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1.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 16(1): 71-80, 20220111.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353005

ABSTRACT

Objetivo. Determinar el estado actual de la prevalencia de Plasmodium en pacientes febriles que acuden al Hospital Básico Franklin Tello Nuevo Rocafuerte, cantón Aguarico, comparando con los datos de otros estudios epidemiológicos de la misma zona y la frontera con el vecino país de Perú. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo, retrospectivo de prevalencia. Desde 2011-2015 se recogieron 2.668 muestras de sangre capilar correspondientes al 55,04% de la población total del cantón Aguarico. Se empleó la técnica Gota Gruesa y Frotis coloreados con Giemsa para determinar positividad de Plasmodium. Resultados. El rango de variación de la prevalencia en los pobladores de las comunidades investigadas osciló entre 2,38% y 28,57%, detectándose mayor prevalencia en el sexo masculino (50,56 %). Estos hallazgos son similares a los estudios previos realizados entre 1992-1995, en la misma región del Aguarico. El Riesgo Relativo es (RR) es de 1,36 y el Odds Ratio (OR) fue de 1,71, siendo mayor el riesgo a desarrollar la enfermedad en los positivos. Conclusiones. Los datos de la investigación confirman la presencia de un foco autóctono de malaria producida por Plasmodium vivax en la selva amazónica ecuatoriana, excepto 2 casos de P. falciparum importados de Perú. Los casos diagnosticados clínicamente y mediante la técnica de la Gota Gruesa, fueron tratados con medicación antipalúdica con excelente adherencia al medicamento.


Objective. To determine the status of the prevalence of Plasmodium in febrile patients who attend the Franklin Tello Nuevo Rocafuerte Basic Hospital, Aguarico town, comparing the results obtained with data from other epidemiological studies in the same area, and places near the border with Peru. Methods. A descriptive, retrospective, observational study of prevalence was carried out. From 2011-2015 2,668 capillary blood samples were collected corresponding to 55.04% of the total population of the Aguarico town. The Thick Drop and Giemsa-stained smear technique was used to determine Plasmodium positivity. Results. The range of variation of the prevalence in the inhabitants of the investigated communities ranged between 2.38% and 28.57%, detecting a higher prevalence in males (50.56%). These findings are like previous studies carried out between 1992-1995, in the same Aguarico region. The Relative Risk (RR) is 1.36 and the Odds Ratio (OR) was 1.71, with the risk of developing the disease being greater in the positives. Conclusions. The research data confirm the presence of an autochthonous focus of malaria produced by Plasmodium vivax in the Ecuadorian Amazon rainforest, except for 2 cases of P. falciparum imported from Peru. The cases diagnosed clinically and using the thick gout technique were treated with antimalarial medication with excellent adherence to the medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Prevalence , Amazonian Ecosystem , Malaria , Plasmodium vivax , Indigenous Peoples , Antimalarials
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241110, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278500

ABSTRACT

Abstract Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3βgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3β genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3βgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Resumo O Plasmodium vivax é o parasita da malária humana mais comum nos países asiáticos, incluindo o Paquistão. O presente estudo foi desenhado para explorar a diversidade genética de genótipos de Plasmodium vivax baseados nos genes Pvmsp-3α e Pvmsp-3β, usando marcadores de ensaios alélicos nested PCR e RFLP de isolados de campo no distrito de Mardan, Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 200 pacientes com malária por P. vivax foram coletadas após assinatura do termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. A diversidade genética em produtos de PCR nested foi determinada por polimorfismo de fragmento de restrição (RFLP) utilizando as enzimas de restrição Alu1 e PstI para a digestão dos produtos dos genes alfa e beta, respectivamente. Para análise da diversidade genética das variantes subalélicas dos genes Pvmsp3α e Pvmsp3β, o teste Qui-quadrado foi realizado utilizando o software de programação Minitab 18. O valor P = 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Para os genes Pvmsp-3α, após eletroforese em gel de produtos digeridos, quatro genótipos distintos foram obtidos de um total de 50 amostras; tipo A: 35 (70%) (1,5-2,0 kb), 12 do tipo B (24%) (1,5-1,7 kb), 2 do tipo C (4%) (0,5-1,5) e um para o tipo D (2%) (0,5-0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em nove padrões alélicos (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), em que A3 permaneceu como o mais predominante. Para Pvmsp-3βgenes, três genótipos distintos foram obtidos a partir de 50 amostras; 40 (80%) do tipo A (1,5-2,5 kb), 9 (18%) do tipo B (1,0-1,5 kb) e 1 (2%) do tipo C (0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em seis padrões alélicos (A1-A3, B1-B2 e C1). Os mais dominantes no tipo A foram o alelo A1, observados em 46%, enquanto, no tipo B, os mais dominantes foram B1 (10%). Este estudo é o primeiro relato de epidemiologia molecular e variação genética em Pvmsp-3α. Os genes Pvmsp-3β de isolados de P. vivax utilizando PCR/RFLP do Distrito Mardan mostraram um nível notável de diversidade genética nos genes estudados de parasitas circulantes na área de estudo. Os resultados desse estudo contribuirão em estudos futuros sobre a estrutura genética do parasita e o desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a malária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Pakistan , Genetic Variation , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
3.
Rev. Investig. Salud. Univ. Boyacá ; 8(2): 110-130, 20211201. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369463

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para diseñar vacunas es necesario comprender la función de los antígenos de Plasmodium spp. in-volucrados en la invasión a células hospederas. Diferentes investigaciones han generado proteínas recombinantes utilizando sistemas de expresión heterólogos y así han obtenido moléculas semejantes a las nativas. Con estos avances se desarrollan estrategias que bloquean la infección de estos patógenos. Objetivo: Describir las características y los aspectos metodológicos más importantes de los sistemas de expresión de las proteínas recombinantes en estudios funcionales de Plasmodium spp. Metodología: Revisión descriptiva de estudios publicados en Pubmed, Science Direct, Embase y Medline, entre 2010 y 2020, que incluyeran sistemas recombinantes en células de Escherichia coli, de mamífero y sistemas libres de células, para estudios funcionales de antígenos de Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Se revisaron 70 artículos originales y 58 cumplieron con los criterios establecidos. Resultados: Obtener proteínas recombinantes mediante un sistema procariota, de mayor rendimiento y bajo costo, ha permitido estudiar un número importante de antígenos. Los sistemas con células de mamífero y libres de células, que permiten modificaciones postraduccionales y plegamiento adecuado de moléculas, se usan para producir librerías de antígenos con estructura conformacional similar a la nativa. Conclusión: El estudio de los antígenos de Plasmodium spp. implicados en la infección y desarrollo de células diana requiere una adecuada selección del método de producción recombinante. El refinamiento de procesos de expresión en sistemas procariotas, eucariotas e in vitro, mediante ingeniería genética y cultivo celular, permitirá mejores rendimientos y menor costo.


Introduction: Understanding the function of Plasmodium spp. Antigens involved in invasion of host cells is necessary to design vaccines. Different studies have generated recombinant proteins using heterologous expression systems, obtaining molecules similar to native ones. These advances are es-sential to develop strategies that block the infection of these pathogens. Objective: Describe the most important characteristics and methodological aspects of recombinant protein expression systems in functional studies of Plasmodium spp. Methodology: Descriptive review of studies published in Pubmed, Science Direct, Embase and Medline, between 2010 and 2020, that included recombinant systems in Escherichia coli cells, mam-malian and cell-free, for functional studies of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antigens. 70 original articles were reviewed, 58 met the established criteria. Results: Obtaining recombinant proteins by means of a prokaryotic system, with higher performance and low cost, has allowed functional studies of a significant number of antigens. Mammalian cell and cell free systems, which allow for post-translational modifications and adequate folding of molecules, are used to produce antigen libraries with native-like conformational structure. Conclusion:Plasmodium spp. antigen study involved in infection and development in target cells, re-quires adequate selection of the recombinant production method. The refinement of expression pro-cesses in prokaryotic, eukaryotic and in vitro systems, through genetic engineering and cell culture, will allow better yields and lower cost


Introdução: Para desenvolver vacinas, é necessário entender a função dos antígenos de Plasmodium spp. envolvidos na invasão das células hospedeiras. As pesquisas têm gerado proteínas recombinan-tes utilizando sistemas de expressão heterólogos para obter moléculas similares às nativas. Com estes avanços, estratégias que bloqueiam a infecção destes patógenos estão sendo desenvolvidas. Objetivo: Descrever as características mais importantes e aspectos metodológicos dos sistemas de expressão de proteínas recombinantes em estudos funcionais de Plasmodium spp. Metodologia: Revisão descritiva dos estudos publicados em Pubmed, Science Direct, Embase e Medline, entre 2010 e 2020, que incluíram sistemas recombinantes em células de Escherichia coli, de mamífero e sistemas livres de células, para estudos funcionais dos antígenos de Plasmodium fal-ciparum e Plasmodium vivax. Setenta artigos originais foram revisados e 58 preenchiam os critérios estabelecidos. Resultado: A obtenção de proteínas recombinantes usando um sistema procariótico, com maior rendimento e baixo custo, permitiu o estudo de um número significativo de antígenos. Sistemas de células mamíferas e sem células, que permitem modificações pós-tradução e dobramento adequado das moléculas, são usados para produzir bibliotecas de antígenos com uma estrutura semelhante à nativa. Conclusão: O estudo dos antígenos Plasmodium spp. envolvidos na infecção e no desenvolvimento das células-alvo requer uma seleção adequada do método de produção recombinante. O refinamento dos processos de expressão em sistemas procarióticos, eucarióticos e in vitro, através da engenharia genética e da cultura celular, permitirá melhores rendimentos e menores custos.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Gene Expression , Malaria , Antigens
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 100-112, mayo 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285452

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Malaria is a vector-borne disease widely distributed in the Amazon region and the coastal area of northern Ecuador. Its epidemiology involves related factors such as human settlements, vector reproduction sites, mobility, productive activity, and the response capacity of health systems, among others. Objective: To describe malaria transmission by Plasmodium vivax in a non-endemic area of Ecuador by analyzing the epidemiological and entomological factors involved. Materials and methods: We conducted the epidemiological study of the cases reported in the Salinas canton and the characterization of vector breeding sites through captures of larvae and adult mosquitoes by human capture of resting mosquitoes. Results: We detected 21 cases of malaria with local transmission related to the presence of initial cases in Venezuelan migrant patients and identified Anopheles albimanus as the predominant vector in natural breeding sites such as estuaries, wells, and water channels. Conclusions: We detected an outbreak of malaria triggered by imported cases from Venezuela. Climatic, social, environmental, and ecological conditions have favored the development of the vector maintaining the transmission cycle. Strategies to control imported malaria should be multiple including early case detection and control of productive breeding sites to avoid local transmission.


Resumen | Introducción. La malaria o paludismo es una enfermedad transmitida por vectores, ampliamente distribuida en la región amazónica y en la zona costera del norte del Ecuador. Su epidemiología involucra factores relacionados, como asentamientos humanos, sitios de reproducción del vector, movilidad, actividad productiva y capacidad de respuesta de los sistemas de salud, entre otros.Objetivo. Describir la transmisión de malaria por Plasmodium vivax en un área no endémica de Ecuador, mediante el análisis de los factores epidemiológicos y entomológicos involucrados. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo el estudio epidemiológico de los casos reportados en el cantón de Salinas y la caracterización de criaderos del vector con capturas de larvas y adultos mediante la captura de mosquitos en reposo. Resultados. Se detectaron 21 casos de malaria con transmisión local relacionados con la presencia de casos iniciales importados de Venezuela. Se identificó Anopheles albimanuscomo el vector predominante en criaderos naturales como estuarios, pozos y canales de agua. Conclusiones. Se detectó un brote de malaria desencadenado por casos importados de Venezuela. Las condiciones climáticas, sociales, ambientales y ecológicas han favorecido el desarrollo del vector, manteniendo el ciclo de transmisión. Las estrategias para controlar la malaria importada deben ser multifacéticas, e incluir la detección temprana de casos y el control de criaderos productivos para evitar la transmisión local.


Subject(s)
Malaria/epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax , Transients and Migrants , Disease Outbreaks
5.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 11(1): 40-45, jan.-mar. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362217

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Nutrition, in addition to its physiological function, plays an important role in the recovery of individuals with malaria, a disease that still represents a serious public health problem in the world. The objective of this study was to assess nutritional determinants in the frequency of food intake and the occurrence of anemia in children and adolescents with P. vivax malaria. Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out between 2014 and 2015 in the Marajo Island. The hemoglobin level was measured by the colorimetric enzymatic reaction and a questionnaire of food intake frequency was used to assess the consumption of different types of food. Results: A total of 67 patients met the inclusion criteria, from which 62.7% were children and 37.3% were adolescents. There was a high consumption of ultra-processed foods in both age groups. Anemia occurred in 52.2% of patients, and in most of them it was moderate. There was no significant association between anemia and sex, age group or parasitemia at admission. However a significant association was found between anemia and the ingestion of ultra-processed foods. Conclusion: The ingestion of ultra-processed foods contributes to anemia in children and adolescent with malaria by P. vivax.(AU)


Justificativa e Objetivos: A nutrição, além de sua função fisiológica, desempenha um papel importante na recuperação de indivíduos com malária, uma doença que ainda representa um grave problema de saúde pública no mundo. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os determinantes nutricionais na frequência da ingestão alimentar e a ocorrência de anemia em crianças e adolescentes com malária por P. vivax. Métodos: Estudo transversal analítico, realizado entre 2014 e 2015 na ilha do Marajó. O nível de hemoglobina foi medido pela reação enzimática colorimétrica e um questionário de frequência de ingestão alimentar foi utilizado para avaliar o consumo de alimentos. Resultados: Um total de 67 pacientes atendeu aos critérios de inclusão do estudo, dos quais 62,7% eram crianças e 37,3% adolescentes. Houve alto consumo de alimentos ultraprocessados em ambas as faixas etárias. A anemia foi detectada em 52,2% dos pacientes e, na maioria deles, foi moderada. Não houve associação significativa entre anemia e sexo, faixa etária ou parasitemia na admissão. No entanto, encontramos uma associação significativa entre presença de anemia e ingestão de alimentos ultraprocessados. Conclusão: A ingestão de alimentos ultraprocessados contribui para a anemia em crianças e adolescentes com malária por P. vivax.(AU)


Justificación y objetivos: La nutrición, además de su función fisiológica, juega un papel importante en la recuperación de las personas con malaria, una enfermedad que todavía representa un importante problema de salud pública en el mundo. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar los determinantes nutricionales en la frecuencia del consumo de alimentos y la ocurrencia de anemia en niños y adolescentes con malaria por P. vivax. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico transversal entre 2014 y 2015, en la Isla de Marajó. El nivel de hemoglobina fue evaluado por ensayos enzimáticos colorimétricos y se utilizó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos para evaluar el consumo. Resultados: Un total de 67 pacientes cumplió los criterios de inclusión en el estudio, de los cuales el 62,7% eran niños y el 37,3% adolescentes. Se registró un alto consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados en niños y adolescentes. La anemia se detectó en el 52,2% de los pacientes, de carácter moderada principalmente. No se encontró una asociación significativa entre anemia y sexo, grupo de edad o parasitemia al ingreso. Sin embargo, se encontró una asociación significativa entre la anemia y la ingestión de alimentos ultraprocesados. Conclusión: La ingesta de alimentos ultraprocesados se asocia con la presencia de anemia en niños y adolescentes con malaria por P. vivax.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Plasmodium vivax , Child Nutrition , Anemia , Malaria , Nutritional Status , Eating , Adolescent Nutrition
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200584, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250360

ABSTRACT

In the present study, we investigated the genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax metacaspase 1 (PvMCA1) catalytic domain in two municipalities of the main malaria hotspot in Brazil, i.e., the Juruá Valley, and observed complete sequence identity among all P. vivax field isolates and the Sal-1 reference strain. Analysis of PvMCA1 catalytic domain in different P. vivax genomic sequences publicly available also revealed a high degree of conservation worldwide, with very few amino acid substitutions that were not related to putative histidine and cysteine catalytic residues, whose involvement with the active site of protease was herein predicted by molecular modeling. The genetic conservation presented by PvMCA1 may contribute to its eligibility as a druggable target candidate in vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Malaria, Vivax , Genetic Variation/genetics , Brazil , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Catalytic Domain
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Malaria, Vivax/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/transmission
8.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 71(1): 21-33, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115617

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: determinar la eficacia y seguridad de la monoterapia con cloroquina en gestantes colombianas con ataque agudo no complicado de malaria vivax (MGV). Materiales y métodos: estudio de cohorte prospectiva en pacientes gestantes que consultaron de manera espontánea entre 1 febrero de 2015 y 31 diciembre de 2017 a los puestos de malaria o de control prenatal en dos poblaciones de Colombia, en quienes se confirmó el diagnóstico de Plasmodium vivax mediante gota gruesa y qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Se midieron variables sociodemográficas, falla terapéutica (FT) y eventos adversos serios a los 28 días y la frecuencia de recurrencia-recaída (RR) con seguimiento de 120 días. Se aplicó el protocolo de la OMS para evaluar la eficacia de monoterapia con cloroquina (m-CQ). Resultados: se captaron 47 gestantes; en el seguimiento de 28 días no hubo pérdidas y hubo 4,2 % (2/47) de FT. En el seguimiento de 45 mujeres entre los días 29 y 120 hubo 11 pérdidas (24,4 % = 11/45) y 13 RR con frecuencia que varió entre 29 y 53 % según el tipo de análisis. Conclusiones: la cloroquina conserva muy alta eficacia para curar el ataque agudo de malaria vivax en malaria gestacional (MG) en Colombia, y continúa siendo una buena opción para el tratamiento de la fase aguda. La frecuencia de RR es alta. Se requieren estudios que evalúen alternativas terapéuticas en la MG. Hay urgente necesidad de disponer de medicamentos o procedimientos que reduzcan ese altísimo riesgo.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the efficacy of chloroquine monotherapy in Colombian pregnant women with acute uncomplicated malaria vivax Materials and methods: Prospective cohort study in pregnant women who presented of their own accord between February 1, 2015 and December 31, 2017 to malaria or prenatal care centers in two Colombian towns and in whom the diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax was confirmed by means of blood spot test and and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Measured variables included sociodemographics, therapeutic failure (TF) and serious adverse events at 28 days and frequency of recurrence-relap (RR) over a follow-up period of 120 days. The WHO protocol was applied for the assessment of monotherapy with cloroquine (m-CQ) efficacy. Results: Overall, 47 pregnant women were identified. During the 28-day follow-up period there were no losses, and there were two cases of TP (4.2%=2/47). Of the 45 women followed between 29 and 120 days, 11 were lost (24.4%=11/45) and there were 13 cases of RR, with an RR frequency ranging between 29 and 53 % depending on the type of analysis. Conclusions: Chloroquine is still highly effective as a cure of acute malaria vivax attack in GM in Colombia, and continues to be a good option for the treatment of acute phase GM. The RR frequency is high. Studies are required that evaluate therapeutic alternatives in MG. There is a pressing need for medications and/or procedures that can help reduce this very high risk.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Malaria , Plasmodium vivax , Recurrence , Pregnancy , Chloroquine , Efficacy , Colombia
9.
Asunción; MSPBS; 2020. 48 p ilus, tab, graf.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1283285

ABSTRACT

El Plan Estratégico de Prevención del restablecimiento de la Malaria en el Paraguay 2015 ­ 2019, está enmarcado en el Plan Estratégico Institucional 2013 ­ 2018 del Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social, en sus Ejes estratégicos: 1) Fortalecimiento de la rectoría y desarrollo institucional, 2) Calidad de vida y equidad en salud y 3) Transparencia, eficiencia y calidad en la gestión. El primer eje apunta al desarrollo de competencias en los diferentes niveles de gestión para la implementación de los planes y proyectos y el cumplimiento de los indicadores de proceso, resultados intermedios e impacto que se buscan con el Plan. El segundo eje señala que el centro de las intervenciones del Plan, desde su diseño, son las personas y especialmente aquellas que viven en áreas de riesgo o consideradas de mayor vulnerabilidad lo que trae implícito un componente esencial para el cumplimiento de las metas: la participación social protagónica. El tercer eje apunta al monitoreo de indicadores de gestión que además, incluye en el componente de transparencia todos aquellos aspectos que alimentan sistemas de contraloría ciudadana.


Subject(s)
Strategic Planning , Public Health , Malaria , Paraguay , Plasmodium vivax , Vector Borne Diseases
10.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200070, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Nyssorhynchus deaneorum is a potential malaria vector because it has been shown to be competent to transmit Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and because it exhibits antropophilic and endophilic behaviors in some regions of the Amazon. This profile makes Ny. deaneorum a useful mosquito for experiments that model Plasmodium-vector interactions in the Amazon. OBJECTIVE Herein we describe how a free-mating colony of Ny. deaneorum has been established using an automated light stimulation system. METHODS Mosquitoes were captured in São Francisco do Guaporé, Rondônia. The F1 generation was reared until adult emergence at which point copulation was induced using an automatic copulation induction system (ACIS). FINDINGS After four generations, natural mating and oviposition began to occur without light stimulation. The number of pupae and adult mosquitoes increased from the F5 to F10 generations. The new Ny. deaneorum colony exhibited susceptibility to P. vivax. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Automated light stimulation is an effective method for establishing an Ny. deaneorum colony under laboratory conditions as it produces enough adults to create a stenogamic colony. The establishment of a stable, P. vivax-susceptible colony of Ny. deaneorum makes it possible to model parasite-vector interactions and to test novel drug therapies that target parasite development in mosquitoes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oviposition , Copulation/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Insect Vectors/growth & development , Malaria , Anopheles/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum , Plasmodium vivax , Brazil , Insect Vectors/physiology , Anopheles/physiology
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200080, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia in malaria involves platelet destruction and consumption; however, the cellular response underlying this phenomenon has still not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE To find associations between platelet indices and unbalanced Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines as a response to thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax infected (Pv-MAL) patients. METHODS Platelet counts and quantification of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine levels were compared in 77 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria and 37 healthy donors from the same area (endemic control group - ENCG). FINDINGS Thrombocytopenia was the main manifestation in 55 patients, but was not associated with parasitaemia. The Pv-MAL patients showed increases in the mean platelet volume (MPV), which may be consistent with larger or megaplatelets. Contrary to the findings regarding the endemic control group, MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW) did not show an inverse correlation, due the increase in the heterogeneity of platelet width. In addition, the Pv-MAL patients presented increased IL-1β and reduced IL-12p70 and IL-2 serum concentrations. Furthermore, the reduction of these cytokines was associated with PDW values. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate that an increase in MPV and the association between reductions of IL-2 and IL-12 and PDW values may be an immune response to thrombocytopenia in uncomplicated P. vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/parasitology , Interleukin-2/blood , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Interleukin-12/blood
12.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(1): 71-77, mar. 2019. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001080

ABSTRACT

En países considerados endémicos de malaria a pesar de las estrategias realizadas anualmente para el control y erradicación de esta enfermedad existen brotes aislados de malaria debido probablemente a portadores asintomáticos, presencia de individuos con fenotipo Duffy negativo o movimientos poblacionales. El sector "50 casas" de la provincia de Esmeraldas-Ecuador reúne todas estas características por lo que el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la presencia del fenotipo Fy(a-b-) y su relación con el Plasmodium vivax. Se realizó una encuesta a cada miembro de las familias participantes y luego de aceptado y firmado el consentimiento informado se tomaron muestras sanguíneas para la realización de pruebas serológicas en búsqueda de anticuerpos y antígenos de P. vivax, fenotipificación del sistema Duffy y pruebas de PCR en tiempo real para la determinación de ADN de Plasmodium vivax y P. falciparum. Los resultados demostraron que existe una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre el fenotipo Duffy y malaria por P. vivax (p<0,05). Ante esta situación los organismos de control deberán proponer nuevas estrategias para la detección de portadores asintomáticos y medidas preventivas para evitar nuevos brotes de malaria, así como determinar si P. vivax ha encontrado un nuevo mecanismo de invasión en individuos portadores del fenotipo Fy(a-b-).


Despite the strategies carried out annually for the control and eradication in countries considered endemic for malaria, there are isolated outbreaks probably due to asymptomatic carriers. These involve the presence of individuals with Duffy negative phenotype or population movements. The neighbourhood "50 casas" of the province of Esmeraldas-Ecuador has all these characteristics, so the purpose of this research was to determine the presence of the Fy(a-b-) phenotype and its relationship with the Plasmodium vivax. A survey was carried out into each member of the participating families and after accepting and signing the informed consent, blood samples were taken to perform serological tests in search of antibodies and antigens of P. vivax. The phenotyping of Duffy system and real-time PCR tests for DNA determination of Plasmodium vivax and falciparum was realized. The results showed that there is a statistically significant association between the Duffy phenotype and P. vivax malaria (p<0.05). In view of this situation, the control agencies should propose new strategies for the detection of asymptomatic carriers and preventive measures to hinder new outbreaks of malaria and determine if P. vivax has found a new invasion mechanism in individuals with the Fy(a-b-) phenotype.


Nos países considerados endêmicos para malária, apesar das estratégias realizadas anualmente para o controle e erradicação desta doença existem surtos isolados de malária, resultantes provavelmente de portadores assintomáticos, presença de indivíduos com fenótipo Duffy negativo ou movimentos populacionais. O setor "50 casas" na província de Esmeraldas-Equador reúne todas essas características. Portanto o objetivo desta pesquisa foi determinar a presença de fenótipo Fy(a-b-) e sua relação com Plasmodium vivax. Foi realizada uma enquete para cada membro das famílias participantes e após a aceitação e assinatura do Consentimento informado, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para a realização de testes sorológicos em busca de anticorpos e antígenos do P. vivax. Além de testes de fenotipagem do sistema Duffy e PCR em tempo real para determinação de DNA de Plasmodium vivax e P. falciparum. Os resultados mostraram que existe uma associação estatisticamente significante entre o fenótipo Duffy e a malária por P. vivax (p<0,05). Perante está situação os órgãos de fiscalização terão que propor novas estratégias para a detecção de portadores assintomáticos e medidas preventivas para evitar novos surtos de medidas de malária bem como determinar se P. vivax tem encontrado um novo mecanismo de invasão em indivíduos portadores do fenótipo Fy(a-b-).


Subject(s)
Phenotype , Plasmodium vivax/parasitology , Duffy Blood-Group System , Malaria , Parasitology , Population , Association , Blood , DNA , Disease Outbreaks , Control , Antigens
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761779

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax is usually considered morbidity in endemic areas of Asia, Central and South America, and some part of Africa. In Thailand, previous studies indicated the genetic diversity of P. vivax in malaria-endemic regions such as the western part of Thailand bordering with Myanmar. The objective of the study is to investigate the genetic diversity of P. vivax circulating in Southern Thailand by using 3 antigenic markers and 8 microsatellite markers. Dried blood spots were collected from Chumphon, Phang Nga, Ranong and, Surat Thani provinces of Thailand. By PCR, 3 distinct sizes of PvMSP3α, 2 sizes of PvMSP3β and 2 sizes of PvMSP1 F2 were detected based on the length of PCR products, respectively. PCR/RFLP analyses of these antigen genes revealed high levels of genetic diversity. The genotyping of 8 microsatellite loci showed high genetic diversity as indicated by high alleles per locus and high expected heterozygosity (H(E)). The genotyping markers also showed multiple-clones of infection. Mixed genotypes were detected in 4.8% of PvMSP3α, 29.1% in PvMSP3β and 55.3% of microsatellite markers. These results showed that there was high genetic diversity of P. vivax isolated from Southern Thailand, indicating that the genetic diversity of P. vivax in this region was comparable to those observed other areas of Thailand.


Subject(s)
Africa , Alleles , Asia, Central , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Malaria , Microsatellite Repeats , Myanmar , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Polymerase Chain Reaction , South America , Thailand
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761758

ABSTRACT

In malaria, splenic rupture is a serious complication potentially leading to death. Subcapsular hemorrhage of spleen is thought to be an impending sign of splenic rupture; however, the characteristics of subcapsular hemorrhage are not well known. We report 3 cases of subcapsular hemorrhage of the spleen in vivax malaria, with varying degrees of severity. Case 1 showed subcapsular hemorrhage without splenic rupture, was treated by antimalarial drug without any procedure. The healing process of the patient's spleen was monitored through 6 computed tomography follow-up examinations, over 118 days. Case 2 presented subcapsular hemorrhage with splenic rupture, treated only with an antimalarial drug. Case 3 showed subcapsular hemorrhage with splenic rupture and hypotension, treated using splenic artery embolization. They all recovered from subcapsular hemorrhage without any other complications. These 3 cases reveal the process of subcapsular hemorrhage leading to rupture and a potentially fatal outcome. The treatment plan of subcapsular hemorrhage should be determined carefully considering the vital signs, changes in hemoglobin, and bleeding tendency.


Subject(s)
Fatal Outcome , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Hypotension , Malaria , Malaria, Vivax , Plasmodium vivax , Rupture , Spleen , Splenic Artery , Splenic Rupture , Vital Signs
15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190054, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The central repetitive region (CRR) of the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite surface protein (CSP) is composed of a repetitive sequence that is characterised by three variants: VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like. The most important challenge in the treatment of P. vivax infection is the possibility of differential response based on the parasite genotype. OBJECTIVES To characterise the CSP variants in P. vivax isolates from individuals residing in a malaria-endemic region in Brazil and to profile these variants based on sensitivity to chloroquine and mefloquine. METHODS The CSP variants were determined by sequencing and the sensitivity of the P. vivax isolates to chloroquine and mefloquine was determined by Deli-test. FINDINGS Although five different allele sizes were amplified, the sequencing results showed that all of the isolates belonged to the VK210 variant. However, we observed substantial genetic diversity in the CRR, resulting in the identification of 10 different VK210 subtypes. The frequency of isolates that were resistant to chloroquine and mefloquine was 11.8 and 23.8%, respectively. However, we did not observe any difference in the frequency of the resistant isolates belonging to the VK210 subtypes. MAIN CONCLUSION The VK210 variant is the most frequently observed in the studied region and there is significant genetic variability in the CRR of the P. vivax CSP. Moreover, the antimalarial drug sensitivity profiles of the isolates does not seem to be related to the VK210 subtypes.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Mefloquine/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Multiple/immunology , Brazil
16.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20170450, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041567

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for detecting Plasmodium antigens have become increasingly common worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the Immuno-Rapid Malaria Pf/Pv RDT in detecting Plasmodium vivax infection compared to standard thick blood smear (TBS) under microscopy. METHODS: Hundred and eighty-one febrile patients from the hospital's regular admissions were assessed using TBS and RDT in a blinded experiment. RESULTS: RDT showed a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 100%, and accuracy of 99.5% for P. vivax infection when compared to TBS. CONCLUSIONS: The RDT is highly accurate, making it a valuable diagnostic tool for P. vivax infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Malaria, Falciparum/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180350, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The prompt diagnosis of plasmodial species for effective treatment prevents worsening of individual health and avoids transmission maintenance or even malaria reintroduction in areas where Plasmodium does not exist. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows for the detection of parasites below the threshold of microscopic examination. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to develop a real-time PCR test to reduce diagnostic errors and increase efficacy. METHODS The lower limit of quantification and the linearity/analytical sensitivity to measure sensitivity or limit of detection (LoD) were determined. Intra-assay variations (repeatability) and alterations between assays, operators, and instruments (reproducibility) were also assessed to set precision. FINDINGS The linearity in SYBR™ Green and TaqMan™ systems was 106 and 102 copies and analytical sensitivity 1.13 and 1.17 copies/μL, respectively. Real-time PCR was more sensitive than conventional PCR, showing a LoD of 0.01 parasite (p)/μL. Reproducibility and repeatability (precision) were 100% for up to 0.1 p/μL in SYBR™ Green and 1 p/μL in TaqMan™ and conventional PCR. CONCLUSION Real-time PCR may replace conventional PCR in reference laboratories for P. vivax detection due to its rapidity. The TaqMan™ system is the most indicated when quantification assays are required. Performing tests in triplicate when diagnosing Plasmodium-infected-asymptomatic individuals is recommended to minimise diagnostic errors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium vivax , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria/transmission
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190158, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040629

ABSTRACT

As phagocytosis is the first line of defense against malaria, we developed a phagocytosis assay with Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) merozoites that can be applied to evaluate vaccine candidates. Briefly, after leukocyte removal with loosely packed cellulose powder in a syringe, P. vivax trophozoites matured to the merozoite-rich schizont stages in the presence of the E64 protease inhibitor. The Percoll gradient-enriched schizonts were chemically disrupted to release merozoites that were submitted to merozoite opsonin-dependent phagocytosis in two phagocytic lines with human and mouse antibodies against the N- and C-terminus of P. vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (Nterm-PvMSP1 and MSP119). The resulting assay is simple and efficient for use as a routine phagocytic assay for the evaluation of merozoite stage vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Phagocytosis/physiology , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Protozoan Proteins/immunology , Merozoites/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/physiology , Merozoites/cytology , Flow Cytometry , Mice, Inbred BALB C
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190145, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040609

ABSTRACT

Anti-α-Gal responses may exert a protective effect in falciparum malaria. However, the biological role of such antibodies is still unknown during Plasmodium vivax infections. We investigated IgG and IgM responses to α-Gal in individuals with vivax malaria. Anti-α-Gal IgG and IgM levels were higher in these patients than in controls, but no significant correlation was found between parasitaemia and anti-α-Gal response, nor between this response and ABO blood group status. This is the first study to investigate anti-α-Gal antibodies in P. vivax-infected patients; a larger survey is necessary to achieve a better understanding of host immune response during vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/blood , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic/metabolism , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Middle Aged
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2019. 97 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177139

ABSTRACT

A TRAP (Proteína Adesiva Relacionada à Trombospondina) do Plasmodium spp. é essencial para a motilidade dos esporozoítos e para a invasão da glândula salivar do mosquito e do hepatócito do vertebrado. Devido ao seu importante papel biológico, a TRAP é considerada um alvo promissor para o desenvolvimento de uma vacina pré-eritrocítica. Apesar dos poucos relatos disponíveis acerca da resposta imune naturalmente adquirida contra a TRAP do Plasmodium vivax (PvTRAP), os resultados são conflitantes e nunca foram explorados na região Amazônica. Portanto, nós visamos caracterizar a reatividade de anticorpos (IgG e subclasses de IgG) contra a PvTRAP recombinante em um estudo de corte transversal envolvendo 299 indivíduos naturalmente expostos a infecções de malária, moradores de 3 comunidades na Amazônia brasileira (Cruzeiro do Sul, Mâncio Lima e Guajará), além disso os epítopos de células B também foram mapeados na sequência completa da PvTRAP através do uso de abordagens in vitro e in silico. Primeiramente, nós confirmamos que a PvTRAP é naturalmente imunogênica pois 49% dos indivíduos foram respondedores para IgG de PvTRAP. A resposta imune observada foi conduzida principalmente pela sublasse de anticorpo citofílico IgG1. Além disso, os níveis de IgG1 apresentaram correlação com idade e tempo de residência em área endêmica (p<0,05). Entretanto, curiosamente, apenas os níveis de anti-IgG3específicos para PvTRAP parecem estar associados com proteção, visto que os indivíduos respondedores para IgG3 apresentaram um tempo decorrido desde o último episódio de malária significatimente maior do que os indivíduos não-respondedores para IgG3. Em relação ao mapeamento dos epítopos de células B, entre os 148 indivíduos respondedores para a proteína PvTRAP recombinante, quatro epítopos preditos foram reconhecidos pelos anticorpos (PvTRAPR197-H227; PvTRAPE237-T258; PvTRAPP344-G374 e PvTRAPE439-K454). Contudo, as frequências de respondedores contra os peptídeos foram baixas e não apresentaram uma clara correlação contra o antígeno recombinante. Além disso, nenhum dos epítopos confirmados foram localizados nas regiões de ligação da PvTRAP. Em conjunto, nossos dados confirmam a imunogenicidade da PvTRAP entre os habitantes da Amazônia, entretanto nós sugerimos que os principais epítopos de células B não são lineares.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium vivax , Thrombospondins , Malaria
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