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2.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(1): 105-112, Feb. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578825

ABSTRACT

Nine colonies of five sibling species members of Anopheles barbirostris complexes were experimentally infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. They were then dissected eight and 14 days after feeding for oocyst and sporozoite rates, respectively, and compared with Anopheles cracens. The results revealed that Anopheles campestris-like Forms E (Chiang Mai) and F (Udon Thani) as well as An. barbirostris species A3 and A4 were non-potential vectors for P. falciparum because 0 percent oocyst rates were obtained, in comparison to the 86.67-100 percent oocyst rates recovered from An. cracens. Likewise, An. campestris-like Forms E (Sa Kaeo) and F (Ayuttaya), as well as An. barbirostris species A4, were non-potential vectors for P. vivax because 0 percent sporozoite rates were obtained, in comparison to the 85.71-92.31 percent sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens. An. barbirostris species A1, A2 and A3 were low potential vectors for P. vivax because 9.09 percent, 6.67 percent and 11.76 percent sporozoite rates were obtained, respectively, in comparison to the 85.71-92.31 percent sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens. An. campestris-like Forms B and E (Chiang Mai) were high-potential vectors for P. vivax because 66.67 percent and 64.29 percent sporozoite rates were obtained, respectively, in comparison to 90 percent sporozoite rates recovered from An. cracens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles , Insect Vectors , Plasmodium falciparum/physiology , Plasmodium vivax/physiology , Anopheles , Insect Vectors , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development , Thailand
3.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 47(6): 333-338, Nov.-Dec. 2005. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-420087

ABSTRACT

Quatro colônias desenvolvidas em laboratório, de duas formas cariotípicas de Anopheles aconitus i.e. forma B (cepa Chiang Mai e Phet Buri) e C (Cepa Chiang Mai e Mae Hong Son), foram infectadas experimentalmente com Plasmodium falciparum e P. vivax usando técnica de alimentação com membrana artificial e dissecados oito e 12 dias após alimentação da média de oocistos e esporozoitos, respectivamente. Os resultados revelaram que An. aconitus formas B e C foram suscetíveis ao P. falciparum e P. vivax isto é, forma B (cepa Chiang Mai e Phet Buri/P. falciparum e P. vivax) e forma C (cepa Chiang Mai e Mae Hong Son/P. vivax). Análises estatísticas comparativas das taxas de oocistos, número médio de oocistos por intestino médio infectado e taxas de esporozoitos entre todas as cepas de An. aconitus formas B e C ao grupo interno de vetores controles, An. minimus A e C, não exibiram nenhuma diferença significante, confirmando o alto potencial vetor das duas espécies de Plamodium. Os cristais semelhantes a esporozoitos encontrados no lobo médio das glândulas salivares que poderiam ser um fator enganoso na identificação de esporozoitos verdadeiros nas glândulas salivares foram encontrados em ambos An. aconitus formas B e C.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Anopheles/parasitology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Plasmodium falciparum/physiology , Plasmodium vivax/physiology , Anopheles/genetics , Host-Parasite Interactions , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development , Thailand
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 46(1): 64-70, ene.-feb. 2004. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-361844

ABSTRACT

Los gametocitos de Plasmodium son los responsables de la transmisión del huésped vertebrado al mosquito vector. Sufren un proceso de desarrollo complejo a partir de parásitos asexuales, que no está completamente entendido, expresando proteínas y moléculas de adhesión específicas. Son capaces de inducir una respuesta inmune humoral específica con anticuerpos IgG, y celular específica, con producción de TNFa, IFNg y proliferación de linfocitos gd+, aun cuando existen respuestas inducidas en contra de las etapas previas del parásito (esporozoito, exo-eritrocítica y eritrocítica). Las vacunas destinadas a bloquear la transmisión del parásito no contemplan a los gametocitos circulantes en el huésped como blancos de acción, sino que van enfocadas contra antígenos expresados en los gametos y en las etapas posfertilización. El estudio de los mecanismos que regulan la producción de gametocitos y de la respuesta inmune contra éstos, ofrece una oportunidad para el desarrollo de estrategias adicionales para el control de la transmisión.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Malaria Vaccines , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Antibody Formation/physiology , Immunity, Cellular/physiology
5.
The Korean Journal of Parasitology ; : 203-207, 2003.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7145

ABSTRACT

An ELISA was developed for the diagnosis of vivax malaria using multiple stage-specific recombinant antigens of Plasmodium vivax. The DNA from the whole blood of a malaria patient was used as template to amplify the coding regions for the antigenic domains of circumsporozoite protein (CSP-1), merozoite surface protein (MSP-1), apical merozoite antigen (AMA-1), serine repeat antigen (SERA), and exported antigen (EXP-1). Each amplified DNA fragment was inserted into pQE30 plasmid to induce the expression of His-tagged protein in Escherichia coli (M15 strain) by IPTG. His-tagged proteins were purified by Ni-NTA metal-affinity chromatography and used as antigens for ELISA with patient sera that were confirmed previously by blood smear examinations. When applied to patient sera, 122 (80.3%) out of 152 vivax malaria cases reacted to at least one antigen, while no reactions were observed with 128 uninfected serum samples. We applied this ELISA to the screening of 3, 262 civilian residents in endemic regions near the DMZ, which resulted in 236 positively detected (7.2%) cases. This method can be applied to serological diagnosis and mass screening in endemic regions, or can be used as a safety test for transfusion blood in endemic areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/genetics , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Life Cycle Stages , Malaria, Vivax/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Serologic Tests
6.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 1999 Dec; 30(4): 631-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32196

ABSTRACT

Dried Anopheles farauti mosquitos caught in Solomon Islands in 1990 were examined for malaria sporozoites by ELISA and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Only heads and thoraces were used. Plasmodium genus-specific nested PCR amplifications were carried out on all samples. Of the 402 pools of mosquitos that were processed, 30 were positive for malaria. Nest 1 products of positive samples were subjected to further PCR amplifications with species-specific primers for P. falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty pools were positive for P. vivax by PCR while only 7 were positive by ELISA. For P. falciparum 2 pools were positive by both ELISA and PCR, and one of these was a pool which was positive for P. vivax by PCR and ELISA. Thus the sensitivity of PCR for P. vivax was 100% while the specificity was 96.7%. For P. falciparum the sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The PCR technique is highly sensitive and can be used on dried mosquitos which makes it a valuable tool for determining sporozoite rates of mosquitos, even in remote areas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Malaria/parasitology , Melanesia , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-92676

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the ability of soluble blood stage or cell associated antigens of Plasmodium vivax to stimulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and produce factors capable of causing inhibition of parasite growth in vitro was the objective of this investigation. METHOD: A local isolate of P vivax was either synchronized by triple sorbitol lysis for antigen preparation or used as unsynchronized culture for parasite inhibition, employing a macrophage inhibition assay. The soluble or cell associated antigens of P vivax were added to human monocyte derived macrophages with P vivax parasitized red blood cells. The percent inhibition of parasite growth was examined after 72 hrs by microscopy of Giemsa stained smears of red blood cells from the experimental and control groups. RESULTS: The differences in parasite inhibition were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum test for paired differences. Unstimulated PBMC supernatants did not inhibit parasite growth. Significant inhibition of parasite growth (90%) was seen after incubating P vivax infected erythrocytes with PBMC supernatants resulting from stimulation with soluble antigens (T = 3; P < 0.05). However, the cell associated antigens of P vivax did not stimulate PBMC to activate macrophages for parasite killing in vitro (T = 14, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the soluble blood stage antigens of P vivax can stimulate human PBMC to produce factors capable of activating macrophages to function as effector cells in P vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 16(2): 147-51, 1999.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-257966

ABSTRACT

Malaria es una enfermedad de importancia en todo el mundo por su elevada morbimortalidad. Habiendo sido erradicada de Chile hace más de 50 año, se enfatizan sus aspectos biológicos, clínicos y terapéuticos para favorecer un reconocimiento oportuno y correcto manejo de los casos importados de la enfermedad


Subject(s)
Humans , Malaria/etiology , Plasmodium falciparum/pathogenicity , Plasmodium vivax/pathogenicity , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Insect Vectors , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/prevention & control , Mosquito Control , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development , Primary Prevention , Host-Parasite Interactions
9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 86-89, 1999.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-153271

ABSTRACT

In Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale malaria, some of the liver stage parasites remain dormant. The activation of these dormant forms (called hypnozoite) can give rise to relapse weeks, months or years after the initial infection. To prevent relapses, a course of primaquine may be given as terminal prophylaxis to patients. Different strains of Plasmodium vivax vary in their sensitivity to primaquine and, recently, cases of relapse of Plasmodium vivax after this standard primaquine therapy were reported from various countries. We reported a case of primaquine resistant malaria which initially was thought to be relapsed caused by loss of terminal prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Animals , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development , Plasmodium vivax/drug effects , Primaquine/therapeutic use , Recurrence
10.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 1998 Mar; 29(1): 159-67
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31059

ABSTRACT

Two karyotypic forms of laboratory-raised Anopheles sinensis, ie Form A (XY1) and Form B (XY2), were experimentally infected with various indigenous strains of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax using an artificial membrane feeding technique, and a rodent malaria, P. yoelii, using a direct feeding technic and dissected 7-9 days and 10-15 days after feeding for oocyst and sporozoite rates, respectively. The results revealed that two forms of An. sinensis were refractory vectors for P. falciparum and P. yoelii since 0% of oocyst and sporozoite rates were obtained, but poor vectors for P. vivax since 0.00-85.71% and 0.00-5.88% of oocyst and sporozoite rates were recovered. The sporozoite-like crystal found in the median lobe of the salivary gland of An. sinensis which could be a misleading factor in identification of true sporozoites in the salivary glands is reported for the first time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anopheles/parasitology , Life Cycle Stages , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development , Plasmodium yoelii/growth & development
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1991 Mar; 29(3): 286-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62542
14.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 1981 Mar; 12(1): 111-3
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33702

ABSTRACT

Two hundred and two sera from Orang Asli patients living in malarious areas were tested by the washed-cell, thick smear malaria IFA test. These patients were infected with P.vivax, P.falciparum and some with both parasites. Antibodies to the homologous antigens were detected at titres of 1 : 16-1 : 4096 about 60 days after onset of treatment. Eighteen months after cure antibody levels had fallen to lower levels of reactivity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/analysis , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Malaria/immunology , Male , Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development , Plasmodium vivax/growth & development
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