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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Malaria, Vivax/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/transmission
2.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 334-342, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118972

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a disease of global tropical distribution, being endemic in more than 90 countries and responsible for about 212 million cases worldwide in 2016. To date, the strategies used to eradicate this disease have been ineffective, without specific preventive measures such as vaccines. Currently, the existing therapeutic arsenal is limited and has become ineffective against the expansion of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium, demonstrating the need for studies that would allow the development of new compounds against this disease. In this context, we studied the volatile oil obtained from rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus (VOCA), a plant species commonly found in the Amazon region and popularly used as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of malaria, in order to confirm its potential as an antimalarial agent by in vitro and in vivo assays. We cultured Plasmodium falciparum W2 (chloroquine-resistant) and 3D7 (chloroquine-sensitive) strains in erythrocytes and exposed them to VOCA at different concentrations in 96-well microplates. In vivo antimalarial activity was tested in BALB/c mice inoculated with approximately 106 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei. VOCA showed a high antimalarial potential against the two P. falciparum strains, with IC50 = 1.21 µg mL-1 for W2 and 2.30 µg mL-1 for 3D7. VOCA also significantly reduced the parasitemia and anemia induced by P. berghei in mice. Our results confirmed the antimalarial potential of the volatile oil of Cyperus articulatus. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plasmodium berghei , Plasmodium falciparum , Chloroquine , Artemisinins , Malaria
3.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 127 p. graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-995136

ABSTRACT

Infecções por Plasmodium spp. podem acarretar em complicações pulmonares (1 a 40% dos casos), que podem resultar no desenvolvimento da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA). Esta síndrome é caracterizada por inflamação aguda, lesão do endotélio alveolar e do parênquima pulmonar, disfunção e aumento da permeabilidade da barreira alvéolo-capilar pulmonar e, consequente, formação de efusão pleural. Neste sentido, os mecanismos de regulação da permeabilidade das células endoteliais e as junções interendoteliais têm papel crítico na manutenção do endotélio pulmonar. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar precocemente o desenvolvimento da SDRA associada à malária por tomografia computadorizada por emissão de fóton único (SPECT/CT), além de identificar alterações nas junções interendoteliais das células endoteliais pulmonares primárias de camundongos DBA/2 (CEPP-DBA/2), após contato com os eritrócitos parasitados de Plasmodium berghei ANKA (EP-PbA). Os nossos resultados demonstraram que é possível identificar alterações na aeração pulmonar no 5° e 7° dia após a infecção e, consequentemente, diferenciar os animais que desenvolveriam SDRA daqueles que evoluiriam para hiperparasitemia (HP). Além disso, observamos em CEPP-DBA/2 que o contato direto com EP-PbA aumenta da abertura das junções interendoteliais e da permeabilidade vascular. Assim, avaliamos a diminuição da expressão das proteínas das junções interendoteliais que contribuem para o aumento da permeabilidade vascular, por imunofluorescência e Western Blot. Apesar da SDRA ter sido identificada há mais de 50 anos, ainda não se conhece formas de diagnóstico precoce e os mecanimos efetivos de desenvolvimento desta enfermidade, que permitam um tratamento efetivo e que evite a morte do paciente. Portanto, sugere-se que a técnica de SPECT/CT seja uma importante ferramenta de diagnóstico para identificação precoce de SDRA associado a malária


Infections by Plasmodium spp. can lead to pulmonary complications (1 to 40% of the cases), that can result in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This syndrome is characterized by the acute inflammation, injury of the alveolar endothelium and pulmonary parenchyma, dysfunction and increased permeability of the pulmonary alveolar-capillary barrier and, consequently, formation of pleural effusion. In this aspect, mechanisms of regulation of endothelial cell permeability and interendothelial junctions play a critical role in the maintenance of the pulmonary endothelium. The present study aimed to determine the early development of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) associated malaria ARDS in addition to identifying changes in the interendothelial junctions of the primary pulmonary endothelial cells of DBA/2 mice (CEPP-DBA/2) after contact with erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (EP-PbA). Our results demonstrated that is possible to identify changes in lung aeration on the 5th and 7th day after infection and, consequently, differentiate the animals that should develop ARDS from those that would evolve to hyperparasitemia (HP). In addition, we observed in CEPP-DBA/2 that direct contact with EP-PbA increases the opening of the interendothelial junctions and vascular permeability. Thus, we evaluated that decrease the expression of interendothelial junction proteins contribute to the increase of vascular permeability, by immunofluorescence and Western Blot. Although ARDS was identified more than 50 years ago, it is not yet known what forms of early diagnosis, and the effective mechanisms of development of this disease, that allow an effective treatment and that prevent the death of the patient. Therefore, it is suggested that the SPECT/CT technique is a valuable tool to promote the early identification of ARDS associated with malaria


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Capillary Permeability , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium berghei , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon/statistics & numerical data , Edema , Lung/abnormalities
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761732

ABSTRACT

Both Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are important apicomplexan parasites, which infect humans worldwide. Genetic analyses have revealed that 33% of amino acid sequences of inner membrane complex from the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei is similar to that of Toxoplasma gondii. Inner membrane complex is known to be involved in cell invasion and replication. In this study, we investigated the resistance against T. gondii (ME49) infection induced by previously infected P. berghei (ANKA) in mice. Levels of T. gondii-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody responses, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations were found higher in the mice infected with P. berghei (ANKA) and challenged with T. gondii (ME49) compared to that in control mice infected with T. gondii alone (ME49). P. berghei (ANKA) + T. gondii (ME49) group showed significantly reduced the number and size of T. gondii (ME49) cysts in the brains of mice, resulting in lower body weight loss compared to ME49 control group. These results indicate that previous exposure to P. berghei (ANKA) induce resistance to subsequent T. gondii (ME49) infection.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibody Formation , Body Weight , Brain , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Malaria , Membranes , Mice , Parasites , Plasmodium berghei , Plasmodium , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761731

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is biologically complex and involves multi-factorial mechanisms such as microvascular congestion, immunopathology by the pro-inflammatory cytokine and endothelial dysfunction. Recent data have suggested that a pleiotropic T-cell immunomodulatory protein (TIP) could effectively mediate inflammatory cytokines of mammalian immune response against acute graft-versus-host disease in animal models. In this study, we identified a conserved homologue of TIP in Plasmodium berghei (PbTIP) as a membrane protein in Plasmodium asexual stage. Compared with PBS control group, the pathology of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in rPbTIP intravenous injection (i.v.) group was alleviated by the downregulation of pro-inflammatory responses, and rPbTIP i.v. group elicited an expansion of regulatory T-cell response. Therefore, rPbTIP i.v. group displayed less severe brain pathology and feverish mice in rPbTIP i.v. group died from ECM. This study suggested that PbTIP may be a novel promising target to alleviate the severity of ECM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Cytokines , Down-Regulation , Estrogens, Conjugated (USP) , Graft vs Host Disease , Injections, Intravenous , Malaria, Cerebral , Membrane Proteins , Mice , Models, Animal , Pathology , Plasmodium berghei , Plasmodium , Staphylococcal Protein A , T-Lymphocytes
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761730

ABSTRACT

Malarial infection induces tissue hypoxia in the host through destruction of red blood cells. Tissue hypoxia in malarial infection may increase the activity of HIF1α through an intracellular oxygen-sensing pathway. Activation of HIF1α may also induce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to trigger angiogenesis. To investigate whether malarial infection actually generates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, we analyzed severity of hypoxia, the expression of hypoxia-related angiogenic factors, and numbers of blood vessels in various tissues infected with Plasmodium berghei. Infection in mice was performed by intraperitoneal injection of 2×10⁶ parasitized red blood cells. After infection, we studied parasitemia and survival. We analyzed hypoxia, numbers of blood vessels, and expression of hypoxia-related angiogenic factors including VEGF and HIF1α. We used Western blot, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry to analyze various tissues from Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. In malaria-infected mice, parasitemia was increased over the duration of infection and directly associated with mortality rate. Expression of VEGF and HIF1α increased with the parasitemia in various tissues. Additionally, numbers of blood vessels significantly increased in each tissue type of the malaria-infected group compared to the uninfected control group. These results suggest that malarial infection in mice activates hypoxia-induced angiogenesis by stimulation of HIF1α and VEGF in various tissues.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inducing Agents , Animals , Hypoxia , Blood Vessels , Blotting, Western , Erythrocytes , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immunohistochemistry , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Malaria , Mice , Mortality , Parasitemia , Plasmodium , Plasmodium berghei , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 105 p. graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361420

ABSTRACT

Infecções por Plasmodium sp. podem levar a um quadro respiratório grave, com complicações pulmonares denominadas lesão pulmonar aguda e síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (LPA/SDRA). Inflamação aguda, lesão do endotélio alveolar e do parênquima pulmonar, disfunção e aumento da permeabilidade da barreira alvéolo-capilar e, consequente, formação de edema, caracterizam esta síndrome. O modelo experimental, que utiliza o parasita murino Plasmodium berghei ANKA e camundongos da linhagem DBA/2, é empregado no estudo de mediadores imunológicos e fatores que propiciam o estabelecimento das lesões pulmonares associados à LPA/SDRA. Diversos estímulos podem atuar diretamente no aumento da permeabilidade endotelial por meio da desestabilização dos microtúbulos, rearranjo dos microfilamentos de actina e contração das células endoteliais, via sinalização de Rho-GTPases, causando disfunção da barreira endotelial. Desta forma, este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar as alterações do citoesqueleto em células endoteliais primárias pulmonares de camundongos DBA/2 (CEPP-DBA/2), as vias de sinalização das principais Rho-GTPases e o estresse oxidativo, causados pela presença de eritrócitos parasitados com esquizontes de P. berghei ANKA (EP-PbA). As CEPP-DBA/2 foram estimuladas com TNF, VEGF ou IFNγ, em diferentes tempos de exposição, seguido da incubação com EP-PbA. Assim, foram realizados ensaios de imunofluorescência para análise do rearranjo de microfilamentos de actina e da desestabilização de microtúbulos. As vias de sinalização das Rho-GTPases foram avaliadas por Western blot, para as expressões proteicas de RhoA, Cdc42 e MLC. Além disso, ensaio fluorométrico foi realizado para detectar a produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio, resultantes do estímulo com eritrócitos parasitados. CEPP-DBA/2 estimuladas por EP-PbA, VEGF, TNF ou IFNγ, em associação ou não, apresentaram alterações morfológicas nos microfilamentos de actina e aumento dos espaços interendoteliais. Imagens de imunofluorescência também mostram desestabilização de microtúbulos e desfosforilação de FAK, causadas por EP-PbA. Os ensaios de permeabilidade validam que os eritrócitos parasitados com formas maduras de P. berghei induziram aumento da permeabilidade microvascular nas CEPP-DBA/2. Além disso, estas células, estimuladas com EP-PbA, demonstraram elevada produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs), o que pode estar contribuindo com o desenvolvimento de estresse oxidativo e com a injúria endotelial, assim como, com o aumento da permeabilidade vascular. O mais interessante é que estas alterações endoteliais podem estar relacionadas ao aumento da razão RhoA/Cdc42, da expressão proteica de MLC fosforilada e do sinal de ativação de RhoA. Em conjunto, estes resultados mostram envolvimento dos eritrócitos parasitados com esquizontes de Plasmodium berghei ANKA na desorganização do citoesqueleto e na disfunção da barreira alvéolo-capilar, via RhoA/Rho-kinase, o que pode estar contribuindo com a patogênese da LPA/SDRA associada à malária


Infections by Plasmodium sp. can lead to a serious respiratory condition with pulmonary complications, named acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Acute inflammation, alveolar endothelium and lung parenchyma injuries, dysfunction and increased permeability of the pulmonary alveolar-capillary barrier and consequent formation of edema characterize this syndrome. Several stimuli can directly increase endothelial permeability through actin microfilaments rearrangement, via Rho- GTPases signaling, leading to endothelial barrier dysfunction. DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA develop ALI/ARDS similar to that observed in humans. The purpose of this research was to assess cytoskeletal changes in DBA/2 mice primary microvascular lung endothelial cells (PMLEC), verify the signaling pathways of the Rho- GTPases and analyze the oxidative stress on these cells in the presence of P. berghei ANKA-infected red blood cells (PbA-iRBC). PMLEC were stimulated by TNF, VEGF or IFNγ followed by incubation with PbA-iRBC. Immunofluorescence assays were performed to analyze actin microfilaments rearrangement and microtubules destabilization. Western blot for RhoA, Cdc42 and MLC proteins were conducted to assess alterations in signaling pathways of Rho-GTPases. In addition, a fluorimetric assay was performed to detect the production of reactive oxygen species resulting from PbA-iRBC stimulus. P. berghei ANKA, VEGF, TNF and IFNγ stimuli, in association or not, caused morphological disturbances in actin microfilaments of PMLEC and an increase of intercellular spaces. Moreover, immunofluorescence images showed microtubules destabilization and FAK dephosphorylation in these cells, caused by PbA-iRBC. The permeability assay showed that PbA-iRBC induced an increase of microvascular permeability in PMLEC. In addition, PMLEC stimulated by PbA-iRBC, showed elevated production of ROS, which may be contributing to oxidative stress and increasing the damage of endothelial cells, as well as an increase of vascular permeability. Interestingly, these endothelial changes may be related to the increased RhoA/Cdc42 protein expressions ratio, augmented protein expression of phosphorylated MLC and RhoA activation signal. Taken together, these data demonstrate the involvement of P. berghei ANKA-infected red blood cells in cytoskeleton disorganization and alveolar-capillary barrier dysfunction, through of RhoA / Rho-kinase signaling pathway, which may contribute to ALI/ARDS pathogenesis


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Mice , Cytoskeleton/classification , Endothelial Cells , Malaria/pathology , Plasmodium berghei/classification , Capillary Permeability/immunology , Blood-Air Barrier
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812127

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to investigate the antimalarial activity of synthetic hepcidin and its effect on cytokine secretion in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. The mice were infected with P. berghei intravenously and treated with hepcidin according to 4-day suppression test and Rane's test. The serum levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, and IL-17A), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the experimental mice were determined using a cytometric bead array (CBA) kit. The survival rate of the infected mice was also registered. Additionally, the serum iron, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and total bilirubin (BIL) were detected to evaluate liver functions. Hepcidin exerted direct anti-malarial function in vivo and increased survival rate in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the secretion of T helper cell type 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cytokines, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were inhibited by hepcidin. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that synthetic hepcidin exerts in vivo antimalarial activity and possesses anti-inflammatory function, which provides a basis for future design of new derivatives with ideal anti-malarial activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials , Pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hepcidins , Pharmacology , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-17 , Allergy and Immunology , Malaria , Drug Therapy , Allergy and Immunology , Mortality , Parasitology , Male , Mice , Plasmodium berghei , Genetics , Metabolism
9.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 67(3): 0-0, dic. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: lil-777069

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el control de la malaria depende en gran medida de una terapia efectiva. Muchos de los anti-maláricos actuales son de origen natural. Especies de la flora cubana contienen metabolitos anti-Plasmodium. En este estudio, se identifican extractos de Solanaceae con actividad antiplasmodial promisoria. Objetivo: evaluar la actividad esquizonticida frente a Plasmodium berghei de 31 extractos de 7 especies, correspondientes a 5 géneros de plantas de Solanaceae, colectadas en el occidente de nuestro país y sin antecedentes de un estudio similar. Métodos: se prepararon 31 extractos hidroalcohólicos (90 y 30 por ciento etanol) de diferentes órganos de: Brunfelsia undulata Sw., Datura stramonium L. var. tatula (L.) Torr., Physalis solanaceus (Schltdl.) Axelius, Solandra longiflora Tuss., Solanum myriacanthum Dunal, Solanum seaforthianum And. ySolanum umbellatum Mill.La actividad de los extractos se evaluó in vitro frente a P. berghei y se determinó su citotoxicidad frente a fibroblastos humanos MRC-5. Resultados: los extractos deB. undulata y S. umbellatumfueron inactivos.El extracto de tallos de S. seaforthianummostró la actividad antiplasmodial más potente (CI50 = 3,9µg/mL) con excelentes electividad (18,2). Conclusiones: se demostró la actividad anti-plasmodial in vitro de extractos de cinco especies de Solanaceae sin antecedentes de esta acción farmacológica. Se identificó un extracto con potente actividad esquizonticida frente a P. berghei y con excelente selectividad. Este resultado nos anima a continuar el estudio de la preparación vegetal de S. seaforthianum(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Solanaceae/parasitology , Schizonts/drug effects , Cuba
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(7): 906-913, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764592

ABSTRACT

Several species of Aspidospermaplants are used to treat diseases in the tropics, including Aspidosperma ramiflorum, which acts against leishmaniasis, an activity that is experimentally confirmed. The species, known as guatambu-yellow, yellowperoba, coffee-peroba andmatiambu, grows in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil in the South to the Southeast regions. Through a guided biofractionation of A. ramiflorumextracts, the plant activity against Plasmodium falciparumwas evaluated in vitro for toxicity towards human hepatoma G2 cells, normal monkey kidney cells and nonimmortalised human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood. Six of the seven extracts tested were active at low doses (half-maximal drug inhibitory concentration < 3.8 µg/mL); the aqueous extract was inactive. Overall, the plant extracts and the purified compounds displayed low toxicity in vitro. A nonsoluble extract fraction and one purified alkaloid isositsirikine (compound 5) displayed high selectivity indexes (SI) (= 56 and 113, respectively), whereas compounds 2 and 3 were toxic (SI < 10). The structure, activity and low toxicity of isositsirikine in vitro are described here for the first time in A. ramiflorum, but only the neutral and precipitate plant fractions were tested for activity, which caused up to 53% parasitaemia inhibition of Plasmodium bergheiin mice with blood-induced malaria. This plant species is likely to be useful in the further development of an antimalarial drug, but its pharmacological evaluation is still required.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Aspidosperma/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Antimalarials/isolation & purification , Antimalarials/toxicity , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(4): 560-565, 09/06/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748861

ABSTRACT

A rapid decrease in parasitaemia remains the major goal for new antimalarial drugs and thus, in vivo models must provide precise results concerning parasitaemia modulation. Hydroxyethylamine comprise an important group of alkanolamine compounds that exhibit pharmacological properties as proteases inhibitors that has already been proposed as a new class of antimalarial drugs. Herein, it was tested the antimalarial property of new nine different hydroxyethylamine derivatives using the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Plasmodium berghei strain. By comparing flow cytometry and microscopic analysis to evaluate parasitaemia recrudescence, it was observed that flow cytometry was a more sensitive methodology. The nine hydroxyethylamine derivatives were obtained by inserting one of the following radical in the para position: H, 4Cl, 4-Br, 4-F, 4-CH3, 4-OCH3, 4-NO2, 4-NH2 and 3-Br. The antimalarial test showed that the compound that received the methyl group (4-CH3) inhibited 70% of parasite growth. Our results suggest that GFP-transfected P. berghei is a useful tool to study the recrudescence of novel antimalarial drugs through parasitaemia examination by flow cytometry. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the insertion of a methyl group at the para position of the sulfonamide ring appears to be critical for the antimalarial activity of this class of compounds.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Malaria/drug therapy , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Flow Cytometry , Green Fluorescent Proteins , In Vitro Techniques , Malaria/parasitology , Parasitemia/parasitology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51159

ABSTRACT

The sequestration of infected erythrocytes in the placenta can activate the syncytiotrophoblast to release cytokines that affect the micro-environment and influence the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to fetus. The high level of IL-10 has been reported in the intervillous space and could prevent the pathological effects. There is still no data of Th17 involvement in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. This study was conducted to reveal the influence of placental IL-17 and IL-10 levels on fetal weights in malaria placenta. Seventeen pregnant BALB/C mice were divided into control (8 pregnant mice) and treatment group (9 pregnant mice infected by Plasmodium berghei). Placental specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin were examined to determine the level of cytoadherence by counting the infected erythrocytes in the intervillous space of placenta. Levels of IL-17 and IL-10 in the placenta were measured using ELISA. All fetuses were weighed by analytical balance. Statistical analysis using Structural Equation Modeling showed that cytoadherence caused an increased level of placental IL-17 and a decreased level of placental IL-10. Cytoadherence also caused low fetal weight. The increased level of placental IL-17 caused low fetal weight, and interestingly low fetal weight was caused by a decrease of placental IL-10. It can be concluded that low fetal weight in placental malaria is directly caused by sequestration of the parasites and indirectly by the local imbalance of IL-17 and IL-10 levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Fetal Weight , Humans , Interleukin-10/analysis , Interleukin-17/analysis , Malaria/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Placenta/chemistry , Plasmodium berghei/physiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/metabolism
13.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. xvii,87 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774225

ABSTRACT

A malária cerebral (MC) é uma das complicações mais graves causada pela infecçãopor Plasmodium falciparum, sendo responsável pela morte principalmente decrianças menores de 5 anos de idade. Atualmente o principal tratamento para a MCé o artesunato intravenoso, mesmo assim 15-20 por cento dos pacientes tratados aindamorrem e dentre aqueles que sobrevivem 5-30 por cento podem apresentar alguma sequelaneurológica, que pode incluir prejuízos motores, cognitivos ou comportamentais.Portanto, torna-se necessária a compreensão dos mecanismos de patogênesedessa síndrome clínica para o desenvolvimento de terapias adjuvantes. A disfunçãovascular desempenha um importante papel na patogênese da MC e pode ser umalvo para terapias adjuvantes. Já foi demonstrado que a baixa biodisponibilidade deóxido nítrico (NO), um mediador central do tônus vascular, medeia em parte oprocesso de disfunção vascular. No entanto, outros mecanismos podem estarenvolvidos. Os metabólitos do ácido araquidônico são importantes reguladoresfisiológicos do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral por suas propriedades vasodilatadoras evasoconstritoras. Em condições patológicas há uma desregulação desse sistema,podendo levar a uma predominância dos estímulos vasoconstritores e a umprocesso isquêmico cerebral. Nesse estudo, determinamos o efeito da inibiçãofarmacológica da síntese de metabólitos específicos do ácido araquidônico sobre oprocesso de vasoconstrição cerebral em camundongos com malária cerebralexperimental (MCE) por Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Para detectar possíveisalterações no fluxo sanguíneo cerebral após intervenção com as drogas-teste emanimais que desenvolveram a MCE e em animais controle não infectados, utilizamosa técnica de Laser Speckle com Contraste de Imagem (LSCI)...


Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most severe complications caused byPlasmodium falciparum infections, and responsible for the death mainly of childrenunder 5 years of age. The mainstay treatment for CM is intravenous artesunate,nevertheless 15-20 percent of the patients receiving this drug still die and 5-30 percent of thosewho survive may show neurological sequelae, which may include motor, cognitive orbehavioral deficits. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms ofpathogenesis of this syndrome to develop adjunctive therapies. Vascular dysfunctionplays an important role in the pathogenesis of CM and may be a target for thedevelopment of adjuvant therapy. It has been shown that the low bioavailability ofnitric oxide (NO), a key mediator of vascular tone, participates in this process,however, other mechanisms may also be involved. Arachidonic acid metabolites areimportant regulators of cerebral blood flow through their vasoconstrictor andvasodilator properties under physiological conditions. In pathological conditions thereis a disruption of the system, leading to a predominance of vasoconstrictor stimuliand to an ischemic process. In this study we determined the effect ofpharmacological inhibition of the synthesis of specific metabolites of arachidonic acidon the process of cerebral vasoconstriction in mice with experimental cerebralmalaria (ECM) by Plasmodium berghei ANKA. To detect possible changes incerebral flow after intervention with the test drugs in animals with ECM and noninfectedcontrols we made use of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging technique (LSCI).We show that on the sixth day after infection, animals that developed ECM showed asignificant decrease in cerebral blood flow compared to non-infected control animals...


Subject(s)
Mice , Arachidonic Acid , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Malaria, Cerebral , Nitric Oxide , Plasmodium berghei
14.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 546-552, 19/08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720416

ABSTRACT

Due to the recent advances of atovaquone, a naphthoquinone, through clinical trials as treatment for malarial infection, 19 quinone derivatives with previously reported structures were also evaluated for blood schizonticide activity against the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. These compounds include 2-hydroxy-3-methylamino naphthoquinones (2-9), lapachol (10), nor-lapachol (11), iso-lapachol (12), phthiocol (13) and phenazines (12-20). Their cytotoxicities were also evaluated against human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cell lines. Compounds 2 and 5 showed the highest activity against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood-stage parasites (clone W2), indicated by their low inhibitory concentration for 50% (IC50) of parasite growth. The therapeutic potential of the active compounds was evaluated according to the selectivity index, which is a ratio of the cytotoxicity minimum lethal dose which eliminates 50% of cells and the in vitro IC50. Naphthoquinones 2 and 5, with activities similar to the reference antimalarial chloroquine, were also active against malaria in mice and suppressed parasitaemia by more than 60% in contrast to compound 11 which was inactive. Based on their in vitro and in vivo activities, compounds 2 and 5 are considered promising molecules for antimalarial treatment and warrant further study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Malaria/drug therapy , Naphthoquinones/pharmacology , Phenazines/pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Antimalarials/chemistry , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , Malaria/parasitology , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Phenazines/chemistry
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 668-671, 19/08/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720428

ABSTRACT

Eicosanoids affect the immunity of several pathogen/insect models, but their role on the Anopheles gambiae response to Plasmodium is still unknown. Plasmodium berghei-infected mosquitoes were injected with an eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitor, indomethacin (IN), or a substrate, arachidonic acid (AA), at day 7 or day 12 post-infection (p.i.). Salivary gland invasion was evaluated by sporozoite counts at day 21 p.i. IN promoted infection upon sporozoite release from oocysts, but inhibited infection when sporozoites were still maturing within the oocysts, as observed by a reduction in the number of sporozoites reaching the salivary glands. AA treatment had the opposite effect. We show for the first time that An. gambiae can modulate parasite survival through eicosanoids by exerting an antagonistic or agonistic effect on the parasite, depending on its stage of development.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Eicosanoids/pharmacology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Oocysts/drug effects , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Salivary Glands/parasitology , Anopheles/drug effects , Arachidonic Acid/pharmacology , Indomethacin/antagonists & inhibitors , Indomethacin/pharmacology , Oocysts/growth & development , Plasmodium berghei/physiology
16.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Aug; 52(8): 781-786
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153759

ABSTRACT

The hunt for an effective vaccine against malaria still continues. Several new target antigens as candidates for vaccine design are being explored and tested for their efficacy. In the present study the sera from mice immunized with 24,000 × g fraction of Plasmodium berghei has been used to identify highly immunogenic blood stage antigens. The protective antibodies present in immune sera were covalently immobilized on CNBr activated sepharose 4B and used for affinity chromatography purification of antigens present in blood stages of P. berghei. Two polypeptides of 66 and 43 kDa molecular weights proved to be highly immunogenic. They exhibited a strong humoral immune response in mice as evident by high titres in ELISA and IFA. Protective immunity by these two antigens was apparent by in vivo and in vitro studies. These two proteins could further be analysed and used as antigens in malaria vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Animals , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/blood , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization , Malaria/blood , Malaria/parasitology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria Vaccines/immunology , Mice , Plasmodium berghei/immunology , Plasmodium berghei/pathogenicity
17.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 27 (6): 1767-1773
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-148817

ABSTRACT

The synthesis of a novel series of 1H-pyrazole derivatives was achieved by condensation of pyrazole aldehyde 1 with hydrazine hydrate to give hydrazone 7. On the other hand, cyclization of alpha, beta-unsaturated ketone counterpart 2 using hydrazine hydrate in liquid aliphatic acids rendered compounds 4-6 and hydrazine hydrate in ethanol afforded compound 3. The later was allowed to react with aroyl chloride giving rise to compounds 8, 9. All compounds were tested for their in vivo anti-malarial and in vitro antileishmanial activities. The anti-malarial activity was performed using Plasmodium berghei infected mice, while the anti-leishmanial activity of the compounds was determined against Leishmania aethiopica promastigotes using alamar blue reduction assay. Compound 3, 1-[4-methylphenyl]-3-phenyl-4-[3-[2-thienyl]-2-pyrazolin-5-yl]-1H-pyrazole, possessed the highest anti-malarial activity with suppression of 70.26%. The highest anti-leishmanial activity was exhibited by compound 2, 1-[4-methylphenyl]-3-phenyl-4-[1-[2-thienyl]-prop-2-en-1-one]-1H-pyrazole, with an IC[50] of 0.079 microg/ml. Hydrazone 7 showed appreciable dual anti-malarial [suppression = 62.30%] and anti-leishmanial activity [IC[50] = 1.823 microg/ml]


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Leishmania , Antimalarials , Plasmodium berghei , Oxazines , Xanthenes
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819722

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the antimalarial potential of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid fraction from Garcinia kola seeds, against Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infection in Swiss albino mice.@*METHODS@#The study consists of seven groups of ten mice each. Groups I, II and III were normal mice that received corn oil, KV1 and chloroquine (CQ), respectively. Groups IV, V, VI and VII were infected mice that received corn oil, CQ, KV1 and KV2, respectively. CQ, KV1 and KV2 were given at 10-, 100- and 200-mg/kg daily, respectively for three consecutive days.@*RESULTS@#Administration of KV1 and KV2 significantly (P<0.05) suppressed P. berghei-infection in the mice by 85% and 90%, respectively, while CQ produced 87% suppression relative to untreated infected group after the fifth day of treatment. Also, KV2 significantly (P<0.05) increased the mean survival time of the infected mice by 175%. The biflavonoid prevented a drastic reduction in PCV from day 4 of treatment, indicating its efficacy in ameliorating anaemia. Significant (P<0.05) oxidative stress assessed by the elevation of serum and hepatic malondialdehydewere observed in untreated P. berghei-infected mice. Specifically, serum and hepatic malondialdehyde levels increased by 93% and 78%, respectively in the untreated infected mice. Furthermore, antioxidant indices, viz; superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, gluathione peroxidase and reduced gluathione decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the tissues of untreated P. berghei-infected mice. KV significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated the P. berghei-induced decrease in antioxidant status of the infected mice.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study shows that kolaviron, especially at 200 mg/kg, has high antimalarial activities in P. berghei-infected mice, in addition to its known antioxidant properties.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Animals , Antimalarials , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Body Weight , Chloroquine , Pharmacology , Flavonoids , Pharmacology , Garcinia kola , Chemistry , Liver , Chemistry , Malaria , Drug Therapy , Male , Mice , Oxidoreductases , Blood , Parasitemia , Drug Therapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei , Seeds , Chemistry
19.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 504-511, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308175

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Phytochemical constituents as well as antimalarial and toxicity potentials of the methanolic extract of the husk fibre of Dwarf Red variety of Cocos nucifera were evaluated in this study.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The dried powdered husk fibre was exhaustively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol successively and the methanolic extract was screened for flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, alkaloids, steroids, triterpenes, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and glycosides. A 4-day suppressive antimalarial test was carried out using Plasmodium berghei NK65-infected mice, to which the extract was administered at doses of 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight (BW). Toxicity of the extract was evaluated in rats using selected hematological parameters and organ function indices after orally administering doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg BW for 14 d.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolics, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones in the extract. Moreover, the extract reduced parasitemia by 39.2% and 45.8% at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW respectively on day 8 post-inoculation. Various hematological parameters evaluated were not significantly altered (P>0.05) at all doses of the extract, except red blood cell count which was significantly elevated (P<0.05) at 100 mg/kg BW. The extract significantly increased (P<0.05) urea, creatinine, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations in the serum as well as atherogenic index, while it reduced albumin concentration significantly (P<0.05) at higher doses compared to the controls. Alanine aminotransferase activity was reduced in the liver and heart significantly (P<0.05) but was increased in the serum significantly (P<0.05) at higher doses of the extract compared to the controls.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The results suggest that methanolic extract of the Dwarf red variety has partial antimalarial activity at higher doses, but is capable of impairing normal kidney and liver function as well as predisposing subjects to cardiovascular diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials , Pharmacology , Cocos , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Malaria , Drug Therapy , Mice , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei , Rats , Rats, Wistar
20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(8): 974-982, 6/dez. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697147

ABSTRACT

Infusions of Aspidosperma nitidum (Apocynaceae) wood bark are used to treat fever and malaria in the Amazon Region. Several species of this family are known to possess indole alkaloids and other classes of secondary metabolites, whereas terpenoids, an inositol and the indole alkaloids harmane-3 acid and braznitidumine have been described in A. nitidum . In the present study, extracts from the wood bark, leaves and branches of this species were prepared for assays against malaria parasites and cytotoxicity testing using human hepatoma and normal monkey kidney cells. The wood bark extracts were active against Plasmodium falciparum and showed a low cytotoxicity in vitro, whereas the leaf and branch extracts and the pure alkaloid braznitidumine were inactive. A crude methanol extract was subjected to acid-base fractionation aimed at obtaining alkaloid-rich fractions, which were active at low concentrations against P. falciparum and in mice infected with and sensitive Plasmodium berghei parasites. Our data validate the antimalarial usefulness of A. nitidum wood bark, a remedy that can most likely help to control malaria. However, the molecules responsible for this antimalarial activity have not yet been identified. Considering their high selectivity index, the alkaloid-rich fractions from the plant bark might be useful in the development of new antimalarials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Aspidosperma/chemistry , Plant Bark/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Antimalarials/isolation & purification , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/parasitology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
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