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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 437-447, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153362

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in the production of polycarbonate, a polymer commonly found in plastics, epoxy resins and thermal papers. The presence of BPA in food, water, air and dust has been of great concern in recent years not only due to environmental and ecological issues but also because of its supposed risk to public health related to its mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. In this study we evaluated the toxicity of bisphenol A in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) and determined the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of this chemical. BPA was used at concentrations ranging from 1 µM to 100 µM in E3 medium/0.5% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) from previously prepared stock solutions in 100% DMSO. Controls included embryos exposed only to E3 medium or supplemented with 0.5% DMSO. Camptothecin (CPT), a known inhibitor of cell proliferation was used as positive control at a concentration of 0.001 µM in E3 medium/0.5% DMSO. Adults zebrafish were placed for breeding a day before the experimental set up, then, viable embryos were collected and selected for use. Experiments were carried out in triplicates, according to specifications from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). One embryo/well (25 embryos per concentration) was distributed in 96 well microplates in presence or absence of the chemicals. The plates were kept in BOD incubators with a controlled temperature of 28.5 ºC and with photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. After 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h exposure, the exposed embryos were evaluated according to the following parameters: mortality, coagulation, rate of heartbeat, hatching and presence of morphological abnormalities. Photography was obtained by photomicroscopy. Apoptosis was evaluated by DNA ladder assay. DNA was extracted by phenol:chloroform method and analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA fragments were visualized after ethidium bromide staining in ultraviolet transilluminator. The LC50 determined for BPA was 70 µM after 24 hours, 72 µM after 48 hours, 47 µM after 72 hours and 31 µM after 96 hours exposure. BPA induced morphological and physiological alterations such as yolk sac and pericardial edema, hatching delay or inhibition, spine deformation, decreasing in heartbeat rate and mortality. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that BPA induced marked malformations in zebrafish embryos at concentrations above 25 µM corroborating the current concerns related to the widespread presence of BPA in the air, food and water used by humans as well as in the bodily fluids and tissues.


Bisfenol A (BPA) é um monômero utilizado na produção de policarbonato, um polímero comumente encontrado em plásticos, resinas epóxi e papéis térmicos. A presença de BPA em alimentos, água, ar e poeira tem sido motivo de grande preocupação nos últimos anos, não só devido a questões ambientais e ecológicas, mas também ao suposto risco para a saúde pública relacionado ao seu potencial mutagênico e carcinogênico. Neste estudo avaliamos a toxicidade do bisfenol A em embriões de peixe-zebra (Danio rerio) e determinamos a concentração letal 50% (LC50) deste composto químico. O BPA foi usado na faixa de concentração entre 1 µM e 100µM em meio E3/0,5% de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO), preparado a partir de soluções estoques em 100% DMSO. Os controles negativos incluíram embriões expostos apenas ao meio E3 ou suplementado com 0,5% DMSO. Camptotecina (CPT), um conhecido inibidor da proliferação celular, foi usado como controle positivo a uma concentração de 0,001 µM em meio E3/0,5% DMSO. Peixes-zebra adultos foram colocados para reprodução um dia antes da montagem experimental, em seguida, embriões viáveis foram coletados e selecionados para uso. Os experimentos foram realizados em triplicata, de acordo com as especificações da Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico (OCDE). Um embrião/ poço (25 embriões por concentração) foi distribuído em microplacas de 96 poços na presença ou ausência dos compostos químicos. As placas foram mantidas em incubadoras BOD com temperatura controlada de 28,5 ºC e com fotoperíodo de 14h claro:10h escuro. Após 24h, 48h, 72h e 96h, os embriões expostos foram avaliados de acordo com os seguintes parâmetros: mortalidade, presença de coagulação, taxa do batimento cardíaco, eclosão e presença de anormalidades morfológicas. Fotografias foram obtidas por fotomicroscopia. A apoptose foi avaliada pelo ensaio de DNA ladder. O DNA foi extraído pelo método fenol:clorofórmio e analisado por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 2%. Fragmentos de DNA foram visualizadas após coloração com brometo de etídio em um transiluminador ultravioleta. A LC50 determinada para o BPA foi 70 µM após 24 horas, 72 µM após 48 horas, 47 µM após 72 horas e 31 µM após exposição por 96 horas. O BPA induziu alterações morfológicas e fisiológicas como edema de saco vitelino e edema pericárdico, atraso no tempo ou inibição da eclosão, deformação da coluna vertebral, diminuição da taxa de batimentos cardíacos e mortalidade. Em conclusão, este estudo demonstrou que o BPA induziu grande número de malformações em embriões de peixe-zebra em concentrações acima de 25 µM, corroborando as preocupações atuais relacionadas a presença generalizada do BPA no ar, alimento e água usados pelos seres humanos bem como nos fluidos e tecidos corporais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Plastics/adverse effects , Plastics/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Zebrafish/embryology , Phenols/toxicity , Benzhydryl Compounds , Embryonic Development/physiology , Embryo, Nonmammalian
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2688-2702, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887834

ABSTRACT

Plastics are widely used in daily life. Due to poor management and disposal, about 80% of plastic wastes were buried in landfills and eventually became land and ocean waste, causing serious environmental pollution. Recycling plastics is a desirable approach, but not applicable for most of the plastic waste. Microbial degradation offers an environmentally friendly way to degrade the plastic wastes, and this review summarizes the potential microbes, enzymes, and the underpinning mechanisms for degrading six most commonly used plastics including polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyurethane. The challenges and future perspectives on microbial degradation of plastics were proposed.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Plastics , Polyurethanes , Recycling
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3520-3534, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921445

ABSTRACT

Along with the increasingly serious environmental pollution, dealing with the "white pollution" issue, which is caused by the worldwide use of not readily-degradable or non-degradable synthetic plastics, has become a great challenge. It is an environmentally friendly strategy to degrade synthetic plastics using microorganisms that exist in nature or evolved under selection pressure. Based on the NSFC-EU International Cooperation and Exchanges Project "Bio Innovation of a Circular Economy for Plastics", this review summarized the screening of bacteria, fungi and microbial consortia capable of degrading synthetic plastics such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PUR), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). We also analyzed the role of various microorganisms played in the degradation of petroleum-based plastics. Moreover, we discussed the pros and cons of using microorganisms and enzymes for degradation of synthetic plastics.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Microbial Consortia , Petroleum , Plastics , Polyurethanes
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3414-3424, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921438

ABSTRACT

With the transformation and revolution of the global plastics recycling system, recycling and upcycling of mixed plastics waste not only reduces the carbon emissions of plastics during its life cycle, but also addresses its potential ecological and environmental hazards. This article summarizes an international cooperation project, "MIXed plastics biodegradation and UPcycling using microbial communities" (MIX-UP) which was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the European Union (NSFC-EU) in 2019. The consortium of MIX-UP consists of 14 partners from European Union and China. Focusing on the global issue of "plastics pollution", this Sino-European MIX-UP project took the mixed waste of petroleum-based plastics (PP, PE, PUR, PET and PS) and bio-based plastics (PLA and PHA) as starting materials for biotechnological conversion into value-added, sustainable biomaterials. MIX-UP has three subprojects: 1) identification of plastics biodegradation pathway and design & engineering of key degrading elements, 2) construction and functional regulation of microbial consortia/enzyme cocktails with high-efficiency for degradation of plastics mixtures, 3) strategy of design and utilization of plastics degradation products for production of high value materials. Through NSFC-EU complementary and cross-disciplinary cooperation, MIX-UP proposes the engineering of a new-to-nature biological route for upcycling, a low carbon and sustainable bio-treatment that is different from the traditional physico-chemical treatment, which will empower the recycling industry to a new dimension. The implementation of the project will not only help to promote innovation and development in the field of biotechnology in China, but also contribute to the achievement of China's carbon neutral goal.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Biotechnology , Carbon , European Union , Microbiota , Plastics
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3411-3413, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921437

ABSTRACT

The China-European environmental biotechnology cooperation research project on the biodegradation of waste plastics is jointly funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the European Commission (EC), and aims to encourage Chinese and European scientists to carry out substantive research in the field of "Microorganism communities for plastics biodegradation". The goal of the project is to use the metabolic capacity of microbial communities to degrade petrochemical plastics that are easy to cause environmental pollution into monomers and small molecules, thereby realizing the biosynthesis of high-value biochemicals by microorganisms. This can not only solve the problem of plastic pollution, but also "turn waste into treasure" and create higher economic benefits. The China-European cooperative research project will promote in-depth cooperation between scientists from both sides in the field of synthetic biology, and help the two sides establish long-term and stable international exchanges and cooperation. Both China and the EU will work to solve the global plastic pollution problem, form a strategic force of science and technology, and jointly open a new chapter in the field of resource utilization of non-degradable plastics.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , China , Europe , Plastics
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3401-3404, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921435

ABSTRACT

Humanity shares the common interest to protect the environment and to maintain a healthy global ecosystem. International collaboration is key in this context, to advance the necessary science and technology. The National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and European Commission (EC) have agreed to collaborate in innovative knowledge and technology in the field of bioremediation of polluted environments and biodegradation of plastics. In this context, projects on bioremediation of soils, wastewater and sediment matrices and on microbial degradation of plastics were supported. This special issue aimed to introduce these projects and their progresses in the related fields. In total, 23 papers have been collected in this issue, covering both fundamental and applied researches.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , China , Ecosystem , Plastics
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 384-394, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878569

ABSTRACT

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers obtained by esterification of hydroxy fatty acid monomers. Due to similar mechanical characteristics of traditional petroleum-based plastics, 100% biodegradability and biocompatibility, PHAs are considered to be one of the most potential green materials. However, the application and promotion of PHAs as a green and environmentally friendly material are difficult because of the high production costs. This article focuses on the current methods to reduce production cost of PHAs effectively, such as cell morphology regulation, metabolic pathway construction, economic carbon source utilization and open fermentation technology development. Despite most research results are still limited in laboratory, the research methods and directions provide theoretical guidance for the industrial production of economic PHAs.


Subject(s)
Fermentation , Industry , Petroleum , Plastics , Polyhydroxyalkanoates
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 57: e19094, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345458

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disrupter, can migrate from packaging material into food stuff. This research was designed to measure BPA levels in makdous, a traditional Syrian food. Forty three samples of makdous stored in different plastic containers (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and unspecified plastic containers) were analyzed every 3 months for one year beginning July 2017. Quantification of BPA was carried out by an RP-HPLC system equipped with fluorescence detector after solid phase extraction. Migration was found in PE and PP plastic containers with slight differences. Statistically significant differences in BPA levels were observed between samples assayed after two weeks of preparation and samples assayed after 12 months (mean 16.32 vs. 38.26 µg/kg, p value=0.003). According to these amounts, BPA levels were all under the specific migration limit of 0.05 mg/kg as newly referred in Regulation (EU) No 2018/213. These levels of exposure would only contribute to 2.15% and 2.75% of the EFSA t-TDI in both men and women respectively based on mean dietary exposure estimates derived from a 24-h dietary information study from 875 participants. Hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from makdous consumption


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Endocrine Disruptors/classification , Solid Phase Extraction/instrumentation , Food/classification , Plastics/adverse effects , Polypropylenes , Weights and Measures , Product Packaging/classification , Health Risk , Dietary Exposure/adverse effects
9.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 27-32, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098368

ABSTRACT

Resumen El confinamiento al igual que el sepultamiento son parte de las sofocaciones por carencia de aire respirable. Su etiología principal es la accidental, como ocurre con los mineros o los niños que juegan con bolsas de plástico o quedan atrapados dentro de lugares sin ventilación. En la actualidad se ha visto el aumento a nivel mundial sobre todo en países desarrollados, del uso de una bolsa plástica en conjunto con algún gas noble (principalmente helio) como método suicida "per se" o como proceso final de eutanasia. En el presente artículo se hará revisión de dos casos en Costa Rica, con sus hallazgos en la necropsia, la carencia de hallazgos toxicológicos y la importancia del escenario de muerte para poder emitir un criterio desde el punto de vista médico legal.


Abstract The confinement as well as the burial are part of the suffocations due to lack of breathable air. Its main etiology is accidental, as it happens with miners or the children who play with plastic bags or get trapped inside unventilated places. At present, the increase in the world has been seen especially in developed countries of the use of a plastic bag in conjunction with some noble gas (mainly helium) as a suicidal method or as a final process of euthanasia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Asphyxia/diagnosis , Suicide , Helium/adverse effects , Plastics , Euthanasia , Costa Rica
10.
Santa Tecla, La Libertad; ITCA Editores; ene. 2020. 46 p. ^c28 cm.ilus., tab., graf..
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1179073

ABSTRACT

Los plásticos se producen a partir del petróleo. Estos polímeros perduran en la naturaleza por largos períodos de tiempo y, por tanto, se acumulan, generando así grandes cantidades de residuos sólidos. El objetivo principal de esta investigación es producir, a escala de laboratorio, un bioplástico a partir de la fibra contenida en la cáscara de coco, que pueda servir de materia prima para la elaboración de productos biodegradables.


Plastics are produced from oil. These polymers persist in nature for long periods of time and, therefore, they are accumulated in large amounts of solid waste. The main objective of this research is to produce, on a laboratory scale, a bioplastic from the fiber contained in the coconut shell, which can serve as raw material for the production of biodegradable products.


Subject(s)
Plastics , Polymers , Biopolymers/analysis , Research , Solid Waste , Cocos
11.
Immune Network ; : 5-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811177

ABSTRACT

The γδ T cells are unconventional lymphocytes that function in both innate and adaptive immune responses against various intracellular and infectious stresses. The γδ T cells can be exploited as cancer-killing effector cells since γδ TCRs recognize MHC-like molecules and growth factor receptors that are upregulated in cancer cells, and γδ T cells can differentiate into cytotoxic effector cells. However, γδ T cells may also promote tumor progression by secreting IL-17 or other cytokines. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the differentiation and homeostasis of γδ T cells are regulated and whether distinct γδ T cell subsets have different functions. Human γδ T cells are classified into Vδ2 and non-Vδ2 γδ T cells. The majority of Vδ2 γδ T cells are Vγ9δ2 T cells that recognize pyrophosphorylated isoprenoids generated by the dysregulated mevalonate pathway. In contrast, Vδ1 T cells expand from initially diverse TCR repertoire in patients with infectious diseases and cancers. The ligands of Vδ1 T cells are diverse and include the growth factor receptors such as endothelial protein C receptor. Both Vδ1 and Vδ2 γδ T cells are implicated to have immunotherapeutic potentials for cancers, but the detailed elucidation of the distinct characteristics of 2 populations will be required to enhance the immunotherapeutic potential of γδ T cells. Here, we summarize recent progress regarding cancer immunology of human γδ T cells, including their development, heterogeneity, and plasticity, the putative mechanisms underlying ligand recognition and activation, and their dual effects on tumor progression in the tumor microenvironment.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Communicable Diseases , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Ligands , Lymphocytes , Mevalonic Acid , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Protein C , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta , Receptors, Growth Factor , T-Lymphocyte Subsets , T-Lymphocytes , Terpenes , Tumor Microenvironment
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811071

ABSTRACT

Since the airways are constantly exposed to various pathogens and foreign antigens, various kinds of cells in the airways—including structural cells and immune cells—interact to form a precise defense system against pathogens and antigens that involve both innate immunity and acquired immunity. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play critical roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, defense against pathogens and the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, especially at body surface mucosal sites such as the airways. ILCs are activated mainly by cytokines, lipid mediators and neuropeptides that are produced by surrounding cells, and they produce large amounts of cytokines that result in inflammation. In addition, ILCs can change their phenotype in response to stimuli from surrounding cells, which enables them to respond promptly to microenvironmental changes. ILCs exhibit substantial heterogeneity, with different phenotypes and functions depending on the organ and type of inflammation, presumably because of differences in microenvironments. Thus, ILCs may be a sensitive detector of microenvironmental changes, and analysis of their phenotype and function at local sites may enable us to better understand the microenvironment in airway diseases. In this review, we aimed to identify molecules that either positively or negatively influence the function and/or plasticity of ILCs and the sources of the molecules in the airways in order to examine the pathophysiology of airway inflammatory diseases and facilitate the issues to be solved.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Cellular Microenvironment , Cytokines , Homeostasis , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Lymphocytes , Neuropeptides , Phenotype , Plastics , Population Characteristics , Respiratory Tract Diseases
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786077

ABSTRACT

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a pivotal role in the stability and tonic regulation of vascular homeostasis. VSMCs can switch back and forth between highly proliferative (synthetic) and fully differentiated (contractile) phenotypes in response to changes in the vessel environment. Abnormal phenotypic switching of VSMCs is a distinctive characteristic of vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, and peripheral artery disease; however, how the control of VSMC phenotypic switching is dysregulated under pathological conditions remains obscure. Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels have attracted attention as a key regulator of pathological phenotype switching in VSMCs. Several TRPC subfamily member proteins—especially TRPC1 and TRPC6—are upregulated in pathological VSMCs, and pharmacological inhibition of TRPC channel activity has been reported to improve hypertensive vascular remodeling in rodents. This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of TRPC channels in cardiovascular plasticity, including our recent finding that TRPC6 participates in aberrant VSMC phenotype switching under ischemic conditions, and discusses the therapeutic potential of TRPC channels.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cell Plasticity , Homeostasis , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Phenotype , Plastics , Rodentia , Stroke , Transient Receptor Potential Channels , Vascular Remodeling
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787132

ABSTRACT

The ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins are a family of membrane-associated proteins known to play roles in cell-shape determination as well as in signaling pathways. We have previously shown that amphetamine decreases phosphorylation levels of these proteins in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), an important neuronal substrate mediating rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we further examined what molecular pathways may be involved in this process. By direct microinjection of LY294002, a PI3 kinase inhibitor, or of S9 peptide, a proposed GSK3β activator, into the NAcc core, we found that phosphorylation levels of ERM as well as of GSK3β in this site are simultaneously decreased. These results indicate that ERM proteins are under the regulation of Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway in the NAcc core. The present findings have a significant implication to a novel signal pathway possibly leading to structural plasticity in relation with drug addiction.


Subject(s)
Amphetamine , Animals , Glycogen Synthase Kinases , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Microinjections , Negotiating , Neurons , Nucleus Accumbens , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Plastics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Rats , Reward , Signal Transduction , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders
16.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1101297

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the effectiveness of two types of commercially available photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) protective barrier envelopes to prevent microbiological contamination. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 barrier envelopes were tested in 40 volunteers. The PSP plates were placed individually in Asia Teb and Soredex protective barrier envelopes and were placed in the mouth for two minutes, similar to periapical films. The protective barrier envelopes were then removed under sterile conditions, and the sensors were placed on different culture media. The number of colonies on each plate was counted. Data were analyzed using SPSS via McNemar and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Bacterial growth was noted in 17.5% of PSPs with Soredex, and 32.5% of PSPs with Asia Teb barrier envelopes. Gram-positive bacilli were the most commonly isolated bacteria. The difference between the Asia Teb and Soredex barrier envelopes for the protection of microbiological contamination was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The use of different types of protective barrier envelopes was not sufficient for prevention of microbiological contamination of PSP plates, and some adjunct modalities were required to decrease microbiological contamination of PSP plates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Effectiveness , Radiography, Dental, Digital/instrumentation , Gram-Positive Bacteria/immunology , Microbiology , Mouth , Plastics , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric , Iran
17.
Medwave ; 20(1): e7772, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087876

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES La ubicación precisa de un cuerpo extraño intraocular es crucial para el manejo de pacientes con trauma ocular abierto. La tomografía computarizada se usa habitualmente para detectar su ubicación en el segmento posterior. Reportamos tres casos con diferentes cuerpos extraños intraoculares en el segmento posterior, que fueron localizados con precisión mediante la tomografía computarizada y ecografía modo B. PRESENTACIÖN DEL CASO Presentamos tres casos con diferentes mecanismos de trauma, tipos de cuerpo extraño intraocular, síntomas clínicos y pronóstico visual. La tomografía computarizada determinó la ubicación exacta de todos los cuerpos extraños intraoculares en el segmento posterior. El ultrasonido modo B se realizó en un paciente con un cuerpo extraño intraocular no metálico. El primer caso tuvo una lesión ocular perforante con un cuerpo extraño intraorbitario; el caso dos y el caso tres presentaron diferentes tipos de cuerpos extraños intraoculares con pronóstico diferente. El manejo y el pronóstico fue distinto en todos los casos; todos se manejaron con éxito. La ubicación exacta de los cuerpos extraños intraoculares utilizando las diferentes modalidades de diagnóstico es importante en estos pacientes. Estos casos sirven como recordatorio de que el uso adecuado de las pruebas de imagen es indispensable en el contexto de un cuerpo extraño intraocular relacionado con trauma ocular abierto. CONCLUSIÓN Las diferentes técnicas de imágenes son muy importantes para la detección de un cuerpo extraño intraocular. La tomografía computarizada es una de las modalidades de imagen más simple y efectiva para la localización de cuerpos extraños intraoculares relacionadas con trauma ocular abierto.


BACKGROUND: Determining the precise location of intraocular foreign bodies is crucial for the management of patients with open-globe injury. Computed tomography is the most common method for detecting intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment. In this article, we describe three cases of open-globe injury with different types of intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment that were accurately located using computed tomography scans and B-scan ultrasonography. CASE PRESENTATION: Each of the three cases of open-globe injury described in this report had different types of ocular trauma, clinical symptoms, and intraocular foreign bodies. Computed tomography scans showed the exact location of the intraocular foreign bodies in the posterior segment in two of the three cases. A B-scan ultrasound was used to determine the location of a non-metallic intraocular foreign body in the third case. All three patients had intraocular foreign bodies, and one of them had an additional orbital foreign body. Case 1 had a perforating eye injury with the additional intraorbital foreign body; Cases 2 and Case 3 had different types of intraocular foreign bodies and prognoses. Various treatment approaches were used, ranging from observation to surgery, depending on the location of the intraocular foreign bodies, and all cases were successfully managed. These three cases show that proper use of various types of imaging tests is indispensable in the context of an intraocular foreign body related to open-globe injury. CONCLUSION: Imaging techniques are crucial for the detection of an intraocular foreign body, and computed tomography is one of the simplest and most useful, especially in cases of open-globe injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Eye Injuries, Penetrating/diagnostic imaging , Eye Foreign Bodies/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Plastics , Wounds, Gunshot/complications , Wounds, Gunshot/diagnostic imaging , Blast Injuries/complications , Blast Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Radiography , Eye Injuries, Penetrating/complications , Eye Foreign Bodies/etiology , Glass , Metals
18.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39: e185833, jan.-mar.2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1098512

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi examinar, por meio de revisão integrativa de artigos empíricos, a produção científica relacionando a Psicologia Ambiental (variáveis de comportamento/cognição) e sustentabilidade, considerando diferentes recursos. Para efeitos deste estudo, foram analisados os artigos que abordam um recurso único. A busca foi realizada nos periódicos Environment and Behavior, Journal of Environmental Psychology e Psyecology, reconhecidos pela relevância internacional em produção científica no campo da Psicologia Ambiental. Foram selecionados 24 artigos, publicados entre os anos de 2012 e 2016, a partir dos critérios de inclusão pré-estabelecidos. Os anos com maior número de publicação foram 2014 (n = 8) e 2015 (n = 8). A maioria dos artigos se refere a estudos realizados na Europa, apenas um trata de pesquisa no Brasil. Os recursos abordados nos estudos abrangeram transporte, produtos, água, energia elétrica, sacola plástica e pastagem natural. Os resultados revisados demonstram que há uma diversidade de conceitos na mediação entre comportamentos/cognições e diferentes recursos, indicando a relevância destas abordagens para a promoção de sustentabilidade. Sugere-se caminhos para pesquisa e intervenção nas relações sustentáveis entre pessoas e recursos disponíveis em seus meios.


Abstract The objective of this study was to examine, through an integrative review of empirical articles, the scientific production on the relation between Environmental Psychology (behavior/cognition variables) and sustainability considering different resources. For that purpose, this analysis considered articles approaching a unique resource. Search was conducted in three journals with international relevance in the scientific production of Environmental Psychology: Environment and Behavior, Journal of Environmental Psychology and Psyecology. Following pre-established inclusion criteria, results included 24 articles published from 2012 and 2016. Years with higher number of publications were 2014 (n = 8) and 2015 (n = 8). The articles found refer mostly to studies conducted in Europe; only one article is a research from Brazil. Resources included transportation, products, water, energy, plastic bag, and natural grassland. Results indicate that there is a diversity of concepts mediating behaviors/cognitions and different resources, which reveals the relevance of these approaches to the promotion of sustainability. Research and intervention paths are suggested to sustainable relations between people and resources available in their surroundings.


Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar, por medio de una revisión integradora de artículos empíricos, la producción científica que relaciona la Psicología Ambiental (variables de comportamiento/cognición) y la sostenibilidad, considerando diferentes recursos. Para los propósitos de este estudio, se analizaron artículos que abordan un solo recurso. La búsqueda fue realizada en los periódicos Environment and Behavior, Journal of Environmental Psychology y Psyecology, reconocidos por la relevancia internacional en producción científica en el campo de la Psicología Ambiental. Se seleccionaron 24 artículos, publicados entre los años 2012 y 2016, basados en criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los años con el mayor número de publicaciones fueron 2014 (n = 8) y 2015 (n = 8). La mayoría de los artículos se refiere a estudios realizados en Europa, sólo uno trata de investigación en Brasil. Los recursos abordados en los estudios incluyeron transporte, productos, agua, energía eléctrica, bolsas de plástico y pastoreo natural. Los resultados revisados demuestran que hay una diversidad de conceptos en la mediación entre comportamientos/cogniciones y diferentes recursos, indicando la relevancia de estos enfoques para la promoción de la sostenibilidad. Se sugieren caminos para la investigación e intervención en las relaciones sostenibles entre personas y recursos disponibles en sus medios.


Subject(s)
Environment , Scientific and Technical Activities , Environmental Psychology , Sustainable Development , Plastics , Psychology , Transportation , Water , Pasture , Natural Resources , Electricity
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760110

ABSTRACT

Woakes' syndrome is a group of disease which include recurrent nasal polyps resulting in the broadening of the nasal pyramid, the onset of hypoplasia of frontal sinus and bronchiectasis, as well as the production of mucous discharge. Children and young adults are mostly susceptible to Woakes' syndrome due to the plasticity of the bone. Even though the exact etiology is unknown, genetic factor is thought to be influential because it is often diagnosed in siblings. Otolaryngologically, the mainstream method of removing nasal polyp by endoscopic sinus surgery as well as topical or systemic treatment can be helpful. We report two siblings who visited our clinic both complaining of nasal obstruction. The patients presented with recurrent nasal polyps and showed signs of bronchiectasis, which led to the diagnosis of Woakes' syndrome. These rare cases are presented here with a review of related literature.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , Child , Diagnosis , Fibrinogen , Frontal Sinus , Humans , Methods , Nasal Obstruction , Nasal Polyps , Plastics , Siblings , Young Adult
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759873

ABSTRACT

Complex suicide refers to a type of suicide that leads to death using two or more methods. We report three cases of unique and rare examples of complex suicide, with the plan of the second and/or third method working simultaneously if the first suicidal attempt had failed. In the first case, the victim used three methods of asphyxia: hanging by a safety belt, plastic bag suffocation, and self-ligature strangulation by stretching rubber bands within the vehicle. In the second case, the victim hanged himself with electrocution by attaching electrical leads to the right side of his head. In the third case, the victim with the intention of drowning jumped 20 m above the water surface on the bridge by tying metal chains to the bridge rail and self-immolation by gasoline. Planned complex suicide involves more successful methods to commit suicide and may conversely be camouflaged as suicide in murder case.


Subject(s)
Asphyxia , Drowning , Gasoline , Head , Homicide , Intention , Methods , Plastics , Rubber , Suicide , Water
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