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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225157

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium falciparum can invade all stages of red blood cells, while Plasmodium vivax can invade only reticulocytes. Although many P. vivax proteins have been discovered, their functions are largely unknown. Among them, P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBP1 and PvRBP2) recognize and bind to reticulocytes. Both proteins possess a C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane domain, which drives adhesion to reticulocytes. PvRBP1 and PvRBP2 are large (> 326 kDa), which hinders identification of the functional domains. In this study, the complete genome information of the P. vivax RBP family was thoroughly analyzed using a prediction server with bioinformatics data to predict B-cell epitope domains. Eleven pvrbp family genes that included 2 pseudogenes and 9 full or partial length genes were selected and used to express recombinant proteins in a wheat germ cell-free system. The expressed proteins were used to evaluate the humoral immune response with vivax malaria patients and healthy individual serum samples by protein microarray. The recombinant fragments of 9 PvRBP proteins were successfully expressed; the soluble proteins ranged in molecular weight from 16 to 34 kDa. Evaluation of the humoral immune response to each recombinant PvRBP protein indicated a high antigenicity, with 38-88% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Of them, N-terminal parts of PvRBP2c (PVX_090325-1) and PvRBP2 like partial A (PVX_090330-1) elicited high antigenicity. In addition, the PvRBP2-like homologue B (PVX_116930) fragment was newly identified as high antigenicity and may be exploited as a potential antigenic candidate among the PvRBP family. The functional activity of the PvRBP family on merozoite invasion remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Female , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Middle Aged , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Reticulocytes/parasitology
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(3): 429-432, May 2012. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-624028

ABSTRACT

Anopheles darlingi Root is the major vector of human malaria in the Neotropics and has been considered to be the sole malaria vector in French Guiana. The presence of other potential vectors suggests that malaria may be transmitted by other species under certain conditions. From 2006-2011, all anopheline specimens collected from 11 localities were assayed to determine if the Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein was present. In addition to An. darlingi, we found Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles intermedius and Anopheles nuneztovari specimens that were infected with Plasmodium sp. Further investigations on the behaviour and ecology of An. oswaldoi, An. intermedius and An. nuneztovari are necessary to determine their role in malaria transmission in French Guiana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/chemistry , Plasmodium malariae/chemistry , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Anopheles/classification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , French Guiana , Insect Vectors/classification , Malaria/transmission , Population Density , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification , Plasmodium malariae/isolation & purification , Plasmodium vivax/isolation & purification , Seasons
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62043

ABSTRACT

A family of calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) is a unique enzyme which plays crucial roles in intracellular calcium signaling in plants, algae, and protozoa. CDPKs of malaria parasites are known to be key regulators for stage-specific cellular responses to calcium, a widespread secondary messenger that controls the progression of the parasite. In our study, we identified a gene encoding Plasmodium vivax CDPK4 (PvCDPK4) and characterized its molecular property and cellular localization. PvCDPK4 was a typical CDPK which had well-conserved N-terminal kinase domain and C-terminal calmodulin-like structure with 4 EF hand motifs for calcium-binding. The recombinant protein of EF hand domain of PvCDPK4 was expressed in E. coli and a 34 kDa product was obtained. Immunofluorescence assay by confocal laser microscopy revealed that the protein was expressed at the mature schizont of P. vivax. The expression of PvCDPK4-EF in schizont suggests that it may participate in the proliferation or egress process in the life cycle of this parasite.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Conserved Sequence , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Molecular Sequence Data , Molecular Weight , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Protein Kinases/analysis , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protozoan Proteins/analysis , Sequence Alignment
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14770

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax, a protozoan malaria parasite of humans, represents a major public health concern in the Republic of Korea (= South Korea). However, little is known about the genetic properties and population structures of the P. vivax isolates circulating in South Korea. This article reviews known polymorphic genetic markers in South Korean isolates of P. vivax and briefly summarizes the current issues surrounding the gene and population structures of this parasite. The critical genetic characteristics of major antigens of the parasite, such as circumsporozoite protein (CSP), merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) and MSP-3, Duffy binding protein (DBP), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1), and GAM-1, are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antigens, Protozoan/chemistry , Base Sequence , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Molecular Sequence Data , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protozoan Proteins/chemistry , Republic of Korea , Sequence Alignment
5.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 129-134, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225869

ABSTRACT

Malaria is still a major health problem in Thailand and its incidence is currently rising in Korea. To identify a useful antigen for the diagnosis of malaria patients, a cDNA expression library from malaria parasites was constructed and screened out immunologically. One clone was selected in view of its predominant reactivity with the patient sera. The recombinant malaria parasite antigen (Pv30) with 27 kDa as a C-terminal His-tag fusion protein that was produced in Escherichia coli was identified through immunoblot analysis. The deduced amino acid sequence had the sequence homology with the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) genes of Plasmodium falciparum and P. yoelii, each by 41% and 42%, respectively. Measurement of serum IgG and IgM antibody to Pv30 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated as a serodiagnostic test for malaria patients in Thailand (endemic area) and Korea (recently reemerging area). The sensitivity of P. vivax, P. falciparum, and P. malariae was 96.3% (26 /27), 90.6% (29/32), and 100% (6/6), respectively, and the specificity was 63.5% (40/63) in Thailand samples. The sensitivity of P. vivax was 98.8% (88/89), and the specificity was 96.6% (86/89) in Korean samples. Pv30 appears to be a good and reliable recombinant antigen for serodiagonosis of malaria in a nonendemic area.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Korea , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Merozoite Surface Protein 1/analysis , Molecular Sequence Data , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 86(2): 153-8, Apr.-Jun. 1991. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-109202

ABSTRACT

The cellular immune response to the circumsporozoite (CS) protein of plasmodium vivax of individuals from malaria-endemic areas of Brazil was studied. We examined the in vitro proliferative response of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 22 individuals when stimulated with a CS recombinant protein (rPvCS-2) and two other synthetic peptides based on the sequenceof the P. vivax CS protein. Seven of the individuals from malaria-endemic area displayed an antigen specific in vitro proliferative responseto the recombinant protein PvCS-2 and one out of 6, proliferative response to the peptide 308-320. In contrast, none of the individuals displayed a proliferative reponse when stimulated with the D/A peptide which represent some of the repeated units present in this CS protein. Our study, therefore, provides evidence for the presence, withinthe major surface antigen of P. vivax sporozoites, of epitopes capble to induce proliferation of human PBMC


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Plasmodium vivax/chemistry , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/chemistry , Malaria/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/physiology , In Vitro Techniques , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Antigens, Protozoan/analysis
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