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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 233-242, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989454

ABSTRACT

Abstract The expression of chemical compounds by individual plants of the same species in different locations may be affected by abiotic factors resulting in differences in the production of allelopathic compounds. The objective of this study was to compare the phytochemical profiles of plant species from two different forest formations in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The forest formations were Seasonal Semideciduous Forest (SSF) and Lowland Ombrophilous Dense Forest (LODF), and the five study species were Jacaranda micrantha, Cecropia pachystachya, Mimosa bimucronata, Schinus terebinthifolius and Cedrela fissilis. Secondary metabolites were extracted by exhaustive extraction with methanol, and the crude extract was fractionated using column chromatography. The fractions were used to calculate the retention factor of the main compounds using thin layer chromatography and phytochemical tests. The classes of compounds identified were practically the same among the analyzed species, however, at different levels of concentration. The type of tannins found in S. terebinthifolius differed between the two forest formations.


Resumo A expressão de compostos químicos de uma mesma espécie pode ser afetada e diferenciada pelos fatores abióticos, resultando em respostas alelopáticas diferenciadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o perfil químico de espécies provenientes de duas Formações Florestais do Estado do Paraná. As formações foram a Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e Floresta Ombrófila Densa, sendo as espécies escolhidas: Jacaranda micrantha, Cecropia pachystachya, Mimosa bimucronata, Schinus terebinthifolius e Cedrela fissilis. Foi realizada extração exaustiva dos metabólitos secundários com metanol e o extrato bruto fracionado em coluna cromatográfica. As frações foram utilizadas para calcular o fator de retenção dos constituintes principais empregando cromatografia em camada delgada e para realizar testes fitoquímicos. As classes de compostos identificados foram praticamente as mesmas entre as espécies analisadas, porém, em diferentes níveis de concentração. O tipo de tanino encontrado em S. terebinthifolius foi diferente entre as duas formações florestais.


Subject(s)
Plants/classification , Plants/chemistry , Plant Extracts/analysis , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Forests , Phytochemicals/analysis , Brazil
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(3): 522-528, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039267

ABSTRACT

Abstract We used 16S rRNA sequencing to assess the archaeal communities across a gradient of Cerrado. The archaeal communities differed across the gradient. Crenarcheota was the most abundant phyla, with Nitrosphaerales and NRPJ as the predominant classes. Euryachaeota was also found across the Cerrado gradient, including the classes Metanocellales and Methanomassiliicoccaceae.


Subject(s)
Plants/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Archaea/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Plants/classification , Soil/chemistry , Brazil , Archaea/classification , Archaea/growth & development , Archaea/genetics , Biodiversity , Plant Development
3.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 85-97, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886897

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Brazilian Pantanal is an extensive wetland with heterogeneous habitats, primarily due to the river-floodplain system and plants with differential adaptations and reproductive strategies. Factors such as altitude, distance among plant formations, and flood pulse must be considered to better understand its diversity. Aiming to assess the influence of biogeographic patterns in this system, we analyzed the floristic composition of six areas along the Paraguay River, including residual relieves, verifying the pattern of similarity, and effects of distance and altitude. We recorded 356 species in 87 families, mostly perennial (75%), and some annuals (15%) and pluriannuals (5%). Herbaceous plants were the most represented (48%), followed by arboreal (23%), shrubby (15%) and epiphytic (14%) habits, only 12% being endemic to Brazil. The studied areas showed low floristic similarity, but higher resemblance of species between neighboring areas, and no relation with altitude. The upper Paraguay River is diverse, with high spatial variability of species, predominantly perennial. The river-floodplain connectivity may be a determinant factor in species richness and occurrence of endemic species.


Subject(s)
Plants/classification , Biodiversity , Wetlands , Altitude , Plant Dispersal/physiology , Seasons , Species Specificity , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Analysis of Variance , Rivers , Floods
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(4): 876-886, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888799

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Cerrado, studies of post-fire vegetation recovery show that some herbaceous species are able to flower shortly after fires. However, these were mainly short-term studies that focused on grasslands and savannas. Little is known about the effects of fire on ground layer of forests that border the savannas in Central Brazil. Thus, an accidental burning gave us the opportunity to describe the reproductive activity of the ground layer vegetation after a fire event along a savanna-forest boundary at the IBGE Ecological Reserve, Brasília, Brazil. During the 16-month of the inventory, we registered 170 herbaceous species flowering or fruiting, of which 52 species (31%) may have been influenced by fire that changed their times of reproduction. In the savanna plots reproduction peaked at the end of the rainy season. Of the total number of reproducing species, 90 species occurred only in the savanna and four in the forest. Five herbs were recorded in the forest, savanna and border environments. Late dry season fire probably lead the majority of herbaceous species to have their reproduction spread throughout the study time.


Resumo No Cerrado, estudos de recuperação da vegetação pós-fogo mostram que algumas espécies herbáceas são capazes de florescer logo após queimadas. No entanto, esses foram principalmente estudos de curto prazo, que se concentraram em áreas campestres e savânicas. Pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos do fogo no sub-bosque de matas que margeiam as savanas do Brasil Central. Assim, uma queima acidental nos deu a oportunidade de descrever a atividade reprodutiva pós-fogo do estrato herbáceo ao longo de ecótono cerrado-mata na Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, Brasília, Brasil. Durante os 16 meses do inventário, foram registrados 170 espécies herbáceas com flores ou frutos, das quais 52 espécies (31%) podem ter sido influenciadas pelo fogo, que alterou suas épocas reprodutivas. Nas parcelas de cerrado, a reprodução teve seu pico ao final da estação chuvosa. Do número total de espécies, 90 ocorreram exclusivamente no cerrado e quatro na floresta. Cinco espécies herbáceas foram registradas na floresta, cerrado e borda. O fogo ao final da estação seca pode ter levado a maioria das plantas a se reproduzir através do período de estudo.


Subject(s)
Plants/classification , Forests , Plant Physiological Phenomena , Grassland , Plant Development , Reproduction , Brazil , Biodiversity , Fires
5.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 505-575, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886659

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (PNI) (Brazilian Southeast Region) was surveyed monthly for insect galls from February/2014 to December/ 2015. A total of 432 gall morphotypes were found. This number places the PNI as the richest Atlantic forest area in number of gall morphotypes. The galls were found on 47 plant families. Among them, Asteraceae were pointed out as the superhost. The gall richness in the lower part of the PNI is higher than that of the plateau. The insect galls were found in 154 native, 56 endemic and only one exotic plant species. Concerning the conservational status, the host plants include two vulnerable species with three morphotypes together. Several new botanical records were reported. Leaves were the most galled plant organ, followed by stems. Globoid, green, glabrous and one-chambered galls were the most frequent. Cecidomyiidae were the most common gallers. Parasitoids, successors and inquilines composed the associated fauna.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Tumors/parasitology , Plants/parasitology , Insecta/classification , Plant Tumors/statistics & numerical data , Plants/classification , Brazil , Forests , Host-Parasite Interactions
6.
Polibotánica ; 43: 323-348, 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-910322

ABSTRACT

Se realizó el estudio etnobotánico de las plantas suculentas en Santo Domingo Tonalá, Oaxaca. El trabajo de campo consistió en recorridos mensuales durante un año, a sitios con presencia de estas plantas, y entrevistas semiestructuradas (dos eventos) a 20 colaboradores claves; posteriormente, se llevó a cabo el análisis de los datos etnobotánicos utilizando el método etnográfico de enlistado libre y el índice de valor de uso. Fueron registradas 44 especies, incluidas en seis familias botánicas: Cactaceae, Agavaceae, Nolinaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae y Fouquieriaceae; sobresale Cactaceae, tanto por el número de especies como por los usos asignados. De un total de 21 categorías de uso, las más importantes fueron: comestible, ornamental y medicinal; y la principal forma de manejo es la recolección de plantas de la vegetación natural. Se identificó un grupo de siete especies como las de mayor importancia cultural. Dentro de las plantas suculentas se torna un grupo con gran potencial, como una alternativa de aprovechamiento sustentable por parte de las comunidades; sin embargo, es necesario llevar a cabo estudios que proporcionen información sobre las tasas de extracción de las especies y el estado actual de sus poblaciones. Existe una pérdida incalculable de especies vegetales y desaparición del conocimiento sobre su uso y manejo. En Santo Domingo Tonalá se identificó un importante número de plantas suculentas útiles, por lo cual, para esta región es prioritario diseñar estrategias que contribuyan a la conservación de estos recursos vegetales, así como al rescate y valoración del conocimiento tradicional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cactaceae , Plants, Medicinal , Plants/classification , Ethnobotany , Mexico
7.
Revista Corpoica ; 18(2): 353-377, 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-911748

ABSTRACT

El sector de plantas aromáticas, medicinales y condimentarias reúne una amplia variedad de especies nativas e introducidas con potencial agroindustrial. Para contribuir al diagnóstico tecnológico del sector en Colombia y brindar elementos de planificación estratégica hacia mejores niveles de desarrollo e internacionalización, se priorizaron ciertas especies aromáticas en este artículo y se planteó una vigilancia tecnología del 2004 al 2014. Se hizo una búsqueda de artículos científicos y patentes en ocho bases de datos en el ámbito nacional, iberoamericano y mundial según temáticas priorizadas. Los datos se procesaron mediante Microsoft Excel, EndNote, Vantage Point (2014) y Thomson Data Analyzer. A nivel nacional, la temática más registrada fue el material de siembra y el mejoramiento genético, mientras que en Iberoamérica y el mundo, fue el efecto biocida. Los países líderes en investigaciones sobre las aromáticas vigiladas fueron Brasil, Colombia y Cuba. A nivel internacional, los líderes en producción científica en PubMed y Scopus fueron India, EE. UU., Brasil y Colombia. La tendencia mundial de patentes es creciente, y su principal enfoque es "Necesidades corrientes de la vida". En conclusión, la vigilancia tecnológica ofreció una visión global de avances y tendencias en investigación y desarrollo tecnológico en áreas temáticas vinculadas con las plantas aromáticas. Además, se identificaron posibles aliados investigativos y fluctuación de la producción científica a través del tiempo.


Subject(s)
Plants/classification , Technological Development , Colombia , Database
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 619-628, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785038

ABSTRACT

Abstract Dated or calibrated phylogenetic trees, in which branch lengths correspond to evolutionary divergence times between nodes, are important requirements for computing measures of phylogenetic diversity or phylogenetic community structure. The increasing knowledge about the diversification and evolutionary divergence times of vascular plants requires a revision of the age estimates used for the calibration of phylogenetic trees by the bladj algorithm of the Phylocom 4.2 package. Comparing the recently released megatree R20120829.new with two calibrated vascular plant phylogenies provided in the literature, we found 242 corresponding nodes. We modified the megatree (R20120829mod.new), inserting names for all corresponding nodes. Furthermore, we provide files containing age estimates from both sources for the updated calibration of R20120829mod.new. Applying these files consistently in analyses of phylogenetic community structure or diversity serves to avoid erroneous measures and ecological misinterpretation.


Resumo Árvores filogenéticas datadas, ou calibradas, em que os comprimentos dos ramos correspondem ao tempo evolutivo de divergência entre os nós, são importantes requisitos para calcular medidas de diversidade filogenética ou de estrutura filogenética de comunidades. O conhecimento crescente sobre a diversificação e sobre o tempo de divergência evolutiva das plantas vasculares fez necessária uma revisão das estimativas de idades dos nós que são utilizadas para a calibração de árvores filogenéticas por meio do algoritmo bladj do pacote Phylocom 4.2. Comparando a mega-árvore R20120829.new, recentemente publicada, e outras duas filogenias calibradas de plantas vasculares, encontramos 242 nós correspondentes. Modificamos esta mega-árvore (R20120829mod.new), inserindo todos os nomes dos nós correspondentes. Além disso, providenciamos dois arquivos com todas as estimativas das idades para uma calibração mais atualizada. Utilizando esses arquivos de maneira consistente nas análises de diversidade ou de estrutura filogenética de comunidades, evita-se incorreções nas datações e imprecisões na interpretação de informações ecológicas.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Plants/classification , Biodiversity , Algorithms , Biological Evolution
9.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-1007877

ABSTRACT

Este artículo muestra que en las décadas finales del siglo XVIII, más allá de las relaciones diplomáticas y los conflictos militares entre Portugal y España, existieron importantes conexiones científicas, que han sido poco estudiadas. Teniendo como punto de partida la casi desconocida Specimen Florae Americae Meridionalis (1780), una obra botánica compuesta de cuatro volúmenes, producida en el Real Museu da Ajuda (Lisboa), exploraremos el interés que suscitó en los círculos de estudiosos y aficionados a la botánica en Lisboa la llegada de más de doscientos dibujos de plantas procedentes de la Real Expedición Botánica al Virreinato del Perú (1777-1788). Considerando las personalidades portuguesas, españolas e inglesas que estuvieron implicadas en la presencia de estos diseños en Portugal, recuperaremos algunas de las prácticas que posibilitaban en este período la circulación de conocimientos científicos y el adelanto de la botánica. En este sentido, este estudio pretende realizar una aportación novedosa a la Historia de la Botánica en Portugal y España y apuntar caminos para futuras investigaciones. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , Plants/classification , Botany/history , Peru
10.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2,supl.1): 605-612, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-830058

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais e vegetais no controle in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente causal da antracnose em pós-colheita de frutíferas. Treze óleos essenciais foram utilizados em concentrações de 0,00%, 0,40%, 0,80%, 1,70%, 3,20%, 6,25%, 12,50%, 25,00%, 50,00% e 100,00%, e uma linhagem padrão de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Foram avaliadas a concentração inibitória mínima e a concentração mínima fungicida a fim de caracterizar o potencial de cada um dos óleos essenciais avaliados. Verificou-se que os óleos utilizados apresentaram atividade fungicida em diferentes concentrações, as quais variaram de 0,80% (melaleuca), 3,20%, (eucalipto), 6,25% (limão, capim limão, cravo da índia, canela e nim), 12,5% (hortelã e citronela), 25% (copaíba), 50% (coco e gengibre) e 100% (manjericão). O óleo de nim apresentou maior redução da carga microbiana em função do tempo de exposição, sendo necessários 30 minutos para anulação da contagem microbiana. O efeito antifúngico dos óleos essenciais, para controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depende da planta e da concentração empregada.


ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal effect of essential and vegetal oils in the in vitro control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, a causal agent of anthracnose in fruit postharvest. Thirteen essential oils were used at concentrations of 0.00%, 0.40%, 0.80%, 1.70%, 3.20%, 6.25%, 12.50%, 25.00%, 50.00%, and 100.00%, and also a standard strain of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were assessed to characterize the potential of each of the essential oils tested. We found that used oils showed fungicidal activity at different concentrations, which varied in 0.80% (Melaleuca alternifólia), 3.20%, (Eucalyptus globulus), 6.25% (Citrus limonium, Cymbopogon citratus, Syzygium aromaticum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Azadirachta indica), 12.5% (Mentha piperita and Cymbopogon winterianus), 25% (Copaifera langsdorfii), 50% (Cocos nucifera and Zingiber officinale), and 100% (Ocimum basilicum). The Azadirachta indica oil showed greater reduction of microbial load because of the exposure time, and took 30 minutes for annulment of microbial count. The antifungal effect of essential oils to control Colletotrichum gloeosporioides depends on the plant and quantity of concentration.


Subject(s)
Colletotrichum/physiology , In Vitro Techniques/classification , Oils, Volatile/analysis , Plants/classification , Antifungal Agents/classification , Plants, Medicinal/classification
11.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 373-382, 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782970

ABSTRACT

RESUMO As plantas produzem uma grande variedade de metabólitos secundários que frequentemente são relacionados a mecanismos de proteção da planta contra predadores e patógenos. As espécies tóxicas são aquelas capazes de produzirem compostos que podem causar alterações metabólicas prejudiciais ao homem e aos animais. A toxicidade apresentada por uma espécie vegetal pode estar relacionada a fatores associados ao indivíduo, à planta, ao modo de exposição e a questões ambientais. A intoxicação, aguda ou crônica, causada por plantas é difícil de ser diagnosticada assim como a associação entre os sintomas e o consumo e/ou contato com algumas espécies é difícil de ser estabelecida. No âmbito da saúde pública, as intoxicações causadas por plantas possuem impacto expressivo. No Brasil foram registrados 1026 casos em 2012, sendo que a maior parte deles ocorreu com crianças de 0 a 4 anos, de acordo com os dados do SINITOX. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento bibliográfico de espécies vegetais, brasileiras e exóticas aclimatadas, citadas como tóxicas apesar de serem utilizadas com fins ornamentais e medicinais.


ABSTRACT Plants produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites, which are frequently related to a plant’s protective mechanism against predators and pathogens. Toxic species are those capable of producing compounds that can cause metabolic changes harmful to humans and animals. The toxicity of plant species can be associated with aspects related to the individual, the plant, the manner of exposure, and to environmental issues. Acute or chronic intoxication caused by plants is difficult to diagnose and the association between the symptoms and the consumption of and/or contact with plants is hard to establish. In the public health sector, intoxications caused by plants have a wide impact. In Brazil, 1,026 cases were registered in 2012, most of which occurred with children between the ages of 0 to 4 years, according to data reported by SINITOX. The purpose of this study was to perform a bibliographic survey of Brazilian or acclimatized exotic plant species, which have been reported as toxic even though they are used for ornamental or medicinal purposes.


Subject(s)
Toxicity , Plants, Toxic/toxicity , Plants/classification , Plants, Medicinal/toxicity
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(4): 1149-1159, Oct.-Dec. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-829680

ABSTRACT

Abstract:Food web studies, which include qualitative and quantitative information about species interactions for all trophic levels in a specific community, are important tools to characterize the community structure, and to understand the role of species interaction in natural communities. With this aim, we collected fruits of Senegalia tenuifolia from a total of nine sites from three different areas in Minas Gerais, from June to August 2011. Fruits were collected and taken to the laboratory in special containers, to allow insect development and description. And then, we characterized the food web of insects associated with these seeds, and described interactions between these organisms and the host plant, and assessed the impact of insect attacks on seed germination with an experiment under controlled conditions. Additionally, we estimated the available NPK content and the Carbon:Nitrogen ratio in both fruits and seeds. In S. tenuifolia seeds, we have found 937 associated insects of 15 species structured in four trophic levels. We found two Bruchinae seed-feeders species: Merobruchus terani and Stator maculatopygus. We also have observed the seed-feeding hymenopteran species Allorhogas sp. 1 and Prodecatoma sp. 1, and hymenopteran parasitoids species such as Eupelmus sp.1, Lyrcus sp.1, Eurytoma sp.1, Horismenu s sp.1, Chelonus sp.1, Aprostocetus sp.1, Eiphosoma sp.1 and an unidentified Pteromalinae. Considering quantitative food web metrics, our data have suggested low values of generality and high values of trophic vulnerability, besides others, which demonstrated how species interactions are specialized. The impact of seed-feeding insects on seeds was found severe and prevented their germination. Lastly, seeds contained higher NPK content than fruits. In conclusion, the seed predation food web supported by S. tenuifolia has depicted two different features: specialized species interactions, considering parasitoids and seed-feeding species, and, generalized species interactions, considering host-plant and seed-feeding species. Indeed, seeds are resources with high nutrient concentration supporting a rich and complex food web. Finally, S. tenuifolia seeds are directly impacted by seed-feeding insects, preventing them from germination, which could result in a negative effect on host-plant population.


Resumen:Estudios de redes alimentarias, que incluyen información cualitativa y cuantitativa sobre las interacciones entre especies para todos los niveles tróficos en una comunidad específica, son herramientas importantes para caracterizar la estructura de la comunidad, y para comprender el papel de la interacción de las especies en las comunidades naturales. Con este objetivo, se recolectaron frutos de Senegalia tenuifolia de un total de nueve sitios de tres áreas diferentes, en Minas Gerais, entre junio y agosto 2011. Los frutos fueron recolectados y llevados al laboratorio en contenedores especiales, para permitir el desarrollo y descripción del insecto. Luego, se caracterizó la red alimentaria de los insectos asociados a estas semillas, se describieron las interacciones entre estos organismos y la planta hospedera, y se evaluó el impacto del ataque de insectos en la germinación de semillas mediante un experimento en condiciones controladas. Además, se estimó el contenido de NPK y la relación carbono:nitrógeno en frutos y en semillas. En semillas de S. tenuifolia, se encontraron 937 insectos de 15 especies estructuradas en cuatro niveles tróficos. Se encontraron dos especies de Bruchinae que se alimentan de semillas: Merobruchus terani y Stator maculatopygus. También se observaron especies de himenópteros que se alimentan de semillas: Allorhogas sp. 1 y Prodecatoma sp. 1, y especies de himenópteros parasitoides como: Eupelmus sp.1, Lyrcus sp.1, Eurytoma sp.1, Horismenus sp.1, Chelonus sp.1, Aprostocetus sp.1, Eiphosoma sp.1 y un Pteromalinae no identificado. Nuestros datos sugieren valores bajos de generalidad trófica y valores altos de vulnerabilidad trófica, además de otros, lo que demuestra cómo las interacciones entre especies son especializadas. El impacto en las semillas de los insectos que se alimentan de estas es severo e impidió su germinación. Por último, las semillas tenían un mayor contenido de NPK que los frutos. En conclusión, la red alimentaria de depredación de semillas con S. tenuifolia tiene dos características: interacciones de especies especializadas, considerando parasitoides y especies comedoras de semillas, e interacciones generalizadas entre especies, teniendo en cuenta la planta hospedera y las especies comedoras de semillas. De hecho, las semillas son recursos con alta concentración de nutrientes que proveen una rica y compleja red trófica. Por último, las semillas de S. tenuifolia se ven directamente afectadas por los insectos que se alimentan de semillas, que les impide la germinación, lo que podría resultar en un efecto negativo en la población planta-hospedero.


Subject(s)
Predatory Behavior , Germination/physiology , Insecta/classification , Fabaceae/anatomy & histology , Plants/classification
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4,supl.2): 131-136, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769606

ABSTRACT

This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.


Resumo Este estudo apresenta o efeito da variação no nível hidrométrico do reservatório Mourão I, no Parque Estadual do Lago Azul, Paraná sobre a assembleia de espécies herbáceas na região de formação do reservatório. O estudo da estrutura e distribuição das populações foi realizado nos meses de fevereiro (seca) e abril (cheia) de 2011, para isto estabeleceu-se em pontos distintos duas transecções. As transecções começavam na bordada floresta em direção ao centro do lago. O fim da coleta na transecção acontecia quando acabavam as plantas dentro do lago. Ao longo das transecções a cada dois metros um quadrado de madeira com área de 0,25 m2 foi utilizado para amostrar as espécies, com coleta de biomassa. A maioria das espécies teve sua frequência reduzida durante a cheia (abril), porém Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. e Verbena litorales (Kunth.) aumentaram sua frequência durante esse período. A influência da cheia medida pelo NMS indica que tanto antes da cheia quanto após a cheia existem parcelas com composições e biomassa típicas. A variação hidrométrica tem influência sobre a dinâmica da composição e estrutural vegetal nas áreas marginais do reservatório.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Lakes , Plants , Biomass , Brazil , Floods , Plants/classification , Seasons
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(3s1): 277-289, Aug. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769585

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this paper some preliminary fossil specimens are presented. They represent a collection sampled by Belo Monte’s Programa de Salvamento do Patrimônio Paleontológico (PSPP), which includes unprecedented invertebrate fauna and fossil vertebrates from Pitinga, Jatapu, Manacapuru, Maecuru e Alter do Chão formations from Amazonas basin, Brazil. The Belo Monte paleontological salvage was able to recover 495 microfossil samples and 1744 macrofossil samples on 30 months of sampling activities, and it is still ongoing. The macrofossils identified are possible plant remains, ichnofossils, graptolites, brachiopods, molluscs, athropods, Agnatha, palynomorphs (miosphores, acritarchs, algae cysts, fungi spores and unidentified types) and unidentified fossils. However, deep scientific research is not part of the scope of the program, and this collection must be further studied by researchers who visit Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, where the fossils will be housed. More material will be collected until the end of the program. The collection sampled allows a mosaic composition with the necessary elements to assign, in later papers, taxonomic features which may lead to accurate species identification and palaeoenvironmental interpretations.


Resumo Neste artigo são apresentados de forma preliminar alguns espécimes fósseis representativos do acervo coletado no Programa de Salvamento do Patrimônio Paleontológico (PSPP) da UHE Belo Monte, que inclui fauna vertebrada e invertebrada inédita das formações Pitinga, Jatapu, Manacapuru, Maecuru e Alter do Chão, da bacia do Amazonas, Brasil. No salvamento paleontológico de Belo Monte foi possível recuperar 495 amostras para microfósseis e 1744 amostras com macrofósseis em 30 meses de amostragem, que ainda continua em andamento. Os macrofósseis identificados são possíveis restos de plantas, icnofósseis, graptolitos, braquiópodes, moluscos, artópodes, Agnatha, palinomorfos (miósporos, acritarcas, cistos de alga, esporos de fungo e tipos indeterminados) além de fósseis não identificados. No entanto, pesquisa científica aprofundada não é parte do escopo do programa, e esta coleção deve ser estudada no futuro por pesquisadores pela visita ao Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, onde os fósseis ficarão depositados. Mais material será coletado até o fim de 2015. A assemblagem coletada permite a composição de mosaico com elementos necessários para a definição, em artigos futuros, características taxonômicas que levarão à identificação precisa de espécies e interpretações paleoambientais.


Subject(s)
Animals , Fossils , Invertebrates/classification , Plants/classification , Vertebrates/classification , Brazil , Paleontology , Power Plants , Rivers
15.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Jun; 53(6): 412-416
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158525

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we explored the diversity of different accessions of Drimia indica and its relation to D. nagarjunae using phenotypic traits and molecular markers. Twenty populations of D. indica, from different parts of India, were compared with D. nagarjunae, an endangered medicinal plant collected from Andhra Pradesh, India. Two species showed appreciable phenotypic diversity in number of leaves, leaf indices, bulb circumference, bulb length and length of roots. The principal component analysis (PCA) performed on above 5 quantitative characters to determine relationship among populations, has distinguished D. nagarjunae from D. indica phenotypically. Genetic diversity was analysed using RAPD and ISSR primers which produced reproducible bands in 8 RAPD and 3 ISSR primers. A total of 89 amplicons were observed, of which 69 (77.53 %) were polymorphic. Cluster diagram and phylogenetic linkage showed that D. nagarjunae formed a separate cluster, showing no similarity with any of the populations of D. indica. The molecular marker data correlated with PCA of phenotypic traits. Current investigations have demonstrated that the statistical approach for phenotypic characters and molecular markers analysis can be applied to study diversity in Drimia species.


Subject(s)
India , Biomarkers , Genetic Variation , Liliaceae/classification , Liliaceae/genetics , Phenotype , Species Specificity , Plants/classification , Plants/genetics , /classification , /genetics , Drimia/classification
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(2): 357-368, Apr.-Jun. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: lil-764972

ABSTRACT

The conditions for plant establishment in mature forest are different from those found in disturbed areas. In dry environments, the herbaceous cover is the most important in the recolonization of deforested areas. It can, therefore, act as an ideal biological group for assessing how changes in habitat heterogeneity affect the resilience of dry forests. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether natural regeneration of the herbaceous stratum differed between areas of mature and secondary forest of Caatinga and to describe this process. The study took place in the Brazilian semiarid region during the rainy season 2011 (January to August), where fifty 1m² plots were set up, 25 allocated to the microhabitat established as “between canopies” and 25 to the microhabitat “under the canopy”. The herbaceous species selected for the study were Delilia biflora (Asteraceae), Gomphrena vaga (Amaranthaceae) and Pseudabutilon spicatum (Malvaceae), abundant species occurring in both areas. All individuals from the selected populations were counted, marked with sequential numbers, and the height of the stem was measured. Differences between areas, and in size and survival between microhabitats, were found only for the first two species. Fruit production was higher in the mature forest for the three species. The study concluded that: 1. The effect of the microhabitats “between canopies” and “under the canopy” in mature and secondary forest areas depends on the species considered; 2. Populations sensitive to light intensity differ in number of individuals, height and fruit production; and 3. The resilience of anthropogenic areas in semiarid environments can be characterized by the presence of spatial heterogeneity with regard to the emergence and survival of herbaceous seedlings, suggesting that the regeneration of disturbed areas may occur in patches. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (2): 357-368. Epub 2015 June 01.


Las condiciones para el establecimiento de las plantas (agua, luz, nutrientes, etc.) en los fragmentos preservados se diferencian de las encontradas en áreas perturbadas. En ambientes secos, la cubierta herbácea predomina en la recolonización de áreas despejadas y puede actuar como un buen grupo biológico para evaluar los impactos de los cambios de la heterogeneidad de hábitats en el proceso de resiliencia de los bosques secos. Ante de esto, el objetivo fue evaluar si la regeneración natural de la capa herbácea difería entre áreas preservadas y áreas de Caatinga perturbadas y describir cómo ocurre esto. El estudio se realizó en la región semiárida brasileña durante la temporada de lluvias, donde 50 parcelas de 1m² fueron establecidas, 25 de las cuales se ubicaron en el microhábitat llamado “entre dosel” y 25 en “bajo dosel”. Las especies herbáceas seleccionadas para el estudio fueron: Delilia biflora (Asteraceae), Gomphrena vaga (Amaranthaceae) y Pseudabutilon spicatum (Malvaceae), especies abundantes que se producen en ambas áreas. Todos los individuos de las poblaciones seleccionadas se contaron, marcando con números secuenciales, y se midió la altura del tallo. Las diferencias entre las zonas, y el tamaño y supervivencia entre microhábitats, se encontraron solo para las dos primeras especies. La producción de frutos fue mayor en el bosque maduro para las tres especies. El estudio llega a la conclusión de que: 1. el efecto de la existencia de microhabitates “entre dosel” y “bajo dosel” en áreas preservadas y antropogénicas depende de la especie considerada; 2. las poblaciones sensibles a la variación de la intensidad luminosa presentan diferencias en cuanto al número de individuos, la altura y la producción de frutos de las plantas; 3. la resiliencia de las zonas antropogénicas de ambientes semiáridos se puede caracterizar por la existencia de heterogeneidad espacial en cuanto a la emergencia y supervivencia de plántulas herbáceas, lo que sugiere que la regeneración de áreas perturbadas puede ocurrir en parches.


Subject(s)
Plants/anatomy & histology , Plants/classification , Environmental Health , Brazil , Forests
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(3): 1073-1097, jul.-sep. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753675

ABSTRACT

Floodplain lakes and associated wetlands in tropical dry climates are controlled by pronounced and severe seasonal hydrologic fluctuations. We examined the plant community response to a bimodal flooding pattern in the Zapatosa Floodplain Lake Complex (ZFLC), Northern Colombia. We measured floristic and quantitative change in four sampling periods emphasizing seasonal differences in plant abundance and life-form structure. Of 79 species identified in the lake complex, 52 were used to characterize eight community types via classification and ordination procedures. Results showed that community structure does not change significantly during the flooding/receding stages. But maximum drawdown phase significantly disrupts the aquatic community structure and the exposed shorelines become colonized by ruderal terrestrial plants. Early rainfalls at the beginning of the wet season are emphasized as an important feature of plant regeneration and community development. The general strategy of the ZFLC vegetation can be framed into the flood pulse concept of river-floodplain systems. Thus, plant communities are mainly responding to disturbances and destruction events imposed by extreme water level fluctuations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (3): 1073-1097. Epub 2014 September 01.


Las ciénagas y humedales asociados a sistemas fluviales en climas tropicales secos son controlados por fluctuaciones hidrológicas estacionales pronunciadas. En este trabajo se examinó la respuesta de la comunidad vegetal a un patrón bimodal de inundaciones en el complejo de ciénagas de Zapatosa (ZFLC), al norte de Colombia. Se estudiaron los cambios florísticos y cuantitativos de la vegetación en cuatro periodos de muestreo destacando diferencias estacionales en las abundancias y la estructura biotipológica de las plantas. De las 79 especies identificadas en el complejo lagunar, 52 se utilizaron para caracterizar ocho tipos de comunidades mediante tácticas multivariadas de clasificación y ordenación. Los resultados revelan que la estructura de las comunidades no cambia de manera significativa durante los periodos de inundación/sequía. Únicamente la época de máxima sequía altera la estructura de las comunidades acuáticas y el litoral expuesto es colonizado por plantas ruderales terrestres. Las precipitaciones iniciales al inicio de la temporada de lluvias se destacan como una característica importante para la regeneración de las plantas y el desarrollo subsiguiente de las comunidades. La estrategia de sobrevivencia general de la vegetación acuática del ZFLC puede enmarcarse en el concepto de pulso de inundación de los sistemas fluviales inundables. Por lo tanto las comunidades vegetales responden principalmente a los disturbios y la destrucción impuestos por las fluctuaciones extremas del nivel del agua.


Subject(s)
Lakes , Plants/classification , Wetlands , Colombia , Droughts , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Floods , Seasons , Tropical Climate
18.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 455-472, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-715444

ABSTRACT

Banco de semillas y vegetación establecida en los últimos remanentes de los humedales de la Meseta Central Mexicana: las ciénagas de Lerma. Seed banks play a central role in vegetation dynamics of many wetlands. Therefore, knowledge of seed reservoirs in the soils of aquatic communities should provide useful tools for conservation and restoration efforts. This study was conducted in the Lerma marshes, one of the last remnants of the vast wetlands that were once in the Mexican Central Plateau. The main objective was to determine the composition and abundance of seed bank and its relationship with established vegetation of the three Lerma marshes. In each marsh, we systematically selected 18 to 40 sampling sites. In each site, the composition of vascular plant vegetation was evaluated in two 10m lines perpendicular to the shore. Every 0.5m, we determined the coverage of species by measuring the intercepted length for each plant or group of plants. At each sampling site where we had evaluated the established vegetation, we collected a sample of the top 10cm of sediment; the soil cores were divided into an upper layer (0-5cm) and a lower layer (5-10cm). These samples were used to evaluate the seed bank by the seedling emergence method. All samples were placed in a greenhouse at 20-25ºC and remained flooded for 15 weeks. Fortynine species were recorded in the vegetation. Chiconahuapan had the richest and most diverse flora and the greatest number of perennial species. A life-forms analysis showed that perennial herbs, especially rooted-emergent hydrophytes, dominated in the three wetlands. Sixty-one species were identified in the total seed bank; Chimaliapan had the most diverse total seed bank, whereas the mean seedling density was higher in Chignahuapan. Only two species of the total seed bank of each marsh had a density greater than 10% of the total, and more than half were uncommon. The upper layer of sediment (0-5cm) contained two times more seeds/m² and species per sample than the lower layer (5-10cm), and there was a significant decrease of seed density with depth. The detrended correspondence analysis produced a clear separation between the composition of the seed banks and established vegetation. In general, in each marsh there was less species diversity in the established vegetation than in the seed bank. Dominance by a few species in the seed bank, the presence of opportunistic species, and the low representation of established species in the seed bank suggest wetland degradation and a low probability of regenerating the natural communities from the seed bank. To ensure the permanence of these marshes, their biodiversity, and therefore the environmental services they provide, up to date planning is a must, and efforts to control and monitor hydrology, water quality, and the influence of human activities are suggested.


Los bancos de semillas desempeñan un papel central en la dinámica de la vegetación de muchos humedales. Por lo tanto, el conocimiento de los depósitos de semillas en los suelos de las comunidades acuáticas debe proporcionar herramientas útiles para los esfuerzos de conservación y restauración. Este estudio se llevó a cabo en las ciénegas de Lerma, uno de los últimos vestigios de las grandes zonas inundadas que antes cubrían la Meseta Central Mexicana. El objetivo principal fue determinar la composición y abundancia de los bancos de semillas y su relación con la vegetación establecida en las tres ciénegas de Lerma. En cada humedal se seleccionaron sistemáticamente de 18 a 40 sitios de muestreo. En cada sitio se colocaron dos líneas de 10m perpendiculares a la orilla sobre las que se evaluó la composición y cobertura de plantas vasculares a intervalos de 0.5m. En los sitios de muestreo donde se evaluó la vegetación establecida, se recolectó una muestra de los 10cm superiores de sedimento y se separó en una capa superior (0 a 5cm) y otra inferior (5-10cm). Estas muestras se utilizaron para evaluar el banco de semillas por el método de emergencia de plántulas. Todas las muestras se colocaron en un invernadero a 20-25ºC y se mantuvieron inundadas durante 15 semanas. Cuarenta y nueve especies se registraron en la vegetación. Chiconahuapan presentó la flora más rica y diversas, así como el mayor número de especies perennes. El análisis de las formas de vida mostró que las hierbas perennes y especialmente las hidrófitas arraigada emergente dominaron en los tres humedales. Sesenta y un especies se identificaron en el banco de semillas total, Chimaliapan presentó el banco de semillas total más diverso, mientras que la densidad promedio de plántulas fue mayor en Chignahuapan. Sólo dos especies de todo el banco de semillas de cada ciénega presentaron una densidad mayor del 10% del total y más de la mitad de las especies fueron poco frecuentes. La capa superior de sedimentos (0-5cm) exhibió dos veces más semillas/m² y especies por muestra que la capa inferior (5-10cm), se observó una disminución significativa de la densidad de semillas con la profundidad. El análisis de correspondencia sin tendencia produjo una separación clara entre la composición de los bancos de semillas y la de la vegetación establecida. En general, en cada ciénega hay menos diversidad de especies en la vegetación establecida que en el banco de semillas. El dominio de pocas especies en el banco de semillas, la presencia de especies oportunistas y la escasa representación de las plantas establecidas en el banco de semillas sugiere degradación de los humedales y una baja probabilidad de regeneración de las comunidades naturales desde el banco de semillas. Para garantizar la permanencia de estos sistemas, su biodiversidad y por tanto los servicios ambientales que ofrecen, se requiere de esfuerzos para controlar y supervisar la hidrología y la influencia de las actividades humanas.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Plant Development/physiology , Plants/classification , Seedlings/growth & development , Seeds/growth & development , Wetlands , Mexico
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(2): 699-710, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715464

ABSTRACT

In Campeche state, 122 Wildlife Conservation and Management Units have been recently conformed. In these units, eventhough the white tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus thomasi is a game species, no studies on its diet have been undertaken. The objectives of this work were to estimate the botanical composition of the diet and its seasonal change, to determine forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate of O. virginianus thomasi. The study was conducted in the experimental unit of Colegio de Postgraduados in Campeche, Mexico, from October 2010 to May 2012. The diet was determined through microhistological analyses of the white tailed deer feces by the use of reference material. Forage availability was determined through the Adelaide´s method; the stocking rate, using the grazing pressure factor; and carrying capacity considering forage availability and 35% of utilization efficiency. In this experimental unit, the deer diet included 40 species belonging to15 families. The highest species richness ocurred during the rainy season with 29 species. However, deers preferred shrubs during all seasons, and herbaceous species during the rainy season. The diet composition, forage availability, carrying capacity and stocking rate varied throughout the year. Carrying capacity ranged from 0.04 to 1.08deer/ha. Additional studies are required to detail about the composition of the diet, habitat availability and use throughout its geographical range, and to detail on nutritional and health aspects. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2): 699-710. Epub 2014 June 01.


En Campeche, México no existen estudios de la dieta de Odocoileus virginianus thomasi; a pesar de la existencia de 122 Unidades de Manejo para la Conservación de la Vida Silvestre (UMAS) en donde se realiza aprovechamiento del venado cola blanca. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron conocer la composición botánica de la dieta y su cambio estacional, la disponibilidad de forraje, la capacidad de carga y carga animal de O. virginianus thomasi. El trabajo se realizó de octubre 2010 a mayo 2012 en el Campo Experimental del Colegio de Postgraduados en Campeche, México. La composición de la dieta se determinó mediante el análisis de heces de venado y material de referencia con la técnica microhistológica; la disponibilidad de forraje se estimó con el método de Adelaide; la capacidad de carga utilizando la presión de pastoreo y la carga animal considerando el forraje disponible y 35% de eficiencia de utilización. La dieta incluyó 40 especies de 15 familias. La riqueza de especies más alta fue de 29 especies en la época de lluvia; las arbustivas fueron preferidas en las tres épocas del año y las herbáceas en la época de lluvia. La composición de la dieta, disponibilidad de forraje, la capacidad de carga y carga animal variaron a través del año. La capacidad de carga fluctuó entre 0.04 a 1.08 venados/ha.


Subject(s)
Animals , Deer/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Plants/classification , Deer/classification , Feces/chemistry , Mexico , Seasons
20.
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(1): 325-334, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-715433

ABSTRACT

Malpelo Island is located 380km off the mainland continental coast of Colombia, in the Pacific Ocean. Several geological, ecological, and zoological studies, both marine and terrestrial, have been conducted in this island. Despite some marginal comments on some publications, no single specific survey has been devoted to botany so far. In order to make a floristic inventory of the terrestrial flora of this island, three field trips were made in 2010 to collect vascular plants, mosses, and lichens, as well as data on their distribution within the island. We collected and identified 25 species of lichens, two species of vascular plants and one moss. Lichens were the most diverse group found, including records of four new genera (Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa and Verrucaria) and 13 new species for Colombia. The high lichen richness on Malpelo might be explained by their efficient form of asexual reproduction (soredia and isidia), that may have facilitated their transport to the island by migrating birds or wind. Once on the island, it is possible that lichens persist by being chemically protected against herbivores. The great number of new generic and species records for Colombia is explained by the low number of studies in saxicolous lichens conducted so far in the country, particularly on coastal areas and remote islands. Only two species of vascular plants were collected, a grass, Paspalum sp., and a fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, and both of them correspond to new determinations for Malpelo. A moss species previously reported but with no positive identification was collected and identified as Octoblepharum albidum. Other species previously reported, for example, some species of shrubs, were not observed. The low number of vascular plants is probably due to a combination of soil conditions and herbivory by land crabs. This study is the first complete inventory of the flora of Malpelo and is a starting and reference point for future comparisons among islands in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (1): 327-336. Epub 2014 March 01.


La isla Malpelo se encuentra en el Pacífico colombiano, a unos 380km de la costa continental. La Isla ha sido objeto de algunos estudios geológicos, ecológicos y faunísticos, tanto marinos como terrestres, pero ningún estudio estrictamente botánico. Con el fin de realizar un inventario de la flora terrestre de Malpelo, se realizaron tres salidas de campo durante el 2010, en las que se recolectaron plantas vasculares, musgos y líquenes, y se tomaron datos sobre su distribución en la Isla. El grupo más diverso correspondió a los líquenes, con 25 especies, incluidos cuatro nuevos géneros para Colombia, Endocarpon, Fuscidea, Lecanographa y Verrucaria, y 15 nuevos registros de especies para Colombia. La alta riqueza de especies de líquenes en la Isla puede deberse a la forma de reproducción asexual de estos organismos, que pudieron haber sido transportados hasta Malpelo por aves migratorias o por viento; además, pueden estar protegidos químicamente de la herbivoría por cangrejos terrestres. La gran cantidad de registros nuevos para Colombia se explica por la poca cantidad de trabajos en líquenes saxícolas en el país, sobre todo en zonas costeras e insulares. Solo se registraron dos especies de plantas vasculares, una gramínea, Paspalum sp., y un helecho, Pityrogramma calomelanos. También se recolectó una especie de musgo, Octoblepharum albidum. La escasez de plantas vasculares probablemente se deba a la combinación de condiciones de los suelos y a la herbivoría por cangrejos terrestres. El presente estudio es el primero en darle relevancia a la flora terrestre de Malpelo y constituye un punto de referencia y comparación para estudios semejantes en otras islas del Pacífico Oriental Tropical.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Plants/classification , Colombia , Lichens , Pacific Islands , Pacific Ocean
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