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Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 889-899, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987001


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the role of the Notch signaling pathway in regulating neuronal differentiation and sensorimotor ability in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.@*METHODS@#Zebrafish embryos treated with DMSO or 50 μmol/L DAPT (a Notch signaling pathway inhibitor) were examined for mortality rate, hatching rate, malformation rate, and body length at 15 days post fertilization (dpf). The mRNA expression levels of sox2, neurogenin1 and huc in the treated zebrafish embryos were detected using in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR, and their behavioral responses to strong light and vibration stimulation were observed. The zebrafish embryos were then exposed to DMSO, 1.5% ethanol, DAPT, or both ethanol and DAPT, and the changes in mRNA expression levels of sox2, neurogenin1, huc, and the Notch signaling pathway genes as well as behavioral responses were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#Exposure to 50 μmol/L DAPT significantly increased the mortality rate of 1 dpf zebrafish embryos (P < 0.01), decreased the hatching rate of 2 dpf embryos (P < 0.01), increased the malformation rate of 3 dpf embryos (P < 0.001), and reduced the body length of 15 dpf embryos (P < 0.05). DAPT treatment significantly downregulated sox2 mRNA expression (P < 0.01) and increased neurogenin1 (P < 0.05) and huc (P < 0.01) mRNA expressions in zebrafish embryos. The zebrafish with DAPT treatment exhibited significantly shortened movement distance (P < 0.001) and lowered movement speed (P < 0.05) in response to all the stimulation conditions. Compared with treatment with 1.5% ethanol alone, which obviously upregulated notch1a, her8a and NICD mRNA expressions in zebrafish embryos (P < 0.05), the combined treatment with ethanol and DAPT significantly increased neurogenin1 and huc mRNA expression, decreased sox2 mRNA expression (P < 0.01), and increased the moving distance and moving speed of zebrafish embryos in response to strong light stimulation (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Ethanol exposure causes upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway and impairs neuronal differentiation and sensorimotor ability of zebrafish embryos, and these detrimental effects can be lessened by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway.

Animals , Zebrafish , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases , Dimethyl Sulfoxide , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents , Ethanol/adverse effects , Signal Transduction
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 328-332, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986856


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Rotarex catheter system in treating femoropopliteal artery stenosis accompanied with thrombosis.@*METHODS@#From Jun. 2017 to Dec. 2019, the clinical data of 32 femoropopliteal artery stenosis accompanied with thrombosis cases treated with Rotarex catheter system were retrospectively analyzed. There were 23 males and 9 females aged from 50 to 89 years and the mean age was (70.7±10.3) years. Six cases had acute course of disease (≤2 weeks), 17 cases had subacute course of disease (>2 weeks, ≤3 months), and 9 cases had chronic course of disease (>3 months). Mean lesion length was (23.4±13.7) cm, mean occlusion length was (19.9±13.3) cm, and in-stent occlusion 7 cases. The superficial femoral artery (SFA) was involved in 13 cases, the popliteal artery (PA) was involved in 8 cases, and both SFA and PA were involved in the other 11 cases. All the cases were treated with Rotarex catheter system. When necessary, suction with large lumen catheter was enabled. Residual stenosis was treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Drug-coated balloon (DCB) was only used in patients with financial status, and stent was used only when it was necessary. Heparin was used for 24 h after procedures, and after that, antiplatelet agents were used. Doppler ultrasonography was taken during the followed-up.@*RESULTS@#Technical success was 100%, and mean procedure time was (107.4±21.5) min. 8F (1F≈0.33 mm) and 6F Rotarex catheter were used in 27 and 5 cases respectively. In 27 cases, forward flow was obtained immediately after debulking with Rotarex catheter, and in the other 5 cases, suction with large lumen catheters were used. PTA was used in all 32 cases. DCB were used in 8 cases, of which 4 were used in in-stent stenosis. Twelve cases were implanted stents. There were no perioperative deaths. The only one procedure related complication was distal embolism. We took out the thrombus with guiding catheter. In all cases, mean hospital stay were (4.6±1.5) d. The ankle brachial index increased from 0.32±0.15 to 0.86±0.10 after treatment (t=-16.847, P < 0.001). The Rutherford stages decreased significantly (Z=-4.518, P < 0.001). All the patients were followed up for 6.0-36.0 months, and the median time was 16.0 months. 2 cases stopped antiplatelet agents, which resulted in acute thrombosis. Another percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy and PTA were taken in one of them. Two cases died of cardiovascular disease during the follow-up, and no amputation was observed. Target lesion restenosis occurred in 7 cases during the follow-up, and target lesion revascularization (TLR) was taken in two of them.@*CONCLUSION@#In treating femoropopliteal artery stenosis accompanied with thrombosis, Rotarex catheter can remove thrombus effectively, and that can expose underlying lesions and reduce stent use and complications rates. It is a safe and effective method.

Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Femoral Artery/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Constriction, Pathologic , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Treatment Outcome , Thrombosis , Catheters
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 257-263, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981261


Objective To examine the antiplatelet effect of ticagrelor by microfluidic chip and flow cytometry under shear stress in vitro. Methods Microfluidic chip was used to examine the effect of ticagrelor on platelet aggregation at the shear rates of 300/s and 1500/s.We adopted the surface coverage of platelet aggregation to calculate the half inhibition rate of ticagrelor.The inhibitory effect of ticagrelor on ADP-induced platelet aggregation was verified by optical turbidimetry.Microfluidic chip was used to construct an in vitro vascular stenosis model,with which the platelet reactivity under high shear rate was determined.Furthermore,the effect of ticagrelor on the expression of fibrinogen receptor (PAC-1) and P-selectin (CD62P) on platelet membrane activated by high shear rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results At the shear rates of 300/s and 1500/s,ticagrelor inhibited platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner,and the inhibition at 300/s was stronger than that at 1500/s (both P<0.001).Ticagrelor at a concentration ≥4 μmol/L almost completely inhibited platelet aggregation.The inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation by ticagrelor was similar to the results under flow conditions and also in a concentration-dependent manner.Ticagrelor inhibited the expression of PAC-1 and CD62P. Conclusion We employed microfluidic chip to analyze platelet aggregation and flow cytometry to detect platelet activation,which can reveal the responses of different patients to ticagrelor.

Humans , Ticagrelor/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry/methods , Microfluidics , Platelet Aggregation
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 503-508, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982622


OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether the differentiation of vascular stem cells (VSC) into smooth muscle cells (SMC) in aortic dissection (AD) is dysregulated, and to verify the role of Notch3 pathway in this process.@*METHODS@#Aortic tissues were obtained from AD patients undergoing aortic vascular replacement and heart transplant donors at Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Southern Medical University. VSC were isolated by enzymatic digestion and c-kit immunomagnetic beads. The cells were divided into normal donor-derived VSC group (Ctrl-VSC group) and AD-derived VSC group (AD-VSC group). The presence of VSC in the aortic adventitia was detected by immunohistochemical staining, and VSC was identified by stem cell function identification kit. The differentiation model of VSC into SMC established in vitro was induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (10 μg/L) for 7 days. They were divided into normal donor VSC-SMC group (Ctrl-VSC-SMC group), AD VSC-SMC group (AD-VSC-SMC group) and AD VSC-SMC+Notch3 inhibitor DAPT group (AD-VSC-SMC+DAPT group,DAPT 20 μmol/L was added during differentiation induction). The expression of contractile marker Calponin 1 (CNN1) in SMC derived from aortic media and VSC were detected by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of contractile markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), CNN1 as well as Notch3 intracellular domain (NICD3) in SMC derived from aortic media and VSC were detected by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Immunohistochemical staining showed there was a population of c-kit-positive VSC in the adventitia of aortic vessels, and VSC from both normal donors and AD patients had the ability to differentiate into adipocytes and chondrocytes. Compared with normal donor vascular tissue, the expressions of SMC markers α-SMA and CNN1 of tunica media contraction in AD were down-regulated (α-SMA/β-actin: 0.40±0.12 vs. 1.00±0.11, CNN1/β-actin: 0.78±0.07 vs. 1.00±0.14, both P < 0.05), while the protein expression of NICD3 was up-regulated (NICD3/GAPDH: 2.22±0.57 vs. 1.00±0.15, P < 0.05). Compared with Ctrl-VSC-SMC group, the expressions of contractile SMC markers α-SMA and CNN1 were down-regulated in AD-VSC-SMC group (α-SMA/β-actin: 0.35±0.13 vs. 1.00±0.20, CNN1/β-actin: 0.78±0.06 vs. 1.00±0.07, both P < 0.05), the protein expression of NICD3 was up-regulated (NICD3/GAPDH: 22.32±1.22 vs. 1.00±0.06, P < 0.01). Compared with AD-VSC-SMC group, the expressions of contractile SMC markers α-SMA, CNN1 were up-regulated in AD-VSC-SMC+DAPT group (α-SMA/β-actin: 1.70±0.07 vs. 1.00±0.15, CNN1/β-actin: 1.62±0.03 vs. 1.00±0.02, both P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Dysregulation of VSC differentiation into SMC occurs in AD, while inhibition of Notch3 pathway activation can restore the expression of contractile proteins in VSC-derived SMC in AD.

Humans , Actins , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Signal Transduction , Aortic Dissection , Cell Differentiation , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Stem Cells
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 495-502, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982086


OBJECTIVE@#To study the effect of gradient shear stress on platelet aggregation by microfluidic chip Technology.@*METHODS@#Microfluidic chip was used to simulate 80% fixed stenotic microchannel, and the hydrodynamic behavior of the stenotic microchannel model was analyzed by the finite element analysis module of sollidwork software. Microfluidic chip was used to analyze the adhesion and aggregation behavior of platelets in patients with different diseases, and flow cytometry was used to detect expression of the platelet activation marker CD62p. Aspirin, Tirofiban and protocatechuic acid were used to treat the blood, and the adhesion and aggregation of platelets were observed by fluorescence microscope.@*RESULTS@#The gradient fluid shear rate produced by the stenosis model of microfluidic chip could induce platelet aggregation, and the degree of platelet adhesion and aggregation increased with the increase of shear rate within a certain range of shear rate. The effect of platelet aggregation in patients with arterial thrombotic diseases were significantly higher than normal group (P<0.05), and the effect of platelet aggregation in patients with myelodysplastic disease was lower than normal group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The microfluidic chip analysis technology can accurately analyze and evaluate the platelet adhesion and aggregation effects of various thrombotic diseases unde the environment of the shear rate, and is helpful for auxiliary diagnosis of clinical thrombotic diseases.

Humans , Microfluidics , Platelet Adhesiveness , Platelet Aggregation , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Activation/physiology , Thrombosis
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 731-741, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984711


Objective: For patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) complicated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), both anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy should be applied, but the use of anticoagulation therapy is still poor in these patients in China. The purpose of this study was to explore the status and adherence of antithrombotic therapy in AF patients with ACS and the impact on 1 year clinical outcomes. Methods: Patients with AF hospitalized for ACS were retrospectively included from 6 tertiary hospitals in China between July 2015 and December 2020. According to the use of anticoagulant drugs at discharge, patients were divided into two groups: anticoagulant treatment group and non-anticoagulant treatment group. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the main factors influencing the use of anticoagulant drugs in patients with atrial fibrillation complicated with ACS. Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) were defined as all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization, and ischemic stroke and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) 3 bleeding events were also collected at 1 year after discharge. After propensity score matching, Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to evaluate the effect of anticoagulant treatment and non-anticoagulant treatment on 1-year prognosis. The patients were divided into different groups according to whether anticoagulation was performed at discharge and follow-up, and the sensitivity of the results was analyzed. Results: A total of 664 patients were enrolled, and 273 (41.1%) were treated with anticoagulant therapy, of whom 84 (30.8%) received triple antithrombotic therapy, 91 (33.3%) received double antithrombotic therapy (single antiplatelet combined with anticoagulant), and 98 (35.9%) received single anticoagulant therapy. Three hundred and ninety-one (58.9%) patients were treated with antiplatelet therapy, including 253 (64.7%) with dual antiplatelet therapy and 138 (35.3%) with single antiplatelet therapy. After 1∶1 propensity score matching between the anticoagulant group and the non-anticoagulant group, a total of 218 pairs were matched. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that history of diabetes, HAS-BLED score≥3, and percutaneous coronary intervention were predictors of the absence of anticoagulant therapy, while history of ischemic stroke and persistent atrial fibrillation were predictors of anticoagulant therapy. At 1-year follow-up, 218 patients (79.9%) in the anticoagulant group continued to receive anticoagulant therapy, and 333 patients (85.2%) in the antiplatelet group continued to receive antiplatelet therapy. At 1-year follow-up, 36 MACEs events (13.2%) occurred in the anticoagulant group, and 81 MACEs events (20.7%) in the non-anticoagulant group. HR values and confidence intervals were calculated by Cox proportional risk model. Patients in the non-anticoagulant group faced a higher risk of MACEs (HR=1.802, 95%CI 1.112-2.921, P=0.017), and the risk of bleeding events was similar between the two group (HR=0.825,95%CI 0.397-1.715, P=0.607). Conclusions: History of diabetes, HAS-BLED score≥3, and percutaneous coronary intervention are independent factors for the absence of anticoagulant therapy in patients with AF complicated with ACS. The incidence of MACEs, death and myocardial infarction is lower in the anticoagulant group, and the incidence of bleeding events is similar between the two groups. The risk of bleeding and ischemia/thrombosis should be dynamically assessed during follow-up and antithrombotic regiments should be adjusted accordingly.

Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Anticoagulants , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Hemorrhage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 504-512, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984682


Objective: To investigate current use of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy and influencing factors among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) in China. Methods: Results of this study derived from "China Atrial Fibrillation Registry Study", the study prospectively enrolled atrial fibrillation (AF) patients from 31 hospitals, and patients with valvular AF or treated with catheter ablation were excluded. Baseline data such as age, sex and type of atrial fibrillation were collected, and drug history, history of concomitant diseases, laboratory results and echocardiography results were recorded. CHA2DS2-VASc score and HAS-BLED score were calculated. The patients were followed up at the 3rd and 6th months after enrollment and every 6 months thereafter. Patients were divided according to whether they had coronary artery disease and whether they took OAC. Results: 11 067 NVAF patients fulfilling guideline criteria for OAC treatment were included in this study, including 1 837 patients with CAD. 95.4% of NVAF patients with CAD had CHA2DS2-VASc score≥2, and 59.7% of patients had HAS-BLED≥3, which was significantly higher than NVAF patients without CAD (P<0.001). Only 34.6% of NVAF patients with CAD were treated with OAC at enrollment. The proportion of HAS-BLED≥3 in the OAC group was significantly lower than in the no-OAC group (36.7% vs. 71.8%, P<0.001). After adjustment with multivariable logistic regression analysis, thromboembolism(OR=2.48,95%CI 1.50-4.10,P<0.001), left atrial diameter≥40 mm(OR=1.89,95%CI 1.23-2.91,P=0.004), stain use (OR=1.83,95%CI 1.01-3.03, P=0.020) and β blocker use (OR=1.74,95%CI 1.13-2.68,P=0.012)were influence factors of OAC treatment. However, the influence factors of no-OAC use were female(OR=0.54,95%CI 0.34-0.86,P=0.001), HAS-BLED≥3 (OR=0.33,95%CI 0.19-0.57,P<0.001), and antiplatelet drug(OR=0.04,95%CI 0.03-0.07,P<0.001). Conclusion: The rate of OAC treatment in NVAF patients with CAD is still low and needs to be further improved. The training and assessment of medical personnel should be strengthened to improve the utilization rate of OAC in these patients.

Humans , Female , Male , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , China , Administration, Oral , Stroke
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 59(4)dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1441588


Introducción: El desarrollo de las ciencias médicas trae consigo un incremento en la expectativa de vida, junto a la detección temprana de un gran número de enfermedades crónicas como las cerebrovasculares y cardiovasculares, que son tratadas rutinariamente con medicamentos antiagregantes plaquetarios. El conocimiento del manejo de estos pacientes ante los procedimientos quirúrgicos estomatológicos constituye un reto en la práctica diaria profesional. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de sangramiento posextracción dentaria en pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular y cerebrovascular, según el tipo de antiagregantes plaquetarios y grupo dentario, así como la frecuencia de utilización de las medidas para su control. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo con un universo de 136 pacientes de más de 20 años, remitidos por su cardiólogo y que necesitaban realizarse extracciones dentarias sin modificar su tratamiento con antiagregantes plaquetarios. Las variables estudiadas fueron la enfermedad sistémica, el tipo de antiagregante plaquetario, el nivel de sangramiento, grupo dentario intervenido y método hemostático utilizado. Resultados: La mitad de los pacientes estudiados no presentó sangramiento posextracción dentaria. En los pacientes tratados con aspirina o clopidogrel predominaron los sujetos sin sangramiento para un 84,3 por ciento y 62,5 por ciento, respectivamente. En los de doble antiagregación prevaleció el sangramiento moderado con un 46,3 por ciento. Los grupos dentarios incisivo, canino y premolar no presentaron episodios de sangramiento para un 64,1 por ciento, 51,6 por ciento y 53,3por ciento, respectivamente. El método hemostático más utilizado fue la compresión de las corticales y termoterapia fría (47,8 por ciento). Conclusiones: La mitad de los pacientes con enfermedades cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares no presentaron sangramiento posextracción dentaria(AU)

Introduction: The development of medical sciences brings with it an increase in life expectancy, together with the early detection of a large number of chronic diseases such as cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, which are routinely treated with antiplatelet aggregation drugs. Knowledge on the treatment of these patients before stomatological surgical procedures constitutes a challenge in daily professional practice. Objective: To determine the level of bleeding after tooth extraction in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, according to the type of antiplatelet agents and dental group, as well as the frequency of use of measures for their control. Methods: An observational, descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out with a universe of 136 patients over 20 years of age, referred by their cardiologist, who needed dental extractions without modifying their treatment with antiplatelet agents. The variables studied were systemic disease, type of antiplatelet agent, level of bleeding, dental group treated and hemostatic method used. Results: Half of the patients studied did not present bleeding after tooth extraction. In patients treated with aspirin or clopidogrel, 84.3 percent and 62.5por ciento, respectively, had no bleeding. In those with double antiplatelet therapy, modera te bleeding prevailed with 46.3 The incisor, canine and premolar tooth groups did not present bleeding episodes (64.1 percent, 51.6and 53.3 percent respectively). The most commonly used hemostatic method was cortical compression and cold thermotherapy (47.8%). Conclusions: Half of the patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases did not present bleeding after tooth extraction(AU)

Humans , Tooth Extraction/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/therapy , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Longitudinal Studies , Observational Study , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use
Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac ; 22(3): 58-63, jul.-set. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1400151


Objetivo: Como a frequência de pacientes em uso de anticoagulantes e antiagragantes plaquetários nos consultórios odontológicos é crescente, este trabalho objetivou avaliar através de Revisão de Literatura, qual o melhor manejo desses medicamentos na prática odontológica perioperatória. Metodologia: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura, utilizadas as bases de dados Scielo e PubMed. Foram escolhidos os seguintes descritores disponíveis na BVs e PubMed em inglês "Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors", "Oral Surgical Procedures" e "Antigoagulants" no período de 2016 a 2021. Também foram consultados livros e sites de diretrizes do Governo. Foram escolhidos 20 artigos para elaboração da pesquisa. Resultados: doenças cardiovasculares e outras condições clínicas pró-coagulantes tem prevalência crescente e são conhecidos fatores de risco para a ocorrência de fenômenos tromboembólicos graves. A terapia antitrombótica tem papel definido nesses casos. No perioperatorio de cirurgias orais, a decisão por suspender ou manter a terapia deve ser individualizada e pode ser orientada por guidelines. Conclusão: procedimentos orais de baixo risco de sangramento podem ser conduzidos sem a descontinuação da terapia antitrombótica. Cirurgias de moderado a alto risco frequentemente requerem suspensão temporária das medicações para fins de minimizar os riscos de complicações hemorrágicas... (AU)

Objective: As the frequency of patients using anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents in dental offices is increasing, this study aimed to evaluate, through a Literature Review, which is the best management of these medications in dental perioperative practice. Methodology: This is an integrative literature review, being used Scielo and PubMed databases. The following descriptors available in BVs and PubMed "Platelet aggregation inhibitors", "Oral Surgical Procedures" and "Antigoagulants" were used, from 2016 to 2021. In addition, the search was also performed in guideline books and Government websites. Twenty articles were chosen for research elaboration. Results: established cardiovascular disease and other procoagulant clinical conditions have an increasing prevalence, especially among the elderly, and are known risk factors for the occurrence of severe thromboembolic phenomena. Antithrombotic therapy has defined role in these cases. In the perioperative period of oral surgery, the decision to suspend or maintain therapy must be individualized and may be guided by guidelines. Age appears as a clinical criterion in the main ones used. Conclusion: oral procedures with low risk of bleeding can be carried out without discontinuing antithrombotic therapy. Moderate to high-risk surgeries usually require its temporary suspension in order to minimize the risk of bleeding complications... (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Coagulants , Oral Surgical Procedures , Anticoagulants , Dental Offices
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 105-113, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1397776


Antiplatelet therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention are two of the most important interventions in the management of coronary artery disease. In the last 20 years there has been groundbreaking advances in the pharmacotherapy and stent technology. Bleeding is the most feared complication of antiplatelet therapy, mainly due to the increase in major adverse cardiovascular events besides the bleeding itself. Different clinical decision tools have developed with the aim to define which patients have a high ischemic or bleeding risk, thus individualizing treatment.

Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , Stents , Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Ischemia , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Rev. Flum. Odontol. (Online) ; 2(58): 81-90, maio-ago. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1390933


Os anticoagulantes e antiagregantes plaquetários são medicamentos utilizados por uma grande parcela da população mundial. Eles são utilizados para prevenir que pacientes de risco desenvolvam doenças cardiovasculares, como o infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) ou o acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Por serem muito utilizados, constantemente o cirurgião-dentista poderá se deparar em sua rotina clínica, com pacientes usuários de anticoagulantes ou antiagregantes. Neste caso, o profissional precisará estar ciente das normas mais atuais de manejo com cada um dos tipos de medicamentos, para que o tratamento seja realizado com sucesso. No presente trabalho, é proposto um Protocolo Operacional Padrão (POP), que pode ser seguido no momento de realizar cirurgias orais em pacientes em uso de Varfarina, Ácido Acetil Salicílico, Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular, Heparina Não Fracionada, Rivaroxabana e Clopidogrel.

Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are drugs used by a large portion of the world population. They are used to prevent at-risk patients from developing cardiovascular diseases, such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or stroke (stroke). Because they are widely used, the dental surgeon may constantly encounter patients using anticoagulants or anti-aggregating agents in their clinical routine. In this case, the professional will need to be aware of the most current management standards with each type of medication, so that the treatment is carried out successfully. In the present work, a Standard Operational Protocol (POP) is proposed, which can be followed when performing oral surgeries on patients using Warfarin, Acetyl Salicylic Acid, Low Molecular Weight Heparin, Unfractionated Heparin, Rivaroxaban and Clopidogrel.

Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Clinical Protocols , Dentists , Anticoagulants , Surgery, Oral
Med. UIS ; 35(1): 9-15, ene,-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394428


Resumen Los antiagregantes plaquetarios son medicamentos ampliamente utilizados para la prevención y tratamiento de patologías aterotrombóticas, como lo es el síndrome coronario agudo. A pesar de tener un efecto benéfico, no están exentos de ocasionar múltiples alteraciones a nivel sistémico, como lo es la disnea en pacientes sometidos a manejo con ticagrelor. Se expone el caso de un paciente de 66 años con antecedente de cardiopatía isquémico-hipertensiva, tabaquismo pesado y alergia al ácido acetilsalicílico (ASA), con requerimiento de 2 arteriografías coronarias, quien presenta disnea en reposo en menos de 24 horas posterior al inicio de manejo antiagregante tromboprofiláctico con ticagrelor, que resuelve de forma satisfactoria tras la suspensión del medicamento. Al ser un efecto secundario relativamente frecuente en el marco del uso del ticagrelor, se hace relevante revisar los hallazgos en la literatura actual sobre la aparición de disnea en pacientes tratados con dicho fármaco, para así tener en cuenta posibles recomendaciones acerca del manejo de la disnea asociada a ticagrelor, basadas en el conocimiento actual. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 9-15.

Abstract Antiplatelet agents are widely used drugs for the prevention and treatment of atherothrombotic pathologies such as acute coronary syndrome, however, despite having a beneficial effect, they're not exempt from causing multiple systemic alterations, such as dyspnea in patients undergoing management with ticagrelor. We will now present the case of a 66-year-old patient with a history of hypertensive ischemic heart disease requiring 2 cardiac catheterizations, heavy smoking and allergic to Acetyl Salicylic Acid (ASA) who presented dyspnea at rest in less than 24 hours after the start of thromboprophylaxis management with ticagrelor, that resolves satisfactorily after discontinuation of the drug. Because it is a frequent side effect in the framework of the use of ticagrelor, it's relevant to review the current literature on the appearance of dyspnea in patients treated with ticagrelor, to highlight recommendations for the management of dyspnea associated with ticagrelor based on current knowledge. MÉD.UIS.2022;35(1): 9-15.

Humans , Male , Aged , Dyspnea , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Ticagrelor , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(1): 29-36, mar. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1368992


Introducción: el síndrome de vena cava superior resulta de la obstrucción del flujo sanguíneo a través de este vaso. Casi la totalidad de los casos en la actualidad se asocian con tumores malignos. Existen controversias acerca del manejo apropiado de este cuadro. Actualmente, las terapias endovasculares son consideradas de elección. Materiales y métodos: se recolectaron y describieron, a partir de datos de la historia clínica electrónica, los casos de pacientes mayores de 18 años internados ­de forma consecutiva, que desarrollaron el síndrome­ en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires en 2021. Se constataron las características basales, los tratamientos recibidos y los desenlaces clínicos intrahospitaliarios de cada uno de ellos. Resultados: un total de cinco pacientes fueron incluidos en el presente estudio y seguidos durante su instancia intrahospitalaria. Todos los casos descriptos fueron secundarios a enfermedades oncológicas. La mayoría de los pacientes presentaron un cuadro de moderada gravedad según las escalas utilizadas. En cuatro de cinco pacientes se optó por terapias endovasculares y dos de ellos fallecieron durante la internación. Discusión: existen controversias respecto del tratamiento óptimo del síndrome de vena cava superior, y heterogeneidad en la práctica clínica. Los estudios futuros deberían centrarse en identificar a aquellos pacientes que más probablemente se beneficien de las estrategias terapéuticas endovasculares, anticoagulantes o antiagregantes. (AU)

Introduction: superior vena cava syndrome results from an obstruction of blood flow through this vessel. Currently, almost all cases are associated with malignancies. There are controversies about the optimal management of this syndrome. Endovascular therapies are considered the first-line therapy. Material and methods: we collected clinical, laboratory and pharmacological data from patients admitted at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, between January 1st and November 1st 2021 with a diagnosis o superior vein cava syndrome. Baseline characteristics, treatment strategies and clinical outcomes were recorded. Results: a total of five patients were included in the present study. All cases were malignancy-related. Most of the patientsdeveloped moderate symptoms. Four out of five patients were treated with endovascular therapies and two patients died during hospitalization. Discussion: controversies regarding optimal management of the superior vena cava syndrome remain. Future research should focus on identifying those patients who are most likely to benefit from endovascular, anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapeutic strategies. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Hospitalization , Neoplasms/complications , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/etiology , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/mortality , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stents , Electronic Health Records , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(7): 472-477, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1378229


Background. An increased incidence of thromboembolic events in hospitalised COVID­19 patients has been demonstrated despite the use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Antiplatelet therapy prior to admission and early in the disease course has been hypothesised to be protective against thrombosis.Objectives. To describe the bleeding and thrombosis outcomes in hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID­19 receiving LMWH, with and without concomitant antiplatelet therapy. Secondary objectives were to explore predictors of bleeding and thrombosis outcomes, and dosing practices of antiplatelet therapy and LMWH.Methods. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study of bleeding and thrombosis outcomes at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, during the first COVID­19 wave, in 808 hospitalised patients with confirmed COVID­19 receiving LMWH with and without concomitant antiplatelet therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed if predictors were deemed statistically and clinically significant.Results. Patients receiving both LMWH and antiplatelet therapy had similar bleeding outcomes compared with patients only receiving LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6 - 4.0). Patients receiving both LMWH and antiplatelet therapy had increased odds of developing thrombosis compared with patients only receiving LMWH (OR 4.8; 95% CI 2.1 - 10.7).Conclusion. The bleeding risk in COVID­19 patients receiving both LMWH and antiplatelet therapy was not significantly increased. A potentially higher risk of thrombosis in patients receiving LMWH and antiplatelet therapy was observed. However, this could reflect confounding by indication. Randomised studies are required to further evaluate the use of antiplatelet therapy to treat hospitalised patients with COVID­19.

Humans , Male , Female , Thrombosis , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Hemorrhage , Inpatients
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2022. 202 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378429


O infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) é a maior causa de mortalidade no mundo. A oclusão coronária determina a necrose completa de cardiomiócitos (células musculares cardíacas) durante as primeiras horas do IAM. Porém, mesmo após a perda de massa de miocárdio viável cessar, a região infartada pode se expandir ou contrair no decorrer das primeiras semanas, afetando o prognóstico dos pacientes. Alguns tratamentos podem auxiliar na recuperação e melhoria do prognóstico desses pacientes, como o uso de estatinas e antiplaquetários, que quando utilizados em conjunto, proporcionam efeitos sinérgicos. O presente estudo investigou e comparou, através da óptica da metabolômica global multiplataforma, tratamentos concomitantes de estatinas (sinvastatina ou rosuvastatina) e antiplaquetários bloqueadores do receptor de ADP (clopidogrel ou ticagrelor), em pacientes que sofreram IAM. Foram coletadas amostras de plasma e urina de cerca 40 pacientes tratados com clopidrogrel e sinvastatina ou ticagrelor e rosuvastatina no Hospital São Paulo em diferentes períodos (basal, 1 mês e 6 meses após IAM). Amostras de plasma (basal e 1 mês) foram analisadas por RPLC-MS nos modos de ionização positivo e negativo, GC-MS e CEMS. Amostras de urina (basal, 1 mês e 6 meses) foram analisadas por RPLC-MS no modo de ionização positivo e HILIC-MS nos modos de ionização positivo e negativo. A abordagem metabolomica global multiplataforma evidenciou alterações no metabolismo de diferentes vias pelos dois tratamentos. Os dois tratamentos proporcionaram um efeito pronunciado no metabolismo de diferentes lipídios, como glicerolipídios, esfingolipídios, glicerofosfolipídios e ácidos graxos, sendo que a combinação rosuvastatina e ticagrelor resultou num efeito mais acentuado. Já o tratamento com clopidogrel e sinvastatina alterou de maneira mais pronunciada o metabolismo de aminoácidos ramificados e de acilcarnitinas de cadeia curta. Observou-se ainda a alteração de possíveis biomarcadores relatados na literatura como associados a problemas cardiovasculares, como hipoxantina, ácido 2-hidroxibutírico, algumas espécies de ceramidas, fosfatidilcolinas e acilcarnitinas de cadeia curta

cute myocardium infarction (AMI) is the main mortality cause in the world. The coronary occlusion determines the complete necrosis of cardiomyocytes (cardiac muscle cells) during the first hours of AMI. However, even after the loss of viable myocardial mass ceases, the infarcted area may still expand or contract during the first weeks after AMI, affecting the patient prognosis. Some treatments may assist patient recovery and improve prognostic, such as statins and antiplatelets which, when combined, provide synergic effects. This study investigated and compared, by untargeted multiplatform metabolomics, simultaneous treatments of statins (simvastatin or rosuvastatin) and ADP receptor antagonist antiplatelets (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) in patients that suffered AMI. Plasma and urine samples from around 40 patients treated with clopidogrel and simvastatin or ticagrelor and rosuvastatin were collected in Hospital Sao Paulo at different time points (basal, 1 month, 6 months after AMI). Plasma samples (basal and 1 month) were analyzed by RPLC-MS in positive and negative ionization modes, GC-MS and CE-MS. Urine samples (basal, 1 month, 6 months) were analyzed by RPLC-MS in positive ionization mode and by HILIC-MS in positive and negative ionization modes. The untargeted multiplatform metabolomics approach has shown that different metabolic pathways have been altered by the two treatments. Both treatments had a profound impact on the metabolism of different lipids, such as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, and fatty acids. However, the combined treatment using rosuvastatin and ticagrelor impacted the most the lipid pathways. On the other hand, clopidogrel and simvastatin treatment affected more intensily the branched chain amino acids and short chain acylcarnitines metabolisms. Reported biomarkers in the literature related to cardiovascular diseases were also observed in this study, such as hypoxanthine, 2-hydroxybutyric acid, some species of ceramides, phosphatidylcholines and short chain acylcarnitines

Humans , Male , Female , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/analysis , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/analysis , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Simvastatin/analysis , Metabolomics/classification , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Purinergic P2Y Receptor Antagonists , Rosuvastatin Calcium/analysis , Amino Acids/adverse effects
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.830-834, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353529
Repert. med. cir ; 31(2): 173-176, 2022. ilus., tab.
Article in English, Spanish | COLNAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1390595


Introducción: el ticagrelor es un medicamento antiagregante plaquetario utilizado como prevención secundaria en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo. Dentro de las reacciones adversas reportadas secundarias a su administración se encuentran hemorragias, cefalea, disnea, epistaxis, pausas ventriculares o bradicardia, hiperuricemia y elevación de la creatinina. No obstante, las reacciones de hipersensibilidad han sido raras. Presentación del caso: paciente masculino de 63 años con infarto agudo del miocardio, elevación de ST y documentándose en cateterismo cardíaco ectasia y enfermedad de flujos lentos. Requirió terapia de antiagregación dual con ácido acetilsalicílico (ASA) y ticagrelor, con posterior urticaria de origen medicamentoso según concepto de dermatología. Se manejó con esteroide tópico, antihistamínico oral y retiro de ticagrelor. Se considera un caso raro de reacción al antiagregante plaquetario descrito.

Introduction: ticagrelor is an antiplatelet therapy used for secondary prevention in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Adverse effects of ticagrelor are hemorrhage, headache, dyspnea, epistaxis, ventricular pauses or bradycardia, hyperuricemia and elevation of creatinine level. However, hypersensitivity reaction of ticagrelor is rarely recognized. Case report: we present a 63-year-old male patient diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, ST-segment elevation and ectasia and low blood flow disease documented by coronary angiogram. He required dual antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ticagrelor, developing drug-induced urticaria according to dermatology consultation. He was treated with topical steroids, oral antihistamines and ticagrelor discontinuation. This case is considered a rare case of reaction to the antiplatelet agent described herein.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Clopidogrel , Ticagrelor , Hypersensitivity
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 466-470, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935171


Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety between indobufen and aspirin in the prevention of restenosis of bridge vessels at 1 year after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: This study was a prospective cohort study. We selected 152 patients who received coronary artery bypass grafting in Beijing Anzhen Hospital from December 2016 to December 2018. Patients were divided into the indobufen group and the aspirin group. Patients in the aspirin group were treated with aspirin and clopidogrel, and patients in the indobufen group were treated with indobufen and clopidogrel. During the 1-year follow-up, the rate of restenosis of saphenous vein bridge and internal mammary artery bridge, the rate of adverse cardiac events and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. The levels of fibrinogen (FIB), D-dimer (D-D), thrombomodulin (TM) and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) were compared before and after antiplatelet therapy. Results: There were 76 cases in the indobufen group, including 57 males (75.0%), aged (60.3±6.6) years. There were 76 cases in the aspirin group, including 62 males (81.6%), aged (59.7±7.2) years. Baseline data were comparable between the two groups (P>0.05). During the follow-up, 3 cases were lost to follow up. Follow-up was completed in 74 patients in the indobufen group and 75 in the aspirin group. A total of 268 bridging vessels were grafted in the indobufen group and 272 in the aspirin group. One year after surgery, the patency rates of great saphenous vein bridge and internal mammary artery bridge were 94.5% (189/200) and 97.1% (66/68) in the indobuphen group, and 91.3% (189/207) and 96.9% (63/65) in the aspirin group, respectively. There was no significant difference in patency rate of great saphenous vein bridge and internal mammary artery bridge between the two groups (χ²=0.282, 0.345, P>0.05). The total incidence of adverse cardiac events was 5.4% (4/74) in the indobufen group and 6.7% (5/75) in the aspirin group (χ²=0.126, P>0.05). The overall incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions was significantly lower in the indobufen group than in the aspirin group (4.1% (3/74) vs. 13.3% (10/75), χ²=4.547, P<0.05). The levels of FIB, D-D, TM and TAFI in the two groups were lower than those before surgery (P<0.05), and there was no statistical significance between the two groups at baseline and post-operation (P>0.05). Conclusion: The efficacy of indobufen combined with clopidogrel in the prevention of 1-year restenosis after coronary artery bypass graft is similar to that of aspirin combined with clopidogrel, but the incidence of adverse reactions is lower, and the safety is higher in patients treated with indobufen combined with clopidogrel compared to aspirin combined with clopidogrel strategy.

Humans , Male , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Isoindoles , Phenylbutyrates , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 458-465, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935170


Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT>1 year) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes who were event-free at 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES) in a large and contemporary PCI registry. Methods: A total of 1 661 eligible patients were selected from the Fuwai PCI Registry, of which 1 193 received DAPT>1 year and 468 received DAPT ≤1 year. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding, MACCE was defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction or stroke. Multivariate Cox regression analysis and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) Cox regression analysis were performed. Results: After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, patients who received DAPT>1 year were associated with lower risks of MACCE (1.4% vs. 3.2%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.412, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.205-0.827) compared with DAPT ≤1 year, which was primarily caused by the lower all-cause mortality (0.1% vs. 2.6%; HR 0.031, 95%CI 0.004-0.236). Risks of cardiac death (0.1% vs. 1.5%; HR 0.051, 95%CI 0.006-0.416) and definite/probable ST (0.3% vs. 1.1%; HR 0.218, 95%CI 0.052-0.917) were also lower in patients received DAPT>1 year than those received DAPT ≤ 1 year. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of BARC type 2, 3, or 5 bleeding (5.3% vs. 4.1%; HR 1.088, 95%CI 0.650-1.821). Conclusions: In patients with stable CAD and diabetes who were event-free at 1 year after PCI with DES, prolonged DAPT (>1 year) provides a substantial reduction in ischemic cardiovascular events, including MACCE, all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and definite/probable ST, without increasing the clinically relevant bleeding risk compared with ≤ 1-year DAPT. Further well-designed, large-scale randomized trials are needed to verify the beneficial effect of prolonged DAPT in this population.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Eluting Stents , Hemorrhage , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome