Plants have been commonly used in popular medicine of most cultures for the treatment of disease. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of certain Argentine plants used in traditional medicine has been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial, anti-biofilm, and anti-cell adherence activities of native plants (Larrea divaricata, Tagetes minuta, Tessaria absinthioides, Lycium chilense, and Schinus fasciculatus) collected in northwestern Argentina. METHODS: The activities of the five plant species were evaluated in Bacillus strains and clinical strains of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from northwestern Argentina and identified by 16S rDNA. RESULT: Lycium chilense and Schinus fasciculatus were the most effective antimicrobial plant extracts (15.62µg/ml and 62.50µg/ml for Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 and Bacillus sp. Mcn4, respectively). The highest (66%) anti-biofilm activity against Bacillus sp. Mcn4 was observed with T. absinthioides and L. divaricate extracts. The highest (68%) anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1 was observed with L. chilense extract. T. minuta, T. absinthioides, and L. divaricata showed percentages of anti-biofilm activity of between 55% and 62%. The anti-adherence effects of T. minuta and L. chilense observed in Bacillus sp. Mcn4 reflected a difference of only 22% and 10%, respectively, between anti-adherence and biofilm inhibition. Thus, the inhibition of biofilm could be related to cell adherence. In Staphylococcus sp. Mcr1, all plant extracts produced low anti-adherence percentages. CONCLUSION: These five species may represent a source of alternative drugs derived from plant extracts, based on ethnobotanical knowledge from northwest Argentina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Bacillus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Argentina , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Biofilms/growth & development , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Tagetes/chemistry , Lycium/chemistry , Larrea/chemistry , Environmental Microbiology
19.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(3): 493-507, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828277

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of the study is to formulate and evaluate a topical herbal gel containing Cardiospermum halicacabum and Vitex negundo leaf extracts for their anti-arthritic activity in rats. Twelve herbal gel formulations were prepared using 1.5% of gelling agents carbopol 934 (F1-F6) and carbopol 940 (F6-F12) and they were evaluated for physical appearance, net content, viscosity, extrudability, pH, spreadability, in vitro diffusion profile and primary skin irritation tests. The stability study for the topical herbal gel formulation was done as per ICH guidelines and anti-arthritic activity was evaluated by Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis method. Assessment of body weight, paw volume, hematological and biochemical parameters, histopathological examination and In vitro determination of serum biomarkers were also carried out. Formulated gels were homogenous, stable and complied with the guidelines. Among the formulations, F4 showed better release (98.4 %) characteristics than other formulations. No erythema or edema was observed in the skin irritation test confirming the gel was non-toxic and safe. Topical application of the herbal gel F4 containing carbopol 934 displayed significant (p < 0.001) anti-arthritic activity compared to diseased rats. Reduction in paw volume, no agglutination in C - reactive protein and rheumatic factor, reduction in TNF level, regaining of normal hematological, and biochemical parameters, reduction in spleen and thymus weight and histopathological examination supported the anti-arthritic activity of the gel formulation.


Subject(s)
Rats , Arthritis/diagnosis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Evaluation Studies as Topic/methods , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Herbal , Sapindaceae/classification , Vitex/classification
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 462-472, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787936

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O comércio de plantas medicinais em feiras livres faz parte da cultura de muitas cidades da região Nordeste do Brasil. Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa verificar a existência de padrões de comercialização de plantas medicinais nas feiras livres do município de Arapiraca-AL. A metodologia incluiu a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas, aplicadas a vendedores de plantas medicinais, sendo estas gravadas em áudio após assinatura do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido, as técnicas da observação direta, “bola de neve” e lista livre. Os informantes indicaram 42 plantas medicinais, tendo Fabaceae com maior destaque em número de espécies. Do total de espécies identificadas, a maior parte é nativa (82%) e o hábito predominante é o arbóreo. Este estudo revelou que a produção e comercialização de plantas medicinais possuem um padrão local, com as plantas adquiridas através de terceiros, não havendo um padrão mínimo de qualidade, sendo necessária a implantação de políticas públicas voltadas a capacitação destes profissionais, agregando valor ao saber popular sobre plantas medicinais.


ABSTRACT The marketing of medicinal plants in street fairs is part of the culture of many cities in the Northeast of Brazil. The aim of this study was to identify the marketing patterns of medicinal plants in Arapiraca-AL city. The methodologies involved semi-structured interviews, givento the merchants of medicinal plants, t after a Free and Clear Consent Form, by which the survey participants were aware of the risks and benefits of it and can stop it if necessary to judge, the interviews were recorded. Snow-ball and free list techniques were also used. The informants indicated 42 species; Fabaceae had the highest number of species. From the total of identified medicinal plants, 80% were native and the predominant habitat was arboreous. This study revealed that the production and marketing of medicinal plants has a local pattern, with the plants being acquired through outsourcing, and there is no minimum quality standard, requiring the implementation of public policies for the training of these professionals, adding value to the common knowledge of medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Humans , Commerce/methods , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Ethnobotany/methods
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