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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247422, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285631

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasmodium falciparum resistance to Chloroquine (CQ) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There is a paucity of documented data on the prevalence of CQ-resistant mutant haplotypes of Pfcrt and Pfmdr1 genes from malaria-endemic war effected Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of P. falciparum CQ-resistance in this area. Clinical isolates were collected between May 2017 and May 2018 from North Waziristan and South Waziristan agencies of Federally Administrated Trial Area. Subsequently, Giemsa-stained blood smears were examined to detect Plasmodium falciparum. Extraction of malarial DNA was done from microscopy positive P. falciparum samples, and P. falciparum infections were confirmed by nested PCR (targeting Plasmodium small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA) genes). All PCR confirmed P. falciparum samples were sequenced by pyrosequencing to find out mutation in Pfcrt gene at codon K76T and in pfmdr1 at codons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D, and D1246Y. Out of 121 microscopies positive P. falciparum cases, 109 samples were positive for P. falciparum by nested PCR. Pfcrt K76T mutation was found in 96% of isolates, Pfmdr1 N86Y mutation was observed in 20%, and 11% harboured Y184F mutation. All samples were wild type for Pfmdr1 codon N1042D and D1246Y. In the FATA, Pakistan, the frequency of resistant allele 76T remained high despite the removal of CQ. However, current findings of the study suggest complete fixation of P. falciparum CQ-resistant genotype in the study area.


Resumo A resistência do Plasmodium falciparum à cloroquina (CQ) é uma causa significativa de mortalidade e morbidade em todo o mundo. Há uma escassez de dados documentados sobre a prevalência de haplótipos mutantes CQ-resistentes dos genes Pfcrt e Pfmdr1 da guerra endêmica da malária em áreas tribais administradas pelo governo federal do Paquistão. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de resistência a CQ de P. falciparum nesta área. Isolados clínicos foram coletados entre maio de 2017 e maio de 2018 nas agências do Waziristão do Norte e do Waziristão do Sul da Área de Ensaio Administrada Federalmente. Posteriormente, esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa foram examinados para detectar Plasmodium falciparum. A extração do DNA da malária foi feita a partir de amostras de P. falciparum positivas para microscopia, e as infecções por P. falciparum foram confirmadas por nested PCR (visando genes de ácido ribonucleico ribossômico de subunidade pequena de Plasmodium (ssrRNA)). Todas as amostras de P. falciparum confirmadas por PCR foram sequenciadas por pirosequenciamento para descobrir a mutação no gene Pfcrt no códon K76T e em pfmdr1 nos códons N86Y, Y184F, N1042D e D1246Y. De 121 microscopias de casos positivos de P. falciparum, 109 amostras foram positivas para P. falciparum por nested PCR. A mutação Pfcrt K76T foi encontrada em 96% dos isolados, a mutação Pfmdr1 N86Y foi observada em 20% e 11% abrigou a mutação Y184F. Todas as amostras eram do tipo selvagem para o códon N1042D e D1246Y de Pfmdr1. No FATA, Paquistão, a frequência do alelo resistente 76T permaneceu alta apesar da remoção de CQ. No entanto, as descobertas atuais do estudo sugerem a fixação completa do genótipo resistente a CQ de P. falciparum na área de estudo.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Pakistan , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics , Alleles
2.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1293117

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In 2018, malaria claimed an estimated 380,000 lives in African region, with Nigeria accounting for 24.0% (91,368) of malaria deaths from the region. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (Pfmdr-1) genes had reduced the effective use of artemisinin combination therapy through the development of resistance to these antimalarial agents. Our study set out to determine the antimalarial drug resistance polymorphisms in Pfcrt and Pfmdr-1 genes of P. falciparum isolates among patients in Kano State, Nigeria. Material and Methods: Malaria positive samples were collected across the three senatorial districts of Kano State. The samples were amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the Pfcrt and Pfmdr-1 genes. The amplicons were sequenced and bioinformatic analysis was done using CLC Sequence viewer 8.0 and BioEdit sequence alignment editor to detect the single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Results: In the Pfcrt gene, CVIET haplotype was seen in 26.2% of the samples while only two samples showed the 86Y mutation in the Pfmdr-1 gene. All the 86Y mutations and majority of the CVIET haplotypes were detected in the patients from rural settings where some of them noted that they consumed modern and traditional (herbs) antimalarial agents. One sample was observed to have the CVIET haplotype and N86Y mutation while the other five CVIET haplotypes were seen in five separate samples. A new mutation V62A was found in the Pfmdr-1 gene as observed in one of the sample. Conclusion: It is imperative to ensure the rational use of the right antimalarial agents and employ continuous resistance surveillance/mapping to ensure synergy in malaria containment and elimination strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium falciparum , Polymorphism, Genetic , Malaria, Falciparum , Antimalarials , Nigeria
3.
Rev. moçamb. ciênc. saúde ; 7(1): 8-13, Out. 2021. Tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | AIM, RSDM, AIM | ID: biblio-1343979

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Moçambique é um dos países endémicos à malária. Em 2011, a estimativa de prevalência desta doença era de 40­80% em crianças dos 2­9 anos e 90% em crianças menores de 5 anos. Estas altas prevalências podem ser devido à dificuldade das crianças em desenvolverem uma resposta imune eficaz. São necessários mais estudos para entender a resposta imune nestas crianças. Este estudo teve como objectivo descrever as características imuno-hematológicas em crianças menores de 15 anos infectadas por Plasmodium falciparum. Metodologia: Foram recrutadas crianças de 2-15 anos, infectadas por P. falciparum. Em cada criança, cujo tutor legal consentiu que participasse no estudo, colheu-se 5 ml de sangue venoso para um tubo com anticoagulante K3EDTA. O sangue foi usado para a contagem automática de células por citometria de fluxo. Os resultados foram agrupados por idade, dos 2-8 anos e 9-15 anos. Resultados: Das 50 crianças incluídas no estudo, 84% tinham idades entre os 2-8 anos, 70% do sexo masculino e 4% com serologia positiva para HIV. O nível de hemoglobina foi mais elevado no grupo de 9-15 anos (10,3g/dL) em relação ao grupo de 2-8 anos (8,7g/dL). A contagem absoluta de linfócitos T-CD4 foi maior no grupo de 2-8 anos (819 cél./µl). A activação celular não apresentou diferenças entre os grupos. Conclusão: A maioria dos casos de malária e anemia aguda foi observada em crianças dos 2 aos 8 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino. Os valores absolutos de linfócitos foram mais elevados nas crianças dos 2-8 anos, mas os valores percentuais linfocitários não diferiram entre os grupos.


Introduction: Mozambique is one of the endemic countries to malaria. In 2011, the estimated prevalence of this disease was 40­80% in children aged from 2­9 years and 90% in children under 5 years. These high rates may be due to the difficulty of children in building an effective immune response. Further studies are needed to understand the immune response mounted by children in the presence of Plasmodium. This study aimed to describe the immuno-haematological characteristics of children under 15 years infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Methodology: Children aged from 2-15 years, infected with P. falciparum, were recruited for the study. In each child, whose legal guardian consented to take part of the study, was collected 5 ml of venous blood to a K3EDTA anticoagulant tube. The samples were tested using automatic full blood cell counting and flow cytometry. The results were grouped by age, 2-8 years and 9-15 years. Results: From the 50 children included in the study, 84% were aged 2-8 years, 70% were male and 4% were HIV positive. The haemoglobin level was higher in the 9-15 year old group (10.3g/dL) compared to the 2-8 year old group (8.7g/dL). The absolute T-CD4 lymphocytes levels were higher in the 2-8 year old group (819 cells/µl). The T-CD8 lymphocytes activations levels were similar in both groups. Conclusion: The majority of the children attended in the Paediatric Emergency who diagnosed malaria were 2 to 8 years old. These children were predominantly male and presented acute anaemia. The absolute T-CD4 and T-CD8 lymphocytes levels were higher in children aged 2-8 years, but the percentage levels of lymphocytes did not differ between groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child , Plasmodium falciparum , Lymphocytes , Child , Malaria , Lymphocyte Activation , Prevalence , Flow Cytometry , Vector Borne Diseases , Host-Parasite Interactions , Anemia
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210084, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287344

ABSTRACT

Extracts of the plant Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) are used in traditional medicine to treat malaria. The main active components are the saponin glycyrrhizin (GLR) and its active metabolite glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) which both display activities against Plasmodium falciparum. We have identified three main mechanisms at the origin of their anti-plasmodial activity: (i) drug-induced disorganisation of membrane lipid rafts, (ii) blockade of the alarmin protein HMGB1 and (iii) potential inhibition of the detoxifying enzyme glyoxalase 1 (GLO-1) considered as an important drug target for malaria. Our analysis shed light on the mechanism of action of GLR against P. falciparum.


Subject(s)
Triterpenes , Glycyrrhiza , Plasmodium falciparum , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology
5.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 117 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349190

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os testes rápidos para diagnóstico de malária (RDTs) mais usados se baseiam na identificação do antígeno HRP2 de P. falciparum. O antígeno HRP3, também presente no P. falciparum é um análogo estrutural do antígeno HRP2 e por isso pode ter reação cruzada com o HRP2 nesses testes. O antígeno HRP2 é expresso pelo gene pfhrp2, enquanto o antígeno HRP3 é expresso pelo gene pfhrp3. São crescentes os estudos que relatam deleções naturais dos genes pfhrp2 e pfhrp3 em P. falciparum em diversos países endêmicos para malária, inclusive em países que fazem fronteira com o Brasil. No país foi descrita a presença de isolados mutantes circulando na região da Bacia do Rio Amazonas. A confirmação da presença de parasitos com essas deleções em áreas endêmicas do país é fundamental, visto que indivíduos infectados por P. falciparum com deleção dos genes pfhrp2/3 podem apresentar resultados falso negativo no RDT. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a prevalência de deleções dos genes pfhrp2/3 em amostras de pacientes infectados com P. falciparum de área endêmica de malária no Brasil no período de 2003 a 2016, e bem como identificar a população acometida e a diferenciação clínica entre indivíduos infectados por parasitos com deleção e parasitos sem deleção. Métodos: Foram analisadas amostras procedentes do biorrepositório do Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz coletadas no período de 2003 a 2016 no município de Barcelos (AM) de indivíduos sintomáticos e assintomáticos infectados por P. falciparum. O diagnóstico de Plasmodium spp. foi realizado através da detecção do gene 18S de rRNA por PCR. O controle de qualidade do DNA foi realizado pela amplificação de msp1 e msp2. A detecção dos genes pfhrp2 e pfhrp3 foi realizada de acordo com protocolos publicados e bem padronizados pela OMS. Resultados: Foram selecionadas 82 amostras, 28 amostras apresentaram deleção exclusiva do gene pfhrp2, 19, deleção exclusiva do gene pfhrp3 e 15 dupla deleção. Infecção assintomática ocorreu com mais frequência em indivíduos mais velhos e com grande número episódios prévios da doença. A chance de um indivíduo assintomático estar infectado por um parasito com dupla deleção foi maior do que entre os sintomáticos. Conclusão: A alta prevalência de parasitos com deleções de pfhrp2/3 encontrada no município de Barcelos é motivo de preocupação e mostram a necessidade de se implementar um programa de vigilância para monitorar e mapear deleções de pfhrp2/3 nesta área e em outros locais da região amazônica. O padrão clínico pode estar associado às deleções encontradas nos parasitos infectantes.


Introduction: The most used rapid tests for the diagnosis of malaria are based on the identification of the P. falciparum antigen HRP2. The HRP3 antigen, also present in P. falciparum, is a structural analogue of the HRP2 antigen and, therefore, may cross-react with HRP2 in these tests. The HRP2 antigen is expressed by the pfhrp2 gene, while the HRP3 antigen is expressed by the pfhrp3 gene. Studies reporting natural deletions of the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes in P. falciparum are growing in several countries endemic for malaria, including countries bordering Brazil. In the country, the presence of mutant isolates circulating in the Amazon River Basin region has been described. Confirmation of the presence of parasites with these deletions in other endemic areas of the country is fundamental, since individuals infected with P. falciparum with deletion of the pfhrp2/3 genes can present false negative result in the RDT. The objective of this study was to investigate the deletions of the pfhrp2/3 genes in samples from patients infected with P. falciparum in an endemic area for malaria in Brazil from 2003 to 2016, in order to describe the prevalence of the gene (s) ( s) deleted in the studied endemic area; as well as to identify the affected population and the clinical differentiation between individuals infected by parasites with deletion and parasites without deletion. Methods: Samples from the biorepository of the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute collected from 2003 to 2016 in the municipality of Barcelos (AM) from symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals infected with P. falciparum were analyzed. The diagnosis of Plasmodium spp. was performed by detecting the 18S rRNA gene by PCR. DNA quality control was performed by amplifying msp1 and msp2. The detection of the pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes was carried out according to published protocols and well standardized by the WHO. Results: 82 samples were selected, 28 samples showed exclusive deletion of the pfhrp2 gene, 19, exclusive deletion of the pfhrp3 gene and 15 double deletion. Asymptomatic infection occurred more frequently in older individuals and with a large number of previous episodes of the disease. The chance of an asymptomatic individual being infected by a parasite with double deletion was greater than among symptomatic individuals. Conclusion: The high prevalence of parasites with deletions of fhrp2/3 found in the municipality of Barcelos is a cause for concern and shows the need to implement a surveillance program to monitor and map deletions of pfhrp2 / 3 in this area and elsewhere in the Amazon region. The clinical pattern may be associated with the deletions found in the infectious parasites.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Plasmodium falciparum , Prevalence , Genes , Malaria , Antigens
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e181086, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350237

ABSTRACT

Malaria is nowadays one of the most serious health concerns in a global scale and, although there is an evident increase in research studies in this area, pointed by the vast number of hits and leads, it still appears as a recurrent topic every year due to the drug resistance shown by the parasite exposing the urgent need to develop new antimalarial medications. In this work, 38 molecules were synthesized via copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) or "click" chemistry, following different routes to produce 2 different organic azides, obtained from a 4,7 dicholoquinoline, reacted with 19 different commercially available terminal alkynes. All those new compounds were evaluated for their in vitro activity against the chloroquine resistant malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (W2). The cytotoxicity evaluation was accomplished using Hep G2 cells and SI index was calculated for every molecule. Some of the quinoline derivatives have shown high antimalarial activity, with IC50 values in the range of 1.72-8.66 µM, low cytotoxicity, with CC50>1000 µM and selectivity index (SI) in the range of 20-100, with some compounds showing SI>800. Therefore, the quinolinotriazole hybrids could be considered a very important step on the development of new antimalarial drugs


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Malaria/drug therapy , Antimalarials/analysis , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Research/classification , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Chimera/abnormalities , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Click Chemistry
7.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 12: 1-5, 1 de Julio 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1102395

ABSTRACT

La diversidad genética le confiere a Plasmodium falciparum la capacidad de evadir la respuesta inmune del hospedero y producir variantes resistentes a medicamentos y a vacunas. Diferentes autores han documentado la existencia de cepas o clones de P. falciparum, cuya diversidad genética se ha confirmado a través de distintos ensayos de PCR (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa). El objetivo fue describir la diversidad genética de P. falciparum. MÉTODOS: Para la revisión narrativa se hizo una búsqueda de literatura publicada, que incluyó libros y artículos científicos originales, verificando el tema, así como reportes técnicos. Los documentos se consultaron entre agosto y diciembre de 2019 a través del acceso en Internet y bibliotecas del Academic Search Complete del gestor de búsquedas Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Redalyc y Psicodoc. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron secuencias polimórficas útiles como marcadores genéticos de las poblaciones de P. falciparum, con los genes de las proteínas de superficie del merozoíto 1 y 2 (MSP-1, MSP-2) y el gen de la proteína rica en glutamato (GLURP), que producen variantes resistentes a medicamentos y a vacunas. DISCUSIÓN: Los hallazgos en las diferentes regiones estudiadas permiten concluir que la diversidad genética, la multiplicidad de infección y la dinámica en el tiempo de las infecciones por P. falciparum se ven afectadas por el grado de endemicidad de la malaria en cada país.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum , Genetic Variation , Epidemiology , Immunity , Malaria
8.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 8(1): 21-31, 20200400.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1178427

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la presencia de compuestos activos en las plantas las posiciona como una fuente alternativa para el descubrimiento de nuevos fármacos. OBJETIVO: realizar la bioprospección de plantas utilizadas en la medicina tradicional tacana frente a cultivos de Plasmodium falciparum. MÉTODOS: se obtuvieron extractos por maceración en etanol a temperatura ambiente, de 31 órganos colectados de 23 plantas, estos fueron evaluados sobre cultivos asincrónicos de la cepa de Plasmodium falciparum resistente a la Cloroquina (FCR3). A los extractos que mostraron actividad antiplasmódica (CI50<20µg/mL), se evaluó la citotoxicidad (DL50) frente a células HeLa y se calculó el índice de selectividad (IS=DL50/CI50). Los extractos que dieron resultados IS>5, fueron seleccionados como promisorios. RESULTADOS: se obtuvieron 3 plantas muy activas (CI50<10µg/mL); 2 moderadamente activas (10µg/mL20µg/mL). De las 9 plantas que presentaron actividad, solo 2 plantas presentaron IS>5. CONCLUSIONES: incorporar los conocimientos del uso tradicional para realizar las evaluaciones biológicas es de mucha ayuda en la selección de plantas con efectos antiplasmódicos.


INTRODUCTION: the presence of active compounds in plants, converts them as an alternative to find new drugs. OBJECTIVE: carry out the bioprospecting of plants used in Tacana traditional medicine against Plasmodium falciparum cultures. METHODS: from the 31 collected organs of 23 plants, raw extracts were obtained by ethanolic maceration at room temperature and these were evaluated on asynchronic cultures of the strain Plasmodium falciparum resistant to Chloroquine (FCR3). The active extracts (IC50<20µg/mL), were evaluated for cytotoxicity (LD50) against HeLa cells and the Selectivity Index (IS=DL50/IC50) was calculated. The extracts that sowed IS>5were selected as promising. RESULTS: a total of 3 species were very active (IC50<10µg/mL); 2 were moderately active (10µg/mL20µg/mL). From the 9 active plants only 2 presented IS>5. CONCLUSIONS: incorporating the traditional knowledge to carry out biological evaluations is very helpful in the selection of plants with antiplasmodial effects.


Subject(s)
Plants , Plasmodium falciparum , Chloroquine , Medicine, Traditional , In Vitro Techniques , Pharmaceutical Preparations
9.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20200032, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135160

ABSTRACT

Liposomes are highly useful carriers for delivering drugs or antigens. The association of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins to liposomes potentially enhances the immunogenic effect of vaccine antigens by increasing their surface concentration. Furthermore, the introduction of a universal immunoglobulin-binding domain can make liposomes targetable to virtually any desired receptor for which antibodies exist. Methods: We developed a system for the production of recombinant proteins with GPI anchors and histidine tags and Strep-tags for simplified purification from cells. This system was applied to i) the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter, ii) the promising Plasmodium falciparum vaccine antigen PfRH5 and iii) a doubled immunoglobulin Fc-binding domain termed ZZ from protein A of Staphylococcus aureus. As the GPI-attachment domain, the C-terminus of murine CD14 was used. After the recovery of these three recombinant proteins from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and association with liposomes, their vaccine potential and ability to target the CD4 receptor on lymphocytes in ex vivo conditions were tested. Results: Upon immunization in mice, the PfRH5-GPI-loaded liposomes generated antibody titers of 103 to 104, and showed a 45% inhibitory effect on in vitro growth at an IgG concentration of 600 µg/mL in P. falciparum cultures. Using GPI-anchored ZZ to couple anti-CD4 antibodies to liposomes, we created immunoliposomes with a binding efficiency of 75% to CD4+ cells in splenocytes and minimal off-target binding. Conclusions: Proteins are very effectively associated with liposomes via a GPI-anchor to form proteoliposome particles and these are useful for a variety of applications including vaccines and antibody-mediated targeting of liposomes. Importantly, the CHO-cell and GPI-tagged produced PfRH5 elicited invasion-blocking antibodies qualitatively comparable to other approaches.(AU)


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum , Vaccines , Glycosylphosphatidylinositols , Liposomes , Antigens
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828091

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium culture in vitro is often used as an antimalarial drug evaluation model, but the lifecycle of P. falciparum culture in vitro tends to be disordered, which affects the research and evaluation of antimalarial drug mechanism in vitro. By combining magnetic bead separation method with sorbitol synchronization method, a synchronization method was constructed to quickly acquire different lifecycles of P. falciparum and obtain large amounts of parasite with a narrow synchronization window in a short period. Furthermore, the dihydroartemisinin(DHA) was used to treat the early trophozoite phase of P. falciparum 3 D7 for 4 h. Then mRNA was extracted and RNA-seq was conducted to analyze the differential expression of mRNA after drug treatment and obtain the differential gene expression profile. Differential expression of up-regulated genes and down-regulated genes was analyzed according to the screening criteria of |log_2FC|>1 and P<0.05. There, 262 genes were up-regulated and 77 genes were down-regulated. GO functional enrichment analysis of all the differentially expressed genes showed that the enrichment items mainly included cell membrane components, transporter activity, serine/threonine kinase activity, Maurer's clefts(MCs), rhoptry, antigen variation and immune evasion. The enrichment of KEGG pathway included malaria, fatty acid metabolism and peroxisome. Protein-protein interaction(PPI) analysis showed that the down-regulated genes in the modules with high degree of association included rhoptry, myosin complex, transporter and other genes related to the important life activities of malaria invasion and immune escape; the up-regulated genes were mainly related to various toxic exportins of malaria, such as PfSBP1 of MCs. qRT-PCR was used to verify the expression level of some genes, and most of the results were the same as the sequencing results. SBP1 was significantly up-regulated, while some antigenic protein expression levels were down-regulated. Above all, key molecules of DHA therapy were mainly involved in the parasites' rhoptry, transporter, antigenic variation, plasmodium exportin. These results offer us many hints to guide the further studies on mechanism of artemisinin and provide a new way for development of new antimalarial drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antimalarials , Artemisinins , Erythrocytes , Plasmodium falciparum , Transcriptome
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200070, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Nyssorhynchus deaneorum is a potential malaria vector because it has been shown to be competent to transmit Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and because it exhibits antropophilic and endophilic behaviors in some regions of the Amazon. This profile makes Ny. deaneorum a useful mosquito for experiments that model Plasmodium-vector interactions in the Amazon. OBJECTIVE Herein we describe how a free-mating colony of Ny. deaneorum has been established using an automated light stimulation system. METHODS Mosquitoes were captured in São Francisco do Guaporé, Rondônia. The F1 generation was reared until adult emergence at which point copulation was induced using an automatic copulation induction system (ACIS). FINDINGS After four generations, natural mating and oviposition began to occur without light stimulation. The number of pupae and adult mosquitoes increased from the F5 to F10 generations. The new Ny. deaneorum colony exhibited susceptibility to P. vivax. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Automated light stimulation is an effective method for establishing an Ny. deaneorum colony under laboratory conditions as it produces enough adults to create a stenogamic colony. The establishment of a stable, P. vivax-susceptible colony of Ny. deaneorum makes it possible to model parasite-vector interactions and to test novel drug therapies that target parasite development in mosquitoes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition , Copulation/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Malaria , Anopheles/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Brazil , Insect Vectors/physiology , Anopheles/physiology
12.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 7(1): 137-160, 2020. tab, ilust
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178380

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La malaria por Plasmodium falciparum es una enfermedad causante de altas tasas de morbimortalidad a nivel mundial. Diferentes candidatos a vacuna se han evaluado experimentalmente en humanos; sin embargo, no se dispone de ninguna vacuna que reduzca o elimine esta devastadora enfermedad. Objetivo. Describir en términos de diseño, respuesta inmune, eficacia protectiva y perspectivas, los principales candidatos vigentes a vacuna contra la malaria por Plasmodium falciparum, dirigidos a las fases pre-eritrocítica y eritrocítica. Metodología. Se realizó una revisión descriptiva de trabajos publicados en bases de datos PubMed, Science Direct, Embase y MedLine. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: trabajos publicados en una ventana de tiempo entre 2000 y 2019, candidatos a vacuna contra Plasmodium falciparum en estadíos pre y eritrocíticos y vigencia según la Organización Mundial de la Salud. En total, se revisaron 90 artículos originales, encontrando que 63 cumplieron con todos los criterios establecidos, mientras que 27, no cumplieron por lo menos con un criterio. Resultados. Los candidatos a vacunas vigentes incluyen diseños basados en parásitos atenuados, proteínas recombinantes, vectores virales y síntesis química. Las formulaciones contienen un número mínimo de antígenos con secuencias de aminoácidos altamente polimórficas, que inducen un aceptable perfil de inmunogenicidad, aunque una limitada eficacia protectora contra la malaria, debido a que tales regiones polimórficas son inmunodominantes, confiriendo únicamente inmunidad específica de cepa. Conclusiones. El desarrollo de una vacuna efectiva contra la malaria por Plasmodium falciparum posiblemente requiera incluir múltiples epítopes funcionalmente relevantes, del estadío pre y eritrocítico, que contengan regiones conservadas entre cepas, para lograr inducir respuestas inmunes duraderas que bloqueen la invasión del parásito a células hepáticas y eritrocitos.


Introduction. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a disease that causes high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Different vaccine candidates have been evaluated experimentally in humans; however, there is no vaccine available that reduces or eliminates this devastating disease. Objective. Describe in terms of design, immune response, protective efficacy and perspectives, the main current candidates for Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine aimed at the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocyte phases. Methodology. A descriptive review of works published in PubMed, Science Direct, Embase and MedLine databases was carried out. The inclusion criteria were: papers published in a time window between 2000 and 2019, candidates for vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum in pre and erythrocyte stages and validity according to the World Health Organization. In total, 90 original articles were reviewed, finding that 63 met all the established criteria, while Introduction. Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a disease that causes high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Different vaccine candidates have been evaluated experimentally in humans; however, there is no vaccine available that reduces or eliminates this devastating disease. Objective. Describe in terms of design, immune response, protective efficacy and perspectives, the main current candidates for Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine aimed at the pre-erythrocytic and erythrocyte phases. Methodology. A descriptive review of works published in PubMed, Science Direct, Embase and MedLine databases was carried out. The inclusion criteria were: papers published in a time window between 2000 and 2019, candidates for vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum in pre and erythrocyte stages and validity according to the World Health Organization. In total, 90 original articles were reviewed, finding that 63 met all the established criteria, while 27 did not meet at least one criterion. Results. Applicants for current vaccines include designs based on attenuated parasites, recombinant proteins, viral vectors and chemical synthesis. The formulations include a minimum number of an- tigens with highly polymorphic amino acid sequences, which induce an acceptable immunogenicity profile, although a limited protective efficacy against malaria. Conclusion. The development of an effective vaccine against malaria by Plasmodium falciparum may require the inclusion of multiple functionally relevant epitopes, from the pre and erythrocyte stage, which do not contain polymorphic regions, in order to induce lasting immune responses that block the invasion of the parasite to hepatic and erythrocyte target cells.27 did not meet at least one criterion. Results. Applicants for current vaccines include designs based on attenuated parasites, recombinant proteins, viral vectors and chemical synthesis. The formulations include a minimum number of an- tigens with highly polymorphic amino acid sequences, which induce an acceptable immunogenicity profile, although a limited protective efficacy against malaria. Conclusion. The development of an effective vaccine against malaria by Plasmodium falciparum may require the inclusion of multiple functionally relevant epitopes, from the pre and erythrocyte stage, which do not contain polymorphic regions, in order to induce lasting immune responses that block the invasion of the parasite to hepatic and erythrocyte target cells.


Introdução. A malária por Plasmodium falciparum é uma doença que causa altas taxas de morbimortalidade em todo o mundo. Diferentes candidatos à vacina foram avaliados experimentalmente em humanos; no entanto, nenhuma vacina está disponível para reduzir ou eliminar esta doença devastadora. Objetivo. Descrever em termos de projeção, resposta imune, eficácia protetora e perspectivas, os principais candidatos atuais à vacina contra a malária por Plasmodium falciparum, visando às fases pré-eritrocítica e eritrocítica. Metodologia. Foi realizada uma revisão descritiva dos trabalhos publicados nas bases de dados PubMed, Science Direct, Embase e MedLine. Os critérios de inclusão foram: trabalhos publicados em uma janela temporal entre 2000 e 2019, candidatos à vacina contra Plasmodium falciparum nos estágios pré e eritrocitários e validade de acordo com a Organização Mundial da Saúde. No total, foram revisados 90 artigos originais, constatando que 63 atendiam a todos os critérios estabelecidos, enquanto 27 não atendiam pelo menos um critério. Resultados. Os candidatos atuais à vacina incluem projeções baseadas em parasitas atenuados, pro- teínas recombinantes, vetores virais e síntese química. As formulações contêm um número mínimo de antígenos com sequências de aminoácidos altamente polimórficas, que induzem um perfil de imu- nogenicidade aceitável, embora com eficácia protetora limitada contra a malária, uma vez que essas regiões polimórficas são imunodominantes, conferindo apenas imunidade específica à cepa. Conclusão. O desenvolvimento de uma vacina eficaz contra a malária por Plasmodium falciparum pode exigir a inclusão de vários epítopos funcionalmente relevantes, do estágio pré e eritrocítico, contendo regiões conservadas entre as cepas, a fim de induzir respostas imunes duradouras que permitam bloquear a invasão do parasita nas células hepáticas e eritrócitos.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Plasmodium falciparum , Vaccines , Protection , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1292441

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la malaria es uno de los mayores retos de la salud pública mundial. Es causada principalmente por los parásitos Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Durante el proceso de invasión, se encuentran involucra-das las proteínas homólogas de unión a reticulocitos de P.falciparumPfRH1, PfRH2a, PfRH2b, PfRH4 y PfRH5, que tras su unión a receptores específicos de membrana permiten la invasión del merozoíto al eritrocito. Objetivo: compilar y resumir las características moleculares y estructurales de las interacciones entre las proteínas pertenecientes a la familia de proteínas homólogas de unión a reticulocitos de P.falciparum y los receptores expre-sados en la célula del hospedero. Método: revisión descriptiva sobre las proteínas homólogas de unión a reticulocitos de P. falciparum involucradas en el proceso de invasión al eritrocito. Esta revisiónincluye literatura publicada hasta el año 2020 en bases de datos electrónicas especializadas en investigación biomédica. Se encontraron 105 documentos, de los cuales se se-leccionaron 70 y se excluyeron 11, por no presentar los criterios de inclusión, analizando un total de 59 referencias. Conclusión: la invasión del merozoíto es mediada por interacciones específicas de los ligandos de las familias EBL y PfRH. La unión de las proteínas PfRH1 y PfRH2b a sus receptores en el eritrocito da lugar a la liberación de la proteína EBL-175 que, junto con PfRH4, median la formación de una unión estrecha entre el parásito y los glóbulos rojos. Ello permite la unión de la proteína PfRH5 a la basigina y la entrada del parásito a la célula del hospedero


Introduction: Malaria is one of the world's greatest public health challenges, caused mainly by Plas-modium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. During the invasion process, the P. falciparum reticulo-cyte-binding homologous proteins PfRH1, PfRH2a, PfRH2b, PfRH4 and PfRH5 are involved, which after binding to specific membrane receptors allow the invasion of the merozoite into the erythrocyte. Objective: To compile and summarize the molecular and structural characteristics of the interactions between proteins belonging to the P. falciparum family of reticulocyte-binding homologous proteins and the receptors expressed in the host cell. Method: Descriptive review of the P. falciparum reticulocyte-binding homologous proteins involved in the process of erythrocyte invasion. This review includes literature published until 2020 in electronic databases specialized in biomedical research. We found 105 papers, of which 70 were selected and 11 were excluded for not presenting the inclusion criteria, analyzing a total of 59 references. Conclusion: The invasion of merozoite is mediated by specific interactions of the ligands of the LBS and PfRH families. The binding of the PfRH1 and PfRH2b proteins to their receptors in the erythrocyte results in the release of the EBL-175 protein, which together with PfRH4 mediates the formation of a close bond between the parasite and the red blood cells, thus allowing the binding of the PfRH5 protein to basigin and the entry of the parasite into the host cell.


Introdução: a malária é um dos maiores desafios globais de saúde pública. É causada principalmente pelos parasitas Plasmodium falciparum e Plasmodium vivax. Durante o processo de invasão, proteínas homólogas de ligação a reticulócitos de P. falciparum PfRH1, PfRH2a, PfRH2b, PfRH4 e PfRH5 estão envolvidas, que após a ligação a receptores de membrana específicos permitem a invasão do mero-zoíta ao andritro. Objetivo: compilar e resumir as características moleculares e estruturais das interações entre as pro-teínas pertencentes à família das proteínas reticulocitárias homólogas de P. falciparum e os receptores expressos na célula hospedeira. Método: revisão descritiva das proteínas ho-mólogas de ligação a reticulócitos de P. falciparum envol-vidas no processo de invasão eritrocitária. Esta revisão inclui literatura publicada até 2020 em bases de dados eletrônicas especializadas em pesquisa biomédica. Foram encontrados 105 documentos, dos quais 70 foram selecionados e 11 excluídos por não apresentarem os critérios de inclusão, anali-sando um total de 59 referências. Conclusão: a invasão de merozoítos é mediada por interações específicas dos ligantes das famílias EBL e PfRH. A ligação das proteínas PfRH1 e PfRH2b aos seus receptores no eritrócito resulta na libe-ração da prote-ína EBL-175 que, junto com PfRH4, a mediação da formação de uma junção compacta entre o parasita e as hemácias. Isso permite a ligação da proteína PfRH5 à basigina e a entrada do parasita na célula hospedeira.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Plasmodium falciparum , Erythrocyte Membrane , Erythrocytes , Ligands
14.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 334-342, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118972

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a disease of global tropical distribution, being endemic in more than 90 countries and responsible for about 212 million cases worldwide in 2016. To date, the strategies used to eradicate this disease have been ineffective, without specific preventive measures such as vaccines. Currently, the existing therapeutic arsenal is limited and has become ineffective against the expansion of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium, demonstrating the need for studies that would allow the development of new compounds against this disease. In this context, we studied the volatile oil obtained from rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus (VOCA), a plant species commonly found in the Amazon region and popularly used as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of malaria, in order to confirm its potential as an antimalarial agent by in vitro and in vivo assays. We cultured Plasmodium falciparum W2 (chloroquine-resistant) and 3D7 (chloroquine-sensitive) strains in erythrocytes and exposed them to VOCA at different concentrations in 96-well microplates. In vivo antimalarial activity was tested in BALB/c mice inoculated with approximately 106 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei. VOCA showed a high antimalarial potential against the two P. falciparum strains, with IC50 = 1.21 µg mL-1 for W2 and 2.30 µg mL-1 for 3D7. VOCA also significantly reduced the parasitemia and anemia induced by P. berghei in mice. Our results confirmed the antimalarial potential of the volatile oil of Cyperus articulatus. (AU)


Subject(s)
Plasmodium berghei , Plasmodium falciparum , Chloroquine , Artemisinins , Malaria
15.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 71(2): e350, mayo.-ago. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093563

ABSTRACT

It has been demonstrated that proteases play crucial roles in Plasmodium falciparum infection and therefore have been considered as targets for the development of new therapeutic drugs. The aim of this study was to describe the specific proteolytic activity profile in all blood stages of P. falciparum isolated parasites in order to explore new antimalarial options. For this purpose, we used the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-MCA (Z: carbobenzoxy, MCA: 7-amino-4-methyl coumarine) and classic inhibitors for the different classes of proteolytic enzymes, such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 1.10-phenantroline, pepstatin A and E64 to study the inhibition profiles. As expected, due to the high metabolic activity in mature stages, the substrate was mostly degraded in the trophozoite and schizont, with specific activities ~ 20 times higher than in early stages (merozoite/rings). The major actors in substrate hydrolysis were cysteine proteases, as confirmed by the complete hydrolysis inhibition with E64 addition. Proteolytic activity was also inhibited in the presence of PMSF in all but the schizont stage. However, PMSF inhibition was the result of unspecific interaction with cysteine proteases as demonstrated by reversion of inhibition by dithiotreitol (DTT), indicating that serine protease activity is very low or null. To our knowledge, this is the first report aiming to describe the proteolytic profile of P. falciparum isolated parasites at all the erythrocytic cycle stages. The results and protocol described herein can be useful in the elucidation of stage specific action of proteolysis-inhibiting drugs and aid in the development of antimalarial compounds with protease inhibitory activity(AU)


e ha demostrado que las proteasas desempeñan funciones vitales en la infección por Plasmodium falciparum, y por lo tanto se consideran dianas en la elaboración de nuevos medicamentos terapéuticos. El objetivo del estudio era describir el perfil de actividad proteolítica específica de todas las etapas sanguíneas de parásitos aislados de P. falciparum con vistas a explorar nuevas opciones antimaláricas. Con ese propósito, utilizamos el sustrato fluorogénico Z-Phe-Arg-AMC (Z: carbobenzoxi, AMC: 7-amino-4-metilcumarina) e inhibidores clásicos para las diferentes clases de enzimas proteolíticas, tales como el fluoruro de fenilmetilsulfonilo (PMSF), 1,10-fenantrolina, pepstatina A y E64 para estudiar los perfiles de inhibición. Como se esperaba, debido a la elevada actividad metabólica de las etapas de madurez, el sustrato fue degradado mayormente en el trofozoíto y el esquizonte, con actividad específica ~ 20 veces superior a la de las etapas tempranas (merozoíto/ anillos). Los principales actores en la hidrólisis del sustrato fueron las cisteínas proteasas, lo que fue confirmado por la inhibición completa de la hidrólisis con la adición de E64. La actividad proteolítica también fue inhibida en presencia de PMSF en todas las etapas excepto el esquizonte. Sin embargo, la inhibición del PMSF fue resultado de una interacción inespecífica con las cisteínas proteasas, según lo demuestra la reversión de la inhibición con el ditiotreitol (DTT), lo que indica que la actividad de la serina proteasa es muy baja o inexistente. Que sepamos, este es el primer informe dirigido a describir el perfil proteolítico de parásitos aislados de P. falciparum en todas las etapas del ciclo eritrocítico. Los resultados y el protocolo que aquí se describen pueden ser útiles para dilucidar la acción específica de los medicamentos inhibidores de proteólisis en cada etapa, así como contribuir al desarrollo de compuestos antimaláricos con actividad inhibidora de la proteasa(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Peptide Hydrolases/therapeutic use , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism , Antimalarials/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 87(1): 20-26, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049487

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Los viajes a zonas endémicas con parásitos resistentes, la respuesta evolutiva de Plasmodium y los sistemas sanitarios debilitados, comprometen el control mundial y local de la malaria. Descripción del Caso clínico: Niño, 6 años, atendido en Hospital Escuela Universitario (HE), Tegucigalpa, referido desde Siguatepeque, Comayagua, por dudas en diagnóstico de laboratorio y antecedente de vivir en África y cuatro episodios de malaria por P. falciparum (2015-2017). Al ingreso presentó cuadro entérico e informe de Plasmodium spp. Se inició tratamiento con cloroquina, omitida y substituida al día siguiente por derivado de artemisinina al confirmar P. falciparum y 0.7% de eritrocitos parasitados. Presentó buena respuesta clínica y parasitológica, egresando al 7mo día intrahospitalario después de 72 horas afebril. La gota gruesa al egreso informó estadios sexuales de P. falciparum, administrándose primaquina al estar disponible 7 días después. En control ambulatorio al 5to día post-egreso, no se observaron parásitos aunque persistían leucocitos con pigmento malárico fagocitado. Cuatro familiares convivientes en África fueron examinados. El padre, que informó cefalea leve y febrícula, fue detectado con estadios asexuales de P. falciparum; presentó buena respuesta al tratamiento con derivado de artemisinina. Conclusiones: La descripción del caso y los diferentes eslabones en su manejo clínico y epidemiológico, reflejan la potencialidad de complicación de la malaria. La introducción de parásitos resistentes a la cloroquina constituye una amenaza de salud pública, principalmente ante fallas evitables en el sistema sanitario. Es necesario fortalecer el diagnóstico temprano y tratamiento oportuno especialmente en el contexto de la eliminación de malaria en Mesoamérica...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium falciparum/parasitology , Malaria/diagnosis , Public Health , Sanitary Control of Travelers
17.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 20(3): 244-253, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1256081

ABSTRACT

Background: Infections by parasites, bacteria, viruses such as human parvovirus B19 amongst others, have been widely reported as contributing to high prevalence of anaemia in many populations. This study was conducted to determine the co-infection of Plasmodium falciparum and human parvovirus B19 among sickle cell disease (SCD) patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. Methodology: A total of 400 participants consisting 300 SCD patients (134 males, 166 females) and 100 (38 males, 62 females) apparently healthy subjects with haemoglobin AA (which served as control) who were contacted in homes, schools and offices, were enrolled for the study. The age of the participants ranged from 1 to 54 years. Venous blood was collected for detection of P. falciparum using Giemsa stain while parvovirus B19 was detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Full blood count was estimated using Sysmex KX-21N haematology auto-analyzer. Results: An overall prevalence of parvovirus B19 and P. falciparum co-infection observed among SCD patients in this study was 3.0% while single infection was 14.0% for P. falciparum and 26.7% for parvovirus B19. Religion was associated with 0 to 22 fold increased risk of acquiring co-infection of P. falciparum and parvovirus B19. Gender was significantly associated with P. falciparum infection (p=0.0291) while tribal extraction, platelet index and seasonal variation were significantly associated with single parvovirus B19 or co-infection of P. falciparum and parvovirus B19 (p<0.05). Conclusion: The provision of strict regulatory policy concerning the screening of whole blood or pooled plasma before the use of blood products and transfusion of SCD patients is advocated


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , Coinfection , Nigeria , Patients , Plasmodium falciparum
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719576

ABSTRACT

Mixed-species malaria infections are often unrecognized or underestimated. We hereby report the first described case of mixed infection with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium ovale malaria in a returned traveller in Korea. In August 2016, a 25-year-old returned traveller from Cameroon and Democratic Republic of Congo presented with fever. He was diagnosed as P. falciparum malaria and successfully treated with artesunate. And 5 weeks after the completion of treatment, he presented with fever and diagnosed as P. ovale infection. P. ovale infection is a rare cause of malaria and often shows delayed presentation due to its dormant liver stage as hypnozoites. At re-presentation, the immunochromatographic test and microscopic examinations of our patient did not reveal P. ovale, which was only detected via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. This case highlights the importance of considering malaria infection even in persons who have previously received malaria treatment. It also shows the usefulness of PCR testing for diagnosing P. ovale infections, which often present with a low level of parasitaemia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cameroon , Coinfection , Congo , Fever , Humans , Korea , Liver , Malaria , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium ovale , Plasmodium , Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761765

ABSTRACT

Indonesia and South Korea have become inseparable in various respects since the 2 countries established diplomatic relation in 1973. Indonesia is a tropical region that stretches across the equator, comprised of 5 main islands (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Papua) and 4 archipelagoes (Riau, Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku). As most population of Eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi, Papua and Nusa Tenggara & Maluku) live in poor areas, it is expected that there will be many parasites. Nevertheless, little is known about the status of parasites in Indonesia. This study examines the prevalences of malaria and lymphatic filaria, which are prevalent in Indonesia, as well as those of soil-transmitted-helminths (STH). As a result, the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax case loads are almost equal. The current prevalence of P. vivax is uniformly low (<5%) in all age groups and annual parasite incidence (API) showed decreasing tendency as 0.84 per 1,000 population in 2016. However, more than 65 million people still live in malaria epidemic regions. Lymphatic filariasis remains an important public health problem and 236 cities were classified as endemic areas in 514 cities/districts in 2017. It is difficult to ascertain the current prevalence rate of STH in Indonesia, although West Sumba and Southwest Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara reported prevalence rate of more than 20%. The study also considers the (sero) prevalences of other parasites identified in Indonesia. This report should be useful not only to parasitologists but also to travelers and people with business in Indonesia.


Subject(s)
Commerce , Diplomacy , Elephantiasis, Filarial , Humans , Incidence , Indonesia , Islands , Korea , Malaria , Parasites , Plasmodium falciparum , Prevalence , Public Health
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761762

ABSTRACT

Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance is widespread throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion. This raises concern over the antimalarial treatment in Thailand since it shares borders with Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar where high ACT failure rates were reported. It is crucial to have information about the spread of ACT resistance for efficient planning and treatment. This study was to identify the molecular markers for antimalarial drug resistance: Pfkelch13 and Pfmdr1 mutations from 5 provinces of southern Thailand, from 2012 to 2017, of which 2 provinces on the Thai- Myanmar border (Chumphon and Ranong), one on Thai-Malaysia border (Yala) and 2 from non-border provinces (Phang Nga and Surat Thani). The results showed that C580Y mutation of Pfkelch13 was found mainly in the province on the Thai-Myanmar border. No mutations in the PfKelch13 gene were found in Surat Thani and Yala. The Pfmdr1 gene isolated from the Thai-Malaysia border was a different pattern from those found in other areas (100% N86Y) whereas wild type strain was present in Phang Nga. Our study indicated that the molecular markers of artemisinin resistance were spread in the provinces bordering along the Thai-Myanmar, and the pattern of Pfmdr1 mutations from the areas along the international border of Thailand differed from those of the non-border provinces. The information of the molecular markers from this study highlighted the recent spread of artemisinin resistant parasites from the endemic area, and the data will be useful for optimizing antimalarial treatment based on regional differences.


Subject(s)
Cambodia , Drug Resistance , Laos , Myanmar , Parasites , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium , Thailand
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