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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 21(1): 94-107, ene. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372487

ABSTRACT

Basil (Ocimum basilicumL.) is a medicinal species used in several areas, such as food, medicines and cosmetics, and the understanding of its physiological behavior under environmental conditions is of paramount importance for the improvement of cultivation methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different water availability under physiological, biochemical and metabolic characteristics, in three distinct genotypes: 'Alfavaca basilicão', 'Gennaro de menta' and 'Grecco à palla', during two different phenological stages (vegetative and reproductive). It was found that the water deficit promotes physiological changes to tolerate water stress, and the studied genotypes have different routes to achieve this physiological tolerance, which culminates in a distinct accumulation of metabolites in plants, and can be considered interesting if the final product is the production of essential oils.


La albahaca (Ocimum basilicum L.) es una planta medicinal utilizada en varias áreas: alimenticia, medicinal e industria cosmética; es de suma importancia el entendimiento de su comportamiento fisiológico bajo diferentes condiciones ambientales con el fin de mejorar los procesos del cultivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia de diferentes disponibilidades hídricas en las características fisiológicas, bioquímicas y metabólicas en tres genotipos de albahaca: "Alfavaca basilicão", "Gennaro de menta" y "Grecco à palla" durante dos etapas fenológicas (vegetativa y reproductiva). Fue encontrado que el déficit hídrico promueve cambios fisiológicos con el fin de tolerar el estrés hídrico. Los genotipos estudiados presentaron diferentes rutas para alcanzar esta tolerancia fisiológica, la cual culmina con distintas acumulaciones de metabolitos en las plantas, y puede ser considerado interesante si el producto final es la producción de aceites esenciales.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Oils, Volatile/metabolism , Ocimum basilicum/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/physiology , Water/metabolism , Ocimum basilicum/physiology , Soil Moisture
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878910

ABSTRACT

ATP-binding cassette(ABC) transporters are one of the largest protein families in organisms, with important effects in regulating plant growth and development, root morphology, transportation of secondary metabolites and resistance of stress. Environmental stress promotes the biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites, which determines the quality of medicinal plants. Therefore, how to improve the accumulation of secondary metabolites has been a hotspot in studying medicinal plants. Many studies have showed that ABC transporters are extremely related to the transportation and accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. Recently, with the great development of genomics and transcriptomic sequencing technology, the regulatory mechanisms of ABC transporters on secondary metabolites have attached great attentions in medicinal plants. This paper reviewed the mechanisms of different groups of ABC transporters in transporting secondary metabolites through cell membranes. This paper provided key theoretical basis and technical supports in studying the mechanisms of ABC transporters in medicinal plant, and promoting the accumulation of secondary metabolites, in order to improve the quality of medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Biological Transport , Plant Development , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Stress, Physiological
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17420, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142490

ABSTRACT

Dengue fever has emerged as a big threat to human health since the last decade owing to high morbidity with considerable mortalities. The proposed study aims at the in silico investigation of the inhibitory action against DENV4-NS1 of phytochemicals from two local medicinal plants of Pakistan. Non-Structural Protein 1 of Dengue Virus 4 (DENV4-NS1) is known to be involved in the replication and maturation of viron in the host cells. A total of 129 phytochemicals (50 from Tanacetum parthenium and 79 from Silybum marianum) were selected for this study. The tertiary structure of DENV4-NS1 was predicted based on homology modelling using Modeller 9.18 and the structural stability was evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) along with the drug-likeness was also predicted for these phytochemicals using SwissADME and PreADMET servers. The results of ADMET and drug-likeness predictions exhibited that 54 phytochemicals i.e. 25 from Tanacetum parthenium and 29 from Silybum marianum showed effective druglikeness. These phytochemicals were docked against DENV4-NS1 using AutoDock Vina and 18 most suitable phytochemicals with binding affinities ≤ -6.0 kcal/mol were selected as potential inhibitors for DENV4-NS1. Proposed study also exploits the novel inhibitory action of Jaceidin, Centaureidin, Artecanin, Secotanaparthenolide, Artematin, Schizolaenone B, Isopomiferin, 6, 8-Diprenyleriodictyol, and Anthraxin against dengue virus. It is concluded that the screened 18 phytochemicals have strong inhibition potential against Dengue Virus 4.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Proteins/classification , Dengue , Dengue Virus , Phytochemicals/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Pharmacokinetics , Tanacetum parthenium/adverse effects , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18406, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142489

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Hedera nepalensis crude extract, its fractions and lupeol in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Lupeol and n-hexane (HNN) fraction significantly reduced the blood glucose level by increasing insulin level in time dependent manner, and also significantly increased amylase and lipase activity in diabetic rats. Elevated levels of alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total bilirubin and total protein in blood serum were efficiently restored to normal levels. Suppressed enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and peroxidase (POD) were also restored to their normal levels. Kidney functions were also restored to normal level after treatment with HNN and lupeol. HNN fraction and lupeol of H. nepalensis prevented oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. This study signifies the importance of H. nepalensis and lupeol in ameliorating diabetes by inducing insulin secretion in diabetic model rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Araliaceae/classification , Hedera/adverse effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/chemically induced , Complex Mixtures/adverse effects , Alloxan/adverse effects , Insulin
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e15098, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839454

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ocimum is one of the most important genera of the Lamiaceae family. Several studies about basil and its popular use reveal many characteristics of the herb, including its use as antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, and cardiovascular agents, among others. In this paper, we evaluated genotoxic, oxidative, and anti-inflammatory parameters from the extract of Ocimum basilicum in different concentrations, using human leukocytes cultures exposed to challenging agents. Our results confirm that the O. basilicum extract acts as an antioxidant and effectively reverts or subjugates the effects of high oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide. These actions are attributed to its composition, which is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids as well as compounds such as rosmarinic acid, all of which have well-known antioxidant activity. We also show that our basil extract presents anti-inflammatory properties, the mechanism of which is a composed interaction between the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator and the stimulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Although pharmacodynamics studies are necessary to evaluate the activities in vivo, our results demonstrated that basil could act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and a possible alternative for medicinal treatment.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/analysis , Ocimum basilicum/classification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Ocimum basilicum/adverse effects , Leukocytes/classification , Antioxidants/therapeutic use
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(3): e00061, 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889396

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In-silico study was performed to find the pharmacodynamics, toxicity profiles and biological activities of three phytochemicals isolated from Limoniastrum feei (Plumbagenaceae). Online pharmacokinetic tools were used to estimate the potential of Quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (astragalin) and quercitin-7-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside as specific drugs. Then the prediction of potential targets of these compounds were investigated using PharmMapper. Auto-Dock 4.0 software was used to investigate the different interactions of these compounds with the targets predicted earlier. The permeability of quercetin was found within the range stated by Lipinski ׳s rule of five. Hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (HPGDS), farnesyl diphosphate synthetase (FPPS) and the deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) were potential targets for quercetin, astragalin and quercetin 7, respectively. Quercetin showed antiallergic and anti-inflammatory activity, while astragalin and quercetin 7 were predicted to have anticancer activities. The activity of Astragalin appeared to be mediated by FPPS inhibition. The inhibition of DCK was predicted as the anticancer mechanisms of quercetin 7. The compounds showed interesting interactions and satisfactory binding energies when docked into their targets. These compounds are proposed to have activities against a variety of human aliments such as allergy, tumors, muscular dystrophy, and diabetic cataracts.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Computer Simulation/statistics & numerical data , Plumbaginaceae/classification , Quercetin/analysis , Biological Factors , Pharmacologic Actions
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(4): e00262, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889434

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective was to investigate the total saponin and protodioscin concentrations and the cytotoxicity in vitro, of five samples of the plant Tribulus terrestris, commercially available in the metropolitan region of Vitória - Espirito Santo, Brazil, and to compare them with the aqueous extract of the plant. The chromatographic profile and quantification of protodioscin in commercial samples and plant extract were evaluated by LC-MS/MS. The percentage of total saponins were determined by the colorimetric method. Extracts and protodioscin cytotoxicity were analyzed by the MTT assay in three cell lineages: fibroblasts (L929), ovarian cancer (Ovcar3) and murine hepatoma (Hepa1c1c7). All extracts displayed high levels of total saponins (207.2 to 780.3 mg g-1 of dry extract). The chromatographic profile revealed a wide diversity of compounds, and the saponin protodioscin was detected in only two extracts. One extract displayed high cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 157.0, 38.2 and 7.4 µg mL-1 for the Ovcar3, Hepa1c1c7 and L929 cell lines, respectively. The other extracts displayed cytotoxic effects only at concentrations equal to or greater than 125.0 µg mL-1. Surprisingly, the most cytotoxic extract displayed the highest protodioscin concentration. Therefore, it is suggested that these products be marketed with caution, and followed-up by a certified healthcare professional.


Subject(s)
Saponins/analysis , Plant Extracts/analysis , Zygophyllaceae/classification , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 785-789, July-Sept. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755812

ABSTRACT

Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time.

.


Subject(s)
Annona/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus thuringiensis/growth & development , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Streptococcus pyogenes/growth & development , Brazil , Bacillus thuringiensis/drug effects , Cell Culture Techniques , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects
9.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(3): 360-366, Jul-Sep/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752551

ABSTRACT

RESUMO A espécie Physalis angulata L., pertencente à família Solanaceae, tem despontado como uma planta extremamente promissora para uso medicinal, em razão da produção do composto fisalina. No entanto, aspectos importantes do seu cultivo ainda permanecem pouco conhecidos. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a influencia do fósforo para o seu crescimento. O experimento foi conduzido em Latossolo Amarelo de textura média, submetido a três doses de P: 8, 16 e 64 mg kg-1 de P. Usou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Foram realizadas duas colheitas: aos 30 e 42 dias após o plantio. Verificou-se que as plantas cultivadas sob deficiência (8 mg kg-1 de P no solo) apresentaram 26,3 folhas, enquanto as cultivadas com a maior dose (64 mg kg-1 de P no solo) produziram 80,17 folhas. Aumento semelhante (201%) foi obtido para a área foliar, cujos valores variaram de 436,4 cm2a 1.313,9 cm2. Sob deficiência, a produção da massa seca total foi de apenas 1,72g, enquanto para a dose de 64 mg kg-1 de P no solo esse valor foi de 7,58g, significando um aumento de 340%. Plantas cultivadas com 8 mg kg-1 de P no solo não apresentaram flores ou frutos; já para o tratamento em que se utilizou 64 mg kg-1 de P no solo, o início do florescimento antecedeu ao das plantas cultivadas com 16 mg kg-1 de P no solo. A razão de área foliar e a área foliar específica foram maiores para as plantas cultivadas sob deficiência, enquanto a taxa de crescimento relativo e a taxa assimilatória líquida não foram estatisticamente influenciadas. Conclui-se que a deficiência de P no solo pode comprometer sobremaneira o crescimento das plantas de Physalis. Além disso, como a deficiência de P reduziu sensivelmente a produção de folhas, órgão responsável pela produção da fisalina, também é possível concluir que a deficiência de P pode, mesmo que indiretamente, reduzir a concentração desse importante composto na planta.


ABSTRACT The specie Physalis angulata L., who belongs to the Solanaceae family, has stand out as an extremely promising plant in terms of medical use, due to the production of the physalin compound. However, important aspects of its production still remain unknown. Thus the objective of this work was to assess the influence of phosphorus for the growth of these species. The experiment was performed with three doses of P (8, 16 e 64 mg kg-1 de P), in a completely randomized experimental design. Two harvests were performed: at 30 and 42 days after planting. The deficiency of P reduced the number of leaves and leaf area. The total dry matter (DM), as well as a MS from all parts of the plant, was significantly higher for plants grown under the highest levels of phosphorus. Plants grown with 8 mg P kg-1 showed no flowers or fruit; but, for the treatment which used 64 mg of P kg-1 the beginning of flowering happened before than with the plants grown with 16mg. The ratio of the leaf area and the specific leaf area were higher for plants grown under stress, while the values of the relative growth rate and the net assimilatory rate were not statistically influenced. We conclude that the deficiency of P in soil may considerably affect the growth of Physalis plants. Moreover, since the deficiency of P significantly reduced the leaf production, which is responsible for creating the physalin, it is also possible to conclude that P deficiency may, even indirectly, reduce the concentration of this important compound in the plant.


Subject(s)
Physalis/growth & development , Agricultural Cultivation , Phosphorus/analysis , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism
10.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(2): 297-304, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-746120

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Plantas condimentares são amplamente utilizadas na culinária como alimento funcional. Pacientes hipertensos, que retiram o sal de cozinha (NaCl) de sua alimentação, relatam que os alimentos "perdem" o sabor. Visando alternativas para substituir o sal e melhorar a palatabilidade das preparações alimentares de pacientes hipertensos, o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver temperos à base de plantas medicinais e analisar os teores de compostos fenólicos, flavonoides e atividade antioxidante destes. Plantas (coentro, salsa, orégano, alecrim, manjericão, alho, cebola) cultivadas organicamente em Viçosa (MG) foram processadas e os temperos foram desenvolvidos a partir de combinação destas espécies, de acordo com teste aceitabilidade sensorial afetivo por meio de escala hedônica. Foram definidos três temperos, dos quais foram feitos extratos metanólicos por remaceração até esgotamento. Nas dosagens utilizou-se DPPH na avaliação da atividade antioxidante; reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu para compostos fenólicos e vanilina clorídrica para flavonoides. As análises foram feitas com quatro repetições e os resultados submetidos à análise de variância e teste de média a 5% de significância. Na aceitação subjetiva dos temperos a nota média foi 7,07±1,09 e 8,0±0,93 na ação afetiva como alimento. O teor mais elevado de compostos fenólicos foi no tempero 2 (alho, salsa e manjericão) (55,04±4,307 mg/mL), a maior ação antioxidante foi no tempero 1 (alho, cebola, coentro e orégano) nos tempos 0 (48,72%) e 30 minutos (78,37%). Os teores de flavonoides foram semelhantes nos 3 temperos. Todos os temperos tiveram boa aceitação por pacientes hipertensos e mostraram-se promissores na substituição dos condimentos convencionais.


ABSTRACT: Plant herbs are widely used in cooking as functional food. Hypertensive patients, who remove salt (NaCl) from their diets, report that the food "loses" flavor. Seeking alternatives to replace salt and improve the palatability of food preparations of hypertensive patients the aim of this study was to develop spices based on medicinal plants and analyze their contents of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Plants (cilantro, parsley, oregano, rosemary, basil, garlic, onion) grown organically in the city of Viçosa (state of Mato Grosso, Brazil) were processed and the seasonings were developed from the combination of these species, according to the affective sensory acceptability test using the hedonic scale. Three spices were defined, and methanol extracts were made from them by maceration until exhaustion. In the dosages, we used DPPH to evaluate the antioxidant activity, Folin-Ciocalteu reagent for phenolic compounds and hydrochloric vanillin for flavonoids. The analyses were performed with four replicates and the results were subjected to analysis of variance and to a 5% significance test. In the subjective acceptance of the spices, the average score was 7.07 ± 1.09 and 8.0 ± 0.93 in the affective action as food. The highest content of phenolic compounds was for treatment 2 (garlic, parsley and basil) (55.04 ± 4.307 mg/mL) and the highest antioxidant activity was measured in treatment 1 (garlic, onion, cilantro and oregano) at 0 (48.72%) and 30 minutes (78.37%). The contents of flavonoids were similar in the three treatments. All spices were well accepted by the hypertensive patients and have shown to be a promising replacement of conventional spices.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Condiments/statistics & numerical data , Flavonoids/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Functional Food/analysis , Hypertension , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism
11.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(1): 133-142, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742920

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento das plantas medicinais nativas no bioma Caatinga na comunidade do Sítio Nazaré, no município de Milagres, Ceará. Foram utilizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 100 informantes entre 25 a 85 anos registrando informações de 62 espécies medicinais sobre o uso, parte utilizada, indicação terapêutica, e formas de preparo dos remédios caseiros, além de coleta do material botânico e produção de exsicatas. As famílias com maior representatividade na pesquisa foram Fabaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (7 spp.), Cucurbitaceae e Malvaceae (3 spp.), e as demais com duas ou uma espécie cada. Nas preparações dos remédios caseiros verificou-se que todas as partes da planta são utilizadas, predominando as raízes (33,77%) e as cascas (29,87%). Observaram-se várias formas de preparo, sendo o chá a mais indicada (49,21%), seguida do lambedor (40,69%). Os dados encontrados revelaram que o conhecimento popular sobre as plantas medicinais é de extrema importância para o controle das afecções e contribui para a realização de estudos etnofarmacológicos.


The present study aimed to survey the native medicinal plants in the biome Caatinga in the community of Sítio Nazaré from Milagres, in Ceará, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews with 100 persons, from 25 to 85 years old, were recorded. Sixty-two species were pointed for medical information on use, used plant part, therapeutic indication and methods of preparation of home remedies. We also prepared the collection of botanical material and production of exsiccates. The most representative families reported in this study were: Fabaceae (15 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (7 spp.), Cucurbitaceae and Malvaceae (3 spp.). On the preparation of remedies, we found that all parts of the plants were used, predominantly the roots (33.77%) and the barks (29.87%). The most common way of preparation observed was tea (49.21%), followed by syrup (40.69%). These collected data revealed that popular knowledge on medicinal Caatinga plants were important for disease control in the local population and it has contributed to other ethnopharmacology studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Data Collection/instrumentation , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Residence Characteristics/classification , Ecosystem , Ethnopharmacology/statistics & numerical data
12.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(4,supl.1): 827-835, 2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-770370

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Artigo de revisão que trata da importância do tratamento da xerose e de fissuras nos pés de pacientes com diabetes mellitus. Essas fissuras se não tratadas, constituem porta de entrada para infecções e podem resultar na formação de úlceras, que são a causa mais comum das amputações de extremidades de causa não traumática. Por isso a prevenção de fissuras nos pés de diabéticos é fundamental, já que a cicatrização é um processo complicado nesses pacientes, devido à hiperglicemia. Aborda sobre produtos usados no tratamento de xerose e fissuras e o crescente interesse de pesquisadores e do mercado no uso de fitoterápicos com esse objetivo.


ABSTRACT A review article that deals with the importance of treating xerosis and fissures in the feet of patients with diabetes mellitus. These wounds can be a gateway to infections and may result in the formation of ulcers, if untreated. The ulcers are the most common cause for the amputations of extremities at non-traumatic cases. For this reason, the prevention of fissures in the feet of diabetic patientsis basal, since healing is a complicated process in this patients because of their hyperglycemia symptom. This article addresses the products employed in the therapy of xerosis and fissures, and also investigates the increasing interest of researchers and market in the application of phytotherapic medicines for this purpose.


Subject(s)
Craving , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Ichthyosis/physiopathology , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Wound Healing , Xerostomia/diagnostic imaging , Therapeutics
13.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(3): 480-494, Jul-Sep/2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: lil-752558

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o potencial de plantas que crecem na região de Coquimbo, no controle de nematódeos gastrintestinais em caprinos. Nós usamos uma abordagem não-experimental para validar a eficácia potencial das plantas medicinais como anti-helmínticos. Esta validação foi realizada com base em uma revisão da extensa literatura consultada a respeito de plantas medicinais. Determinou-se o um potencial de eficácia das plantas, da consistência das informações sobre o uso tradicional, os compostos presentes e farmacologia. Analisamos também os dados dos potenciais efeitos adversos que impedem seu uso em animais. Antecedentes apoiam a um alto potencial da eficácia como anti-helmíntico para se três espécies de plantas que crescem na região de Coquimbo: Allium sativum L., Artemisia absinthium L. e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Os possíveis efeitos secundários do consumo de plantas medicinais ou seus derivados devem ser avaliadas em testes de campo antes de serem utilizados nas em escala produtiva.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the potential of the plants which grow at the Coquimbo region in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats. We used a non-experimental approach to evaluate the potential efficacy of medicinal plants as anthelmintics. This research was conducted with exhaustive bibliography referred to the medicinal use of plants in the international literature. We determined the potential of effectiveness of the plants, the consistency of the information about the traditional use, the present compounds and the pharmacology. We also performed an analysis about the potential adverse effects of the plants" application in animals. The collected data support the efficacy of these three species of plants growing at the Coquimbo region as efficient anthelmintic ones: the Allium sativum L., the Artemisia absinthium L. and the Chenopodium ambrosioides L. The possible side effects of the consumption of medicinal plants or their derivatives must be evaluated in field trials before they start being used in a productive scale.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Ruminants/classification , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Parasites/classification , Anthelmintics/analysis
14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(4): 938-944, oct.-dic. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729903

ABSTRACT

O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a capacidade antioxidante de Oeceoclades maculata. A atividade foi determinada de acordo com a capacidade do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas reduzir o radical DPPH. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que os conteúdos de polifenóis e flavonas/flavonóis são maiores no extrato preparado a frio (EBHF) do que no extrato preparado a quente (EBHQ), sugerindo que o aquecimento usado na preparação do extrato altera esses componentes ativos. Portanto, para esta espécie deve ser realizado o método de extração a frio para conservar as substâncias que possuem atividade antioxidante.


This work aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity of Oeceoclades maculata. The antioxidant activity was determined in accordance with the ability of the hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves to reduce the DPPH radical. The results showed that the polyphenol and flavonoid contents are greater in the cold extract (EBHF) than in the hot extract (EBHQ), which suggests that the heating effect in the preparation of the extract modifies these active compounds. Therefore, for this species, the cold extraction method must be carried in order to conserve the substances with antioxidant activity.


Subject(s)
Phytochemicals/analysis , Flavonoids/classification , Orchidaceae/classification , Oxidants/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Polyphenols/classification
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Nov; 52(11): 1122-1127
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153802

ABSTRACT

The medicinal plant Plumbago contains a very potent secondary metabolite, plumbagin having many therapeutic properties. Callus culture was induced using explants, leaf, stem and shoot apex, from P. auriculata. Murashige and Skoog media fortified with various growth hormones like NAA, IAA, IBA and 2, 4-D individually and in various combinations were checked for callus induction. Among the growth hormones used, 1 mg/L 2, 4-D showed best callusing. The hormonal combinations of 1 mg/L IAA and 1.5 mg/L NAA in the media exhibited best callus induction using stem internode as an explant. Plumbagin content from root, stem, leaf and callus was analyzed by using thin layer chromatographic technique. The callus derived from stem showed comparable plumbagin content to the in vivo plant parts. Quantitative spectrophotometric analysis of plumbagin from plant samples and callus indicated that plumbagin content was maximum in roots which was followed by callus, stem and leaf samples respectively. Generation of in vitro sources for plumbagin, for therapeutic applications will serve as a continuous supply and will contribute to preserve the natural plant recourses.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Thin Layer , Colorimetry , Cytokinins/pharmacology , Indoleacetic Acids/pharmacology , Naphthoquinones/analysis , Naphthoquinones/metabolism , Organ Specificity , Organoids/drug effects , Plant Cells/drug effects , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Plant Roots/metabolism , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Plant Stems/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Plumbaginaceae/growth & development , Plumbaginaceae/metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques
16.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 473-480, jul.-set. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722265

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho teve por objetivo a investigação fitoquímica e propriedades antioxidantes de extratos das folhas de Trigynaea oblongifolia Schltdl (Annonaceae), Ottonia frutescens Trel (Piperaceae), e Bathysa australis (St Hill) Hooz (Rubiaceae), bem como avaliar, in vitro, a letalidade frente ao microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach. Os extratos foram preparados por maceração em metanol 10% (p/v) por sete dias, à temperatura ambiente. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos foi determinada pela metodologia que utiliza o radical estável DPPH. A toxicidade dos extratos foi avaliada frente ao microcrustáceo A. salina. Os extratos de O. frutescens e B. australis apresentaram as seguintes classes de metabólitos secundários: Alcalóides, Antraquinonas, Cumarinas, Polifenóis (Taninos), Saponinas. Nos extratos de T. oblongifolia, além dos metabólitos citados anteriormente, foi detectada a presença de Flavonóides. A atividade antioxidante, observada em 30 minutos na concentração de 24 µg/mL de extrato, foi de: O. frutescens - 38,3%, T. oblongifolia - 32,3%, e B. australis - 32,1%. A Concentração Letal, CL50, dos extratos em A. salina foi de: O. frutescens - 149,75 ± 1,02 µg/mL, T. oblongifolia - 148,8 ± 1,74 µg/mL, e B. australis - 684 ± 9,04 µg/mL. Neste contexto, destacamos as espécies, nativas da Floresta Atlântica, O. frutescens e T. oblongifolia de grande potencial na bioprospecção de moléculas biologicamente ativas.


This study aimed to carry out phytochemical and antioxidant properties, and assess, in vitro, the lethality of a leaf extract Trigynaea Schltdl oblongifolia Schltdl (Annonaceae), Ottonia frutescens Trel (Piperaceae), Bathysa australis (St Hill) Hooz (Rubiaceae) front of the microcrustaceans Artemia salina Leach. Extracts were prepared by soaking in 10% methanol (w/v) for seven days at room temperature. The antioxidant activity of extracts was determined by the stable radical DPPH method. The toxicity of the extracts was evaluated against the microcrustaceans A. saline. Extracts of O. frutescens and B. australis showed the following classes of secondary metabolites: Alkaloid, Anthraquinones, Coumarins, polyphenols (tannins), Saponin. The extracts from T. oblongifolia, besides the aforementioned metabolites the presence of flavonoids was detected. The antioxidant activity was observed in 30 minutes, the concentration 24 mg/mL of extract was: O. frutescens - 38.3%, T oblongifolia - 32.3%, and B. australis - 32.1%. The lethal concentration, LC50, extracts of A. salina was: O. frutescens - 149.75 ± 1.02 mg/mL, T. oblongifolia - 148.8 ± 1.74 mg/mL, and B. australis - 684 ± 9.04 mg/mL. In this context, we highlight the species, native to the Atlantic Forest, O. frutescens and T. oblongifolia great potential in bioprospecting of biologically active molecules.


Subject(s)
Forests , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Artemia , Bioprospecting/classification , Plant Extracts/analysis
17.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 505-512, jul.-set. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722269

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar, quantificar os constituintes, e avaliar a atividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais extraídos de rizomas de açafrão (Curcuma longa L.) e gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivados nas condições de Manaus/AM frente a 14 salmonelas entéricas isoladas de frango resfriado. A extração dos óleos essenciais foi realizada utilizando-se aparelho tipo Clevenger e a composição determinada por Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas (CG-MS). A atividade antibacteriana foi realizada com o emprego de técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de gengibre se mostrou expressivamente mais eficiente do que o óleo de açafrão, tanto em termos de ação bacteriostática (concentração inibitória mínima de 2500 a 5000 µg.mL-1) quanto bactericida (concentração bactericida mínima de 5000 a 10000 µg.mL-1) observando-se variação apenas em duas as amostras em termos de resistência a ação bactericida deste óleo. Assim, o óleo essencial de gengibre, representa uma alternativa para o controle de Salmonella enterica, entretanto, demais estudos abordando o sinergismo com alimentos são indicados.


The objective of this work was to identify, quantify constituents and evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils from rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown under conditions of Manaus/AM front of enteric salmonella isolated from chilled poultry. The extraction of essential oils was performed using the Clevenger type apparatus and composition determined by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was performed with the use of microdilution broth. The essential oil of ginger proved significantly more efficient than tumeric oil, both in terms of bacteriostatic action (minimum inhibitory concentration 2500-5000 mg µg mL-1) and bactericidal (minimum bactericidal concentration 5000-10000 mg µg mL-1) observing changes in only two samples in terms of resistance to bactericidal activity of this oil. Thus, the essential oil of ginger, is an alternative for the control of Salmonella enterica, however, other studies addressing the synergism with food are indicated.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Curcuma/classification , Ginger/classification , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Feeding Behavior , Food Preservation/classification , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
18.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(3): 574-584, jul.-set. 2014. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722279

ABSTRACT

A Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (manacá) é um arbusto cujas raízes são utilizadas popularmente contra dores musculares, de estômago e de cabeça, disfunções hepáticas, reumatismo, e como estimulante do apetite. As folhas são empregadas como depurativo do sangue, nas afecções renais e hepáticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar o estudo morfo-anatômico de S. odoratissima, bem como a triagem fitoquímica, a determinação dos teores de água, cinzas totais e insolúveis em ácido. O material vegetal foi coletado em Leopoldo de Bulhões/ Goiás e os estudos morfo-anatômicos e a triagem fitoquímica foram realizados utilizando as técnicas convencionais. Verificou-se que a folha é hipoestomática, com estômatos anomocíticos e a epiderme apresenta papilas na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral e a nervura principal possui drusas de oxalato de cálcio e cavidades secretoras. O pecíolo apresenta sistema vascular em forma circular. Na raiz, em crescimento primário, observou-se cilindro vascular com organização diarca. Na prospecção fitoquímica detectaram-se fenóis, taninos, cumarinas, flavonoides, triterpernos/esteróis, antraquinonas e antocianinas nas folhas e alcaloides, cumarinas, amido e saponinas nas raízes. Esses resultados são parâmetros importantes para o controle de qualidade dessa matéria-prima vegetal.


Spiranthera odoratissima A. St.-Hil. (manacá) is a shrub whose roots are popularly used against stomach pains, headache, muscle pain, liver disorders, rheumatism and as an appetite stimulant. The leaves are used as a blood depurative and for liver and kidney disease. The purpose of this work was to perform the morphological and anatomical study, the phytochemical screening and determine the water content and the levels of total and acid of S. odoratissima. The plant material was collected in Leopoldo de Bulhões/ Goiás and the morpho-anatomical studies and the phytochemical screening were performed using conventional techniques. It was verified that the leaf is hypostomatic, with anomocytic stomata and the epidermis has papillae on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the midrib presents druses of calcium oxalate and secretory cavities. The petiole has a circular vascular system. The root in primary growth presents vascular cylinder with diarchic organization. Phenols, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, triterpenes/sterols, anthraquinones and anthocyanins were detected in the phytochemical screening of the leaves, and alkaloids, coumarins, saponins and starch were detected in the roots. These results are important parameters for the quality control of the vegetal raw material.


Subject(s)
Plant Components, Aerial/anatomy & histology , Rutaceae/classification , Grassland , Plant Roots/anatomy & histology , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Quality Control
19.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(2): 216-224, jun. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711779

ABSTRACT

O S. adstringens, árvore típica do Cerrado, tem sido explorada visando suas propriedades medicinais e tanantes. Em razão do ainda incipiente conhecimento genético da espécie, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a diversidade e a estrutura genética de S. adstringens por meio de marcadores aloenzimáticos. Foram coletadas sementes em cinco mesorregiões brasileiras, sendo amostrados 627 indivíduos divididos em 16 populações localizadas nos Estados de Minas Gerais e Goiás. Foram testados 14 sistemas isoenzimáticos; destes, sete foram polimórficos com o total de 10 locos e 28 alelos. O valor de diversidade genética média (H) foi 0,226, a proporção média de locos polimórficos (P) foi 68,75, o número médio de alelos por loco polimórfico (AP) foi 2,65 e o número efetivo de alelos (Ae) foi igual a 1,29. Resultados do índice de fixação total (F= 0,003), do índice de fixação dentro de populações (f = -0,114) e, da medida de diferenciação genética (θ =0,105) foram não significativos, indicando a inexistência de estruturação genética. Na análise de agrupamento (UPGMA) foram observados dois grupos principais, o primeiro formado pela população do Parque Estadual (PE) do Rio Preto (MG), e outro, formado pelas demais populações. Se excluída a população do PE do Rio Preto das análises, G ST é drasticamente reduzido de 0,077 para 0,026. Assim, aproximadamente 2/3 do valor total de G ST verificado em S. adstringens foi devido à variação entre a população do PE do Rio Preto e as demais populações. De modo geral, os valores H e P observados em S. adstringens são compatíveis aos constatados em árvores tropicais comumente distribuídas. Por outro lado, excluindo a população do PE do Rio Preto, o valor da medida de diferenciação genética G ST foi menor que o verificado em árvores tropicais nativas e pinheiros de zonas temperadas. A semelhança entre populações avaliadas indica que o fluxo gênico ainda é alto o suficiente para prevenir a diferenciação genética, pelo menos em nível local.


The S. adstringens, a typical Cerrado (Brazilian savannah) tree, is used because of its medicinal and tanning properties. Because of the still incipient genetic knowledge of the species, the objective of this work was to characterize the diversity and genetic structure of S. adstringens by using allozyme markers. Seeds were collected in five Brazilian mesoregions, in which 627 individuals in 16 populations in the states of Minas Gerais and Goiás were sampled. Fourteen isoenzyme systems were assessed, out of which seven were polymorphic with a total of 10 loci and 28 alleles. Average genetic diversity (H) was 0.226, average proportion of polymorphic loci (P) was 68.75, average number of alleles per polymorphic locus (AP) was 2.65 and effective number of alleles (Ae) was equal to 1.29. The results of total fixation index (F= 0.003), within population fixation index (f =-0.114) and genetic differentiation measure (θ =0.105) were not significant, which shows the inexistence of genetic structure. Two principal groups were found in the cluster analysis (UPGMA), where the first one was formed by the population of State Park (PE) of Rio Preto (MG) and the other, by the other populations. If the population of PE of Rio Preto is excluded from the analysis, G ST is drastically reduced from 0.077 to 0.026. Thus, approximately 2/3 of the total value of G ST found in S. adstringens was due to the variation among the population of PE of Rio Preto and the other populations. Overall, the values of H and P found in S. adstringens are compatible with the ones found in typically distributed tropical trees. On the other hand, by excluding the population of PE of Rio Preto, the value of the G ST genetic differentiation measure was smaller than the one found in native tropical trees from temperate zones. The similarity between the assessed populations shows that the gene flow is still high enough to avoid genetic differentiation, at the local level, at least.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism , Stryphnodendron barbatimam/analysis , Grassland
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(2): 283-289, jun. 2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-711789

ABSTRACT

Nas pesquisas com fitoterápicos o uso popular pode sugerir espécies potencialmente importantes, porém, faz-se necessário uma série de estudos, entre eles, a identificação de espécies com comprovada ação farmacológica e/ou substâncias biologicamente ativas. O uso de fármacos fitoterápicos na prática clínica, tratamento e prevenção de afecções de menor severidade vêm sendo reconhecido pelo SUS ultimamente. Apesar da utilização de plantas medicinais na odontologia ser ainda pouco explorada, existe pesquisa científica sobre os efeitos antimicrobiano, analgésico e antinflamatório de algumas espécies, entre elas: óleo de copaíba, extrato de romã, cravo da Índia, malva, tanchagem, amoreira, sálvia, e camomila. Nesta revisão o objetivo foi reunir informação sobre o potencial da aroeira-do-sertão (M. urundeuva All), planta utilizada na medicina tradicional nordestina e em alguns países da América do Sul, como fitoterápico na odontologia. Os extratos de aroeira são obtidos através do preparo das folhas, raízes, entrecasca e casca do tronco e galhos. Da casca de M. urundeuva já foram isoladas: chalconas diméricas: urundeuvina A, B, C, e matosina. Encontramos pesquisas sobre os seguintes efeitos da aroeira-do-sertão: ação antimicrobiana; antiinflamatória/cicatrizante no tratamento de ferimentos; gastrites; úlceras gástricas; cervicites; vaginites e hemorróidas. A aroeira conta com bons resultados em pesquisas que avaliaram o controle de microorganismo relacionado à patologias bucais, tal como S. mutans. No entanto, necessita-se de estudos para comprovar seu mecanismo de ação e definir condições seguras para seu uso em patologias específicas.


With regards to the studies of phytotherapeutic medicines, their popular use proves to be potentially important; however, a series of studies are necessary focusing on the identification of the species that have proven pharmacological action and/or biologically active components. The use of phytotherapy medicines in the clinical practice, treatment and prevention of less severe disorders is being recently recognized by the Brazilian SUS. Particularly in dentistry, the use of medicinal plants is still underexplored. However, some studies were conducted with plants of popular medicine use, such as: copaiba oil, pomegranate extract, clove, malva, plantain, mulberry, sage and chamomile, among others, in the search for antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory qualities. Some of these qualities were later proven in scientific studies. In this review, we aimed to highlight the potential of the "aroeira-do-sertão" tree (M. urundeuva All), which is a plant utilized in traditional medicine in the Northeast region of Brazil and in some South America countries, as a phytotherapeutic medicine in dentistry. The extracts of the "aroeira-do-sertão" tree are acquired through the preparation of the leaves, roots and bark of the trunk and branches. The dimeric chalcones, urundeuvina A, B, C and matosine were isolated in the M. urundeuva bark. Some published studies have investigated the effects of the "aroeira-do-sertão" such as; antimicrobial action, anti-inflammatory action, healing in the treatment of wounds, gastritis, gastric ulcers, cervicitis, vaginitis, and hemorrhoids. In this regard, the "aroeira-do-sertão" has shown good results in studies involving the control of microorganism related to oral conditions, such as S. mutans. However, further studies are needed to confirm its mechanism of action and establish safe conditions for its use in specific situations (i.e. diseases).


Subject(s)
Bursera/metabolism , Dentistry/classification , Phytotherapeutic Drugs , Plants, Medicinal/metabolism
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