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3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(2): 229-235, fev. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153018

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A dupla antiagregação plaquetária (DAP) é o tratamento fundamental do infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo O presente estudo visou investigar a eficácia e a segurança da tripla antiagregação plaquetária (TAP) em pacientes femininas idosas com diabetes e infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMCSST), que foram submetidas à intervenção coronária percutânea ICP. Métodos Trata-se se de um estudo randomizado e mono-cego. O grupo controle A (97 pacientes idosos do sexo masculino com diabetes e STEMI, cujos escores CRUSADE foram < 30) recebeu aspirina, ticagrelor e tirofibana. Um total de 162 pacientes femininas idosas com diabetes e IAMCSST foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de acordo com o escore CRUSADE. O grupo B (69 pacientes com escore CRUSADE > 31) recebeu aspirina e ticagrelor. O grupo C (93 pacientes com escore CRUSADE < 30) recebeu aspirina, ticagrelor e tirofibana. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados Após a PCI, o fluxo sanguíneo grau 3 Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) e a perfusão miocárdica TIMI grau 3 foram significativamente menos prevalentes no grupo B, em comparação com o grupo A (p < 0,05). Quando comparada aos grupos A e C, a incidência de complicações adversas maiores foi significativamente maior no grupo B (p < 0,05). Conclusão A TAP pode efetivamente reduzir a incidência de complicações maiores em pacientes idosas com diabetes e IAMCSST. No entanto, atenção cuidadosa deve ser dada à hemorragia em pacientes que recebem TAP. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Abstract Background Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is the cornerstone treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Objective The present study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of triple antiplatelet therapy (TAPT) in elderly female patients with diabetes and ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We designed a randomized, single-blind study. Control group A (97 elderly male patients with diabetes and STEMI, whose CRUSADE scores were < 30) received aspirin, ticagrelor, and tirofiban. A total of 162 elderly female patients with diabetes and STEMI were randomly divided into two groups according to CRUSADE score. Group B (69 patients with CRUSADE score > 31) received aspirin and ticagrelor. Group C (93 patients with CRUSADE score < 30) received aspirin, ticagrelor and tirofiban. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Compared to the findings in group A, post-PCI Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 blood flow and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade 3 were significantly less prevalent in group B (p < 0.05). When compared to groups A and C, the incidence of major adverse complications was significantly higher in group B (p < 0.05). Conclusion TAPT could effectively reduce the incidence of major complications in elderly female patients with diabetes and STEMI. However, close attention should be paid to hemorrhage in patients receiving TAPT. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Single-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(5): 449-456, Sept-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040108

ABSTRACT

There is limited evidence in the literature regarding the administration of clopidogrel to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients over 75 years of age. Most studies excluded this age group, making the subject controversial due to the increased risk of bleeding in this population. Objective: This is a retrospective, unicentric, and observational study aimed at assessing whether the administration of clopidogrel loading dose increases bleeding rates in patients over 75 years of age. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups: group I: 75 mg of clopidogrel; group II: 300-to 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel. A total of 174 patients (129 in group I and 45 in group II) were included between May 2010 and May 2015. Statistical analysis: The primary outcome was bleeding (major and/or minor). The secondary outcome was combined events (cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, death, stroke and bleeding). The comparison between groups was performed through Q-square and T-test. The multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression, being considered significant p < 0.05. Results: Comparisons between groups I and II showed differences in the prevalence of diabetes (46.5% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.01), arterial hypertension (90.7% vs. 75, p = 0.01), dyslipidemia (62% vs. 42.2%, p = 0.021), ST segment elevation (11.6% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.016) and coronary intervention percutaneous (16.5% vs. 62.2%, p < 0.0001), respectively. In the multivariate analysis, significant differences were observed between groups I and II in relation to the occurrence of bleeding (8.5% vs. 20%, OR = 0.173, 95% CI: 0.049 - 0.614, p = 0.007). Conclusion: A loading dose of 300 mg or more of clopidogrel


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged , Treatment Outcome , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , /therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stents , Statistical Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Angiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Hemorrhage/complications
6.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(4): 712-721, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038571

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion is an alternative therapy for atrial fibrillation patients who have high embolic risk and contraindications to anticoagulant therapy. Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and mid-term outcomes of percutaneous LAA occlusion, including device-related thrombosis. Methods: Sixty consecutive patients who had undergone percutaneous LAA occlusion with AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ device from September 2015 to March 2018 were enrolled. Patients were followed for 21 ± 15 months (median - 20 months, interquartile range - 9 to 27 months). The postprocedural assessment was done at the 1(st), 6(th), and 12(th) month. Patients were clinically evaluated, and transesophageal echocardiography was performed at each visit. We evaluated the condition of normality of variables using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. P-values < 0.05 were statistically significant. Results: The most common indication for the procedure was major bleeding with anticoagulants (n: 53, 88.3%). The procedure was completed successfully in 59 (98.3%) patients. Periprocedural mortality was observed in one patient. Postprocedural antiplatelet treatment was planned as dual or single antiplatelet therapy or low-dose anticoagulant therapy in 52 (88.1%), 2 (3.4%), and 5 (8.5%) patients, respectively. We found no clinically significant cerebrovascular events, device-related thrombus, or embolization in any patient during the follow-up. Two (3.4 %) patients presented significant peri-device leak (>3 mm) at the 1st month evaluation, which disappeared at the 12th month follow-up. Conclusion: We concluded that LAA occlusion using the Amulet™ LAA occluder can be performed with high procedural success and acceptable outcomes.


Resumo Fundamento: A oclusão do apêndice atrial esquerdo (AAE) é uma terapia alternativa para pacientes com fibrilação atrial que tenham alto risco embólico e contraindicações à terapia anticoagulante. Objetivo: Avaliar a viabilidade, segurança e resultados de médio prazo da oclusão percutânea do AAE, incluindo a trombose relacionada à prótese. Métodos: Sessenta pacientes consecutivos que foram submetidos à oclusão percutânea do AAE com a prótese AMPLATZER™ Amulet™ de setembro de 2015 a março de 2018 foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por 21 ± 15 meses (mediana - 20 meses, intervalo interquartílico - 9 a 27 meses). A avaliação pós-procedimento foi feita no 1º, 6º e 12º mês. Os pacientes foram examinados clinicamente e um ecocardiograma transesofágico foi realizado a cada visita. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada por meio do teste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos. Resultados: A indicação mais comum para o procedimento foi sangramento significativo com anticoagulantes (n: 53, 88,3%). O procedimento foi concluído com sucesso em 59 (98,3%) pacientes. Mortalidade peri-procedimento ocorreu em um paciente. A tratamento antiplaquetário pós-procedimento foi planejado como terapia antiplaquetária única ou dupla ou terapia anticoagulante de dose baixa em 52 (88,1%), 2 (3,4%) e 5 (8,5%) pacientes, respectivamente. Não foram encontrados eventos cerebrovasculares clinicamente significativos, trombo relacionado à prótese ou embolização nos pacientes durante o seguimento. Dois (3,4%) pacientes apresentaram vazamento peri-prótese significativo (>3 mm) na avaliação do 1º mês, que desapareceu no 12º mês de seguimento. Conclusão: Concluiu-se que a oclusão do AAE com o oclusor de AAE Amulet™ pode ser realizada com grande sucesso e resultados aceitáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Septal Occluder Device , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Risk Assessment , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(3): 357-363, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038556

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: High platelet reactivity (HPR) during therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a poor prognostic factor in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The prevalence of HPR during ACS is greater than that reported in stable diseases. However, it is unclear whether this prevalence of HPR is a transient phenomenon or a characteristic of this high-risk population. Objective: The main objective is to compare the effects of ASA on platelet function in the initial and late phases of ACS in a single population. Secondary objectives are: correlation between the tests between themselves and the relationship between the tests and the variation of the inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6). Methods: Seventy patients with non-ST segment elevation (NSTE) ACS in use of 100-200 mg of ASA per day for at least 7 days were prospectively studied. Platelet function was assessed in the first 48 hours and subsequently after 3 months using four methods: VerifyNow™ (VFN), whole blood platelet aggregation (WBPA) with arachidonic acid (AA) and collagen as agonists, and platelet function analyzer (PFA). The level of statistical significance considered was < 0.05. Results: According to the more specific methods (WBPA with AA and VFN), the incidence of HPR was significantly higher in the early phase than in the late phase: WBPA with AA: 31% versus 13%, p = 0.015; VFN: 32% versus 16%, p = 0.049. The other methods tested, which were less specific for ASA, did not show significant differences between phases. The correlation between the methods was weak or moderate (r ranging from 0.3 to 0.5, p < 0.05), and there were no significant associations between HPR and inflammatory markers. Conclusion: The prevalence of HPR during AAS therapy, assessed by specific methods for cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), is higher during the acute phase than in the late phase of NSTE ACS.


Resumo Fundamento: A alta atividade plaquetária (AAP) durante a terapia com ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) é fator de mau prognóstico nas síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA). A prevalência de AAP durante a SCA é maior do que a relatada na doença estável. No entanto, não está claro se esta prevalência de AAP é um fenômeno transitório ou característica dessa população de alto risco. Objetivo: O objetivo principal é comparar, em uma mesma população, os efeitos do AAS sobre a função plaquetária nas fases inicial e tardia da SCA. Os objetivos secundários são: correlação entre os testes entre si e a relação entre os testes e a variação dos marcadores inflamatórios (proteína C reativa e interleucina-6). Métodos: Foram estudados prospectivamente 70 pacientes com SCA sem elevação de ST (SCSST) em uso de 100 a 200 mg de AAS por dia por pelo menos 7 dias. A função plaquetária foi avaliada nas primeiras 48 horas e 3 meses após por quatro métodos: VerifyNow™ (VFN), agregometria de sangue total (AST) com ácido araquidônico (AA) e colágeno como agonistas, e analisador de função plaquetária (PFA). O nível de significância estatístico considerado foi < 0,05. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 65 ±9,7 anos e 54% da população eram do sexo feminino. De acordo com os métodos mais específicos (AST com AA e VFN), a incidência de AAP foi significativamente maior na fase inicial, em relação à tardia: AST com AA 31% versus 13%, p = 0,015; VFN 32% versus 16%, p = 0,049. Os outros métodos testados, menos específicos para o AAS, não mostraram diferenças significativas entre as fases. A correlação entre os métodos foi fraca ou moderada (r variando de 0,3 a 0,5, p < 0,05), e não houve associações significativas entre AAP e marcadores inflamatórios. Conclusão: A prevalência de AAP durante a terapia com AAS, avaliada por métodos específicos para cicloxigenase 1 (COX-1), é maior durante a fase aguda do que na tardia da SCASST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Platelet Function Tests , Blood Platelet Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Aspirin/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(9): 632-637, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cervical arterial dissection accounts for only a small proportion of ischemic stroke but arouses scientific interest due to its wide clinical variability. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate its risk factors, outline its clinical characteristics, compare treatment with antiaggregation or anticoagulation, and explore the prognosis of patients with cervical arterial dissection. Methods: An observational, retrospective study using data from medical records on patients with cervical arterial dissection between January 2010 and August 2015. Results: The total number of patients was 41. The patients' ages ranged from 19 to 75 years, with an average of 44.5 years. The most common risk factor was smoking. Antiaggregation was used in the majority of patients (65.5%); 43% of all patients recanalized in six months, more frequently in patients who had received anticoagulation (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The presence of atherosclerotic disease is considered rare in patients with cervical arterial dissection; however, our study found a high frequency of hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia. The choice of antithrombotic remains controversial and will depend on the judgment of the medical professional; the clinical results with anticoagulation or antiaggregation were similar but there was more recanalization in the group treated with anticoagulation; its course was favorable in both situations. The recurrence of cervical arterial dissection and stroke is considered a rare event and its course is favorable.


RESUMO As dissecções arterais cervicais correspondem somente a uma pequena proporção dos casos de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) isquêmico, mas despertam interesse científico devido à sua alta variabilidade clínica. Objetivos: Este estudo destina-se a avaliar os fatores de risco, desfechos clínicos, comparar o tratamento com anticoagulação e antiagregação, e avaliar o prognóstico desses pacientes. Métodos: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo utilizando dados de prontuários de pacientes com dissecção arterial cervical entre os períodos de janeiro de 2010 e agosto de 2015. Resultados: O número de pacientes foi 41. A idade foi de 19 a 75 anos, com idade média de 44,5 anos. O fator de risco mais comum encontrado foi o tabagismo. Antiagregação foi utilizada na maioria dos pacientes (65,5%); 43% dos pacientes apresentaram recanalização em seis meses, sendo esta mais frequentemente observada nos pacientes que receberam anticoagulação (p = 0,04). Conclusão: A presença de doença aterosclerótica é considerada rara em pacientes com dissecção arterial cervical. Entretanto, nosso estudo encontrou alta frequência de hipertensão arterial, tabagismo e dislipidemia. A escolha pela terapia antitrombótica permanece controversa e dependerá do julgamento clínico do médico; os resultados clínicos com anticoagulação ou antiagregação foram similares, mas houve maior taxa de recanalização no grupo tratado com anticoagulação. A recorrência de dissecação arterial cervical e AVC foi considerada rara e o curso, favorável.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vertebral Artery Dissection/etiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/drug therapy , Prognosis , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Carotid Artery Diseases/etiology , Carotid Artery Diseases/drug therapy , Carotid Artery Diseases/epidemiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Vertebral Artery Dissection/epidemiology , Atherosclerosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
9.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(3): 189-193, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1013888

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Tracheostomy is the most common surgical procedure performed in the intensive care unit (ICU). There is a paucity of evidence regarding complications in patients on dual anti-platelet therapy. Objective: To describe the complications arising in critically ill patients on dual antiplatelet therapy who are subjected to open tracheostomy. Method: Descriptive observational study of a retrospective case series of patients admitted to the ICU between June 2011 and December 2016, scheduled to undergo open tracheostomy. Results: Overall, 52 patients met the inclusion criteria and, of them, 14 were excluded. Postoperatively, 4 patients (10.5%) had major bleeding and 2 (5.3%) had minor bleeding. Only 1 patient (2.6%) required transfusion secondary to tracheostomy-related bleeding. No patient required fiberoptic bronchoscopy due to bleeding. Reintervention was needed in 10.5% of patients (n=4). No tracheostomy-related mortality was reported. Conclusion: Although 10.5% of patients had major bleeding, there was no impact on mortality. This study showed that, in patients with recent major cardiovascular events, there is no need to discontinue dual antiplatelet therapy or delay tracheostomy.


Resumen Introducción: La traqueostomía es el procedimiento quirúrgico más frecuentemente realizado en la Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo. La evidencia respecto a las complicaciones en pacientes con antiagregación plaquetaria dual es escasa. Objetivo: Describir las complicaciones que se presentan en pacientes críticos en manejo con terapia antiagregante plaquetaria dual, sometidos a traqueostomía abierta. Método: Estudio observacional descriptivo, serie de casos retrospectiva de pacientes hospitalizados en la Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo desde junio de 2011 hasta diciembre de 2016, programados para traqueostomía abierta. Resultados: 52 pacientes cumplieron criterios de inclusión, de los cuales se excluyó a 14. No se presentaron complicaciones durante la realización de la traqueostomía. En el posoperatorio, cuatro pacientes (10.5%) presentaron sangrado mayor y dos (5.3%) presentaron sangrado menor. Solo un paciente (2.6%) requirió transfusión secundaria a sangrado por traqueostomía. Ningún paciente requirió fibrobroncoscopia por sangrado. En un 10.5% de los pacientes (n:4) hubo necesidad de reintervención. No se reportó mortalidad por causa de la traqueostomía. Conclusiones: Aunque el 10.5% de los pacientes presentaron sangrado mayor, no hubo impacto en la mortalidad. El presente estudio mostró que en pacientes con evento cardiovascular mayor reciente no es necesario suspender la antiagregación dual ni diferir la realización de la traqueostomía.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Tracheostomy , Anticoagulants , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage , Intraoperative Complications
10.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 297-301, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002228

ABSTRACT

Uterine leiomyoma and coronary artery disease are two common diseases in women. However, the association of uterine bleeding caused by leiomyoma with unstable coronary syndrome is not frequent. Here we describe a case of a patient with active vaginal bleeding and unstable angina who underwent a unique approach by performing percutaneous procedures. The report demonstrates that new interventional options can be used to control active bleeding in patients in need of coronary angioplasty


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Uterine Hemorrhage/complications , Women , Stents , Angioplasty , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/methods , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Leiomyoma
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(3): 316-318, Mar. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003030

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is a consolidated treatment in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for both symptom control and improvement of prognosis. The patency of venous grafts is still the most vulnerable point of the surgical treatment since it presents a high prevalence of occlusion both in the immediate postoperative period and in the long-term follow-up. Aspirin plays a well-established role in this setting, and for a long time, clopidogrel use has been restricted to patients allergic to aspirin. Recently, subgroup analyses of studies with different anti-platelet therapies have shown reduced mortality and cardiovascular events in patients on dual anti-platelet antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) undergoing CABG, although such studies have not been designed to evaluate this patient profile. However, there is still an insufficient number of randomized studies using DAPT in this context, resulting in a disagreement between the European and American cardiology societies guidelines regarding their indication and generating doubts in clinical practice.


RESUMO A cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica (CRM) é tratamento fundamental em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC) tanto para controle de sintomas quanto para melhora do prognóstico. A patência dos enxertos venosos ainda hoje é o ponto mais vulnerável do tratamento cirúrgico, por apresentar alta prevalência de oclusão tanto no pós-operatório imediato como no seguimento em longo prazo. A aspirina tem papel bem estabelecido neste cenário e, por muito tempo, o uso do clopidogrel ficou restrito a pacientes alérgicos a aspirina. Recentemente, análises de subgrupos de estudos com diferentes terapias antiplaquetárias demonstraram redução de mortalidade e eventos cardiovasculares em pacientes em uso de dupla antiagregação plaquetária (Dapt) submetidos à CRM, ainda que tais estudos não tenham sido desenhados para avaliar este perfil de pacientes. Contudo, há ainda uma quantidade insuficiente de estudos randomizados com uso de Dapt nesse contexto, resultando em uma discordância entre as diretrizes europeia e americana de cardiologia quanto à sua indicação e gerando dúvidas na prática clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Vascular Patency/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Graft Occlusion, Vascular/prevention & control , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Ticagrelor/therapeutic use
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 142-144, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002417

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Atheroembolic renal disease (AERD) is a kidney manifestation of atherosclerosis as a systemic disease. AERD is defined as a renal impairment secondary to embolization of cholesterol crystals with consequent occlusion of renal vascularization. The current case report describes one patient with multiple risk factors but without any inciting event history who presents a very atypical clinical course of a severe and massive atheroembolic disease that developed spontaneously and silently.


RESUMO A doença renal ateroembólica (DRAE) é uma manifestação renal da aterosclerose enquanto patologia sistêmica. A DRAE é definida como uma disfunção renal secundária à embolização de cristais de colesterol seguida da oclusão da vascularização renal. O presente relato descreve o caso de um paciente com vários fatores de risco, porém sem um evento precipitante, que se apresentou com um curso clínico bastante atípico de doença ateroembólica grave de evolução espontânea e silenciosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Renal Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Atherosclerosis/complications , Dyslipidemias/complications , Hypertension/complications , Biopsy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypertriglyceridemia , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetic Nephropathies/etiology , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , /therapeutic use , Hypercholesterolemia , Kidney/pathology , Microscopy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 112(2): 138-146, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983832

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: A subset of patients who take antiplatelet therapy continues to have recurrent cardiovascular events which may be due to antiplatelet resistance. The effect of low response to aspirin or clopidogrel on prognosis was examined in different patient populations. Objective: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of poor response to dual antiplatelet therapy and its relationship with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in young patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: In our study, we included 123 patients under the age of 45 with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous intervention. A screening procedure to determine both aspirin and clopidogrel responsiveness was performed on the fifth day of admission. We followed a 2x2 factorial design and patients were allocated to one of four groups, according to the presence of aspirin and/or clopidogrel resistance. Patients were followed for a three-year period. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: We identified 48% of resistance against one or more antiplatelet in young patients with STEMI. More MACE was observed in patients with poor response to dual platelet therapy or to clopidogrel compared those with adequate response to the dual therapy (OR: 1.875, 1.144-3.073, p < 0.001; OR: 1.198, 0.957-1.499, p = 0.036, respectively). After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that poor responders to dual therapy had 3.3 times increased odds for three-year MACE than those with adequate response to the dual therapy. Conclusion: Attention should be paid to dual antiplatelet therapy in terms of increased risk for cardiovascular adverse events especially in young patients with STEMI.


Resumo Fundamento: Um subgrupo de pacientes que recebem terapia antiplaquetária continua a apresentar eventos cardiovasculares recorrentes, possivelmente por resistência aos medicamentos. O efeito da baixa resposta à aspirina ou ao clopidogrel sobre o prognóstico foi avaliado em diferentes populações. Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de baixa resposta à terapia antiplaquetária e sua relação com eventos adversos cardiovasculares em pacientes jovens com infarto do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCST). Métodos: Em nosso estudo, incluímos 123 pacientes com IAMCST e idade inferior a 45 anos, submetidos à intervenção percutânea primária. No quinto dia após admissão hospitalar, os pacientes foram rastreados quanto à capacidade de resposta à aspirina e ao clopidogrel. Seguimos um delineamento fatorial 2x2 e os pacientes foram alocados a um dos quatro grupos formados segundo presença de resistência à aspirina e/ou ao clopidogrel. Os pacientes foram acompanhados por um período de três anos. Um valor de P inferior a 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Nós identificamos 48% de resistência a um ou mais agentes antiplaquetários em pacientes jovens com IAMCST. Houve maior ocorrência de MACE em pacientes com baixa resposta à terapia antiplaquetária dupla ou ao clopidogrel em comparação àqueles com resposta adequada à terapia dupla (OR: 1,875; 1,144-3,073; p < 0,001; OR: 1,198; 0,957-1,499; p = 0.036, respectivamente). Após ajuste quanto a possíveis fatores de confusão, pacientes com baixa resposta à terapia dupla apresentaram risco 3,3 vezes maior para MACE em três anos em comparação àqueles com resposta adequada a essa terapia. Conclusão: Atenção deve ser dada à resistência à terapia antiplaquetária dupla quanto ao risco aumentado de eventos adversos cardiovasculares, especialmente em pacientes jovens com IAMCST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Drug Resistance , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e8001, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974279

ABSTRACT

There is no definite recommendation for testing platelet aggregation (PA) in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) due to inconclusive evidence on the usefulness of platelet function tests to guide therapy and improve clinical outcomes. The evaluation of PA with multiple electrode impedance platelet aggregometry (MEA) may be useful to manage antiplatelet therapy and possibly influence patient outcome. The primary aim of this study was to measure PA with MEA in Brazilian patients with ACS and evaluate the association between PA and adverse clinical outcomes. Forty-seven consecutive patients admitted with ACS to a Brazilian tertiary-care public hospital were studied and PA was evaluated using MEA. Patients were followed for six months for the occurrence of all-cause death, acute myocardial infarction, or stroke. Suboptimal inhibition of PA was found in 7 patients (14.9%); 5 (10.6%) in response to ASA (acetylsalicylic acid), 2 (5.0%) to clopidogrel, and none to ticagrelor. Inadequate PA inhibition in response to ASA was significantly associated with the composite end point, but there was no significant association for insufficient PA inhibition in response to clopidogrel. This study suggested that the evaluation of PA in ACS using MEA may identify non-responders to ASA. Larger studies are necessary to define, in a public health scenario, the value of MEA in the management of ACS.


Subject(s)
Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Electric Impedance/therapeutic use , Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood , Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12/blood , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Public
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 111(4): 596-604, Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973773

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The current guidelines dispose recommendations to manage antiplatelet agents in the perioperative period; however, the daily medical practices lack standardization. Objectives: To asses factors associated with inadequate management of antiplatelet agents in the perioperative period of non-cardiac surgeries. Methods: Cross-sectional Study conducted in hospital from October 2014 to October 2016. The study dependent variable was a therapy that did not comply with the recommendations in the Brazilian Association of Cardiology (SBC) guidelines. The independent variables included some characteristics, the people in charge of the management and causes of lack of adherence to those guidelines. Variables were included in the multivariate model. Analysis was based on the odds ratio (OR) value and its respective 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by means of logistic regression with 5% significance level. Results: The sample was composed of adult patients submitted to non-cardiac surgeries and who would use acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) or clopidogrel (n = 161). The management failed to comply with the recommendations in the guidelines in 80.75% of the sample. Surgeons had the highest number of noncomplying orientations (n = 63). After multivariate analysis it was observed that patients with a higher level of schooling (OR = 0.24; CI95% 0.07-0.78) and those with a previous episode of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (OR = 0.18; CI95% 0.04-0.95) had a higher probability of using a therapy complying with the guidelines. Conclusion: Positive association between patients' schooling level, or those with a history of previous AMI, with management of the use of aspirin and clopidogrel in the perioperative period of non-cardiac surgeries. However, diverging conducts stress the need of having internal protocol defined.


Resumo Fundamento: As diretrizes atuais apresentam recomendações para o manejo de antiagregantes plaquetários em perioperatório, entretanto, na prática clínica diária há falta de padronização das condutas médicas. Objetivos: Avaliar os fatores associados ao manejo inadequado de antiagregantes plaquetários em perioperatório de cirurgias não cardíacas. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado de outubro de 2014 a outubro de 2016, em hospital. A variável dependente do estudo foi a terapia divergente das recomendações das diretrizes da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (SBC). As variáveis independentes incluíram algumas características, os responsáveis pelo manejo e as causas de não adesão às diretrizes. As variáveis foram incluídas no modelo multivariado. A análise se baseou no valor de oddsratio (OR) e seu respectivo intervalo de confiança (IC) de 95%, estimados por regressão logística com um nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: A amostra foi composta de pacientes adultos submetidos a cirurgias não cardíacas e que faziam uso de ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS) ou clopidogrel (n = 161). O manejo esteve em desacordo com aquele preconizado pelas diretrizes em 80,75% da amostra. Os cirurgiões realizaram o maior número (n = 63) de orientações em desacordo. Após a análise multivariada, observou-se que os pacientes com nível de escolaridade superior (OR = 0,24; IC95% 0,07-0,78) e aqueles com episódio prévio de infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) (OR = 0,18; IC95% 0,04-0,95) possuem maior chance de utilizar a terapia em concordância com as recomendações. Conclusão: Associação positiva entre o nível de escolaridade dos pacientes ou histórico prévio de IAM com o manejo do uso de AAS e clopidogrel em perioperatório de cirurgias não cardíacas. Porém as divergências nas condutas reforçam a necessidade de definição de protocolos internos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Perioperative Care/methods , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Prescription Drug Misuse/statistics & numerical data
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 398-406, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979375

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Secondary prevention of stroke is a very important goal for achieving continuous reduction in stroke mortality rates over the next decades. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analysis on the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ­(ELSA-Brasil), with data from Salvador, Vitória, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Porto Alegre. METHODS: This descriptive analysis focused on secondary prevention of stroke among participants who self-reported a medical diagnosis of stroke at the baseline of ELSA-Brasil, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 197 participants (1.3%) reported a prior medical history of stroke. Participants with stroke were older and less educated and had lower mean monthly family income, compared with non-stroke participants. Among all stroke cases, 23.7% did not use any medication for secondary prevention of stroke. Use of secondary prevention was higher among men than among women (respectively, 59.6% versus 40.4%; P = 0.02 for aspirin; and 71.4% versus 28.6%; P = 0.04 for other antiplatelet drugs). Having private health insurance was associated with greater use of less cost-effective and more expensive medications (like angiotensinogen receptor blockers) and a tendency to use antiplatelet drugs other than aspirin, among participants reporting stroke, compared with others. Use of medication decreased as time passed after suffering a stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of individuals with better access to healthcare services, use of secondary prevention for stroke was low, which may suggest that the situation in the general population is worse. Sex was the most important sociodemographic variable associated with low use of secondary prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Secondary Prevention/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Sex Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Stroke/drug therapy , Self Report , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
18.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3): 267-275, jul.-ago. 2018. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916465

ABSTRACT

O acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) é a maior causa de incapacidade em todo mundo, e atualmente é também considerado como a segunda maior causa de morte no Brasil. O AVC isquêmico é o subtipo mais comum e pode ser subdividido etiologicamente em car-dioembólico, aterosclerótico de grandes ou pequenas artérias (lacunas), criptogênico ou de outras etiologias. Dependendo da etiologia encontrada, a profilaxia secundária de novos eventos deve ser feita através de medicações antitrombóticas específicas. Portanto, investigar adequadamente a etiologia do evento vascular isquêmico é fundamental para a instituição da profilaxia secundária apropriada. A terapia antitrombótica pós-AVC isquêmico evoluiu consideravelmente na última década. Especificamente para pacientes com AVC e fibrilação atrial, a incorporação de anticoagulantes de ação direta à prática clínica representa um grande avanço, já que tais medicações são mais eficazes e seguras para o tratamento de pacientes de alto risco. No presente artigo, discutiremos o uso de antitrombóticos em pacientes com AVC em diferentes momentos pós-icto vascular e nas distintas etiologias possíveis


Stroke is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and is currently also considered the second leading cause of death in Brazil. Ischemic stroke is the most common subtype and can be subdivided etiologically into cardioembolic, atherosclerotic (large artery atherosclero-sis or small vessel disease-lacunae), cryptogenic or strokes of other etiologies. Depending on the etiology, secondary prophylaxis of new events should be undertaken with specific antithrombotic medications. Therefore, a thorough investigation of ischemic vascular event etiology is essential for the introduction of appropriate secondary prophylaxis. Antithrombotic therapy after ischemic stroke has evolved considerably in the last decade. The incorporation of direct-acting anticoagulants into clinical practice represents a major advance, particularly for stroke and atrial fibrillation patients, since such medications are safer and more effective for the treatment of high-risk patients. In this article, we will discuss the use of antithrombo-tics in stroke patients at different post-stroke stages and in the distinct possible etiologies


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Disease Prevention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cerebral Infarction/diagnosis , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus , Secondary Prevention/methods , Sedentary Behavior , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Hypertension , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
20.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(1)jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-906856

ABSTRACT

A diabetes mellitus é uma condição que pode estar ou não associada ao caráter hereditário, em que há pouca ou nenhuma liberação de insulina ou o organismo não é capaz de utilizar adequadamente a insulina produzida. Para o tratamento odontológico desses pacientes, é necessário ter conhecimento do controle glicêmico por meio do valor de hemoglobina glicada; avaliar histórico de crises de hipoglicemia; realizar consultas curtas e no período da manhã. Dentre as comorbidades dessa patologia, podemos citar a doença cardiovascular, que pode ser encontrada de várias maneiras, dentre elas na forma de síndrome coronariana aguda. O tratamento desses indivíduos deve ser sempre realizado de forma multidisciplinar. Assim, o objetivo do presente trabalho é, por meio de um relato de caso clínico, discutir a abordagem cirúrgica odontológica de um paciente com ambas as patologias citadas acima, em uso terapêutico de anticoagulante, antiagregante e hipoglicemiante oral


Diabetes mellitus is a condition that may or may not be hereditary, in which either there is little or no insulin release, or the body is not capable of properly utilizing the insulin produced. For dental treatment of these patients, it is necessary to be aware of glycemic control through the glycated hemoglobin level; to assess the history of hypoglycemia crises; and to provide short appointments during the mornings. One of the comorbidities of this pathology is cardiovascular disease, which can be found in several forms, including acute coronary syndrome. These individuals should always be treated in a multidisciplinary way. Thus, the aim of the present work is to discuss, through a clinical case report, the dental surgical approach to a patient with both of the above pathologies, under use of anticoagulant, antiplatelet drug, and oral hypoglycemic agent


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus , Mouth Rehabilitation/methods , Surgery, Oral/methods , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Metformin/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Warfarin/therapeutic use
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