Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 971
Filter
1.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 31-41, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Tissue uptake and distribution of nano-/microplastics was studied at a single high dose by gavage in vivo.@*METHODS@#Fluorescent microspheres (100 nm, 3 μm, and 10 μm) were given once at a dose of 200 mg/(kg∙body weight). The fluorescence intensity (FI) in observed organs was measured using the IVIS Spectrum at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after administration. Histopathology was performed to corroborate these findings.@*RESULTS@#In the 100 nm group, the FI of the stomach and small intestine were highest at 0.5 h, and the FI of the large intestine, excrement, lung, kidney, liver, and skeletal muscles were highest at 4 h compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). In the 3 μm group, the FI only increased in the lung at 2 h ( P < 0.05). In the 10 μm group, the FI increased in the large intestine and excrement at 2 h, and in the kidney at 4 h ( P < 0.05). The presence of nano-/microplastics in tissues was further verified by histopathology. The peak time of nanoplastic absorption in blood was confirmed.@*CONCLUSION@#Nanoplastics translocated rapidly to observed organs/tissues through blood circulation; however, only small amounts of MPs could penetrate the organs.


Subject(s)
Microplastics , Plastics , Liver , Microspheres , Lung , Water Pollutants, Chemical
2.
Rev. ADM ; 80(1): 6-10, ene.-feb. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510346

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el material para empaquetar el instrumental odontológico, como pueden ser bolsas de tela, papel o plástico, es usado por profesionales de la salud; sin embargo, es necesario esclarecer la efectividad de cada uno y determinar el tiempo que permanece estéril luego del procedimiento. Objetivo: identificar la eficacia de tela, plástico y papel como materiales para esterilizar instrumental a corto y largo plazo. Material y métodos: se realizaron cultivos sólidos y líquidos de instrumental esterilizado en tres materiales y con diferentes tiempos de postesterilización. Se incubaron a 36 oC por 72 horas en condiciones aerobias y anaerobias. Los resultados se analizaron usando una prueba de Kruskal-Wallis, seguida de una prueba de Dunn. Resultados: los resultados mostraron que inmediatamente después del proceso de esterilización, los tres materiales son efectivos (Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.2752), 24 horas (p = 0.2492), siete (p = 0.0509) y 14 días (p = 0.0006). Veinticuatro horas posterior a la esterilización la tela no es efectiva, el plástico disminuye su efectividad y el papel sigue siendo efectivo. Conclusión: en nuestros resultados, el papel es la mejor opción para esterilizar instrumental (AU)


Introduction: material such as cloth, paper or plastic bags to wrap dental instruments is used by health professionals, however, it is necessary to clarify the effectiveness of each one and determine if it remains sterile after the procedure. Objective: to determine the effectiveness of cloth, plastic and paper as materials to sterilize dental instruments in the short and long term. Material and methods: we carry out solid and liquid cultures of sterilized instruments in three materials, at different post-sterilization times, incubated at 36 oC for 72 hours under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the results were analyzed using a Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by from a Dunn's test. Results: our results showed that immediately after the sterilization process the three materials are effective (Kruskal-Wallis; p = 0.2752), 24 hours (p = 0.2492), 7 (p = 0.0509) and 14 (p = 0.0006) days. Twenty-four hours after the cloth is not effective, plastic decreases its effectiveness and paper remain effective. Conclusion: in our results, paper is the best option to sterilize dental instruments (AU)


Subject(s)
Sterilization/methods , Dental Instruments/microbiology , Paper , Plastics , Textiles , Time , Effectiveness , Colony Count, Microbial/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Product Packaging/instrumentation , Culture Media
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5498-5508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008746

ABSTRACT

In order to solve the problem of weak correlation between quality control components and efficacy of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, this study detected the interaction between small molecular chemical components of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and total proteins of various organs of mice by fluorescence quenching method to screen potential active components. The 27 chemical components in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were detected by HPLC and their deletion rates in 34 batches of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were calculated. Combined with the principle of component effectiveness and measurability, the potential quality markers(Q-markers) of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were screened. RAW264.7 macrophage injury model was induced by microplastics. The cell viability and nitric oxide content were detected by CCK-8 and Griess methods. The levels of inflammatory factors(TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, CRP) and oxidative stress markers(SOD, MDA, GSH) were detected by the ELISA method to verify the activity of Q-markers. It was found that the interaction strength between different chemical components and organ proteins in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma was different, reflecting different organ selectivity and 18 active components were screened out. Combined with the signal-to-noise ratio of the HPLC chromatographic peaks and between-run stability of the components, seven chemical components such as liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin and ammonium glycyrrhizinate were finally screened as potential Q-markers of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. In vitro experiments showed that Q-markers of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could dose-dependently alleviate RAW264.7 cell damage induced by microplastics, inhibit the secretion of inflammatory factors, and reduce oxidative stress. Under the same total dose, the combination of various chemical components could synergistically enhance anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects compared with the single use. This study identified Q-markers related to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, which can provide a reference for improving the quality control standards of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Antioxidants/analysis , Microplastics/analysis , Plastics/analysis , Rhizome/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 740-766, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007788

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive impairment. The main hypotheses about the pathogenesis of AD include the hypothesis of β-amyloid protein, the hypothesis of abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein, and the hypothesis of neuroinflammation. In recent years, environmental pollutants have been considered as an important factor in causing neurological dysfunction. Common environmental pollutants include heavy metals, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, microplastics, and air pollutants, all of which have been proven to have neurotoxicity. In this review, we not only discussed epidemiological and animal experimental studies that link environmental pollution with AD, but also summarized the mechanisms of action of relevant toxins, providing insights for studying the interrelationships between environmental pollutants and AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Alzheimer Disease/chemically induced , Environmental Pollutants/toxicity , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Plastics , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 500-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970388

ABSTRACT

As a widespread pollutant in the environment, research on microplastics have attracted much attention. This review systematically analyzed the interaction between microplastics and soil microorganisms based on existing literatures. Microplastics can change the structure and diversity of soil microbial communities directly or indirectly. The magnitude of these effects depends on the type, dose and shape of microplastics. Meanwhile, soil microorganisms can adapt to the changes caused by microplastics through forming surface biofilm and selecting population. This review also summarized the biodegradation mechanism of microplastics, and explored the factors affecting this process. Microorganisms will firstly colonize the surface of microplastics, and then secrete a variety of extracellular enzymes to function at specific sites, converting polymers into lower polymers or monomers. Finally, the depolymerized small molecules enter the cell for further catabolism. The factors affecting this degradation process are not only the physical and chemical properties of the microplastics, such as molecular weight, density and crystallinity, but also some biological and abiotic factors that affect the growth and metabolism of related microorganisms and the enzymatic activities. Future studies should focus on the connection with the actual environment, and develop new technologies of microplastics biodegradation to solve the problem of microplastic pollution.


Subject(s)
Microplastics , Plastics , Soil , Polymers , Biodegradation, Environmental
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 488-499, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970387

ABSTRACT

Microplastics pollution has attracted worldwide attention. Compared with the status quo of microplastics pollution in marine environment and other major rivers and lakes, the relevant data of the Yellow River basin is relatively inadequate. The abundance, types, and spatial distribution characteristics of microplastic pollution in the sediments and surface water of the Yellow River basin were reviewed. Meanwhile, the status of microplastic pollution in the national central city and Yellow River Delta wetland was discussed, and the corresponding prevention and control measures were put forward. The results showed that the spatial distribution of microplastics pollution in sediments and surface water of the Yellow River basin increased from upstream to downstream, especially in the Yellow River Delta wetland. There are obvious differences between the types of microplastics in sediment and surface water in the Yellow River basin, which is mainly related to the materials of microplastics. Compared with similar regions in China, the microplastics pollution levels in national key cities and national wetland parks in the Yellow River basin are in the medium to high degree, which should be taken seriously. Plastics exposure through various ways will cause serious impact on aquaculture and human health in the Yellow River beach area. To control microplastic pollution in the Yellow River basin, it is necessary to improve the relevant production standards, laws and regulations, and improve the capacity of biodegradable microplastics and the degradation capacity of plastic wastes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Microplastics , Plastics , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Water , China
7.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 626-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical characteristics of plastic bronchitis (PB) in children and investigate the the risk factors for recurrence of PB.@*METHODS@#This was a retrospective analysis of medical data of children with PB who were hospitalized in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2012 to July 2022. The children were divided into a single occurrence of PB group and a recurrent PB group and the risk factors for recurrence of PB were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 107 children with PB were included, including 61 males (57.0%) and 46 females (43.0%), with a median age of 5.0 years, and 78 cases (72.9%) were over 3 years old. All the children had cough, 96 children (89.7%) had fever, with high fever in 90 children. Seventy-three children (68.2%) had shortness of breath, and 64 children (59.8%) had respiratory failure. Sixty-six children (61.7%) had atelectasis and 52 children (48.6%) had pleural effusion. Forty-seven children (43.9%) had Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, 28 children (26.2%) had adenovirus infection, and 17 children (15.9%) had influenza virus infection. Seventy-one children (66.4%) had a single occurrence of PB, and 36 cases (33.6%) had recurrent occurrence of PB (≥2 times). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that involvement of ≥2 lung lobes (OR=3.376) under bronchoscopy, continued need for invasive ventilation after initial removal of plastic casts (OR=3.275), and concomitant multi-organ dysfunction outside the lungs (OR=2.906) were independent risk factors for recurrent occurrence of PB (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with pneumonia accompanied by persistent high fever, shortness of breath, respiratory failure, atelectasis or pleural effusion should be highly suspected with PB. Involvement of ≥2 lung lobes under bronchoscopy, continued need for invasive ventilation after initial removal of plastic casts, and concomitant multi-organ dysfunction outside the lungs may be risk factors for recurrent occurrence of PB.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Multiple Organ Failure , Retrospective Studies , Bronchitis/etiology , Dyspnea , Pleural Effusion , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Plastics , Respiratory Insufficiency
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2070-2080, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981190

ABSTRACT

5-aminovalanoic acid (5AVA) can be used as the precursor of new plastics nylon 5 and nylon 56, and is a promising platform compound for the synthesis of polyimides. At present, the biosynthesis of 5-aminovalanoic acid generally is of low yield, complex synthesis process and high cost, which hampers large-scale industrial production. In order to achieve efficient biosynthesis of 5AVA, we developed a new pathway mediated by 2-keto-6-aminohexanoate. By combinatory expression of L-lysine α-oxidase from Scomber japonicus, α-ketoacid decarcarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis and aldehyde dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli, the synthesis of 5AVA from L-lysine in Escherichia coli was achieved. Under the initial conditions of glucose concentration of 55 g/L and lysine hydrochloride of 40 g/L, the final consumption of 158 g/L glucose and 144 g/L lysine hydrochloride, feeding batch fermentation to produce 57.52 g/L of 5AVA, and the molar yield is 0.62 mol/mol. The new 5AVA biosynthetic pathway does not require ethanol and H2O2, and achieved a higher production efficiency as compared to the previously reported Bio-Chem hybrid pathway mediated by 2-keto-6-aminohexanoate.


Subject(s)
Nylons , Lysine/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism , Metabolic Engineering , Plastics/metabolism , Fermentation , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Aminocaproates/metabolism
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2053-2069, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981189

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the petroleum-based plastic pollution problem has been causing global attention. The idea of "degradation and up-cycling of plastics" was proposed for solving the environmental pollution caused by non-degradable plastics. Following this idea, plastics would be firstly degraded and then reconstructed. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be produced from the degraded plastic monomers as a choice to recycle among various plastics. PHA, a family of biopolyesters synthesized by many microbes, have attracted great interest in industrial, agricultural and medical sectors due to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, thermoplasticity and carbon neutrality. Moreover, the regulations on PHA monomer compositions, processing technology, and modification methods may further improve the material properties, making PHA a promising alternative to traditional plastics. Furthermore, the application of the "next-generation industrial biotechnology (NGIB)" utilizing extremophiles for PHA production is expected to enhance the PHA market competitiveness, promoting this environmentally friendly bio-based material to partially replace petroleum-based products, and achieve sustainable development with carbon-neutrality. This review summarizes the basic material properties, plastic upcycling via PHA biosynthesis, processing and modification methods of PHA, and biosynthesis of novel PHA.


Subject(s)
Polyhydroxyalkanoates , Plastics , Biotechnology , Petroleum , Carbon
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2040-2052, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981188

ABSTRACT

Petrochemical-derived polyester plastics such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT) have been widely used. However, the difficulty to be degraded in nature (PET) or the long biodegradation cycle (PBAT) resulted in serious environmental pollution. In this connection, treating these plastic wastes properly becomes one of the challenges of environment protection. From the perspective of circular economy, biologically depolymerizing the waste of polyester plastics and reusing the depolymerized products is one of the most promising directions. Recent years have seen many reports on polyester plastics degrading organisms and enzymes. Highly efficient degrading enzymes, especially those with better thermal stability, will be conducive to their application. The mesophilic plastic-degrading enzyme Ple629 from the marine microbial metagenome is capable of degrading PET and PBAT at room temperature, but it cannot tolerate high temperature, which hampers its potential application. On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of Ple629 obtained from our previous study, we identified some sites which might be important for its thermal stability by structural comparison and mutation energy analysis. We carried out transformation design, and performed expression, purification and thermal stability determination of the mutants. The melting temperature (Tm) values of mutants V80C and D226C/S281C were increased by 5.2 ℃ and 6.9 ℃, respectively, and the activity of mutant D226C/S281C was also increased by 1.5 times compared with that of the wild-type enzyme. These results provide useful information for future engineering and application of Ple629 in polyester plastic degradation.


Subject(s)
Plastics/metabolism , Polyethylene Terephthalates/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Metagenome
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1998-2014, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981185

ABSTRACT

Plastics have brought invaluable convenience to human life since it was firstly synthesized in the last century. However, the stable polymer structure of plastics led to the continuous accumulation of plastic wastes, which poses serious threats to the ecological environment and human health. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is the most widely produced polyester plastics. Recent researches on PET hydrolases have shown great potential of enzymatic degradation and recycling of plastics. Meanwhile, the biodegradation pathway of PET has become a reference model for the biodegradation of other plastics. This review summarizes the sources of PET hydrolases and their degradation capacity, degradation mechanism of PET by the most representative PET hydrolase-IsPETase, and recently reported highly efficient degrading enzymes through enzyme engineering. The advances of PET hydrolases may facilitate the research on the degradation mechanism of PET and further exploration and engineering of efficient PET degradation enzymes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrolases/metabolism , Polyethylene Terephthalates/metabolism , Plastics/metabolism , Ethylenes
12.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1963-1975, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981182

ABSTRACT

Polyurethane (PUR) plastics is widely used because of its unique physical and chemical properties. However, unreasonable disposal of the vast amount of used PUR plastics has caused serious environmental pollution. The efficient degradation and utilization of used PUR plastics by means of microorganisms has become one of the current research hotspots, and efficient PUR degrading microbes are the key to the biological treatment of PUR plastics. In this study, an Impranil DLN-degrading bacteria G-11 was isolated from used PUR plastic samples collected from landfill, and its PUR-degrading characteristics were studied. Strain G-11 was identified as Amycolatopsis sp. through 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment. PUR degradation experiment showed that the weight loss rate of the commercial PUR plastics upon treatment of strain G-11 was 4.67%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the surface structure of G-11-treated PUR plastics was destroyed with an eroded morphology. Contact angle and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that the hydrophilicity of PUR plastics increased along with decreased thermal stability upon treatment by strain G-11, which were consistent with the weight loss and morphological observation. These results indicated that strain G-11 isolated from landfill has potential application in biodegradation of waste PUR plastics.


Subject(s)
Plastics/metabolism , Polyurethanes/chemistry , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental
13.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1949-1962, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981181

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene (PE) is the most abundantly used synthetic resin and one of the most resistant to degradation, and its massive accumulation in the environment has caused serious pollution. Traditional landfill, composting and incineration technologies can hardly meet the requirements of environmental protection. Biodegradation is an eco-friendly, low-cost and promising method to solve the plastic pollution problem. This review summarizes the chemical structure of PE, the species of PE degrading microorganisms, degrading enzymes and metabolic pathways. Future research is suggested to focus on the screening of high-efficiency PE degrading strains, the construction of synthetic microbial consortia, the screening and modification of degrading enzymes, so as to provide selectable pathways and theoretical references for PE biodegradation research.


Subject(s)
Polyethylene/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Plastics/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Microbial Consortia
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1930-1948, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981180

ABSTRACT

Polyolefin plastics are a group of polymers with C-C backbone that have been widely used in various areas of daily life. Due to their stable chemical properties and poor biodegradability, polyolefin plastic waste continues to accumulate worldwide, causing serious environmental pollution and ecological crises. In recent years, biological degradation of polyolefin plastics has attracted considerable attention. The abundant microbial resources in the nature offer the possibility of biodegradation of polyolefin plastic waste, and microorganisms capable of degrading polyolefin have been reported. This review summarizes the research progress on the biodegradation microbial resources and the biodegradation mechanisms of polyolefin plastics, presents the current challenges in the biodegradation of polyolefin plastics, and provides an outlook on future research directions.


Subject(s)
Plastics/metabolism , Polymers/metabolism , Polyenes , Biodegradation, Environmental
15.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1883-1888, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981177

ABSTRACT

The large scale production and indiscriminate use of plastics led to serious environmental pollution. To reduce the negative effects of plastics waste on the environment, an approach of enzymatic degradation was put forward to catalyze plastics degradation. Protein engineering strategies have been applied to improve the plastics degrading enzyme properties such as activity and thermal stability. In addition, polymer binding modules were found to accelerate the enzymatic degradation of plastics. In this article, we introduced a recent work published in Chem Catalysis, which studied the role of binding modules in enzymatic hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) at high-solids loadings. Graham et al. found that binding modules accelerated PET enzymatic degradation at low PET loading (< 10 wt%) and the enhanced degradation cannot be observed at high PET loading (10 wt%-20 wt%). This work is beneficial for the industrial application of polymer binding modules in plastics degradation.


Subject(s)
Polyethylene Terephthalates/metabolism , Polymers , Plastics , Ethylenes
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1867-1882, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981176

ABSTRACT

At present, the negative impact caused by white pollution has spread to all aspects of human society economy, ecosystem, and health, which causes severe challenges for developing the circular bioeconomy. As the largest plastic production and consumption country in the world, China has shouldered an important responsibility in plastic pollution control. In this context, this paper analyzed the relevant strategies of plastic degradation and recycling in the United States, Europe, Japan and China, measured the literature and patents in this field, analyzed the status quo of technology from the perspective of research and development trends, major countries, major institutions, and discussed the opportunities and challenges faced by the development of plastic degradation and recycling in China. Finally, we put forward future development suggestions which include the integration of policy system, technology path, industry development and public cognition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plastics , Ecosystem , Environmental Pollution , Recycling , Policy
17.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 38(89): 69-74, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553303

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la supervivencia de Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans)en un tipo de fómite. Método: Se reactivó una cepa de S.mutans ATCC25175 criopre-servada en agar TYCSB. El inóculo se estandarizó en PBS buffer hasta obtener turbidez equivalente al 0,5 de Mc Farland y un OD = 0.01 por espectrofotome-tría. Bloques plásticos de 2cm2/superficie fueron seleccionados como fómites. La descontaminación de los bloques se realizó por inmersión en alcohol etílico 70% v/v durante 10 minutos, los que fueron secados en cabina de seguridad biológica. La conta-minación de los mismos se realizó por inmersión en inóculo estandarizado durante 10 minutos. Los blo-ques contaminados se extrajeron y depositaron so-bre placas de Petri estériles hasta cumplir los tiem-pos propuestos (T0-T4 con intervalos de 30 minutos). A cada tiempo, los bloques fueron eluidos en 20 ml de buffer PBS y agitados en vortex durante 30 segun-dos. 100 µl de cada eluato fueron sembrados por dis-persión en agar TYCSB e incubados en anaerobiosis por 48 horas a 37°C. El recuento de colonias (UFC/ml) se realizó bajo lupa estereoscópica 50X. Resulta-dos: El recuento inicial de S.mutans fue de 7,8 X 106(DS+1,7 X 106) UFC/ml y para cada tiempo de estu-dio fue de: T0=3.25 X 104 (DS+1.9 X 103); T1=2.63X104 (DS+4,50E+03); T2= 1.85 X 104 (DS+9,45E+02); T3=1.93 X103(DS+1,29E+03) y T4=1.2X103 (DS+7,21x102). Conclusión: En los rangos de tiempos establecidos, la cepa de S.mutans ensayada permaneció viable sobre la superficie plástica (AU)


Aim: To evaluate the survival time of Streptococcus mutans (S.mutans) in a type of fomites. Method: A strain of cryopreserved S.mutans ATCC 25175 was reactivated in TYCSB agar. The inoculum was standardized in the PBS buffer to obtain turbidity equivalent to 0.5 Mc Farland and OD = 0.01 by spectrophotometry. Plastic blocks of 2 cm2 /surface were selected as fomites. Decontamination of the blocks was carried out for 10 minutes by immersion in ethyl alcohol 70% v/v, which were dried in a biosafety chamber. Contamination was carried out by immersion in standardized inoculum for 10 minutes. The contaminated blocks were extracted and put on sterile Petri dishes until the proposed times were met (T0-T4 at 30-minute intervals). At each time, the blocks were eluted in 20 ml of PBS buffer and vortexed for 30 seconds. 100 µl of each eluate were dispersed on TYCSB agar and incubated anaerobically for 48 hours at 37°C. Colony count (CFU/ml) was performed under a 50X stereoscopic magnifying glass. Results: The initial S.mutans count was 7,8 X 106 (DS+1,7 X 106) CFU/ml and for each study time was: T0=3.25 X 104 (DS+1.9 X 103); T1=2.63X104 (DS+4,50E+03); T2= 1.85 X 104 (DS+9,45E+02); T3=1.93 X103(DS+1,29E+03) y T4=1.2X103 (DS+7,21x102). Conclusion: Within the established time ranges, the tested S.mutans strain remained viable on the plastic surface (AU))


Subject(s)
Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Plastics , Spectrophotometry/methods , Colony Count, Microbial/methods , Decontamination/methods , Culture Media , Survivorship
18.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 38(1): 22-29, 20221230. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415226

ABSTRACT

La historia del plástico se remonta a mediados del siglo XIX, y se considera que se origina por el interés de cambiar la materia prima en la fabricación de las bolas de billar, hechas originalmente en marfil. Desde entonces y a lo largo de muchos años, el polietileno, cloruro de polivinilo, poliestireno, polimetilmetacrilato, polietilentereftalato (PET), las poliamidas y otras sustancias similares han formado parte del día a día de la humanidad, a tal punto que algunos expertos en el tema consideran que estamos viviendo "La era del plástico". Todos los insumos y elementos plásticos han facilitado la vida, pero también han causado una gran contaminación ambiental que afecta la fauna, la flora y por supuesto al ser humano. La gran mayoría de los países han comprendido esta situación y han promulgado leyes o diseñado estrategias con el fin de contener el uso inadecuado y la generación de la contaminación causada por el plástico. Muchas de estas medidas han sido frenadas e incluso revertidas debido a la pandemia por COVID-19, que además de todas las afectaciones conocidas, ha causado un desmesurado incremento en el uso de materiales plásticos, como los elementos de protección personal, con el consecuente aumento de la contaminación y los riesgos que esta genera en la salud humana. Estos temas son tratados en este artículo, con el fin de concientizar al personal médico y a la población en general


The history of plastic dates back to the mid-nineteenth century, and it is considered that it originates from the interest in changing the raw material in the manufacture of billiard balls, originally made of ivory. Since then and for many years, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyamides and other similar substances have been part of humanity's daily life, to the point that some consider that we are living 'The era of plastic'.All the inputs and plastic elements have made life easier, but they have also caused great environmental pollution that affects fauna and flora, and of course the human being. The vast majority of countries have understood this situation, have enacted laws and designed strategies in order to contain the inappropriate use and generation of pollution caused by plastic.Many of these measures have been stopped and even reversed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which in addition to all the known effects, has caused a disproportionate increase in the use of plastic materials, such as personal protection elements with the consequent increase in pollution and the risks it generates for human health. These issues are addressed in this article, in order to raise awareness among medical personnel and the general population


Subject(s)
Humans , Plastics , Environmental Pollution , Legislation , Pandemics , COVID-19
19.
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 433-439, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936099

ABSTRACT

Objective: Currently, the Overlap anastomosis is one of the most favored reconstruction methods of intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy (EJS). Despite many advantages of the method, it remains some shortcomings to be improved when it comes to the retraction of the esophagus stump, the insertion of the anvil fork of the linear stapler into a "pseudo" lumen, and the closure of the common entry hole. This study aims to investigate the safety and feasibility of a multi-mode modified Overlap anastomosis. Methods: A descriptive case series study was conducted. Medical records of 152 consecutive patients who underwent totally laparoscopic total gastrectomy (TLTG) with our multi-mode modified Overlap EJS method by the same surgical team at our department from February 2017 to June 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The multi-mode modified Overlap method mainly included (1) After ensuring the safety of tumor resection margin (proximal margin was at least 3 cm from the tumor), the esophagus was partially transected from left to right (with 5-8 mm width esophagus continuation). The specimen was then placed in a plastic bag which was tied up at the mouth using strings with a part of the esophageal wall poking through. Then the plastic bag containing the specimen was transferred to the right lumbar region, while the patient's body position was adjusted so that the abdominal esophagus could be pulled by the gravity of the specimen. (2) Using the "three-direction traction" method. The esophageal lumen was properly exposed, then guided by the gastric tube, the anvil fork was accurately placed into the esophageal lumen for completing the side-to-side EJS. (3) The 3-0 barbed suture was used in the closure of the common entry hole of the stapler from dorsally to ventrally with simple one-layer continuous suture (the stitch going from inside to inside) followed by continuous Lembert's suture (the stitch going from outside to outside). Combined with clinicopathological characteristics, the perioperative outcomes and postoperative complications of the whole group were analyzed and evaluated. Results: The study cohort included 129 men and 23 women, with a mean age of (60.2±9.1) years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of (23.2±3.1) kg/m(2). Of the 152 patients, 23 patients (15.1%) had a history of previous abdominal surgery; dentate line was invaded by tumor in 21 patients (13.8%). The mean length of the proximal resection margin was (3.3±0.3) cm and the postoperative pathological examination indicated negative resection margin tumor. The mean operative time and anastomotic time were (302.1±39.9) minutes and (29.8±5.4) minutes, respectively. The mean estimated blood loss was (87.9±46.4) ml. The mean length of postoperative hospital stay was (12.3±7.3) days. The overall severe postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ II) occurred in 22 patients (14.5%). Six cases of pancreatic leakage were successfully recovered by adequate drainage, inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion and nutritional support. Ten cases of pneumonia and three cases of abdominal infection were cured with anti-infection and physical therapy. Two patients developed anastomotic leakage postoperatively. One case was caused by excessive tension of the Roux loop of the jejunum and excessive opening on the side of the jejunum after side-to-side anastomosis, and the other case was caused by an accidental intraoperative occurrence of "nasogastric tube stapled to the side-to-side anastomosis". Both of them recovered after conservative treatment including adequate drainage, anti-infection, and adequate nutritional support. One patient underwent immediate open surgery because of Peterson's hernia 7 days after TLTG, and the patient died due to extensive small bowel necrosis. Conclusions: Multi-mode modified overlap method simplifies the operation and reduces the difficulty of EJS. It is a safe and feasible method for EJS.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anastomosis, Surgical/methods , Feasibility Studies , Gastrectomy/methods , Laparoscopy/methods , Margins of Excision , Plastics , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
20.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 258-264, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928305

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#According to 73 patients with middle clavicle fracture treated conservatively, a new classification of middle clavicle fracture was proposed, and the clinical effect of plastic splint in the treatment of middle clavicle fracture was observed.@*METHODS@#Total 73 patients with middle clavicle fracture treated with plastic splint from September 2018 to August 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients were divided into 4 types according to the degree of fracture displacement. There were 16 cases of typeⅠ, including 7 males and 9 females, ranging in age from 18 to 37 years old, with a mean of (28.6±7.8) years old;12 cases of mild disease, 3 cases of moderate disease and 1 case of severe disease. There were 16 cases of type Ⅱ, including 6 males and 10 females, ranging in age from 25 to 49 years old, with a mean of (37.3±9.4) years old;5 cases of mild disease, 8 cases of moderate disease and 3 cases of severe disease. There were 7 cases of type Ⅲ, including 4 males and 3 females, ranging in age from 33 to 57 years old;2 cases of mild disease, 3 cases of moderate disease and 2 cases of severe disease. There were 34 cases of type Ⅳ, including 16 males and 18 females, ranging in age from 48 to 82 years old, with a mean of(66.4±14.9) years old;7 cases of mild disease, 17 cases of moderate disease and 10 cases of severe disease. All patients received plastic splint external fixation for 4 weeks. Visual analgue scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley shoulder scores before treatment and 1, 3 and 9 months after treatment were observed and recorded to evaluate the change of pain degree and shoulder function recovery before and after treatment. The patients' satisfaction with the appearance after treatment was recorded at the latest follow-up. The X-ray findings at the latest follow-up were used to judge whether the patient had fracture nonunion. And according to the fracture healing time and imaging findings, the excellent and good rate of clinical curative effect in patients with different types was obtained.@*RESULTS@#All patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 9 to 11 months, with a mean of (9.8±0.7) months. The VAS scores of typeⅠ, typeⅡand type Ⅳ before treatment were 2.88±0.83, 3.67±0.80 and 6.92±1.71 respectively, which were decreased to 0.54±0.19, 0.77±0.25 and 1.18±0.17 respectively after 9 months of treatment. The Constant-Murley shoulder scores of typeⅠ, typeⅡand type Ⅳ were 65.81±2.09, 63.50±2.22 and 47.93±2.91 respectively before treatment, and increased to 88.56±2.11, 85.12±2.23 and 71.25±2.16 respectively after 9 months of treatment. Five patients were not satisfied with the appearance after treatment;6 patients had no obvious continuous callus passing through after 9 months of treatment, which was fracture nonunion.@*CONCLUSION@#The classification of middle clavicle fracture is more appropriate to the clinic, which has a certain clinical guiding significance for the selection of treatment methods and prognosis of middle clavicle fracture. Plastic splint is effective in the treatment of middle clavicle fracture without obvious displacement and overlapping displacement, and the incidence of complications is low. It can be popularized in clinic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bone Plates , Clavicle/diagnostic imaging , Fracture Fixation, Internal/methods , Plastics , Retrospective Studies , Splints
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL