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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plasmodium berghei/drug effects , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Malaria, Vivax/prevention & control , Mosquito Vectors/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/transmission
2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190054, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012675

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The central repetitive region (CRR) of the Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite surface protein (CSP) is composed of a repetitive sequence that is characterised by three variants: VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like. The most important challenge in the treatment of P. vivax infection is the possibility of differential response based on the parasite genotype. OBJECTIVES To characterise the CSP variants in P. vivax isolates from individuals residing in a malaria-endemic region in Brazil and to profile these variants based on sensitivity to chloroquine and mefloquine. METHODS The CSP variants were determined by sequencing and the sensitivity of the P. vivax isolates to chloroquine and mefloquine was determined by Deli-test. FINDINGS Although five different allele sizes were amplified, the sequencing results showed that all of the isolates belonged to the VK210 variant. However, we observed substantial genetic diversity in the CRR, resulting in the identification of 10 different VK210 subtypes. The frequency of isolates that were resistant to chloroquine and mefloquine was 11.8 and 23.8%, respectively. However, we did not observe any difference in the frequency of the resistant isolates belonging to the VK210 subtypes. MAIN CONCLUSION The VK210 variant is the most frequently observed in the studied region and there is significant genetic variability in the CRR of the P. vivax CSP. Moreover, the antimalarial drug sensitivity profiles of the isolates does not seem to be related to the VK210 subtypes.


Subject(s)
Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Mefloquine/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Multiple/immunology , Brazil
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130570

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to explore the possible molecular markers of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax isolates in Thailand. A total of 30 P. vivax isolates were collected from a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border in Mae Sot district of Thailand. Dried blood spot samples were collected for analysis of Pvmdr1 and Pvcrt-o polymorphisms. Blood samples (100 mul) were collected by finger-prick for in vitro chloroquine susceptibility testing by schizont maturation inhibition assay. Based on the cut-off IC50 of 100 nM, 19 (63.3%) isolates were classified as chloroquine resistant P. vivax isolates. Seven non-synonymous mutations and 2 synonymous were identified in Pvmdr1 gene. Y976F and F1076L mutations were detected in 7 (23.3%) and 16 isolates (53.3%), respectively. Analysis of Pvcrt-o gene revealed that all isolates were wild-type. Our results suggest that chloroquine resistance gene is now spreading in this area. Monitoring of chloroquine resistant molecular markers provide a useful tool for future control of P. vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Myanmar , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Thailand
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130563

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to explore the possible molecular markers of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax isolates in Thailand. A total of 30 P. vivax isolates were collected from a malaria endemic area along the Thai-Myanmar border in Mae Sot district of Thailand. Dried blood spot samples were collected for analysis of Pvmdr1 and Pvcrt-o polymorphisms. Blood samples (100 mul) were collected by finger-prick for in vitro chloroquine susceptibility testing by schizont maturation inhibition assay. Based on the cut-off IC50 of 100 nM, 19 (63.3%) isolates were classified as chloroquine resistant P. vivax isolates. Seven non-synonymous mutations and 2 synonymous were identified in Pvmdr1 gene. Y976F and F1076L mutations were detected in 7 (23.3%) and 16 isolates (53.3%), respectively. Analysis of Pvcrt-o gene revealed that all isolates were wild-type. Our results suggest that chloroquine resistance gene is now spreading in this area. Monitoring of chloroquine resistant molecular markers provide a useful tool for future control of P. vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Myanmar , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Thailand
5.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(7): 948-951, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728801

ABSTRACT

The molecular basis of Plasmodium vivax chloroquine (CQ) resistance is still unknown. Elucidating the molecular background of parasites that are sensitive or resistant to CQ will help to identify and monitor the spread of resistance. By genotyping a panel of molecular markers, we demonstrate a similar genetic variability between in vitro CQ-resistant and sensitive phenotypes of P. vivax parasites. However, our studies identified two loci (MS8 and MSP1-B10) that could be used to discriminate between both CQ-susceptible phenotypes among P. vivax isolates in vitro. These preliminary data suggest that microsatellites may be used to identify and to monitor the spread of P. vivax-resistance around the world.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chloroquine/pharmacology , DNA, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance/genetics , Genetic Variation , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases/statistics & numerical data , Genetic Markers , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Random Allocation
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 540-545, 19/08/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720423

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread parasite causing malaria, being especially prevalent in the Americas and Southeast Asia. Children are one of the most affected populations, especially in highly endemic areas. However, there are few studies evaluating the therapeutic response of infants with vivax malaria. This study retrospectively evaluated the parasitaemia clearance in children diagnosed with vivax malaria during the first five days of exclusive treatment with chloroquine (CQ). Infants aged less than six months old had a significantly slower parasitaemia clearance time compared to the group of infants and children between six months and 12 years old (Kaplan-Meier survival analysis; Wilcoxon test; p = 0.004). The impaired clearance of parasitaemia in younger children with vivax malaria is shown for the first time in Latin America. It is speculated that CQ pharmacokinetics in young children with vivax malaria is distinct, but this specific population may also allow the detection of CQ-resistant parasites during follow-up, due to the lack of previous immunity. .


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Age Factors , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Brazil , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Resistance , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Parasitemia/parasitology , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 522-524, 19/08/2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720430

ABSTRACT

In the 1950s, the strategy of adding chloroquine to food salt as a prophylaxis against malaria was considered to be a successful tool. However, with the development of Plasmodium resistance in the Brazilian Amazon, this control strategy was abandoned. More than 50 years later, asexual stage resistance can be avoided by screening for antimalarial drugs that have a selective action against gametocytes, thus old prophylactic measures can be revisited. The efficacy of the old methods should be tested as complementary tools for the elimination of malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Primaquine/administration & dosage , Brazil , Drug Resistance , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(5): 534-539, 19/08/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-720432

ABSTRACT

The global emergence of Plasmodium vivax strains resistant to chloroquine (CQ) since the late 1980s is complicating the current international efforts for malaria control and elimination. Furthermore, CQ-resistant vivax malaria has already reached an alarming prevalence in Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea. More recently, in vivo studies have documented CQ-resistant P. vivax infections in Guyana, Peru and Brazil. Here, we summarise the available data on CQ resistance across P. vivax-endemic areas of Latin America by combining published in vivo and in vitro studies. We also review the current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of CQ resistance in P. vivax and the prospects for developing and standardising reliable molecular markers of drug resistance. Finally, we discuss how the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, an international collaborative effort involving malaria experts from all continents, might contribute to the current regional efforts to map CQ-resistant vivax malaria in South America.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Bolivia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Guyana/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , South America/epidemiology
9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 32(4): 527-535, oct.-dic. 2012. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-669100

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La determinación de la eficacia de la cloroquina contra Plasmodium vivax permite mejorar la capacidad de vigilancia de la resistencia a los antipalúdicos. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia terapéutica de la cloroquina como tratamiento de malaria no complicadapor P. vivax en Riberalta, Guayaramerín y Yacuiba, Bolivia. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de la eficacia in vivo en pacientes mayores de cinco años; se suministró cloroquina (25 mg/kg en tres días) y se hizo seguimiento por 28 días, midiendo los niveles de cloroquina en sangre y desetilcloroquina, el día dos y el día de registro de reaparición de parasitemia. Para la evaluación de la incidencia acumulada de falla del tratamiento, se usó el análisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados. Se estudiaron 223 pacientes (Riberalta, 84; Guayaramerín, 80; Yacuiba, 59). Las medias de densidad parasitaria (formas asexuadas) del día 0 en Riberalta fueron de 6.147, en Guayaramerín, 4.251, y en Yacuiba, 5.214 parásitos/μl de sangre. En el mismo orden, los promedios de concentraciones sanguíneas de cloroquina-desetilcloroquina del día 2 fueron de 783, 817 y 815 ng/ml. Mientras en Yacuiba no se presentaron fracasos terapéuticos, en Riberalta ocurrieron con frecuencia de 6,2 % y en Guayaramerín de 10 %. Los valores de cloroquina y desetilcloroquina en sangre de pacientes con fracaso terapéutico fueron menores de 70 ng/ml en el día de reaparición de parasitemia. Conclusión. No se evidenció resistencia de P. vivax a la cloroquina en las tres regiones de evaluación en Bolivia. Se requieren mayores estudios de la concentración de la cloroquina en sangre.


Introduction. Knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax infections improves the capacity for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance. Objective. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as treatment was evaluated for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bolivia. Materials and methods. An in vivo efficacy study of chloroquine was undertaken in three regions of Bolivia--Riberalta, Guayaramerín and Yacuiba. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (84, 80, and 59 in the three regions, respectively) aged over 5 years old were administered with chloroquine (25 mg/kg/three days) and followed for 28 days. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured on day 2 and on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was calculated using the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. Results. The mean parasitemias (asexual) on day 0 were 6,147 parasites/μl of blood in the Riberalta population, 4,251 in Guayaramerín and 5,214 in Yacuiba. The average blood concentrations of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine during day 2 were 783, 817, and 815 ng/ml, respectively. No treatment failures were observed in Yacuiba, whereas in Riberalta and Guayaramerín, the frequencies of treatment failures were 6.2% and 10%. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with treatment failure showed values below 70 ng/ml on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. Conclusion. Resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine was not demonstrated in three regions of Bolivia.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Antimalarials/blood , Bolivia/epidemiology , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/blood , Drug Resistance , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Parasite Load , Parasitemia/epidemiology , Parasitemia/parasitology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/parasitology , Rural Population
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69769

ABSTRACT

Resistance of Plasmodium spp. to anti-malarial drugs is the primary obstacle in the fight against malaria, and molecular markers for the drug resistance have been applied as an adjunct in the surveillance of the resistance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of mutations in pvmdr1, pvcrt-o, pvdhfr, and pvdhps genes in temperate-zone P. vivax parasites from central China. A total of 26 isolates were selected, including 8 which were previously shown to have a lower susceptibility to chloroquine in vitro. For pvmdr1, pvcrt-o, and pvdhps genes, no resistance-conferring mutations were discovered. However, a highly prevalent (69.2%), single-point mutation (S117N) was found in pvdhfr gene. In addition, tandem repeat polymorphisms existed in pvdhfr and pvdhps genes, which warranted further studies in relation to the parasite resistance to antifolate drugs. The study further suggests that P. vivax populations in central China may still be relatively susceptible to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , China , Chloroquine/pharmacology , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Drug Resistance/genetics , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Genotype , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Point Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Prevalence , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Tandem Repeat Sequences/genetics
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 104(7): 1009-1011, Nov. 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-534167

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium vivax control is now being hampered by drug resistance. Orthologous Plasmodium falciparum genes linked to chloroquine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine chemoresistance have been identified in P. vivax parasites, but few studies have been performed. The goal of the present work is to characterise pvmdr1 and pvdhfr genes in parasite isolates from a Brazilian endemic area where no molecular investigation had been previously conducted. The pvmdr1 analysis revealed the existence of single (85.7 percent) and double (14.3 percent) mutant haplotypes, while the pvdhfr examination showed the presence of double (57.2 percent) and triple (42.8 percent) mutant haplotypes. The implications of these findings are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Genes, Protozoan/genetics , Insecticide Resistance/genetics , Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins/genetics , Plasmodium vivax/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Brazil , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Mutation/drug effects , Mutation/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14771

ABSTRACT

The annual incidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria that reemerged in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 1993 increased annually, reaching 4,142 cases in 2000, decreased to 864 cases in 2004, and once again increased to reach more than 2,000 cases by 2007. Early after reemergence, more than two-thirds of the total annual cases were reported among military personnel. However, subsequently, the proportion of civilian cases increased consistently, reaching over 60% in 2006. P. vivax malaria has mainly occurred in the areas adjacent to the Demilitarized Zone, which strongly suggests that malaria situation in ROK has been directly influenced by infected mosquitoes originating from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Besides the direct influence from DPRK, local transmission within ROK was also likely. P. vivax malaria in ROK exhibited a typical unstable pattern with a unimodal peak from June through September. Chemoprophylaxis with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and primaquine, which was expanded from approximately 16,000 soldiers in 1997 to 200,000 soldiers in 2005, contributed to the reduction in number of cases among military personnel. However, the efficacy of the mass chemoprophylaxis has been hampered by poor compliance. Since 2000, many prophylactic failure cases due to resistance to the HCQ prophylactic regimen have been reported and 2 cases of chloroquine (CQ)-resistant P. vivax were reported, representing the first-known cases of CQ-resistant P. vivax from a temperate region of Asia. Continuous surveillance and monitoring are warranted to prevent further expansion of CQ-resistant P. vivax in ROK.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Chemoprevention , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistance , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Military Personnel , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
13.
Iranian Journal of Parasitology. 2009; 4 (4): 10-18
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-101340

ABSTRACT

The recently reported resistance to antimalarials contributes to making the control of malaria more difficult. There is a need to evaluate the current antimalaria regiments to prevent this emerging problem. The aim of this study was to determine dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene mutation [pvdhfr] regarding antifulate resistance in Plasmodium vivax. From 2007 to 2009, 117 P.vivax infected blood samples collected from two regions of Hormozgan Province, south of Iran were analyzed using PCR, semi-nested-PCR and RFLP methods. Eighty four isolates [71.8%] showed no mutation in pvdhfr gene of P. vivax known as wild type and 33 [28.2%] of the samples revealed nine single [7.7%], twenty two double [18.8%] and two [1.7%] triple mutations. Genetic diversity was observed by molecular methods in pvdhfr gene of p.vivax in Hormozgan Province suggests that the antifolate falciparum malaria drug [fansidar] is proportionally affecting P.vivax dhfr mutation. Therefore, more studies to evaluate antimalarial drugs that should preferably be effective against both P.vivax and P.falciparum are recommended


Subject(s)
Multienzyme Complexes/genetics , Thymidylate Synthase/genetics , Mutation , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Malaria/drug therapy
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32476

ABSTRACT

Malaria and concurrent bacteremia has been described in many reports, most of them with P. falciparum. Concurrent bacteremia with P. vivax infected patients is very rare. We reported 2 cases of salmonella bacteremia with P. vivax infection. Both patients presented with fever and the diagnosis of P. vivax was confirmed microscopically. The first patient presented with fever, jaundice, shock and renal failure which rarely occurs with P. vivax infection. The second patient had no clinical response after receiving standard antimalarial drugs. Hemoculture was positive for Salmonella spp in both cases. They recovered completely after appropriate antibiotics and antimalarial treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/complications , Male , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Salmonella/drug effects , Salmonella Infections/complications , Thailand
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169037

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine remains the drug of choice for the treatment of vivax malaria in Thailand. Mixed infections of falciparum and vivax malaria are also common in South-East Asia. Laboratory confirmation of malaria species is not generally available. This study aimed to find alternative regimens for treating both malaria species by using falciparum antimalarial drugs. From June 2004 to May 2005, 98 patients with Plasmodium vivax were randomly treated with either artemether-lumefantrine (n = 47) or chloroquine (n = 51). Both treatments were followed by 15 mg of primaquine over 14 days. Adverse events and clinical and parasitological outcomes were recorded and revealed similar in both groups. The cure rate was 97.4% for the artemether-lumefantrine treated group and 100% for the chloroquine treated group. We concluded that the combination of artemether-lumefantrine and primaquine was well tolerated, as effective as chloroquine and primaquine, and can be an alternative regimen for treatment of vivax malaria especially in the event that a mixed infection of falciparum and vivax malaria could not be ruled out.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aged , Animals , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Artemisinins/adverse effects , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ethanolamines/adverse effects , Female , Fluorenes/adverse effects , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Parasitemia , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Primaquine/therapeutic use , Thailand , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220310

ABSTRACT

Changing patterns of the reemerging Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) during the period 1993 to 2005 are briefly analyzed with emphasis on the control measures used and the effects of meteorological and entomological factors. Data were obtained from the Communicable Diseases Monthly Reports published by the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and webpages of World Health Organization and United Nations. Meteorological data of Kangwon-do (Province) were obtained from local weather stations. After its first reemergence in 1993, the prevalence of malaria increased exponentially, peaking in 2000, and then decreased. In total, 21,419 cases were reported between 1993 and 2005 in South Korea. In North Korea, a total of 916,225 cases were reported between 1999 and 2004. The occurrence of malaria in high risk areas of South Korea was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with the mosquito population but not with temperature and rainfall. Control programs, including early case detection and treatment, mass chemoprophylaxis of soldiers, and international financial aids to North Korea for malaria control have been instituted. The situation of the reemerging vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea is remarkably improving during the recent years, at least in part, due to the control activities undertaken in South and North Korea.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Military Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Korea/epidemiology , Incidence , Humans , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Anopheles/parasitology , Animals
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-220309

ABSTRACT

Liver function tests were performed in 61 vivax, 54 malariae and 15 ovale malaria patients who were admitted to Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases between 2001 and 2004. The objective of the study was to evaluate changes in hepatic biochemical indices before and after treatment with artemisinin derivatives. On admission and prior to treatment, hepatic dysfunction was found among the 3 groups. Serum liver function tests and physical examinations were performed weekly during the 28-day follow-up period. Initially elevated serum bilirubin and diminished albumin returned to normal within 2 weeks of treatment. Serum alkaline phosphatase and aminotransferases returned to within normal limits within 3 weeks. We conclude that patients with Plasmodium vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale infections had slightly elevated serum bilirubin, aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase levels, and hypoalbuminemia. These minor abnormalities returned to normal within a few weeks after treatment with therapies based on artemisinin derivatives.


Subject(s)
Treatment Outcome , Sesquiterpenes/therapeutic use , Serum Albumin , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Plasmodium ovale/drug effects , Plasmodium malariae/drug effects , Middle Aged , Male , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Malaria/drug therapy , Liver Function Tests , Liver/physiopathology , Humans , Female , Bilirubin/blood , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Animals , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Adult , Adolescent
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-35736

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax has been reported in some Asian countries. In 2003, 161 patients infected with vivax malaria were treated according to the Thai National Drug Policy, with oral chloroquine (approximately 25 mg base/kg body weight, administered over 3 days) followed by primaquine on day 28 (15 mg daily for 14 days). All the patients were initially cured after chloroquine treatment, clearing their parasitemias within 7 days. Only one patient presented with parasitemia at 28 days. These data indicate that chloroquine is still effective for the treatment of patients with vivax malaria in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Child , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Primaquine/administration & dosage , Thailand , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-30745

ABSTRACT

Our previous study showed that in vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine has significantly decreased in Thailand within the past two decades. Thus, the evaluation of alternative antimalarials for treatment of vivax malaria is needed. The aim of this study was to examine parasitological and clinical efficacy of an artemisinin derivative (artesunate) for the treatment of vivax malaria in patients who were admitted to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases. We randomly allocated patients aged 12-56 years to receive 3.3mg/kg (adult dose 200 mg) on the first day, and for the next four days each patient was given 1.65 mg/kg orally (adult dose 100 mg), total dose = 600 mg. After the five-day course of artesunate, primaquine was given: a single oral dose of 15mg for 14 days. A total number of 42 patients received treatment. All participants were followed up for 28 days. In all the cases, both parasitemia and fever were resolved rapidly; the mean fever clearance time and parasite clearance time, 14.6 and 36.7 hours, respectively, showed that therapeutic response to artesunate was better than that of chloroquine. The 14-day cure rate was 100%, but reappearance of parasitemia was seen in two patients on days 21 and 25 following treatment, respectively. These two cases of failure rate should be considered as true relapse rather than recrudescence, since the relapse interval in Southeast Asian vivax malaria according to recent findings seems to be 3 weeks after start of treatment, if primaquine is not given or an inadequate amount is given. In conclusion, artesunate might be useful in treatment of vivax malaria, causing a good blood schizontocidal effect. However, to prevent emerging resistance it should never be used alone.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Artemisinins/administration & dosage , Child , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Primaquine/therapeutic use , Sesquiterpenes/administration & dosage , Thailand , Treatment Outcome
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