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In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.830-834, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353529
Prensa méd. argent ; 106(10): 618-624, 20200000. fig, tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1362699


All health care providers should be aware of the impact of bleeding disorders on their patients during any surgical procedures. The knowledge of the mechanisms of hemostasis and optimized management are very important. Initial recognition of a bleeding disorder, in such patients with a systemic pathologic process, may occur in surgical practice. The surgical treatment of those patients might be complicated during the surgery due to the use of anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet medications raises a challenge in the daily practice of surgical professionals. Adequate hemostasis is critical for the success of any surgical procedure because bleeding problems can give rise to complications associated with important morbidity-mortality. Besides, prophylactic, restorative, and surgical care of patients with any bleeding disorders is handled skillfully by practitioners who are well educated regarding the pathology, complications which could arise, and surgical options associated with these conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review common bleeding disorders and their effects on the surgical aspect. Many authors consider that patient medication indicated for the treatment of background disease should not be altered or suspended unless so indicated by the prescribing physician. Local hemostatic measures have been shown to suffice for controlling possible bleeding problems resulting from surgery.

Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/surgery , Hemorrhagic Disorders/complications , Hemostasis, Surgical/mortality , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(3): 293-299, Jul.-Sep. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131046


Resumen Introducción: La utilidad de la aspirina en la prevención primaria es todavía objeto de controversia. Los avances médicos y la variabilidad del riesgo cardiovascular podrían explicar la heterogeneidad de los estudios publicados, y las poblaciones de alto riesgo tendrían mayor beneficio. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos de la aspirina en pacientes sin antecedentes cardiovasculares y evaluar los resultados de acuerdo con el riesgo cardiovascular de las poblaciones. Métodos: Se incluyeron estudios que evaluaron el uso de la aspirina en comparación con placebo en la prevención primaria. Se analizó la combinación de muerte cardiovascular, infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM) y accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) isquémico. El punto final de seguridad fue la combinación de ACV hemorrágico y sangrado mayor. Se clasificaron los estudios en riesgo bajo y moderado/ alto, de acuerdo con el número de episodios en la rama de placebo. Resultados: Se evaluaron 13 estudios (n = 164,225), ocho de riesgo cardiovascular bajo (n = 118,455) y cinco de moderado/alto (n = 45,770). Se observó una reducción del punto final combinado en el grupo de aspirina (OR 0.90; IC 95%, 0.85-0.94), sin diferencias en mortalidad cardiovascular (OR 0.94; IC 95%, 0.86-1.04). No se identificaron diferencias entre los subgrupos de riesgo. Se reconocieron mayores complicaciones hemorrágicas en el grupo de aspirina (OR 1.45; IC 95%, 1.32-1.60), sin diferencias entre los subgrupos de riesgo. Conclusión: La aspirina se relacionó con una leve disminución de IAM y ACV isquémico en términos absolutos, sin diferencias en la mortalidad cardiovascular. Esto, junto con el aumento de las complicaciones hemorrágicas, se traduce en una ausencia de beneficio clínico neto. El riesgo cardiovascular basal de la población no modificó los resultados.

Abstract Background: The usefulness of aspirin in primary prevention continues to be the subject of debate. Medical advances and the variability of cardiovascular risk could explain the heterogeneity of the published studies. High risk populations would have greater benefit. Objective: Analyzing the effects of aspirin in patients without cardiovascular disease and evaluating the results according to the cardiovascular risk of the populations. Methods: Studies evaluating aspirin versus placebo in primary prevention were included. The primary endpoint was the combined cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. The final safety point was the combination of hemorrhagic stroke and major bleeding. The studies were classified into low and moderate/high risk, according to the number of events in the placebo arm. Results: Thirteen studies were evaluated (n = 164,225), eight of low cardiovascular risk (n = 118,455) and five of moderate/high risk (n = 45,770). There was a reduction of the combined endpoint in the aspirin group (odds ratio [OR] 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.94), without differences in cardiovascular mortality (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86-1.04). No differences were observed when comparing the risk subgroups. Greater hemorrhagic complications were observed in the aspirin group (OR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.32-1.60), without differences between the risk subgroups. Conclusion: Aspirin was associated with a slight decrease in AMI and ischemic stroke in absolute terms, with no differences in cardiovascular mortality. This accompanied by the increase in hemorrhagic complications, results in an absence of net clinical benefit. The baseline cardiovascular risk of the population did not affect the results.

Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Primary Prevention/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Aspirin/adverse effects , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Ischemic Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20200062, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132243


Abstract Cilostazol (CLZ) is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor with antiplatelet and vasodilator properties. It has been recently verified that CLZ plays a significant role in the arteries by inhibiting the proliferation and growth of muscle cells, increasing the release of nitric oxide by the endothelium and promoting angiogenesis. Considering these promising effects, the use of nanocapsules may be an interesting strategy to optimize its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics at the vascular level for preventing atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cilostazol-loaded nanocapsules in the abdominal aortic tunics and on the lipid profile of Wistar rats in order to investigate its potential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Thirty-two animals were divided into four groups of eight animals, with 30-day treatment. Group 1 received nanoencapsulated CLZ; Group 2, control nanocapsules with no drug; Group 3, propylene glycol and water; and Group 4, a solution of CLZ in propylene glycol and water. After 30 days, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the cellularity and thickness of the arterial tunics of the abdominal aorta. However, the group that received nanoencapsulated CLZ (Group 1) had an improvement in HDL-c and triglyceride values compared to unloaded nanocapsules (Group 2).

Animals , Male , Rats , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Nanocapsules/administration & dosage , Phosphodiesterase 3 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cilostazol/administration & dosage , Aorta, Abdominal , Propylene Glycols , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Nitric Oxide
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 324-329, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149090


abstract Objective: Oral antiplatelet drugs are a key to modern pharmacotherapy in cardiovascular atherothrombotic diseases. Clopidogrel (CLO) constitutes the main preventive treatment of atherothrombosis. However, a considerable inter-individual variation in CLO response has been documented, resulting in suboptimal therapy and an increased risk of recurrent adverse effects in some patients. The enzyme CYP2C19 has been reported to be the CYP isoform that activates CLO to its active metabolite. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene have been identified as strong predictors of CLO-impaired pharmacological response. At least 16 variants have been associated with changes in CYP2C19 activity. Materials and Methods: The following research was composed of a total of 102 subjects with high cardiovascular risk in the northeast of Mexico, with a maintenance dose of 75 mg of CLO per day. The platelet reactivity was measured with VerifyNow P2Y12 assay, while the presence of CYP2C19*2 was identified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Patients were categorized by CYP2C19 metabolizer status based on *2 genotypes using the common consensus star allele nomenclature as normal metabolizer (G/G), intermediate metabolizer (G/A), and poor metabolizer (A/A), respectively. The phenotype frequency for CYP2C19*2 was 74.5% (G/G), 21.6% (G/A), and 3.9% (A/A). The subjects with the A allele presented ≥235 P2Y12 reaction unit levels, classifying them how poor metabolizer. The prevalence of reduced CLO effectiveness was associated with the presence of CYP2C19*2 polymorphism among Mexican patients. Conclusion: The presence of the CYP2C19*2 allele is related to resistance to the antiplatelet effect of CLO (p = 0.003).

Resumen Objetivo: Los antiplaquetarios orales son clave en la farmacoterapia moderna de las enfermedades aterotrombóticas cardiovasculares. Clopidogrel (CLO) constituye el principal tratamiento preventivo de aterotrombosis (AT). Sin embargo, se ha documentado una considerable variación interindividual en la respuesta a CLO, lo que da como resultado una terapia subóptima y mayor riesgo de efectos adversos en algunos pacientes. La enzima CYP2C19 es la isoforma CYP que activa CLO a su metabolito activo. Se han identificado varios polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido en el gen CYP2C19 como fuertes predictores de respuesta farmacológica alterada a CLO. Al menos 16 variantes se han asociado con cambios en la actividad de CYP2C19. Método: Se reclutaron un total de 102 sujetos con alto riesgo cardiovascular del noreste de México, con dosis de mantenimiento de 75 mg de CLO/día. La reactividad plaquetaria se midió con el ensayo Verify Now P2Y12, la presencia de CYP2C19*2 se identificó mediante polymerase chain reaction en tiempo real. Resultado: Los pacientes fueron clasificados por el estado metabolizador CYP2C19*2 utilizando nomenclatura consenso, como metabolizador normal (G/G), metabolizador intermedio (G/A) y metabolizador pobre (A/A), respectivamente. La frecuencia del fenotipo para CYP2C19*2 fue 74.5% (G/G), 21.6% (G/A) y 3.9% (A/A). Los sujetos con alelo A presentaron ≥235 niveles P2Y12 reaction unit, clasificándolos como metabolizadores deficientes. La prevalencia de eficacia reducida a CLO se asoció con la presencia del polimorfismo CYP2C19*2 en pacientes mexicanos. Conclusiones: La presencia del alelo CYP2C19*2 se relaciona con resistencia al efecto antiagregante plaquetario del CLO (p = 0.003).

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19/genetics , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance/genetics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Risk Factors , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Clopidogrel/pharmacology , Mexico
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 315-321, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040529


El inicio precoz del tratamiento con antiagregantes plaquetarios es considerado el estándar de cuidado para pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico agudo. Distintos esquemas de antiagregación se han comparado con resultados que sugieren que la combinación de múltiples antiagregantes se asocian a menor riesgo de recurrencia de accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) pero a expensas de un aumento en el riesgo de sangrado, lo que a largo plazo termina opacando dichos beneficos. Sin embargo, considerando que el riesgo de recurrencia de ACV es mayor en el periodo inmediato al evento, la indicación de doble tratamiento antiagregante por tiempos limitados podría asociarse a beneficios relevantes. Con este concepto, se realizó una revisión sistemática rápida con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del tratamiento con doble antiagregación por un periodo corto intentando maximizar el beneficio y reducir al mínimo el riesgo de sangrado. Se incluyeron todos los estudios primarios identificados en los que se comparó un esquema de doble antiagregación, iniciado en el periodo agudo del evento índice (ACV o accidente isquémico transitorio - AIT), contra un esquema de simple antiagregación. El cuerpo de la evidencia mostró que la intervención (doble antiagregación) reduce el riesgo de recurrencia de ACV y probablemente se asocie a un aumento marginal en el riesgo de sangrado mayor. Sugerimos indicar doble esquema antiplaquetario para el tratamiento inicial de pacientes con ACV isquémico menor (Score NIH < o igual a 3 o AIT).

One of the main pillars of acute ischemic stroke management is antiplatelet therapy. Different treatment schemes have been compared, suggesting that the combination of multiple antiplatelet drugs is associated with a reduced risk of stroke recurrence. However, it has also been associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications which, in the long term, surpass the mentioned benefits. However, considering that most stroke recurrences occur i n the short term, a time limited double antiplatelet scheme could result in significant benefits to patients with acute ischemic stroke. On this basis, we conducted a rapid systematic review of the literature in order to evaluate the effects of a short-term double antiplatelet therapy both on stroke recurrence and complications. All trials comparing double versus single antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke were included. Results showed that double therapy reduces recurrence risk but probably marginally increases major bleeding complications. We suggest double antiplatelet therapy for the initial management of patients with minor (Score NIH < or equal to 3 or transient isquemic attack -TIA) acute ischemic stroke.

Humans , Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Ischemic Attack, Transient/prevention & control , Ischemic Attack, Transient/drug therapy , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage , Polyamines/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Drug Therapy, Combination , Secondary Prevention
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 456-459, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011365


ABSTRACT Patients on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy are often required to discontinue these medications before and during surgical or invasive procedures. In some cases, the patient stops the treatment without medical supervision. These situations may increase stroke risk. Objective To identify the ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) prevalence related to length of time of discontinuation of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist therapy, in a group of inpatients from a specialized neurological hospital in Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study of stroke inpatients for three years. Medical reports were reviewed to find study participants, stroke characteristics, risk factors, reasons and time of drug interruption. Results In three years, there were 360 stroke and TIA inpatients, of whom 27 (7.5%) had a history of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist interruption correlated with the time of the event (81% ischemic stroke, 19% TIA). The median time between antiplatelet interruption and an ischemic event was five days, and 62% of events occurred within seven days after drug suspension. For vitamin K antagonists, the average time to the ischemic event was 10.4 days (SD = 5.7), and in 67% of patients, the time between drug discontinuation and the event was 7-14 days. The most frequent reason for drug suspension was patient negligence (37%), followed by planned surgery or invasive examination (26%) and side effects, including hemorrhage (18.5%). Conclusion Antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist suspension has a temporal relationship with the occurrence of stroke and TIA. Since these events are preventable, it is crucial that healthcare professionals convince their patients that drug withdrawal can cause serious consequences.

RESUMO Pacientes em terapia anticoagulante ou antiagregante plaquetária frequentemente são solicitados a descontinuar essas medicações antes e durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou invasivos. Se o paciente interromper tratamento sem supervisão médica, poderá aumentar de risco de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Objetivo Identificar prevalência de AVC isquêmico e ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT) associados à descontinuação de terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos em pacientes internados em hospital especializado em atendimento neurológico no Brasil. Métodos Estudo transversal, retrospectivo de três anos, descritivo dos pacientes hospitalizados por AVC. A revisão de relatórios médicos determinou características do AVC, fatores de risco, motivos e tempo de interrupção medicamentosa. Resultados Em três anos, foram internados 360 pacientes por AVC ou AIT; destes, 27 interromperam temporariamente terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos relacionando ao evento (81% acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico, 19% AIT). A prevalência foi de 7,5%. O tempo médio entre interrupção antiplaquetária e evento foi cinco dias, com 62% deles ocorrendo até sete dias após suspensão medicamentosa. Para coumarínicos, o tempo médio foi 10,4 dias (d.p.= 5,7), em 67% dos casos o tempo entre a descontinuação medicamentosa e o evento foi 7-14 dias. O motivo mais frequente para suspensão do medicamento foi negligência do paciente (37%), seguido por cirurgia planejada ou exame invasivo (26%) e efeitos colaterais, incluindo hemorragia (18,5%). Conclusão Suspensão de terapia de antiplaquetários ou coumarínicos tem relação temporal com ocorrência de AVC e de AIT. Esses eventos são passíveis de serem evitados, sendo imprescindível que profissionais de saúde convençam seus pacientes das consequências graves da retirada do medicamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Brazil , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(4): 348-353, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950474


ABSTRACT Patients undergoing cataract surgery are generally elderly, and many take drugs with systemic effects. The surgeon must be aware of the risks of continuing or discontinuing such medications perioperatively. Antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants, prescribed to reduce the incidence of thromboembolic events, are often used in this population. This paper aims to review the perioperative use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in the setting of cataract surgery. Topical or intracameral anesthesia is preferred over anesthesia injected with needles. Aspirin can be safely continued in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Warfarin has been extensively studied, and the risk of hemorrhage associated with cataract surgery is low if the international normalized ratio is in the therapeutic range. Only a few studies of direct oral anticoagulants are available, and therefore no definite recommendations regarding those agents can be made at this time. Anesthesia in cataract surgery carries a low risk, even for patients taking anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. The discontinuation of this class of drugs before cataract surgery may increase the risk of thromboembolism.

RESUMO Os pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata são geralmente idosos e muitos deles usam drogas com efeitos sistêmicos. No entanto, o cirurgião deve estar ciente dos riscos em manter ou descontinuar medicamentos sistêmicos no pré-operatório da cirurgia de catarata, como os anticoagulantes e os antiplaquetários. Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar a classe de drogas antiplaquetárias e anticoagulantes e orientar o cirurgião de catarata. A classe de fármacos anticoagulantes e antiplaquetária reduz a incidência de eventos potencialmente tromboembólicos. A anestesia tópica ou intracameral nesses pacientes deve ser preferida em relação à anestesia com agulhas. Aspirina pode ser mantida com segurança nos pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata. A varfarina foi amplamente estudada e os riscos na cirurgia de catarata são baixos, no entanto, o INR deve ser controlado. Mais estudos são necessários com anticoagulantes orais diretos. Anestesia na cirurgia de catarata tem baixo risco de complicações, mesmo em uso de anticoagulantes ou antiplaquetários sistêmicos. A descontinuação desta classe de medicamentos no pré-operatório da cirurgia de catarata pode aumentar os riscos sistêmicos tromboembólicos.

Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cataract Extraction/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cataract Extraction/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Intraoperative Period , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(2): 205-212, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950222


Abstract Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed tumor in women worldwide, with a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Chemotherapy and hormone therapy have significantly reduced mortality; however, the adverse effects are significant. Aspirin has been incorporated into clinical practice for over 100 years at a low cost, making it particularly attractive as a potential agent in breast cancer prevention and as an adjunct treatment to endocrine therapy in the prophylaxis of cardiovascular complications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of aspirin in reducing the incidence of breast cancer and to evaluate the impact of its use on morbidity and mortality and reduction of cardiovascular events as adjuvant therapy during breast cancer treatment with selective estrogen receptor modulators. A systematic review was performed using the PRISMA methodology and PICO criteria, based on the MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS databases. The original articles of clinical trials, cohort, case-control studies and meta-analyses published from January 1998 to June 2017, were considered. Most studies showed an association between the use of selective estrogen receptor modulators and the increase in thromboembolic events. The studies suggest a protective effect of aspirin for cardiovascular events during its concomitant use with selective estrogen receptor modulators and in the prevention of breast cancer. This systematic review suggests that aspirin therapy combines the benefit of protection against cardiovascular events with the potential reduction in breast cancer risk, and that the evaluation of the benefits of the interaction of endocrine therapy with aspirin should be further investigated.

Resumo O câncer de mama é o tumor mais frequentemente diagnosticado em mulheres de todo o mundo, com impacto importante na morbimortalidade. A quimioterapia e a terapia hormonal reduziram significativamente a mortalidade, mas os efeitos adversos são consideráveis. A aspirina está incorporada à prática clínica há mais de 100 anos, com baixo custo, tornando-a particularmente atraente como potencial agente na prevenção do câncer de mama e auxiliar durante o tratamento endócrino, na profilaxia de complicações cardiovasculares. Objetivou-se avaliar o papel da aspirina na redução da incidência do câncer de mama e avaliar o impacto de seu uso na morbimortalidade e na redução de eventos cardiovasculares como terapia adjuvante durante o tratamento do câncer de mama com moduladores seletivos do receptor do estrogênio. Procedeu-se à revisão sistemática utilizando-se a metodologia PRISMA e os critérios PICO, nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE e LILACS. Foram considerados os artigos originais do tipo ensaio clínico, coorte, caso-controle e metanálises, publicados no período de janeiro de 1998 até junho de 2017. Na maioria dos estudos, houve relação entre o uso dos moduladores seletivos do receptor do estrogênio e o aumento de eventos tromboembólicos. Os estudos sugerem efeito protetor da aspirina para eventos cardiovasculares em uso concomitante aos moduladores seletivos do receptor do estrogênio e na prevenção do câncer de mama. Esta revisão sistemática sugere que o tratamento com aspirina combina o benefício da proteção contra eventos cardiovasculares com a potencial redução do risco de câncer de mama, e que a avaliação dos benefícios da interação da terapia endócrina com a aspirina deve ser melhor investigada.

Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/administration & dosage , Evidence-Based Medicine
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(1): 59-63, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897982


Abstract Introduction: Patients with acute coronary syndrome usually receive dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) (usually clopidogrel + aspirin) prior to coronary catheterization, and approximately 10% of these patients require coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). DAPT has favorable effects on prevention of thrombus formation, but it can have deleterious effects on surgical hemostasis. Anaemia, if present, gives additional risk to such patients. The aim of this study was to examine if DAPT affects postoperative bleeding in patients with haemoglobin levels above 110 g/L, who underwent urgent or emergent CABG, less than five days after stopping DAPT therapy. Methods: Data were collected prospectively on 122 CABG patients, operated by a surgical team from March 2008 to August 2013. Patients were stratified into two groups: group 1 received DAPT within 5 days of CABG (n=65), and group 2 where DAPT was discontinued for more than 5 days prior to CABG (n=57). All patients were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome preoperatively, and all of them had haemoglobin levels above 110 g/L. Patients who needed reoperation, combined procedures, or off-pump revascularization were excluded. Results: There was no hospital mortality. Mean chest tube losses after the surgical revascularization did not differ significantly, but group 1 received a higher quantity of transfused red blood cells and platelets. Conclusion: Urgent and emergent surgical revascularization using extracorporeal circulation in patients with acute coronary syndrome whose preoperative haemoglobin levels are above 110 g/L is a safe and effective procedure. We suggest that, where indicative, one may perform CABG in less than 5 days after the clopidogrel discontinuation.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Postoperative Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage , Reoperation , Hemoglobins/drug effects , Prospective Studies
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(3): 291-299, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959386


Resumen El uso de fármacos antiagregantes plaquetarios para prevención primaria y secundaria de eventos cardiovasculares es una práctica común en clínica. La terapia antiagregante plaquetaria disminuye significativamente la incidencia de eventos cardiovasculares, incluyendo infarto agudo al miocardio y accidente cerebro-vascular. Cada vez es más frecuente enfrentarse a pacientes en terapia antiagregante plaquetaria que serán sometidos a algún procedimiento quirúrgico, por tanto es fundamental conocer el manejo perioperatorio de estos fármacos, para disminuir los riesgos y complicaciones asociados a la suspensión o mantención de estas drogas en el período perioperatorio. Los antiagregantes plaquetarios de mayor uso en Chile son la aspirina y las tienopiridinas, siendo el clopidogrel el fármaco más utilizado en este grupo. El enfrentamiento perioperatorio de estos fármacos está supeditado al riesgo trombótico individual de cada paciente y al riesgo hemorrágico de cada cirugía. En cirugías no cardiacas, se sugiere mantener la aspirina, excepto en pacientes con bajo-moderado riesgo trombótico que serán sometidos a cirugías con alto riesgo de sangrado, en los cuales se recomienda suspenderla 5-7 días previo a la intervención quirúrgica. El clopidogrel se sugiere suspenderlo 5 días antes de la cirugía, excepto en pacientes con alto riesgo trombótico que se someterán a procedimientos quirúrgicos con riesgo hemorrágico bajo-moderado. En cirugías de revascularización miocárdica, se recomienda mantener aspirina y suspender clopidogrel 5 días antes del procedimiento. En relación al reinicio postquirúrgico de estos fármacos, se sugiere reanudar aspirina 6 h posterior a la cirugía y clopidogrel durante las primeras 24 h postoperatorias, asegurando previamente una adecuada hemostasia quirúrgica.

The use of antiplatelet drugs for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease events is a common clinical practice. Antiplatelet therapy significantly decreases the incidence of cardiovascular disease events, including acute myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It is increasingly common to face patients on antiplatelet therapy who will undergo some surgical procedure, so it is essential to know the perioperative management of these drugs, to reduce the risks and complications associated with the suspension or maintenance of these therapies in the perioperative period. The most common antiplatelet agents used in Chile are acetylsalicylic acid and thienopyridines, of which clopidogrel is the most frequent one. The perioperative management of these drugs has to be based on the individual thrombotic risk of each patient and the risk of hemorrhage of each surgery. In noncardiac surgeries, it is suggested to maintain acetylsalicylic acid, except in patients with low to moderate thrombotic risk who will undergo surgeries with a high risk of bleeding, in which case it is recommended to suspend it 5 to 7 days before surgery. Clopidogrel is suggested to be discontinued 5 days before surgery, except in patients with high thrombotic risk who will undergo surgical procedures with low to moderate risk of hemorrhage. In myocardial revascularization surgeries, it is recommended to maintain acetylsalicylic acid and to suspend clopidogrel 5 days before the procedure. Once assuring adequate surgical hemostasis, it is suggested to reinitiate acetylsalicylic acid 6 hours after surgery and to reinitiate clopidogrel during the first 24 postoperative hours.

Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Perioperative Care/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Aspirin/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , Postoperative Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Withholding Treatment , Thienopyridines/administration & dosage , Thienopyridines/adverse effects , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage , Clopidogrel/adverse effects
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 30(5): f:442-l:451, set.-out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-859031


Em condições de equilíbrio, a hemostasia é mantida através de uma complexa interação entre endotélio, plaquetas e fatores de coagulação. Situações que cursam com injúria e descontinuidade do revestimento endotelial estimulam a adesão, ativação e agregação de plaquetas, culminando com a formação de trombos arteriais ou venosos. Neste contexto, a terapia antiplaquetária ocupa um papel de destaque no manejo das patologias advindas deste processo, notadamente as síndromes coronarianas agudas.O maior domínio conceitual dos receptores, agonistas e antagonistas das cascatas fisiopatológicas envolvidasneste processo possibilitou o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos e o refinamento da terapêutica atual, tornando necessário o pleno conhecimento do arsenal antiplaquetário no que tange à sua indicação, posologia, momento de administração e duração do tratamento. O objetivo desta revisão é definir o papel dos fármacos antiplaquetários no manuseio da síndrome coronariana aguda, revisitando aspectos já consolidados e abordando tópicos atuais e ainda controversos acerca do tema

Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Blood Platelets , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Prasugrel Hydrochloride/administration & dosage , Prognosis , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(1): 42-49, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846274


ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Many researchers have suggested that aspirin prevents migraines. However, the evidence is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the available evidence on the effect of aspirin as a migraine prophylactic. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review, conducted at the Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Brazil, and at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We performed electronic searches in the databases of MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, WEB OF SCIENCE, the World Health Organization, CENTRAL and OpenGrey, and we also searched manually for interventional studies published before April 2016 that compared the effects of aspirin with a control, in adults. Two authors independently extracted data on the publication, population recruited, intervention (aspirin dosage, follow-up and combined treatment) and main outcomes (frequency, severity and duration of migraine). We evaluated the quality of the studies using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. RESULTS: Our search retrieved 1,098 references, of which 8 met the selection criteria for this systematic review. The total population was 28,326 participants (18-64 years old); most (96%) were men. The dosage varied from 50 to 650 mg/day across the studies. The risk of bias was generally low or unclear. The only outcome for which most of the studies included (6/8) reported a significant reduction was frequency of migraine, which was reduced at an aspirin dosage of at least 325 mg/day. CONCLUSION: Aspirin can reduce the frequency of migraines. However, the optimal dosage is unclear.

RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Muitos pesquisadores têm sugerido que a aspirina previne enxaquecas. No entanto, a evidência não é clara. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as evidências disponíveis para os efeitos da aspirina como um profilático da enxaqueca. DESENHO E LOCAL: Revisão sistemática, realizada na Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Brasil, bem como na Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas buscas eletrônicas nas bases de dados MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, WEB OF SCIENCE, Organização Mundial de Saúde, CENTRAL e OpenGrey. Nós buscamos manualmente estudos de intervenção publicados antes de abril de 2016, comparando efeitos da aspirina com um controle em adultos. Dois autores extraíram independentemente os dados de publicação, população recrutada, intervenção (dose de aspirina, acompanhamento e tratamento combinado) e os resultados principais (frequência, gravidade e duração da enxaqueca). Foi avaliada a qualidade dos estudos com a ferramenta da Cochrane para risco de viés. RESULTADOS: A nossa busca recuperou 1.098 referências, das quais 8 preencheram os critérios de seleção para esta revisão sistemática. A população total foi de 28,326 participantes (18-64 anos); a maioria (96%) de homens. A dosagem variou entre 50 a 650 mg/dia em todos os estudos. O risco de viés foi geralmente baixo ou pouco claro. O único desfecho para o qual a maioria dos estudos incluídos (6/8) relatou redução significativa foi a frequência de enxaqueca, que foi reduzida com uma dose de aspirina de pelo menos 325 mg/dia. CONCLUSÃO: A aspirina pode reduzir a frequência das enxaquecas; no entanto, a dosagem ideal não é clara.

Humans , Male , Female , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Migraine Disorders/prevention & control
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(5): 403-410, Nov. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827869


Abstract Background: Despite successful opening of culprit coronary artery, myocardial reperfusion does not always follows primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are used in the treatment of no-reflow (NR), but their role to prevent it is unproven. Objective: To evaluate the effect of in-lab administration of tirofiban on the incidence of NR in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with PPCI. Methods: STEMI patients treated with PPCI were randomized (24 tirofiban and 34 placebo) in this double-blinded study to assess the impact of intravenous tirofiban on the incidence of NR after PPCI according to angiographic and electrocardiographic methods. End-points of the study were: TIMI-epicardial flow grade; myocardial blush grade (MBG); resolution of ST-elevation < 70% (RST < 70%) at 90min and 24h after PPCI. Results: Baseline anthropometric, clinical and angiographic characteristics were balanced between the groups. The occurrence of TIMI flow < 3 was not significantly different between the tirofiban (25%) and placebo (35.3%) groups. MBG ≤ 2 did not occur in the tirofiban group, and was seen in 11.7% of patients in the placebo group (p=0.13). RST < 70% occurred in 41.6% x 55.8% (p=0.42) at 90min and in 29% x 55.9% (p=0.06) at 24h in tirofiban and placebo groups, respectively. Severe NR (RST ≤ 30%) was detected in 0% x 26.5% (p=0.01) at 90 min, and in 4.2% x 23.5% (p=0.06) at 24h in tirofiban and placebo groups, respectively. Conclusion: This pilot study showed a trend toward reduction of NR associated with in-lab upfront use of tirofiban in STEMI patients treated with PPCI and paves the way for a full-scale study testing this hypothesis.

Resumo Fundamento: Mesmo com abertura da artéria coronária culpada bem sucedida, a reperfusão miocárdica nem sempre sucede a intervenção coronariana percutânea primária (ICPP). Inibidores da glicoproteína IIb/IIIa são usados no tratamento do fenômeno de não reperfusão (NR), mas seu papel para preveni-lo não está comprovado. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da administração, em laboratório, de tirofibana sobre a incidência de NR em infarto agudo do miocárdio com supra do segmento ST (IAMCSST) tratado com ICPP. Métodos: Pacientes com IAMCSST tratados com ICPP foram randomizados (24 tirofibana e 34 placebo) neste estudo duplo-cego para avaliar o impacto de tirofibana intravenosa sobre a incidência de NR após ICPP de acordo com métodos angiográficos e eletrocardiográfico. Os desfechos do estudo foram: fluxo epicárdico TIMI (grau), grau de fluxo miocárdico (MBG), resolução da elevação do segmento ST < 70% (RST < 70%) aos 90 minutos e 24 horas após ICPP. Resultados: Características antropométricas, clínicas e angiográficas basais eram equilibradas entre os grupos. A ocorrência de fluxo TIMI < 3 não foi significativamente diferente entre os grupos tirofibana (25%) e placebo (35,3%). MBG ≤ 2 não ocorreu no grupo tirofibana, e foi detectado em 11,7% dos pacientes do grupo placebo (p=0,13). RST < 70% ocorreu em 41,6% x 55,8% (p=0.42) aos 90 minutos, e em 29% x 55,9% (p=0,06) em 24 horas nos grupos tirofibana e placebo, respectivamente. NR grave (RST ≤ 30%) ocorreu em 0% x 26,5% (p=0,01) aos 90 minutos, e em 4,2% x 23,5% (p=0,06) em 24 horas nos grupos tirofibana e placebo, respectivamente. Conclusão: Este estudo piloto mostrou uma tendência de redução de NR associada ao uso, em laboratório, de tirofibana em pacientes com IAMCSST tratados com ICPP, e abre caminho para um estudo em escala real que teste essa hipótese.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Tyrosine/analogs & derivatives , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , No-Reflow Phenomenon/prevention & control , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Placebos , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Time Factors , Tyrosine/administration & dosage , Tyrosine/therapeutic use , Infusions, Intravenous , Brazil/epidemiology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Stents , Pilot Projects , Predictive Value of Tests , No-Reflow Phenomenon/diagnosis , No-Reflow Phenomenon/epidemiology , Tirofiban
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 323-330, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827857


Abstract Background: To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies evaluating the influence of the unit of the first contact on the frequency and time of pharmacological treatment during an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event. Objectives: The main objective was to investigate if the unit of first contact influenced the frequency and time of aspirin treatment in the Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ERICO) study. Methods: We analyzed the pharmacological treatment time in 830 ERICO participants - 700 individuals for whom the hospital was the unit of first contact and 130 who initially sought primary care units. We built logistic regression models to study whether the unit of first contact was associated with a treatment time of less than three hours. Results: Individuals who went to primary care units received the first aspirin dose in those units in 75.6% of the cases. The remaining 24.4% received aspirin at the hospital. Despite this finding, individuals from primary care still had aspirin administered within three hours more frequently than those who went to the hospital (76.8% vs 52.6%; p<0.001 and 100% vs. 70.7%; p=0.001 for non ST-elevation ACS and ST-elevation myocardial infarction, respectively). In adjusted models, individuals coming from primary care were more likely to receive aspirin more quickly (odds ratio: 3.66; 95% confidence interval: 2.06-6.51). Conclusions: In our setting, individuals from primary care were more likely to receive aspirin earlier. Enhancing the ability of primary care units to provide early treatment and safe transportation may be beneficial in similar settings.

Resumo Fundamento: Em nosso conhecimento, não há estudos que avaliam a influência da unidade de primeiro contato na frequência e tempo para o tratamento farmacológico durante um evento de síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA). Objetivos: O principal objetivo foi investigar se a unidade de primeiro contato influencia a frequência e o tempo para tratamento com aspirina no estudo "Estratégia de Registro de Insuficiência Coronariana" (ERICO). Métodos: Analisamos o tempo para o tratamento farmacológico em 830 participantes do estudo ERICO - 700 indivíduos cuja primeira unidade de contato foi o hospital, e 130 que procuraram, num primeiro momento, unidades de atenção primária. Construímos modelos de regressão logística para estudar se a unidade de primeiro contato estava associada a um tempo de tratamento de menos de três horas. Resultados: Indivíduos que buscaram unidades de atenção primária receberam a primeira dose de aspirina nestas unidades em 75,6% dos casos. Os outros 24,4% receberam a aspirina no hospital. Apesar deste achado, indivíduos de unidades de atenção primária receberam aspirina em três horas mais frequentemente do que aqueles que foram ao hospital (76,8% vs 52,6%; p<0,001 e 100% vs, 70,7%; p=0,001 para SCA sem elevação do segmento ST e infarto agudo do miocárdio com elevação do ST, respectivamente). Em modelos ajustados, indivíduos vindos de unidades de atenção primária tinham mais probabilidade de receber aspirina mais rapidamente (razão de chances: 3,66; 95% intervalo de confiança: 2,06-6,51). Conclusões: Neste contexto, indivíduos provenientes de unidades de atenção primária tinham maior chance de receber aspirina mais rapidamente. O aprimoramento da capacidade das unidades de atenção primária para proporcionar tratamento precoce e transporte seguro pode ser benéfico em contextos similares.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Time Factors , Ticlopidine/administration & dosage , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Brazil , Heparin/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Educational Status , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Clopidogrel , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(8): 679-686, Aug. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792518


ABSTRACT The use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents has largely increased. Diagnostic lumbar puncture in patients taking these drugs represents a challenge considering the opposing risks of bleeding and thrombotic complications. To date there are no controlled trials, specific guidelines, nor clear recommendations in this area. In the present review we make some recommendations about lumbar puncture in patients using these drugs. Our recommendations take into consideration the pharmacology of these drugs, the thrombotic risk according to the underlying disease, and the urgency in cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Evaluating such information and a rigorous monitoring of neurological symptoms after lumbar puncture are crucial to minimize the risk of hemorrhage associated neurological deficits. An individualized patient decision-making and an effective communication between the assistant physician and the responsible for conducting the lumbar puncture are essential to minimize potential risks.

RESUMO O uso de anticoagulantes e de agentes antiplaquetários tem aumentado nos últimos anos. A realização de punção lombar diagnóstica em pacientes utilizando tais medicamentos representa um desafio, em função dos riscos de complicações hemorrágicas ou trombóticas, estas últimas em pacientes que interrompem o tratamento para a realização do procedimento. Não há ainda estudos controlados nem diretrizes específicas nesta área. Neste artigo de revisão, algumas recomendações são feitas, levando-se em conta aspectos farmacológicos destas medicações, o risco de complicações trombóticas de acordo com a doença de base, e a urgência na coleta do líquor. A avaliação cuidadosa destas informações e uma monitorização neurológica rigorosa visando a detecção e o tratamento precoce de complicações podem reduzir o risco de sequelas neurológicas decorrentes de hemorragia. Uma decisão individualizada e uma efetiva comunicação entre o médico assistente e o responsável pela realização da punção lombar é essencial para minimizar potenciais riscos.

Humans , Spinal Puncture/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Spinal Puncture/adverse effects , Thrombosis/prevention & control
Rev. bras. cardiol. invasiva ; 23(2): 102-107, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-786991


Introdução: Historicamente, pacientes com cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRM) prévia submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) primária têm pior prognóstico que pacientes semCRM prévia. No entanto, análises mais contemporâneas contestam esses achados. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar os desfechos clínicos de 30 dias em pacientes com e sem CRM prévia submetidos à ICP primária. Métodos: Estudo de coorte prospectivo extraído do banco de dados do Instituto de Cardiologia do RioGrande do Sul, contendo 1.854 pacientes submetidos à ICP primária. Resultados: Pacientes com CRM prévia (3,8%) mostraram perfil clínico, em geral, mais grave. O tempo deinício dos sintomas até a chegada ao hospital foi menor nesse grupo (2,50 horas [1,46-3,66] vs. 3,99 horas[1,99-6,50]; p < 0,001) e o tempo porta-balão foi semelhante (1,33 hora [0,85-2,07] vs. 1,16 hora [0,88-1,58];p = 0,12). O acesso femoral foi mais usado no grupo com CRM prévia (91,5% vs. 62,5%; p < 0,001). O uso de tromboaspiração manual foi menor nesse grupo (16,9% vs. 31,1%; p = 0,007), mas não houve diferença no uso de inibidor da glicoproteína IIb/IIIa (28,2% vs. 32,4%; p = 0,28). O sucesso angiográfico foi menor no grupo com CRM prévia (80,3% vs. 93,3%; p = 0,009). Aos 30 dias, pacientes com CRM prévia apresentaram taxas similares de eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (14,1% vs. 11,2%; p = 0,28), e a mortalidade, embora numericamente mais alta, não foi estatisticamente significativa (13,2% vs. 7,0%; p = 0,07).Conclusões: Nessa análise contemporânea, pacientes com CRM prévia submetidos à ICP primária apresentaram perfil clínico mais grave e menor sucesso angiográfico, porém não mostraram diferenças nos desfechos clínicos em 30 dias.

Background: Historically, patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have a worse prognosis than patients without prior CABG. However, more contemporary analyses have contested these findings. This study’s aim was to evaluate the 30-day clinical outcomes in patients with and without prior CABG submitted to primary PCI. Methods: Prospective cohort study, extracted from the database of Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grandedo Sul, containing 1,854 patients undergoing primary PCI. Results: Patients with prior CABG (3.8%) showed, in general, a more severe clinical profile. The time of symptom onset until arrival at the hospital was shorter in this group (2.50 hours [1.46 to 3.66] vs. 3.99 hour [1.99 to 6.50]; p < 0.001), while the door-to-balloon time was similar (1.33 hour [0.85 to 2.07] vs.1.16 hour [0.88 to 1.58]; p = 0.12). Femoral access was more often used in the group with prior CABG(91.5% vs. 62.5%; p < 0.001). Manual thrombus aspiration was less often performed in this group (16.9% vs. 31.1%; p = 0.007), but there was no difference regarding the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (28.2% vs. 32.4%, p = 0.28). Angiographic success was lower in the group with prior CABG (80.3% vs. 93.3%; p = 0.009). At 30 days, patients with prior CABG had similar rates of major adverse cardiac events (14.1%vs. 11.2%; p = 0.28), and mortality, although numerically higher, was not statistically significant (13.2%vs. 7.0%, p = 0.07). Conclusions: In this contemporary analysis, patients with prior CABG undergoing primary PCI had amore severe clinical profile and lower angiographic success, but showed no differences regarding 30-day clinical outcomes.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Tertiary Healthcare/methods , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Patients , Myocardial Revascularization/mortality , Analysis of Variance , Angiography/methods , Cohort Studies , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Stents
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(2): 112-119, abr.-jun.2016. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-796515


Desde os primeiros estudos com ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS), até publicações mais recentes com novos bloqueadores de ADP e bloqueadores do receptor de trombina, pode-se afirmar que o conhecimento sobre o tratamento antiplaquetário nas síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA) evoluiu de forma exponencial. Atualmente, a dupla antiagregação (DAP) é parte essencial do tratamento das SCA em todas as suas formas de apresentação, sendorecomendada por no mínimo um ano em todos os pacientes, independentemente da estratégia de revascularização utilizada, desde que não haja contraindicações ao seu uso. Ao mesmo tempo que se demonstrava eficácia crescente com o uso de antitrombóticosde forma geral (incluindo-se os antiplaquetários), cada vez mais a comunidade científica se conscientizava da importância do sangramento que ocorria com o uso desses medicamentos e negava, ao menos parcialmente, os benefícios obtidos. Assim sendo, os maiores desafios nos tempos atuais em termos de terapêutica antitrombótica nas SCA voltam-se para o desenvolvimento de estratégias terapêuticas personalizadas individualmente, que possam ter o máximo possível de benefício emtermos de eventos isquêmicos, com o mínimo possível de sangramento. Isso inclui não apenas uma análise cuidadosa dos medicamentos a serem associados, mas também do tempo de sua utilização. Tais estratégias constituem o foco principal da presente revisão...

Since the first studies with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) up to more recent publications with new blockers of ADP and anti-thrombin receptor blockers, it is fair to say that knowledge about antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) has grown exponentially. Currently, dual antiplatelet (DAP) therapy is an essential part of the treatment in all presentation forms of ACS, and it is recommended for at least one year for all patients, regardless of the revascularization strategy used, provided there are no contraindications to its use. Alongside the demonstration of increased efficacy of antithrombotics in general (including antiplatelet drugs), the scientific community became increasingly aware of the impactof bleeding that occurred with the use of these drugs, and that were undermining, at least partially, the benefits obtained.Thus, the main challenge today regarding anti-thrombotic treatment in ACS is the development of tailored therapeutic strategies that can produce the greatest possible benefit in terms of ischemic events, with minimal bleeding. This includes not only a careful analysisof the drugs to be associated, but also the duration of their use. Such strategies are the focus of the present review...

Humans , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Prasugrel Hydrochloride/administration & dosage , Fibrinolytic Agents , Hemorrhage/complications , Treatment Outcome
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(2): 105-111, abr.-jun.2016. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-796514


A morbidade e a mortalidade nas síndromes coronarianas agudas – causadas principalmente pela instabilidade da placa aterosclerótica, levando à formação de trombos – foi bastante reduzida com o advento de antiplaquetários, antitrombóticos e revascularização precoce. Hoje, dispomos de quatro antitrombóticos para uso nestas condições: a heparina não fracionada, a de baixo peso molecular, o fondaparinux e a bivalirudina – sendo apenas as três primeiras disponíveis no Brasil. Como são agentes antiocoagulantes, o risco de sangramento não é desprezível e deve ser apropriadamente dosado com o fim de trazer o máximo benefício antitrombótico, sem grande risco hemorrágico. Nesta revisão sumarizamos o atual estado da arteno uso de antitrombóticos no Brasil...

Morbidity and mortality in the acute coronary syndromes – caused in the majorly by atherosclerotic plaque instability, with consequent thrombus formation – was drastically reduced by the advent of antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents, and by early revascularization. Nowadays, we have 4 antithrombotic agents: unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux and bivalirudin – with only the first 3 available in Brazil. As they comprise anticoagulant effects, the risk of bleedingis high and must be taken into account when prescribed, in order to bring the greater benefits without higher bleeding risk. In this review we summarized the current state of the art about the use of these agents in our country...

Humans , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/complications , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Thrombosis/therapy , Angioplasty/methods , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Risk Factors , Heparin/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Protamines/administration & dosage