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1.
Geneve; WHO; Sept. 16, 2022. 141 p. ilus, tab, graf. (WHO/2019-nCoV/therapeutics/2022.5).
Non-conventional in English | LILACS, BIGG | ID: biblio-1393164

ABSTRACT

The WHO Therapeutics and COVID-19: living guideline contains the Organization's most up-to-date recommendations for the use of therapeutics in the treatment of COVID-19. The latest version of this living guideline is available in pdf format (via the 'Download' button) and via an online platform, and is updated regularly as new evidence emerges. This twelfth version of the WHO living guideline now contains 19 recommendations. This latest update provides updated recommendations for remdesivir, addresses the use of combination therapy with corticosteroids, interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor blockers and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors in patients with severe or critical COVID-19, and modifies previous recommendations for the neutralizing monoclonal antibodies sotrovimab and casirivimab-imdevimab in patients with non-severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Plasma/immunology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Fluvoxamine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Receptors, Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
2.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 21(1): 27-27, May 6, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1396559

ABSTRACT

There is a pressing need to develop methods and approaches that will identify the fundamental nature of homeopathic potencies. Aims: To bring together recent basic research on potencies, especially that using solvatochromic dyes, and to supplement these results with reliable observations made by Hahnemann and his contemporaries from the very beginnings of homeopathy, together with a detailed examination of the process of trituration and succussion coupled to dilution, in order to significantly limit the number of possible explanations as to the identity of potencies. Methodology: A mixture of lab based and literature studies such that as far as possible all verified and substantiated observations about homeopathic potencies have been examined. Results and Discussion: An understanding of the fundamental nature of homeopathic potencies that includes all known and accepted observations (in vitro, in vivoand clinical) is not realistic without embracing hypotheses involving the emergent properties of complex systems and in particular, vitalistic concepts. Using a vitalistic model it is possible to explain a wide range of seemingly unrelated phenomena -such as the polarising effect of potencies on solvatochromic dyes, the ability to use a range of materials such as water, lactose and cellulose as carriers of potencies, the administering of potencies by olfaction, the antidoting effect of camphor on potency action, the non-linear dependence of potency strength on volume as well as succussion level, the oscillatory behaviour of potencies and experimenter/observer/practitioner effects. Conclusion: A hypothesis in which homeopathic potencies can be seen as self-actuating and autonomous plasma generated by trituration and/or succussion and carried according to Langmuir adsorption models fits the known observations about potencies.


Subject(s)
Plasma , Vitalism , Nonlinear Dynamics
3.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(2): 206-212, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385048

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Convalescent Plasma therapy is one of the therapeutic strategies that has been used for patients with the Covid-19 disease. Implementing a program with national extension to supply hospitals with this blood component is a great challenge mainly in a middle-income economy. Objectives Our objective was to develop and implement a Covid-19 Convalescent Plasma Program which met established quality standards and was adapted to a reality of limited resources. Methods A multicentric convalescent plasma collection program was developed and implemented, based on four main sequential procedures: selective donor recruitment, pre-donation antibody screening (Anti-SARS-CoV-2- Chemiluminescence IgG Abbott), convalescent plasma collection by apheresis or whole-blood processing and distribution to the hospitals according to local demand. Results From the 572 candidates submitted to the pre-donation antibody screening, only 270 (47%) were considered eligible for plasma donation according to the established criteria. Higher levels of total antibody were associated with the donor age being above 45 years old (p= 0.002), hospital admission (p= 0.018), and a shorter interval between the diagnosis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and plasma donation (p < 0.001). There was no association between the ABO and Rh blood groups and their antibody levels. Of the 468 donations made, 61% were from the collection of whole-blood and 39%, from apheresis. The Covid-19 Convalescent Plasma units obtained were distributed to 21 different cities throughout the country by air or ground transportation. Conclusion The implementation of a Covid-19 Convalescent Plasma program in a continental country with relatively scarce resources is feasible with alternative strategies to promote lower cost procedures, while complying with local regulations and meeting quality standards.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Blood Component Removal , Immunization, Passive , COVID-19/therapy , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 1-6, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364895

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction As the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic unfolds around the world; answers related to the antibody response against the virus are necessary to develop treatment and prophylactic strategies. We attempted to understand part of the immune response of convalescent plasma donation candidates. Method We carried out a cross-sectional, observational, non-intervention study, testing 102 convalescent plasma donation candidates for antibodies against the virus, relating these data to the time interval between symptom onset and sample collection, age, disease severity, and gender. Results In our sample, the individuals who developed a greater antibody response were the ones who had a longer time interval between symptom onset and sample collection, the ones who had been hospitalized and the subjects above 35 years old. Moreover, 17 individuals did not present any reactive antibodies. Conclusion These results are important in that they raise questions about the role of the humoral response against the virus, as some individuals do not develop antibodies to fight it. In addition, they help develop recruitment strategies for convalescent plasma donors, who should be asymptomatic for at least 21 days and are possibly more likely to have reactive antibodies after 35 days without symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Plasma , Blood Donors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2022. 85 p. ilus, graf.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1371207

ABSTRACT

O objetivo geral do presente estudo foi avaliar a aplicação dos jatos de plasma de baixa temperatura sob pressão atmosférica (PBTPA) produzidos por gás de argônio e hélio como gases de trabalho, no controle de biofilmes cariogênicos. Para tanto, foram estabelecidos os parâmetros físicos dos PBTPA gerados com argônio e hélio que se mostraram efetivos frente a biofilmes mono, dual e polimicrobianos compostos por combinações das espécies Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans e Actinomyces naeslundii. Os biofilmes mono, dual e multi-espécies foram submetidos ao tratamento com PBTPA produzidos por dois dispositivos diferentes, um obtido comercialmente (kINPen09®) que usou argônio como gás de trabalho, e outro protótipo desenvolvido pela FEG-UNESP (Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá) que usou hélio. Análises quantitativas e microscópicas (confocal, microscopia eletrônica de varredura) foram realizadas. Foi incluído controle negativo (sem tratamento), positivo (clorexidina 0,12%) e controle de gás, utilizando apenas fluxo de gás, sem produzir plasma. Além disso, os efeitos celulares do PBTPAargônio e hélio sobre biofilme dual e multi-espécies também foram analisados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de varredura a laser confocal. Todos os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata em três experimentos independentes. Os resultados foram tabulados e analisados quanto à distribuição. A seguir, os testes estatísticos mais adequados foram selecionados. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Os resultados obtidos para os tratamentos dos biofilmes mono, dual ou multi-espécies com PBTPA-argônio e hélio foram todos significativos em comparação ao controle negativo em todos os tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-argônio, não houve recuperação de S. gordonii e S. sanguinis em todos tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-hélio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em 5 e 7 minutos de exposição dos biofilmes ao PBTPA. Finalmente, tanto o dispositivo gerador de PBTPA que trabalhou com gás argônio quanto o dispositivo que trabalhou com gás hélio, demonstraram resultados promissores e poderão contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de Odontologia de Intervenção Mínima. (AU) The general objective of this study was to evaluate the application of lowtemperature plasma under atmospheric pressure (PBTPA) of argon and helium flow, in the control of cariogenic biofilms. For this, the effective physical parameters of PBTPA-argon and helium in mono, dual and polymicrobial biofilms composed of combinations of the species Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans and Actinomyces naeslundii were established. The multi-species biofilms were treated by different PBTPA generating devices, one obtained commercially (kINPen09®) that used argon as working gas, and another prototype developed by FEG-UNESP (Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá) that used helium as working gas. Quantitative and microscopic analyzes (confocal, scanning electron microscopy) were performed. Negative control (no treatment), positive control (chlorhexidine 2%) and gas control (argon) were included. Besides that, cellular effects of PBTPA-argon and helium on dual and multi-species biofilms were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results obtained for the treatments of mono, dual or multispecies biofilms with both PBTPA-argon and helium were all significant when compared to the negative control at all times analyzed. For PBTPA-argon, there was no recovery of S. gordonii and S. sanguinis at all analyzed times. For PBTPA-helium, the best results were obtained at 5 and 7 min of exposure of biofilms to PBTPA. All the tests were carried out in triplicate in three independent experiments. The results are tabulated and analyzed in terms of distribution. Next, the most suitable statistical tests were selected. The level of significance was 5%. The results obtained for the treatments of mono, dual or multi-species biofilms with PBTPA-argon and helium were all significant compared to the negative control at all analyzed times. Finally, both PBTPA generating could contribute to the development of new protocols for Minimal Intervention Dentistry (AU)


O objetivo geral do presente estudo foi avaliar a aplicação dos jatos de plasma de baixa temperatura sob pressão atmosférica (PBTPA) produzidos por gás de argônio e hélio como gases de trabalho, no controle de biofilmes cariogênicos. Para tanto, foram estabelecidos os parâmetros físicos dos PBTPA gerados com argônio e hélio que se mostraram efetivos frente a biofilmes mono, dual e polimicrobianos compostos por combinações das espécies Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus sanguinis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans e Actinomyces naeslundii. Os biofilmes mono, dual e multi-espécies foram submetidos ao tratamento com PBTPA produzidos por dois dispositivos diferentes, um obtido comercialmente (kINPen09®) que usou argônio como gás de trabalho, e outro protótipo desenvolvido pela FEG-UNESP (Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá) que usou hélio. Análises quantitativas e microscópicas (confocal, microscopia eletrônica de varredura) foram realizadas. Foi incluído controle negativo (sem tratamento), positivo (clorexidina 0,12%) e controle de gás, utilizando apenas fluxo de gás, sem produzir plasma. Além disso, os efeitos celulares do PBTPAargônio e hélio sobre biofilme dual e multi-espécies também foram analisados em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de varredura a laser confocal. Todos os ensaios foram realizados em triplicata em três experimentos independentes. Os resultados foram tabulados e analisados quanto à distribuição. A seguir, os testes estatísticos mais adequados foram selecionados. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Os resultados obtidos para os tratamentos dos biofilmes mono, dual ou multi-espécies com PBTPA-argônio e hélio foram todos significativos em comparação ao controle negativo em todos os tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-argônio, não houve recuperação de S. gordonii e S. sanguinis em todos tempos analisados. Para PBTPA-hélio, os melhores resultados foram obtidos em 5 e 7 minutos de exposição dos biofilmes ao PBTPA. Finalmente, tanto o dispositivo gerador de PBTPA que trabalhou com gás argônio quanto o dispositivo que trabalhou com gás hélio, demonstraram resultados promissores e poderão contribuir para o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de Odontologia de Intervenção Mínima. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plasma , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sanguis , Actinomycosis , Candida albicans , Dental Caries , Dental Plaque , Streptococcus gordonii , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus casei
6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 207-212, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935928

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration changes on platelet release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thrombospondin (TSP)-1 in patients with decompensated cirrhotic portal hypertension after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure. Methods: 169 cases with cirrhotic portal hypertension were enrolled, of which 81 cases received TIPS treatment. LPS, VEGF, and TSP-1 concentrations with different Child-Pugh class in peripheral blood plasma of patients were measured. After pre-incubation of normal human platelets with different concentrations of LPS and stimulated by collagen in vitro, platelet PAC-1 expression rate, VEGF, and TSP-1 concentrations were detected. PAC-1 expression rate and the concentrations of LPS, VEGF and TSP-1 in peripheral blood plasma of patients before and after TIPS procedure were detected. The relationship between plasma LPS, VEGF and TSP-1 concentrations and Child-Pugh score changes in patients after TIPS procedure was analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by t-test, one-way ANOVA or Pearson's rho according to different data. Results: Plasma LPS and TSP-1 concentrations were significantly higher in Child-Pugh class C patients than class A and B, but the concentration of plasma VEGF was significantly lower than class A and B (P < 0.01). In vitro experiments showed that concentration of LPS, TSP-1, and platelet PAC-1 expression rate was higher in the supernatant, but the difference in the concentration of VEGF in the supernatant was not statistically significant. Portal vein pressure and platelet activation were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in patients after TIPS procedure. Portal venous pressure, platelet activation, plasma LPS, and TSP-1 levels were significantly decreased continuously, while VEGF levels were significantly increased continuously after TIPS procedure. Plasma LPS concentration was positively correlated with TSP-1 concentration (r = 0.506, P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with VEGF concentration (r = -0.167, P = 0.010). Child-Pugh score change range was negatively correlated with change range of plasma VEGF concentration (r = -0.297, P = 0.016), and positively correlated with change range of plasma TSP-1 concentration (r = 0.145, P = 0.031) after TIPS. Conclusion: Portal venous pressure gradient, plasma LPS concentration and corresponding platelet activation was decreased in cirrhotic portal hypertension after TIPS procedure, and with TSP-1 reduction and VEGF elevation it is possible to reduce the liver function injury caused by portal venous shunt.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , Humans , Hypertension, Portal/etiology , Lipopolysaccharides , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Plasma , Portasystemic Shunt, Transjugular Intrahepatic/adverse effects , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
7.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 26-30, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929525

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics, laboratory examination, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of hereditary factor Ⅹ (FⅩ) deficiency. Methods: Clinical data of 11 patients with congenital FⅩ deficiency were retrospectively analyzed from July 2009 to February 2021. Results: There were 3 males and 8 females. Median age was 39 (5-55) years. The media duration of follow-up was 81.67 (1.87-142.73) months. Of the 11 patients, 10 had bleeding symptoms, 7 had ecchymosis or hemorrhage after skin bump, 7 had nosebleed, 6 had gingival hemorrhage, and 1 had muscle hematoma. Among the female patients, 6 had menorrhagia and 1 experienced bleeding after vaginal delivery. Family history of FⅩ deficiency was found in one case. Eight patients had a history of surgery, and four had postoperative bleeding. Laboratory findings were characterized by significantly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and decreased FⅩ activity (FⅩ∶C) . Four cases underwent gene mutation analysis and five new mutations were found. Four cases were treated with prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) and seven cases with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) . One female patient had significantly reduced menstrual volume after PCC prophylactic therapy. One patient received FFP for prophylactic infusion with no bleeding during and after the operation. Conclusion: Most patients with congenital FⅩ deficiency had bleeding symptoms and there was no significant correlation between severity of bleeding symptoms and FⅩ∶C. Prophylaxis should be applied in patients with severe bleeding tendencies. Gene mutation test is significant for screening, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction of congenital FX deficiency.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Blood Coagulation Factors/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Tests , Child , Child, Preschool , Factor X Deficiency/genetics , Female , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
8.
Sahel medical journal (Print) ; 25(1): 21-27, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1379227

ABSTRACT

Background: Several atherogenic indices derived from the lipid profiles are postulated to better detect dyslipidemias and predict the risk of having cardiovascular events even in the presence of insignificant changes in individual lipid parameters. Objective: To compare the lipid ratios and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) to conventional atherogenic indices among hypertensive type 2 diabetics to hypertensive nondiabetes (HND) controls. Materials and Methods: A case­control study in which 210 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension (hypertensive­diabetic [HD]) compared with 150 (n = 155) hypertensive without diabetes (HND) with similar ages were enrolled. Blood samples for fasting lipid profile were collected and analyzed, and the following indices and ratios were calculated: (TC/high­density lipoprotein­cholesterol [HDL­C]), (low­density lipoprotein­cholesterol [LDL­C]/HDL­C), (HDL­C/ LDL­C), and AIP. The indices were compared in both the participants and control group. Results: There was no significant difference in the clinical characteristics of HD compared to the HND except the systolic blood pressure, weight, and HDL­C which were lower in the HND group. The frequency of dyslipidemia was found to be significantly higher in the HD group except elevated LDL­C in males (25.8% vs. 17.4%, χ2 = 0.055, respectively). Furthermore, all the lipid ratios, except (Castelli risk index II [CRI­ II] were found to be significantly different among HD as compared to HND group (P = 0.002, P = 0.045, respectively). Conclusions: This study concludes that Nigerians with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension have worse dyslipidemia and abnormal lipid ratios compared to those with only hypertension.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diet, Atherogenic , Hypertension , Plasma , Dyslipidemias
9.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(4): 459-467, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350804

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: A retrospective ecological longitudinal study was carried out with data on blood components use from two private hospital units that belong to the same organization located in Belo Horizonte between July 2017 and June 2019. Objectives: To describe the monthly series of red blood cells, platelets and plasma use and the rate of blood components use for general hospitalizations in the health network, from the perspective of time series. Methods: A total of 15 time series were created with monthly data related to the use of blood components. The stationarity of the series was verified by the unit root test, the trend, by the Cox-Stuart test and seasonality, by the Fisher test (significance levels of 10% for the first test and 5% for the last two). Results: All series tested positive for the trend component and showed an increasing trend for the use of blood components. Ten series showed statistically significant seasonality and eight series were identified as non-stationary. The percentage of transfusions of blood components due to hospitalization at hospitals 1 and 2 was 29% (22% at hospital 1 and 38.9% at hospital 2). Conclusion: This study was able to describe the components of blood components use dynamics, from the perspective of time series at hospitals. Due to the growing trend in demand for blood components and their high cost, we propose the reduction of blood components use and the expanded use of alternative blood transfusion strategies.


Subject(s)
Blood , Blood Transfusion , Plasma , Blood Platelets , Erythrocytes
11.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(2): 179-184, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286689

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background Transfusion of platelets (PLTs) with high ABO antibody titres can pose a risk of hemolysis if the unit crosses the ABO type. The PLTs stored in the platelet additive solution (PAS) remove asubstantial fraction of plasma and replace it with an isotonicbuffered solution.We aimed to assess the difference in anti-A/B antibody levels in Groups O, A and B apheresis platelets (APs) suspended in plasma and PAS. Methodology Apheresis donors are categorized into two groups, Plasma (Group I) and PAS (Group II), each blood group (A, B and O) had 20 samples. The anti-A/B(IgM)antibody levels were recorded from the AP donor (Group II) and from the AP units for both groups. The reduction in the anti-A/B(IgM) antibody levels in the APs suspended in the PAS for each blood group was determined. Results The median anti-A titres in blood Groups B (p = 0.009) and O (p = 0.005) was significantly lower in Group II. However, the difference in anti-B levels was not significant in the blood groups A (p = 0.057) and O (p = 0.205). The median level of reduction in IgM antibody titres across donor samples and the PAS-stored platelets was two-fold. The regression showed a level of reduction in antibody titres which can be explained by baseline donor antibody titres in blood groups A and B compared to blood group O. Conclusion The medianABO antibody titres were lower in APs suspended in PAS than in plasma. Addition of the PAS significantly lowered the IgM antibody titres by twofold, compared to plasma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasma , Blood Component Removal , ABO Blood-Group System , Platelet Transfusion
13.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(2): 201-211, Apr.-June 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286682

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The COVID-19 pandemic has pushed the world towards social, economic, and medical challenges. Scientific research in medicine is the only means to overcome novel and complex diseases like COVID-19. To sum up the therapeutic wild-goose chase, many available antivirals and repurposed drugs have failed to show successful clinical evidence in patient recovery, several vaccine candidates are still waiting in the trial pipelines and a few have become available to the common public for administration in record time.However, with upcoming evidence of coronavirus mutations, available vaccines may thrive on the spirit of doubt about efficacy and effectiveness towards these new strains of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). In all these collective uncertainties, plasma therapy has shown a ray of hope for critically ill patients. To date, with very few published case studies of convalescent plasma in COVID-19, there are two school of thought process in the scientific community regarding plasma therapy efficiency and this leads to confusion due to the lack of optimal randomized and controlled studies.Without undertaking any robust scientific studies, evidence or caution, accepting any therapy unanimously may cause more harm than good, but with a clearer understanding of SARS-CoV2 immunopathology and drug response, plasma therapy might be the silver lining against COVID-19 for the global community.


Subject(s)
Plasma , COVID-19/therapy
15.
Rev. méd. Urug ; 37(supl.1): s49-s49, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1361719

Subject(s)
Humans , Plasma , COVID-19
16.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 37(2): 139-148, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388143

ABSTRACT

Resumen Desde la notificación de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2, agente patógeno responsable del COVID-19, muchos de los tratamientos dirigidos a su manejo han estado sometidos a estudios de manera constante, con el fin de comprobar su eficacia y seguridad. El conocimiento de su virología y etiopatogenia posibilitaría objetivar los pasos moleculares específicos que puedan ser blancos terapéuticos de variados fármacos actualmente disponibles. Esta experiencia proviene principalmente de las infecciones por SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV, con resultados variados 'in vitro' en el SARS-CoV-2, sin evidencia clínica que demuestre efectividad y seguridad de dichos tratamientos. A la fecha, no se ha podido concretar con claridad un esquema de tratamiento específico, debido a que la evidencia surgida ha puesto en jaque cada uno de los fármacos propuestos. Esto ha motivado a continuar en la búsqueda de una estrategia efectiva que permita manejar esta pandemia con la seguridad y eficacia necesaria para que el beneficio terapéutico esté por sobre los posibles efectos adversos que estos esquemas farmacológicos pudiesen presentar. La siguiente revisión pretende mostrar la evidencia disponible a la fecha, definiendo la actividad de cada fármaco en función de su mecanismo de acción.


Since the beginning of the pandemic by SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen responsible for COVID-19, many of the therapeutic options for its management have been under constant revision, in order to verify their safety and efficiency. Knowledge of the viral structure and pathogenesis make it possible to determine the molecular pathways that may be targeted with current available drugs. The experience with these drugs comes mainly from infections caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, in vitro studies with SARS-CoV-2 that yield variable results, and clinical experience that does not ensure effectiveness and safety of such drugs. To date, it has not been possible to elucidate a specific treatment scheme, because of the constant release of evidence that challenges the usefulness of the proposed drugs. This has motived us to continue seeking for an effective strategy that allows to manage this pandemic in a safe and efficient manner, so that therapeutic benefit surpasses the related adverse drug reactions that can occur. The following review aims to showcase the evidence available to date by defining the activity of each drug based on its mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plasma , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon-beta/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(1): e893, ene.-mar. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289450

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El plasma de convalecientes es una inmunoterapia pasiva que se ha usado para el tratamiento y prevención de muchas enfermedades infecciosas por más de un siglo. Dada la falta de tratamiento específico para el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, el plasma de convalecientes es una alternativa terapéutica potencial contra la COVID-19. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión del empleo del plasma de convalecientes como alternativa terapéutica a la COVID-19. Desarrollo: Se empleó la estrategia de búsqueda del tema; consultando las bases de datos Pubmed, SciELO, Lilacs, Cochrane Library y Web of Science. El plasma de convalecientes ha mostrado efectividad en el tratamiento de varias enfermedades virales. Así, la evidencia sobre su uso en los pacientes con COVID-19 es escasa, aunque se han obtenido resultados alentadores, pero no concluyentes por falta de un número mayor ensayos clínicos. Al mismo tiempo, Cuba incluye en sus protocolos de actuación contra la COVID-19 este tratamiento. Conclusiones: Esta alternativa resulta una herramienta inmunoterapéutica en los pacientes con la COVID-19, ya que mejora el estado clínico y disminuir la tasa de letalidad. Sin embargo, se necesitan más ensayos clínicos controlados y aleatorizados que afirmen su efectividad y seguridad(AU)


Introduction: Convalescent plasma is a form of passive immunotherapy which has been used for the treatment and prevention of many infectious diseases for more than one century. Given the absence of a specific treatment for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, convalescent plasma is a potential therapeutic alternative against COVID-19. Objective: Carry out a review about the use of convalescent plasma as a therapeutic alternative against COVID-19. Discussion: A search was conducted about the topic in the databases Pubmed, SciELO, Lilacs, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Convalescent plasma has been shown to be effective in the treatment of several viral diseases. However, evidence of its use in COVID-19 patients is scant. Promising results have been obtained, though, but they are not conclusive due to the need of a larger number of clinical trials. In Cuba this treatment is included among the clinical management protocols for COVID-19. Conclusions: This alternative is an immunotherapeutic tool for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, since it improves their clinical status and reduces lethality rates. However, more controlled and randomized clinical trials are required confirming its effectiveness and safety(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Communicable Diseases , Immunization, Passive , Coronavirus , Plasma/physiology
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 1-10, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153061

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of plasma pathological changes before timed artificial insemination (TAI) on pregnancy of cows. The contents of estrogen (E2), progesterone (P4), glucose (Glu), selenium (Se), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and histamine (HIS) in plasma of 48 Holstein cows were measured before TAI. According to the estrus detection, the cows were divided into estrus (E) and anestrus (A) groups. After pregnancy testing at 28 d after TAI, two groups of E and A were divided into positive pregnancy of E group (EP+), negative pregnancy of E group (EP-), positive pregnancy of A group (AP+), and negative pregnancy of A group (AP-). The contents of E2, P4, Glu, Se, BDNF and hIS significantly differed among the four groups (P<0.01). The ROC analysis was used to determine the risk of negative pregnancy test (-) after TAI was increased when plasma E2 was less than 46.45 pmol/L in cows before TAI. The changes in E2, P4,hIS, Glu, and BDNF in the blood of natural estrus and natural anestrus cows affected the pregnancy after TAI. the level of E2 in plasma may be used to assess the risk of negative pregnancy after TAI.(AU)


O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a influência de mudanças patológicas de plasma antes de inseminação artificial (TAI) na gestação de vacas. O conteúdo de estrogênio (E2), progesterona (P4), glucose (Glu), selênio (Se), fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF), e histamina (HIS) no plasma de 48 vacas Holstein foi medido antes de TAI. De acordo com a detecção de estro, as vacas foram divididas em dois grupos: estro (E) e anestro (A). Após teste de gestação 28 d após TAI, dois grupos de E e A foram formados em gestação positiva do grupo E (EP+), gestação negativa do grupo E (EP-), gestação positiva do grupo A (AP+), e gestação negativa do grupo A (AP-). Os valores de E2, P4, Glu, Se, BDNF e hIS foram significativamente diferentes entre os quatro grupos (P<0,01). A análise ROC foi utilizada para determinar o risco de teste de gestação negativo (-) após aumento de TAI quando plasma E2 estava abaixo de 46,45 pmol/L em vacas antes de TAI. Alterações em E2, P4,hIS, Glu e BDNF no sangue de estro natural e anestro natural em vacas afetou a gestação após TAI. O nível de E2 no plasma pode ser usado para avaliar o risco de gestação negativa após TAI.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Plasma , Anestrus/blood , Estrus/blood , Insemination, Artificial/veterinary , ROC Curve
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRW6186, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286295

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to highlight the global scientific effort to fight the SARS-CoV-2, addressing the preliminary results of passive immunization through convalescent plasma. We performed a search at the major databases of interventional clinical trial protocols about the transfusion of convalescent plasma in patients with COVID-19, as well as, published articles (n≥25), using the following search strategy: [(COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR nCoV-2019) AND (Convalescent plasma OR Plasma exchange) AND (Treatment OR Therapy)]. A total of 24 interventional clinical trial protocols (advanced in phases II-III, III, and IV) were included in this review, as well as three studies that had enough outcomes to evaluate the efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with COVID-19. All interventional clinical trial protocols applied approximately 500mL of convalescent plasma (from single or more donations) in hospitalized patients, mainly in patients with severe disease associated with standard therapy for COVID-19, and compared to placebo or standard therapy plus specific drugs. Most of interventional clinical trial protocols are multicenter, and the phase IV studies are recruiting at intercontinental centers of North America, Oceania, Europe, but most are recruiting center inside their own county. The three studies published reported similar approach of convalescent plasma intervention with decrease in length of stay, mortality, with less than 4% of adverse events, mainly for treating critical cases with life-threatening disease. All advanced clinical trials focused on convalescent plasma therapy in patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in severe conditions, and the preliminary results provide strong evidence for therapy for the COVID-19 patients.


RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi destacar o esforço científico global para combater o SARS-CoV-2 abordando os resultados preliminares da imunização passiva por plasma convalescente. Foi realizada uma busca nas principais bases de dados dos protocolos de ensaios clínicos intervencionistas sobre transfusão de plasma convalescente em pacientes com COVID-19, bem como artigos publicados (n≥25), utilizando a seguinte estratégia de busca: [(COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR nCoV-2019) AND (Convalescent plasma OR Plasma exchange) AND (Treatment OR Therapy)]. Um total de 24 protocolos de ensaios clínicos intervencionistas (avançados nas fases II-III, III e IV) foi incluído nesta revisão, assim como três estudos que tiveram resultados suficientes para avaliar a eficácia da terapia com plasma convalescente para pacientes com COVID-19. Todos os protocolos de ensaios clínicos intervencionistas aplicaram cerca de 500mL de plasma convalescente (de uma ou mais doações) em pacientes hospitalizados, principalmente naqueles com grau grave de doença associada à terapia-padrão para COVID-19 em comparação com placebo ou terapia-padrão mais medicamentos específicos. A maioria dos protocolos de ensaios clínicos intervencionistas é multicêntrica, e os estudos de fase IV estão recrutando em centros intercontinentais da América do Norte, Oceania e Europa, mas a maior parte dos centros de recrutamento está dentro de seu próprio país. Os três estudos publicados relataram abordagem semelhante de intervenção para plasma convalescente com redução do tempo de internação, mortalidade e menos de 4% de eventos adversos, principalmente para o tratamento de casos críticos com risco de vida. Todos os ensaios clínicos avançados focaram na terapia com plasma convalescente em pacientes com COVID-19 hospitalizados em condições graves, e os resultados preliminares fornecem fortes evidências para a terapia para esses pacientes com COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Plasma , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Immunization, Passive , Treatment Outcome , Critical Illness , SARS-CoV-2
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