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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 429-432, May 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624028

ABSTRACT

Anopheles darlingi Root is the major vector of human malaria in the Neotropics and has been considered to be the sole malaria vector in French Guiana. The presence of other potential vectors suggests that malaria may be transmitted by other species under certain conditions. From 2006-2011, all anopheline specimens collected from 11 localities were assayed to determine if the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein was present. In addition to An. darlingi, we found Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles nuneztovari specimens that were infected with Plasmodium sp. Further investigations on the behaviour and ecology of An. oswaldoi, An. intermedius and An. nuneztovari are necessary to determine their role in malaria transmission in French Guiana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/chemistry , Plasmodium malariae/chemistry , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Anopheles/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Population Density , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Seasons
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150653

ABSTRACT

Although it is not certain when malaria began to appear in Korea, malaria is believed to have been an endemic disease from ancient times. It was Dr. H. N. Allen (1858-1932) who made the first description and diagnosis of malaria in terms of Western medicine. In his first year report (1885) of Korean Government Hospital he mentioned malaria as the most prevalent disease. Very effective anti-malarial drug quinine was imported and it made great contribution in treating malaria. After Japan had annexed Korea in 1910, policies for public health system were fundamentally revised. Japan assumed control of Korean medical institutions and built high-quality Western hospitals for the health care of Japanese residents. The infectious diseases which were under special surveillance were cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, typhus, scarlet fever, smallpox, and paratyphoid fever. Among chronic infectious diseases tuberculosis and leprosy were those under special control. Malaria, however, was not one of these specially controlled infectious diseases although it was widely spread throughout the peninsula. But serious studies on malaria were carried out by Japanese medical scientists. In particular, a Japanese parasitologist Kobayasi Harujiro(1884-1969) carried out extensive studies on human parasites, including malaria, in Korea. According to his study, most of the malaria in Korea turned out to be tertian fever. In spite of its high prevalence, malaria did not draw much attention from the colonial authorities and no serious measure was taken since tertian fever is a mild form of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and is not so much fatal as tropical malaria caused by P. falciparum. And tertian malaria was easily controlled by taking quinine. Although the majority of malaria in Korea was tertian fever, other types were not absent. Quartan fever was not rarely reported in 1930s. The attitude of colonial authorities toward malaria in Korea was contrasted with that in Taiwan. After Japan had set out to colonize Taiwan as a result of Sino-Japanese war, malaria in Taiwan was a big obstacle to the colonization process. Therefore, a lot of medical scientists were asked to engage the malaria research in order to handle health problems in colonized countries caused by malaria. Unlike the situation in Taiwan, malaria in Korea did not cause a serious health problem as in Taiwan. However, its risk was not negligible. In 1933 there were almost 130,000 malaria patients in Korea and 1,800 patients among them died of malaria. The Japanese Government General took measures to control malaria especially during the 1930s and the number of patients decreased. However, as Japan engaged in the World War II, the general hygienic state of the society worsened and the number of malarial patients increased. The worsened situation remains the same after Liberation (1945) and during the Korean war (1950-53).


Subject(s)
Colonialism/history , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Humans , Korea , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Microscopy, Polarization , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium ovale/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Quinine/history
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 103(7): 702-710, Nov. 2008. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-498389

ABSTRACT

French Guiana is one of the areas in South America most affected by malaria and where the disease has become a serious public health problem. In spite of this situation, little recent entomological data are available from the main localities where the disease occurs, even though they are crucial for development of an effective vector control strategy. A longitudinal entomological survey was carried out from March 2000-February 2002 in three Amerindian villages, namely Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, located in the Amazonian forest of the Upper-Maroni area, to assess anopheline mosquitoes and malaria transmission dynamics. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) was the most abundant mosquito species caught during the study. This efficient American malaria vector was active the entire year, but showed an evident peak of abundance during the main rainfall season, from April-June, with an average human biting rate of 255.5 bites per person per night. Parity rates were homogeneous all year, indicating no significant seasonal variability in female survival rates. Estimated vectorial capacity indices were higher during the rainy season, even though the risk of transmission was present throughout the year (VCI > 1). A total of 14 An. darlingi were found infected with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium malariae. The annual circumsporozoite indices were 0.15, 0.14 and 0.05, and the entomological inoculation rates were 22.8, 27.4 and 14.4 infected bites per person per year in Twenké, Taluène and Cayodé, respectively. An. darlingiwas endo-exophagic and rather exophilic in these localities. The species was collected throughout the night but was more aggressive between 21:30-03:30 h and after 05:30 h. Parity rates were homogeneous during the entire night. Impregnated hammock and/or bed nets, coupled with the use of mosquito repellents, as well as the early treatment of malarial cases, appear to be the most suitable tools for fighting...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Malaria/transmission , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Anopheles/classification , Anopheles/physiology , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Insect Vectors/physiology , Longitudinal Studies , Population Density , Population Dynamics , Seasons , Trees
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 41(4): 381-385, jul.-ago. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-494493

ABSTRACT

O exame de rotina para o diagnóstico da malária continua sendo a gota espessa, apesar da comprovada diminuição da sensibilidade e especificidade em situações de densidade parasitária baixa e infecções mistas. A reação em cadeia da polimerase vem sendo cada vez mais utilizada para a detecção molecular e identificação das espécies de plasmódio, por apresentar maior sensibilidade e especificidade. Foi realizada a nested-PCR em amostras de sangue total de 344 pacientes com síndrome febril aguda que se apresentaram para o diagnóstico de malária, em uma unidade terciária de saúde, em Manaus (Amazonas). Nenhum caso de malária por Plasmodium malariae foi diagnosticado à gota espessa ou PCR. Observou-se co-positividade de 96,7 por cento, co-negatividade de 62,2 por cento e coeficiente kappa de 0,44 entre PCR e gota espessa para Plasmodium falciparum. Para Plasmodium vivax, co-positividade de 100 por cento, co-negatividade de 78,1 por cento e coeficiente kappa de 0,56. Na detecção da malária mista, co-positividade de 100 por cento, co-negatividade de 84,9 por cento e coeficiente kappa de 0,26. A reação em cadeia da polimerase detectou alto número de infecções mistas nas amostras analisadas, mas seu uso rotineiro no diagnóstico da malária merece ainda ampla discussão.


The routine test for diagnosing malaria is still the thick blood smear, despite its known decreased sensitivity and specificity in situations of low parasite density and mixed infections. The polymerase chain reaction is increasingly being used for molecular detection and identification of Plasmodium species, due to its higher sensitivity and specificity. Nested PCR was performed on whole-blood samples from 344 patients with acute febrile syndrome who came to a tertiary healthcare center in Manaus (State of Amazonas) for diagnostic confirmation of malaria. No malaria cases caused by Plasmodium malariae were detected through the blood smear or PCR. Co-positivity of 96.7 percent, co-negativity of 62.2 percent and kappa coefficient of 0.44 were observed between PCR and thick blood smear for Plasmodium falciparum. For Plasmodium vivax, co-positivity of 100 percent, co-negativity of 78.1 percent and kappa coefficient of 0.56 were observed. For mixed infection, co-positivity of 100 percent, co-negativity of 84.9 percent and kappa coefficient of 0.26 were observed. Polymerase chain reaction detected a high number of mixed infections in the samples analyzed, but its routine use for diagnosing malaria still deserves further discussion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Endemic Diseases , Malaria/diagnosis , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Plasmodium malariae/genetics , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Brazil/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2005 Oct; 103(10): 547, 550
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-100609

ABSTRACT

The tropical zone is the endemic home for all malarial parasites. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are the species that are prevalent commonly in India. Plasmodium malariae is a parasite of both the tropical and subtropical zones, especially West and East Africa, Guiana and parts of India, but its presence in various zones tends to be patchy. In Karnataka state, its prevalence is rare. A case of Plasmodium malariae malaria from St John's Medical College, Bangalore in the background of the rarity of occurrence in this part of the country is presented.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Male , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 33(5): 489-92, set.-out. 2000. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-270553

ABSTRACT

Comparam-se neste trabalho resultados de identificaçäo de espécie de Plasmodium obtidos com a microscopia convencional de gotas espessas coradas pelo Giemsa, realizada no local, e um protocolo semi-aninhado de reaçäo em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) em 96 pacientes maláricos de Rondônia, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira. Infecçöes envolvendo mais de uma espécie foram detectadas através de PCR em 30 por cento dos pacientes, mas nenhum caso havia sido encontrado pelo exame de gotas espessas. Além disso, encontraram-se infecçöes gor P. malariae por PCR em 9 dos 96 pacientes (10 por cento), mas nenhuma havia sido encontrada pelos microscopistas locais. Discute-se o potencial impacto de erros de identificaçäo de espécie sobre o tratamento e o controle da malária


Subject(s)
Humans , Azure Stains , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control
8.
Ciênc. cult. (Säo Paulo) ; 52(4/5): 220-9, jul.-out. 2000. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-278776

ABSTRACT

Os métodos de laboratório säo ferramentas importantes para se alcançar as principais metas para o controle da malária, que säo: a) Diagnóstico precoce e tratamento rápido; b) métodos preventivos, incluindo o controle do vetor; c) prevencäo e controle de epidemias e d) capacitaçäo de países endêmicos para pesquisa e controle da doença. Estes säo aplicados na prática clínica para o diagnóstico individual e para o seguimento de pacientes sob tratamento específico anti-malárico. Também säo úteis em estudos epidemiológicos, pois permitem medir infecções atuais e passadas da populaçäo, assessorar a suscetibilidade à drogas, avaliar o estado funcional da populaçäo e detectar a presença de infecçäo no mosquito. Para a realizaçäo do diagnóstico precoce na prática clínica deve-se utilizar métodos para detecçäo de plasmódios ou de seus componentes (antígenos ou DNA) em hemácias. Para estudos epidemiológicos, uma maior variedade de métodos podem ser utilizados, pois o tempo näo é crucial, e podem ser feitos em um laboratório central com equipamentos especializados e automatizados. Neste artigo, avaliamos criticamente os métodos de laboratório disponíveis para: a) Detecçäo de Plasmodium em hemácias; b) detecçäo de antígenos de Plasmodium em hemácias e soro; c) detecçäo do DNA de Plasmodium; d) detecçäo de anticorpos anti-Plasmodium; e) avaliar o estado imune e e) detecçäo de esporozoítas no mosquito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/prevention & control , Antibodies, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Antigens, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112327

ABSTRACT

Kasaragod District of Kerala state has never reported cases of Plasmodium malariae. During September 1999-March 2000 a total of 52 slides were reported as positive for P. vivax, P. falciparum and mixed infection. The expert team cross-checked these positive slides and three were found positive for P. malariae which were reported as P. vivax. All these had similar clinical features and were either imported cases from endemic areas or local population who visited endemic areas or by persons who came in as construction workers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Humans , India/epidemiology , Malaria/epidemiology , Male , Occupations , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification
10.
Rev. méd. Costa Rica Centroam ; 66(547): 53-8, abr.-jun. 1999.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-257255

ABSTRACT

La malaria, ya por su prevalencia, ya por su re-emergencia, es la enfermedad parasitaria de mayor impacto en el mundo. En el presente artículo, son discutidos aspectos relativos al control de la malaria, dentro de una perspectiva brasileira


Subject(s)
Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/etiology , Malaria/therapy , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology/trends
11.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 3(2): 102-10, feb. 1998. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-214841

ABSTRACT

Since the 1970s, when the world seemed on the threshold of malaria eradication, the incidence of the disease has increased in several countries. The upturn in cases raised a series of questions, and for some time malariologists and public health authorities scarcely understood what was happening. In an attempt to better comprehend the process, this article reviews the frequency of malaria cases in Sao Paulo, Brazil, between 1930 and 1990, examining the following factors in each of three 20-year time periods: the importance of malaria in the society, the conditions under which teh disease occurred, the epidemiologic knowledge of the time, the technical instruments available to fight it, and the control strategies that were used. Through the construction of technological models based on these factors, it became clear that the occurrence of the disease, knowledge about it, and, consequently, the ways it was dealt with changed over time. In light of this research, the article discusses current options for the control of malaria


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pest Control, Biological/trends , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Systemic Management , Brazil
12.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 3(1): 35-9, ene. 1998. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-214833

ABSTRACT

In October 1995 the Ministry of Public Health and Population in Haiti surveyed 42 health facilities for the prevalence and distribution of malaria infection. They examined 1.083 peripheral blood smears from patients with suspected malaria; the overall slide positivity rate was 4.0 por cent (range, 0.0 por cent to 14.3 por cent). The rate was lowest among 1-to 4-year-old children (1.6 por cent) and highest among persons aged 15 and older (5.5 por cent). Clinical and microscopic diagnoses of malaria were unreliable; the overall sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis was 83.6 por cent, specificity was 88.6 por cent, and the predictive value of a positive slide was 22.2 por cent. Microscopic diagnoses need to be improved, and adequate surveillance must be reestablished to identify areas where transmission is most intense. The generally low level of malaria is encouraging and suggests that intensified control efforts targeted to the areas of highest prevalence could furhter diminish the effect of malaria in Haiti


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Microscopy , Parasitemia , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Diagnosis of Health Situation , Haiti
15.
Rev. méd. IMSS ; 23(2): 153-7, mar.-abr. 1985. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-26856

ABSTRACT

Se estudiaron 44 casos de paludismo inducido por transfusión de sangre en el Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico La Raza durante el periodo de 1976 a 1981. Se encontró que la mayor parte de los casos fueron adultos (93 por ciento), que Plasmodium malariae provocó la mitad y la otra mitad, Plasmodium vivax, y que ningún caso de debió a Plasmodium falciparum. El periodo de incubación fue de siete a 14 días (31 por ciento), de 15 a 29 días (29 por ciento) y de 30 a 44 días (20 por ciento). Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron escalofríos, fiebre, diaforesis profusa, cefalea, mialgias, esplenomegalia y palidez. El tratamiento se efectuó con cloroquina, fármaco que suele producir remisión completa de los síntomas. No ocurrieron defunciones


Subject(s)
Child , Adult , Humans , Male , Female , Malaria/etiology , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Malaria/drug therapy , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification
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