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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation. However, the mechanism for this action of resveratrol remains to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the Ca@*METHODS@#Ca@*RESULTS@#Thapsigargin-induced Ca@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results suggest that resveratrol inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation through decreasing Ca


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Calcium/physiology , Humans , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects
2.
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. Univ. Cuenca ; 38(1): 65-71, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100688

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la pseudotrombocitopenia inducida por EDTA (ácido etilendiamino tetraacético) es un fenómeno de aglutinación de plaquetas que se presenta in vitro, mediado por anticuerpos anti-plaquetarios de tipo IgG, IgA o IgM dirigidos contra el complejo glucoproteínico IIb/IIIa de la membrana plaquetaria. Caso clínico: presentamos un caso clínico de una paciente de 59 años de edad sometida a recambio valvular aórtico; clínicamente con evolución favorable durante el periodo posquirúrgico, sin embargo, en estudios de control se registra trombocitopenia severa, lo que llevo a cuestionar el uso de anticoagulantes y la necesidad de transfusión de plaquetas. Al realizar estudios complementarios se encontró agregados plaquetarios en el frotis de sangre periférica, posteriormente se realizó recuento seriado de plaquetas y comparación del histograma plaquetario, catalogando el caso como pseudotrombocitopenia. Conclusión: La trombocitopenia por agregados plaquetarios es una condición de baja incidencia (0.07% a 0.1%). Se debe a la agregación de plaquetas in vitro asociada al uso de anticoagulantes, frecuentemente etilendiaminotetraacético (EDTA), en el presente caso también se asoció al uso de citrato de sodio. Este problema no se asocia a sangrado, sin embargo su desconocimiento pudo haber llevado a realizar procedimientos diagnósticos y terapéuticos innecesarios


Introduction: EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) ­induced by pseudothrombocytopenia is a platelet agglutination phenomenon that occurs in vitro, which are mediated by anti-platelet antibodies of the IgG, IgA or IgM type directed against the glycoprotein complex IIb / IIIa of the platelet membrane . Clinical case: This is a clinical case of a 59-yearsold patient undergoing aortic valve replacement, clinically with a favorable evolution during the postoperative period, however, in control studies, severe thrombocytopenia was recorded, which led to questioning the use of anticoagulants and the need for platelet transfusion. When carrying out complementary studies, aggregated platelet were found in the peripheral blood smear, later, a serial platelet count and comparison of the platelet histogram were performed, classifying the case as pseudotrombocytopenia. Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia due to aggregated platelet is a low incidence condition (0.07% to 0.1%). It is due to the aggregation of platelets in vitro associated with the use of anticoagulants [frequently ethylenediamine tetra acetic (EDTA)]; in the present case it was also associated with the use of sodium citrate. This problem is not associated with bleeding; however its lack of knowledge leads to unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Antibodies , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(7): 988-992, July 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013006

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low triiodothyronine syndrome (LT3S) on platelet function and clotting factors in patients with nephrotic syndrome(NS). METHODS Patients with primary nephrotic syndrome were divided into two groups, normal thyroid function (group A) and LT3S (group B), based on whether they had LT3S or not. Healthy subjects were selected as the control group (group C). Blood coagulation function was detected in each group. The platelet activation function (CD62P, CD63) was determined by flow cytometry. The platelet aggregation rate was detected by an optical method using adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid as inducers. RESULTS The proportion of primary nephrotic syndrome with LT3S was 23.2% (69/298). Compared with group C, group A had higher CD62P and PAgTADP, and group B had higher CD62P, CD63, PAgTAA, and PAgTADP; the difference was statistically significant (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in renal pathology between group A and group B (X2 = 4.957, P = 0.421). Compared with group A, the 24-hour urine protein, CD63, PAgTAA, and PAgTADP were higher in group B, and APTT and Alb were lower. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that LT3S was associated with CD36 (OR: 3.516; 95% CI: 1.742~8.186; P = 0.004) and PAgTAA (OR: 0.442; 95% CI: 1.001~1.251; P = 0.037). CONCLUSION NS patients are prone to LT3S. Patients with LT3S may have abnormal platelet activation and increase of platelet aggregation.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos da síndrome do baixo triiodotironina (LT3S) na função plaquetária e nos fatores de coagulação em pacientes com síndrome nefrótica (SN). MÉTODOS Pacientes com síndrome nefrótica primária foram divididos em dois grupos, função tireoidiana normal (grupo A) e LT3S (grupo B), com base na presença ou não de LT3S. Indivíduos saudáveis foram selecionados como grupo de controle (grupo C). A função de coagulação do sangue foi analisada em cada grupo. A função de ativação plaquetária (CD62P, CD63) foi determinada por citometria de fluxo. A taxa de agregação plaquetária foi detectada por um método óptico usando adenosina difosfato e ácido araquidônico como indutores. RESULTADOS A proporção de síndrome nefrótica primária com LT3S foi de 23,2% (69/298). Em comparação com o grupo C, o grupo A apresentou níveis mais altos de CD62P e PAgTADP, e o grupo B apresentou maiores CD62P, CD63, PAgTAA e PAgTADP; a diferença teve significância estatística (P < 0,05). Não houve diferença significativa na patologia renal entre o grupo A e o grupo B (X2 = 4,957, P = 0,421). Em comparação com o grupo A, a proteína em urina de 24 horas, CD63, PAgTAA e PAgTADP foram maiores no grupo B, já APTT e Alb foram mais baixos. A diferença apresentou significância estatística (P < 0,05). A análise de regressão logística mostrou uma associação entre LT3S e CD36 (OR: 3,516; 95% IC: 1,742~8,186; P = 0,004) e PAgTAA (OR: 0,442; 95% IC: 1,001~1,251; P = 0,037). CONCLUSÃO Pacientes com síndrome nefrótica estão propensos à síndrome do baixo triiodotironina (LT3S). Pacientes com LT3S podem ter ativação plaquetária anormal e aumento da agregação plaquetária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Triiodothyronine/blood , Blood Platelets/physiology , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/physiopathology , Euthyroid Sick Syndromes/blood , Nephrotic Syndrome/physiopathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood , Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Reference Values , Triiodothyronine/deficiency , Platelet Activation/drug effects , Platelet Activation/physiology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation/physiology , Regression Analysis , Flow Cytometry , Middle Aged , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e8001, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974279

ABSTRACT

There is no definite recommendation for testing platelet aggregation (PA) in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) due to inconclusive evidence on the usefulness of platelet function tests to guide therapy and improve clinical outcomes. The evaluation of PA with multiple electrode impedance platelet aggregometry (MEA) may be useful to manage antiplatelet therapy and possibly influence patient outcome. The primary aim of this study was to measure PA with MEA in Brazilian patients with ACS and evaluate the association between PA and adverse clinical outcomes. Forty-seven consecutive patients admitted with ACS to a Brazilian tertiary-care public hospital were studied and PA was evaluated using MEA. Patients were followed for six months for the occurrence of all-cause death, acute myocardial infarction, or stroke. Suboptimal inhibition of PA was found in 7 patients (14.9%); 5 (10.6%) in response to ASA (acetylsalicylic acid), 2 (5.0%) to clopidogrel, and none to ticagrelor. Inadequate PA inhibition in response to ASA was significantly associated with the composite end point, but there was no significant association for insufficient PA inhibition in response to clopidogrel. This study suggested that the evaluation of PA in ACS using MEA may identify non-responders to ASA. Larger studies are necessary to define, in a public health scenario, the value of MEA in the management of ACS.


Subject(s)
Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Electric Impedance/therapeutic use , Acute Coronary Syndrome/blood , Platelet Count , Platelet Function Tests , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12/blood , Tertiary Care Centers , Hospitals, Public
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(11): 1377-1381, nov. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-845458

ABSTRACT

Background: The decline of estrogen levels increases cardiovascular risk in women. Platelets express estrogen receptors and 17β-estradiol- (E2) can produce a protective effect on thrombus formation. The hydroxylation of cholesterol generates several sterols and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) predominates in circulation. Aim: To evaluate the effect of 27HC as an endogenous antagonist of the anti-aggregating properties of E2 in platelets of postmenopausal women. Material and Methods: Platelet function of postmenopausal women was evaluated ex-vivo. Platelets pre-incubated with 27HC in the presence or absence of E2, were stimulated with collagen. Aggregation was evaluated using turbidimetry using a Chrono-log aggregometer. Results: Collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly inhibited by E2. The inhibitory effect of E2 on collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was significantly reversed in the presence of 27HC. Conclusions: The suppressive effect of E2 on platelet aggregation is inhibited by 27HC, which could contribute to increase cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Postmenopause/blood , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Hydroxycholesterols/pharmacology , Reference Values , Blood Platelets/drug effects , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Risk Factors , Collagen/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Estradiol/metabolism
6.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 134(3): 199-204, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785805

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Glycoprotein inhibitors (abciximab, eptifibatide and tirofiban) are used in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction before percutaneous coronary intervention. Of these, tirofiban is the least effective. We hypothesized that the response to tirofiban might be associated with glycoprotein gene mutations. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at Emergency Unit, Heart Institute (InCor), University of São Paulo. METHOD: Intrahospital evolution and platelet aggregation in response to tirofiban were analyzed in relation to four glycoprotein mutations in 50 patients indicated for percutaneous coronary intervention: 17 (34%) with unstable angina and 33 (66%) with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Platelet aggregation was analyzed using the Born method. Blood samples were obtained before and one hour after tirofiban infusion. Glycoproteins Ia (807C/T ), Ib (Thr/Met) , IIb (Ile/Ser ) and IIIa (PIA ) were the mutations selected. RESULTS: Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, previous coronary artery disease and stroke were similar between the groups. Mutant glycoprotein IIIa genotypes had lower platelet aggregation before tirofiban administration than that of the wild genotype (41.0% ± 22.1% versus 55.9% ± 20.8%; P = 0.035). Mutant glycoprotein IIIa genotypes correlated moderately with lower platelet inhibition (r = -0.31; P = 0.030). After tirofiban administration, platelet glycoprotein Ia, Ib, IIb and IIIa mutations did not influence the degree of inhibition of platelet aggregation or intrahospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations of glycoproteins Ia, Ib, IIb and IIIa did not influence platelet aggregation in response to tirofiban in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Inibidores da glicoproteína (abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban) são utilizados em pacientes com angina instável e infarto do miocárdio sem elevação do segmento ST (IAMSSST) antes da intervenção coronária percutânea. Dentre eles, o tirofiban é o menos eficaz. Nossa hipótese é que a resposta ao tirofiban possa estar associada a mutações no gene da glicoproteína. DESENHO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo na Unidade de Emergência do Instituto do Coração (InCor), Universidade de São Paulo (USP). MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas a evolução intra-hospitalar e agregabilidade plaquetária em resposta ao tirofiban de 4 mutações da glicoproteína em 50 pacientes com indicação para intervenção coronária percutânea, 17 (34%) com angina instável e 33 (66%) com IAMSSST. A agregação plaquetária foi analisada pelo método de Born. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas antes e uma hora após infusão do tirofiban. As glicoproteínas Ia (807C/T ), Ib (Thr/Met ), IIb (Ile/Ser ) e IIIa (PIA ) foram as mutações selecionadas. RESULTADOS: Hipertensão, dislipidemia, diabetes, tabagismo, doença coronariana e acidente vascular cerebral prévios foram semelhantes entre os grupos. Observou-se menor agregabilidade plaquetária dos genótipos mutantes da glicoproteína IIIa antes da administração de tirofiban do genótipo selvagem (41% ± 22% versus 56% ± 21%; P = 0,035). Genótipos mutantes da glicoproteína IIIa correlacionaram-se moderadamente com menor inibição plaquetária (r = -0,31; P = 0,030). Após a administração tirofiban, as mutações das glicoproteínas Ia, Ib, IIb, e IIIa não influenciaram o grau de inibição da agregação plaquetária e mortalidade intra-hospitalar. CONCLUSÕES: Mutações das glicoproteínas Ia, Ib, IIb e IIIa não influenciaram a agregação plaquetária em resposta ao tirofiban nos pacientes com angina instável e IAMSSST.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Tyrosine/analogs & derivatives , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Mutation , Peptides/therapeutic use , Tyrosine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/antagonists & inhibitors , Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex/genetics , Acute Coronary Syndrome/genetics , Abciximab , Tirofiban , Eptifibatide , Genotype , Angina, Unstable/genetics , Angina, Unstable/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(5): 432-437, 02/05/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709430

ABSTRACT

It is not known whether the addition of ezetimibe to statins adds cardiovascular protection beyond the expected changes in lipid levels. Subjects with coronary heart disease were treated with four consecutive 1-week courses of therapy (T) and evaluations. The courses were: T1, 100 mg aspirin alone; T2, 100 mg aspirin and 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe; T3, 40 mg simvastatin/10 mg ezetimibe, and 75 mg clopidogrel (300 mg initial loading dose); T4, 75 mg clopidogrel alone. Platelet aggregation was examined in whole blood. Endothelial microparticles (CD51), platelet microparticles (CD42/CD31), and endothelial progenitor cells (CD34/CD133; CDKDR/CD133, or CD34/KDR) were quantified by flow cytometry. Endothelial function was examined by flow-mediated dilation. Comparisons between therapies revealed differences in lipids (T2 and T3<T1 and T4 for total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglycerides; P<0.002 for all), as well as for endothelial function (T2>T1 and T4, P=0.001). Decreased platelet aggregation was observed after aspirin (arachidonic acid, T1<T3 and T4, P=0.034) and clopidogrel (adenosine, T3 and T4<T1 and T2, P<0.0001) therapy. Simvastatin/ezetimibe diphosphate did not change platelet aggregation, the amount of circulating endothelial and platelet microparticles, or endothelial progenitor cells. Cardiovascular protection following therapy with simvastatin/ezetimibe seems restricted to lipid changes and improvement of endothelial function not affecting the release of microparticles, mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells or decreased platelet aggregation.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Azetidines/pharmacology , Cell-Derived Microparticles/drug effects , Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Endothelial Progenitor Cells/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Drug Combinations , Flow Cytometry , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Ticlopidine/therapeutic use , Triglycerides/blood
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(5): 415-418, set.-out. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-691376

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Dexmedetomidina é um α2-agonista seletivo. Há 250-300 receptores α2-adrenérgicos na superfície de cada uma das plaquetas humanas e a efedrina induz a agregação das plaquetas por ligação desses receptores. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para estudar a função plaquetária após incubação com concentrações terapêuticas de dexmedetomidina. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi conduzido com 18 homens saudáveis, não fumantes, com idades entre 25 e 35 anos. Porque o intervalo recomendado de concentração terapêutica de dexmedetomidina, obtido por infusão intravenosa, é de 0,4-1,2 ng.mL-1, as soluções de dexmedetomidina foram preparadas em três concentrações diferentes. Os valores calculados da solução de dexmedetomidina e do diluente sem dexmedetomidina (controle) foram adicionados a uma amostra de sangue. Assim, 0; 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2 ng.mL-1 de concentrações plasmáticas de dexmedetomidina foram obtidas. Cada concentração de dexmedetomidina foi incubada com sangue total a 37ºC durante 15 minutos. Em seguida, as amostras de sangue foram centrifugadas para preparar o plasma rico em plaquetas e o plasma pobre em plaquetas. O plasma rico em plaquetas foi diluído com o plasma pobre em plaquetas para gerar o teste de plasma rico em plaquetas com uma contagem final de plaquetas de 250 ± 50 x 10(9).L-1. RESULTADOS: As amplitudes e os declives da agregação plaquetária foram estatisticamente semelhantes entre todos os grupos nos testes de agregação feitos com ADP, colágeno ou adrenalina. CONCLUSÃO:As concentrações terapêuticas de dexmedetomidina não tiveram efeito in vitro nas funções plaquetárias de indivíduos saudáveis.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dexmedetomidine is a selective α2-agonist. There are 250-300 α2-adrenoceptor on the surface of each human platelet and ephedrine induces platelet aggregation by binding these receptors. This study was designed to study platelet function after incubation with therapeutic concentrations of dexmedetomidine. METHODS: The study was carried out on 18 healthy, non-smoking males, ages ranging 25 to 35 years old. Because of the recommended therapeutic concentration range of dexmedetomidine obtained by intravenous infusion is 0.4-1.2 ng.mL-1, dexmedetomidine solutions were prepared in three different concentrations. The calculated value of dexmedetomidine solution and diluent without dexmedetomidine as control were added to the blood sample. Thus, we obtained 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 ng.mL-1 dexmedetomidine concentrations of plasma. Each concentration of dexmedetomidine was incubated with whole blood at 37ºC during 15 minutes. Then blood samples were centrifugated to prepare platelet-rich plasma and platelet-poor plasma. The platelet-rich plasma was diluted with the platelet-poor plasma to yield test platelet-rich plasma with a final platelet count of 250 ± 50 X 10(9).L-1. RESULTS: The platelet aggregation amplitudes and slopes were statistically similar among all groups by the aggregation test, which were performed with ADP, collagen or epinephrine. CONCLUSION: Therapeutic concentrations of dexmedetomidine had no effect on the platelet functions in healthy individuals in vitro.


JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La Dexmedetomidina es un α2-agonista selectivo. Hay 250-300 receptores α2-adrenérgicos en la superficie de cada una de las plaquetas humanas y la efedrina induce a la agregación de las plaquetas por el vínculo con esos receptores. Este estudio tuvo el objetivo de estudiar la función plaquetaria después de la incubación con concentraciones terapéuticas de dexmedetomidina. MÉTODOS: El estudio fue llevado a cabo con 18 hombres sanos, no fumadores, con edades entre los 25 y los 35 años. Como el intervalo recomendado de concentración terapéutica de dexmedetomidina obtenido por infusión intravenosa es de 0,4-1,2 ng/mL, las soluciones de dexmedetomidina fueron preparadas en tres concentraciones diferentes. Los valores calculados de la solución de dexmedetomidina y del diluyente sin dexmedetomidina (control), fueron adicionados a una muestra de sangre. Así se obtuvieron 0; 0,4; 0,8 y 1,2 ng.mL-1 de concentraciones plasmáticas de dexmedetomidina. Cada concentración de dexmedetomidina fue incubada con sangre total a 37ºC durante 15 minutos. A continuación se centrifugaron las muestras de sangre para preparar el plasma rico en plaquetas y el plasma pobre en plaquetas. El plasma rico en plaquetas se diluyó con el plasma pobre en plaquetas para generar el test de plasma rico en plaquetas con un conteo final de plaquetas de 250 ± 50 x 10(9).L-1. RESULTADOS: Las amplitudes y los declives de la agregación plaquetaria fueron estadísticamente similares entre todos los grupos en los test de agregación hechos con ADP, colágeno o adrenalina. CONCLUSIÓN: Las concentraciones terapéuticas de dexmedetomidina no tuvieron efecto in vitro en las funciones plaquetarias de individuos sanos.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , /pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Platelet Function Tests
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(3): 277-282, set. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-686535

ABSTRACT

As plaquetas estão envolvidas em vários processos biológicos, desde o combate a agentes infecciosos até a coordenação do controle da permeabilidade vascular e angiogênese. Entretanto, o seu principal foco de ação consiste na modulação da cascata de coagulação. A intervenção coronariana percutânea é um procedimento com alto risco trombogênico, que induz a ativação plaquetária e de monócitos, devido à lesão direta do endotélio e pelo contato de estruturas trombogênicas com o sangue, levando ao aumento da atividade inflamatória, tanto no local do dano vascular coronariano como de forma sistêmica. Os receptores plaquetários P2Y12 desempenham papel central na amplificação da agregação induzida por todos os agonistas plaquetários, como a adenosina difosfato, o colágeno, tromboxano A2, adrenalina e serotonina. Por esse motivo, têm sido o principal alvo das drogas antiplaquetárias. Apesar de atuarem no mesmo receptor, características farmacocinéticas e farmacodinâmicas distintas conferem peculiaridades a cada agente.


Apart from their role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are involved in many other biological processes such as wound healing and angiogenesis. Percutaneous coronary intervention is a highly thrombogenic procedure inducing platelets and monocytes activation through endothelial trauma and contact activation by intravascular devices. Platelet P2Y12 receptor activation by adenosine diphosphate facilitates non-ADP agonist-mediated platelet aggregation, dense granule secretion, procoagulant activity, and the phosphorylation of several intraplatelet proteins, making it an ideal drug target. However, not all compounds that target the P2Y12 receptor have similar efficacy and safety profiles. Despite targeting the same receptor, the unique pharmacologic properties of each of these P2Y12 receptor-directed compounds can lead to very different clinical effects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , /pharmacology , /drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/pharmacology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Thienopyridines/pharmacology , Thiophenes/pharmacology
10.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 100(3): 221-228, mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670862

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: O papel dos testes de reatividade plaquetária (RP) na predição de eventos em longo prazo em pacientes latino-americanos tratados com stents farmacológicos (SF) não foi estabelecido. OBJETIVOS: Analisar o papel dos testes de RP na predição de eventos após a implantação de SF. MÉTODOS: De maio de 2006 a janeiro de 2008, foram incluídos 209 pacientes brasileiros que se submeteram a tratamento eletivo com SF. A RP foi avaliada 12 a 18 horas após o procedimento, por agregometria de transmitância de luz com 5µM de ADP. Os pacientes foram acompanhados prospectivamente por até 4,8 anos. Dezessete (8%) dos indivíduos foram perdidos durante o acompanhamento e a coorte final foi composta de 192 pacientes. A curva ROC foi utilizada para determinar o melhor ponto de corte de 5µM de ADP para prever eventos. O endpoint primário foi uma combinação de morte cardiovascular, infarto agudo do miocárdio, trombose definitiva de stent, e revascularização de artéria alvo.Modelos de risco proporcional de Cox foram utilizados para determinar as variáveis independentemente associadas com o tempo até o primeiro evento. RESULTADOS: O melhor ponto de corte de 5µM de ADP foi de 33%. Cento e sete (55,7%) pacientes apresentaram 5mM de ADP > 33%. A taxa de sobrevivência livre de eventos em 1.800 dias foi de 55% contra 70% para os indivíduos com ADP5 acima e abaixo desse ponto de corte, respectivamente (p = 0,001). Preditores de tempo independentes para o primeiro evento foram tabagismo atual (HR 3,49, IC95%: 1,76-6,9, p = 0,0003), ADP 5mM > 33% (HR 1,95, IC95%: 1,09-3,51, p = 0,025) e idade (HR 1,03 IC 95%: 1,0-1,06, p = 0,041). CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo, 55,7% dos pacientes apresentaram alta reatividade plaquetária durante tratamento. 5µM de ADP > 33% foi um preditor independente de eventos em longo prazo.


BACKGROUND: The role of platelet reactivity (PR) tests in the prediction of long-term events in Latin-American patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of PR tests in the prediction of events after DES implantation. METHODS: From May 2006 through January 2008, 209 Brazilian patients who underwent elective treatment with DES were included. PR was assessed 12 to 18h after the procedure by light transmittance aggregometry with 5µM of ADP. Patients were prospectively followed for up to 4.8 years. Seventeen (8%) individuals were lost to follow-up and the final cohort comprised 192 patients. Receiver operating curve (ROC) was used to determine the best 5µM of ADP cutoff to predict events. The primary endpoint was a combination of cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, and target-artery revascularization. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the variables independently associated with the time to the first event. RESULTS: The best ADP 5µM cutoff was 33%. One hundred and seven (55.7%) patients had ADP 5µM >33%. Event-free survival rate at 1,800 days was 55% vs. 70% for individuals with ADP5 above and below such cutoff, respectively (p=0.001). Independent predictors of time to first event were current smoking (HR 3.49; 95% CI 1.76-6.9; p=0.0003), ADP 5µM >33% (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.09-3.51; p=0.025) and age (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.0-1.06; p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 55.7% of the patients had high on-treatment platelet reactivity. ADP 5µM >33% was an independent predictor of long-term events.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Platelet Function Tests/standards , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Platelet Function Tests/methods , Reference Standards , Risk Factors , Ticlopidine/adverse effects
11.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Feb; 50(1): 14-18
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147281

ABSTRACT

Platelet aggregation around migrating cancer cells protects them against the activity of natural killer cells (NKCs). The inability of immune system to response results in the progression of malignant diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of resveratrol (3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene) on platelet aggregation and NKCs activity. Experiments were designed to evaluate the platelet aggregation, production of thromboxane B2 (TXB2), estimation of expression of the platelet receptor GpIIb/IIIa (major biological markers for platelet aggregation) and functional activity of the NKCs against the K562 cancer cell line after incubation with various concentrations of reveratrol. Resveratrol at a concentration of 3 × 10-3Μ completely inhibited platelet aggregation (p<0.05), decreased TXB2 levels (p<0.05) and inhibited the expression of receptor GpIIb/IIIa in non-stimulated platelets (p<0.05). At the same concentration, it increased the NKCs cytotoxic activity at an average rate of 319 ± 34, 450 ± 34 and 62 ± 2.4% (p<0.05) in the NKC/targets cells ratios of 12.5:1, 25:1 and 50:1, respectively. Thus, resveratrol not only completely inhibited platelet aggregation and reduced TXB2 levels and expression of receptor GpIIb/IIIa, but also increased the cytotoxic activity of NKCs in vitro and thus increased the susceptibility of tumor cells to NKCs. Thus, resveratrol can be used as an additional supplement to modulate the immune system and to inhibit platelet aggregation in thromboembolic episodes. Further clinical investigation in vivo could lead to specific concentrations that may maximize the beneficial effect of resveratrol.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/immunology , Cell Communication/drug effects , Cell Communication/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , K562 Cells , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Neoplasms, Experimental/immunology , Neoplasms, Experimental/pathology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation/immunology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Stilbenes/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
12.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 100(1): 29-36, jan. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662392

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A aspirina (Ácido Acetilsalicílico - AAS) é capaz de reduzir eventos adversos cardiovasculares em pacientes portadores de Doença Arterial Coronariana (DAC) através da inibição da atividade plaquetária. Alguns pacientes com DAC, apesar da terapia com AAS, apresentam Alta Reatividade Plaquetária (ARP), o que determina um maior risco para o desenvolvimento de eventos cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de ARP em pacientes tratados com AAS e encaminhados para cinecoronariografia, além de avaliar se existe uma possível correlação entre a gravidade da DAC e o desenvolvimento de ARP. MÉTODOS: Estudo de centro único onde foram incluídos 115 pacientes consecutivos, tratados com AAS e portadores de DAC estável. A reatividade plaquetária induzida pelo ADP e colágeno foram avaliadas através da Agregometria de Transmitância Luminosa (ATL). Pacientes com agregação plaquetária maior que 70%, induzida por ambos os reagentes, foram classificados como tendo ARP e, neste grupo, a adesão ao tratamento com AAS foi avaliada através da dosagem dos níveis séricos de salicilato. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 60,9 anos e a dose média de AAS foi de 164,2 mg. Tabagismo e diabetes melito estavam presentes em 28,7% e 31,5% dos pacientes, respectivamente. Foi encontrada ARP em 14 pacientes (13%), entretanto, em sete indivíduos (50%) com ARP observaram-se baixos níveis séricos de salicilato (< 2,0 µg/mL), sugerindo não adesão à terapia medicamentosa. Em 6,5% dos pacientes com ARP identificou-se níveis detectáveis de salicilato sérico, sugerindo uma eficácia reduzida do AAS. A ARP se correlacionou com o número e a gravidade das estenoses coronárias (p = 0,04). CONCLUSÃO: Em uma população de pacientes tratados com AAS e encaminhados para angiografia coronária, a reatividade plaquetária elevada é prevalente (13%), sendo 50% destes pacientes não aderentes à terapia farmacológica e 50% apresentam redução da efetividade da droga.


BACKGROUND: Aspirin (ASA) reduces adverse events in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients by inhibiting platelets. Some CAD patients have high platelet reactivity (HPR) despite ASA therapy and these individuals have increased risk of adverse events. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPR in ASA-treated patients referred for coronary angiography and to assess whether the HPR correlates with the severity of CAD. METHODS: This single center investigation enrolled 115 consecutive ASA-treated patients with stable CAD. ADP- and collagen-induced platelet reactivity were evaluated by light transmittance aggregometry (LTA). Patients with greater than 70% ADP- and collagen-induced aggregation were determined to have HPR and, in this group, ASA compliance was assessed by examining blood salicylate levels. Mean age was 60.9 years and average ASA dose was 164.2 mg. RESULTS: Smoking and DM were present in 28.7% and 31.5% respectively. HPR was found in 14 patients (13%) however 7 of the 14 patients (50%) with HPR had low serum salicylate levels (< 2.0 µg/mL) suggesting medication noncompliance. Of the entire cohort, 6.5% of patients had HPR and detectable serum salicylate levels suggesting reduced ASA efficacy. HPR correlated with number and severity of coronary stenosis (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In a general population of ASA-treated patients referred for coronary angiography, elevated platelet reactivity is prevalent (13%) with 50% related to noncompliance and 50% related to reduced aspirin efficacy.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Collagen/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Drug Resistance , Risk Factors , Salicylates/blood
13.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 99(6): 1135-1141, dez. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662372

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: A dupla terapia antiagregante plaquetária com ácido acetilsalicílico e clopidogrel é pedra angular do tratamento de pacientes submetidos a angioplastia com implante de stents coronarianos. Todavia, parte desses pacientes, a despeito do uso de aspirina e clopidogrel, não se encontram eficazmente antiagregados, fenômeno conhecido como resistência aos antiagregantes plaquetários. A sua prevalência, assim como as condições a ela relacionadas são desconhecidas em nosso meio. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de resistência ao clopidogrel, assim como as variáveis a ela relacionadas. MÉTODOS: Pacientes admitidos para angioplastia eletiva em uso crônico de aspirina e clopidogrel entre janeiro de 2007 e janeiro de 2010. Uma hora após o procedimento, foi medida a agregação plaquetária utilizando a agregometria óptica com difosfato de adenosina 5 µmoles/l como agonista. Nesse momento, em um coorte transversal, determinou-se a prevalência de resistência ao clopidogrel, definida com um valor de agregação plaquetária > 43% e um modelo de regressão logística às variáveis a ela relacionadas. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 205 pacientes (66,4 ± 11anos, 61,5% masculino). A prevalência de resistência ao clopidogrel foi 38,5% (IC95% 31,9 - 45,2%). O valor da glicemia (OR = 1,014 IC95% 1,004 - 1,023), infarto do miocárdio prévio (OR = 2,320 IC95% 1,1103 - 4,892) e a resposta terapêutica à aspirina (OR = 1,057 IC95% 1,017 - 1,099) foram as variavéis de associação independente à resistência ao clopidogrel. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de resistência ao clopidogrel foi alta. Glicemia, infarto agudo do miocárdio prévio e a resposta ao ácido acetilsalicílico foram variáveis a ela relacionadas. A melhor compreensão desse fenômeno se faz necessária frente às novas propostas de antiagregantes plaquetários.


BACKGROUND: The dual antiplatelet therapy with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel is the cornerstone of treatment for patients undergoing angioplasty with coronary stent implantation. However, some of these patients, despite the use of aspirin and clopidogrel, are not effectively anti-aggregated, a phenomenon known as resistance to antiplatelet agents. Its prevalence, as well as the conditions associated with it, is unknown in our country. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of clopidogrel resistance, as well as variables associated with it. METHODS: Patients admitted for elective angioplasty in chronic use of ASA and clopidogrel between January 2007 and January 2010 were studied. One hour after the procedure, platelet aggregation was measured using optical aggregometry with adenosine diphosphate 5 mmoles / l as agonist. At that moment, in a cross-sectional cohort, we determined the prevalence of clopidogrel resistance, defined as the value of platelet aggregation > 43% and a logistic regression model to the variables associated with it. RESULTS: A total of 205 patients were analyzed (66.4 ± 11 years, 61.5% males). The prevalence of clopidogrel resistance was 38.5% (95% CI: 31.9 - 45.2%). Blood glucose (OR = 1.014; 95%CI: 1.004 - 1.023), previous myocardial infarction (OR = 2.320; 95%CI: 1.1103 - 4.892) and therapeutic response to ASA (OR = 1.057; 95%CI: 1.017 - 1.099) were the variables independently associated with clopidogrel resistance. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of clopidogrel resistance was high. Glycemia, acute myocardial infarction and response to ASA were variables associated with it. A better understanding of this phenomenon is necessary considering the new antiplatelet aggregant agents.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Drug Resistance , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Stents , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Aspirin/pharmacology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ticlopidine/pharmacology
14.
Pakistan Oral and Dental Journal. 2012; 32 (2): 199-202
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-146050

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to see post extraction bleeding associated with long term maintenance dose of aspirin 75mg-150mg without discontinuation. This study was conducted at Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from January 2009 to June 2010. Patients for simple single tooth extraction and on aspirin [75-150 mg] were included. Patients with systemic disease like hematologic, renal, or liver disease, bone marrow disorders, alcoholism, or any concurrent medication affecting hemostasis such as anticogulants or anti-inflammatory drugs and patients who needed extractions of deciduous teeth, surgical extractions, extractions in different quadrants, or multiple extractions [>1 tooth] were excluded. Patients were evaluated for immediate and late post extraction bleeding. A total of 254 patients were studied. Patients were categorized into two groups with equal number of patients in each group i.e. 127 each. Group 1 [study] on maintenance dose of Aspirin 75-150mg while group 2 [control] were not taking aspirin. In aspirin group 05 [03.93%] patients had post extraction prolonged immediate bleeding while 03 [02.36%] were in control group. This difference was not statistically significant [p=0.722]. In aspirin group 02 [01.57%] patients had late bleeding at 12 hour post extraction while one [0.78%] patient suffered in control group [p=1.00]. The bleeding was successfully controlled with pressure on gauze and no patient required suturing or re-hospital visit. There was no bleeding in post extraction period at 24 and at 48 hours. It was concluded that simple tooth extraction in patients on long term maintenance dose of 75-150mg aspirin without discontinuation is safe as far as post extraction bleeding is concerned


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aspirin/adverse effects , Oral Hemorrhage/etiology , Postoperative Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemostasis/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108031

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effects of hydrocortisone and aminophylline on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation in horses. Blood samples from 30 healthy Thoroughbred horses were collected by via jugular venipuncture to assess platelet aggregation. Platelet-rich and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from all samples by centrifugation and divided into three different aliquots. In the first aliquot, platelet aggregation was measured after platelet activation with 1 microM and 0.5 microM ADP (Group A). In the other two aliquots, the effect of a 10 min preincubation with hydrocortisone (Group B) or aminophylline (Group C) on ADP-induced aggregation at final ADP concentrations of 1 microM and 0.5 microM was observed. Platelet aggregation, recorded by an aggregometer, was evaluated by measuring the maximum degree of platelet aggregation and the initial velocities of platelet aggregation were obtained. Our results demonstrated the inhibitory effect of hydrocortisone and the induction effect of aminophylline on equine platelet responses in vitro.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Diphosphate/pharmacology , Aminophylline/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Female , Horses/physiology , Hydrocortisone/pharmacology , Male , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(3): 321-327, set. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-560561

ABSTRACT

FUNDAMENTO: Alguns estudos têm sugerido redução da atividade do clopidogrel sobre a ativação e adesão plaquetárias em pacientes em uso de estatinas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a ativação e agregação plaquetárias diminuem com clopidogrel, e se ocorre redução da ação do clopidogrel quando associado à atorvastatina ou à sinvastatina. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo que incluiu 68 pacientes com angina estável em uso prévio de sinvastatina, atorvastatina, ou nenhuma estatina (grupo controle), com indicação prévia eletiva de realização de intervenção coronária percutânea. Foi analisada a ativação plaquetária através do número de plaquetas, níveis de P-selectina e glucoproteína IIb/IIIa (com e sem estímulo de ADP) através de citometria de fluxo. Os resultados foram analisados antes e após a intervenção coronária percutânea e da administração de clopidogrel. RESULTADOS: Observamos redução da atividade plaquetária com uso de clopidogrel. Além disso, não houve diferenças entre as variáveis analisadas que comprovassem redução da atividade do clopidogrel quando associado à estatinas. Observou-se níveis de p-selectina (pré-angioplastia: 14,23±7,52 x 11,45±8,83 x 7,65±7,09; pós angioplastia: 21,49±23,82 x 4,37±2,71 x 4,82±4,47, ρ<0,01) e glicoproteína IIb/IIIa (pré-angioplastia: 98,97±0,43 x 98,79±1,25 x 99,21±0,40; pós angioplastia: 99,37±0,29 x 98,50±1,47 x 98,92±0,88, ρ=0,52), respectivamente nos grupos controle, atorvastatina e sinvastatina. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que a ativação plaquetária diminui com a administração de clopidogrel, e que o clopidogrel não tem seu efeito antiplaquetário reduzido na presença de sinvastatina ou atorvastatina.


BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested reduced activity of clopidogrel on platelet activation and adherence in patients using statins. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether platelet activation and aggregation decrease with clopidogrel, and whether there is a reduction of the action of clopidogrel when associated with atorvastatin or simvastatin. METHODS: This prospective study included 68 patients with stable angina with previous use of simvastatin, atorvastatin, or no statin (control group), with previous elective indication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Platelet activation was analyzed by means of platelet count, levels of P-selectin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (with and without ADP stimulation) by flow cytometry. The findings were analyzed before and after percutaneous coronary intervention and the administration of clopidogrel. RESULTS: We observed reduction in platelet activity with use of clopidogrel. Furthermore, no differences were found between the variables analyzed to prove reduced activity of clopidogrel when combined with statins. We observed levels of p-selectin (pre-angioplasty: 14.23 ± 7.52 x 8.83 x 11.45 ± 7.65 ± 7.09; after angioplasty: 21.49 ± 23.82 x 4 37 ± 2.71 x 4.82 ± 4.47, ρ < 0.01) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (pre-angioplasty: 98.97 ± 0.43 ± 1.25 x 98.79 x 99.21 ± 0.40 after angioplasty: 99.37 ± 0.29 ± 1.47 x 98.50 x 98.92 ± 0.88, ρ = 0.52), respectively, in the control, atorvastatin and simvastatin groups. CONCLUSION: We concluded that platelet activation decreases with administration of clopidogrel, and clopidogrel has no antiplatelet effect reduced in the presence of simvastatin or atorvastatin.


FUNDAMENTO: Algunos estudios han sugerido reducción de la actividad del clopidogrel sobre la activación y adhesión plaquetarias en pacientes en uso de estatinas. OBJETIVO: Evaluar si la activación y agregación plaquetarias disminuyen con clopidogrel, y si ocurre reducción de la acción del clopidogrel cuando está asociado a la atorvastatina o a la sinvastatina. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo que incluyó 68 pacientes con angina estable en uso previo de sinvastatina, atorvastatina, o ninguna estatina (grupo control), con indicación previa electiva de realización de intervención coronaria percutánea. Fue analizada la activación plaquetaria a través del número de plaquetas, niveles de P-selectina y glucoproteína IIb/IIIa (con y sin estímulo de ADP) a través de citometría de flujo. Los resultados fueron analizados antes y después de la intervención coronaria percutánea y de la administración de clopidogrel. RESULTADOS: Observamos reducción de la actividad plaquetaria con uso de clopidogrel. Además de eso, no hubo diferencias entre las variables analizadas que comprobasen reducción de la actividad del clopidogrel cuando está asociado a las estatinas. Se observaron niveles de p-selectina (pre-angioplastia: 14,23±7,52 x 11,45±8,83 x 7,65±7,09; post angioplastia: 21,49±23,82 x 4,37±2,71 x 4,82±4,47, ρ<0,01) y glicoproteína IIb/IIIa (pre-angioplastia: 98,97±0,43 x 98,79±1,25 x 99,21±0,40; post angioplastia: 99,37±0,29 x 98,50±1,47 x 98,92±0,88, ρ=0,52), respectivamente en los grupos control, atorvastatina y sinvastatina. CONCLUSIÓN: Concluimos que la activación plaquetaria disminuye con la administración de clopidogrel, y que el clopidogrel no tiene su efecto antiplaquetario reducido en la presencia de sinvastatina o atorvastatina.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Heptanoic Acids/pharmacology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Drug Interactions , Prospective Studies , Platelet Activation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ticlopidine/pharmacology
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 95(3): e91-e94, set. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-560569

ABSTRACT

Uma metanálise de estudos clínicos de pacientes com doença cardiovascular demonstrou que o uso de aspirina estava associado à redução de 22 por cento de mortes e a eventos vasculares isquêmicos relevantes. Entretanto, estudos clínicos revelaram que pacientes tomando regularmente aspirina apresentavam recorrência de eventos cardiovasculares. Tal constatação levou a um questionamento: se, em alguns pacientes, a aspirina não era eficaz em bloquear a agregação plaquetária, sendo estes pacientes chamados de não responsivos ou resistentes à aspirina. Conceitua-se resistência clínica à aspirina pela ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares em pacientes na vigência de tratamento com aspirina, enquanto a resistência laboratorial é definida como a persistência da agregação plaquetária, documentada por teste laboratorial, em pacientes tomando regularmente aspirina. Pacientes resistentes à aspirina tiveram, de acordo com testes laboratoriais, em média, 3,8 vezes mais eventos cardiovasculares quando comparados aos não resistentes.


Un metanálisis de estudios clínicos de pacientes con enfermedad cardiovascular demostró que el uso de aspirina estaba asociado a la reducción de 22 por ciento de muertes y a eventos vasculares isquémicos relevantes. Entre tanto, estudios clínicos revelaron que pacientes tomando regularmente aspirina presentaban recurrencia de eventos cardiovasculares. Tal constatación llevó a un cuestionamiento: si, en algunos pacientes, la aspirina no era eficaz en bloquear la agregación plaquetaria, siendo estos pacientes llamados de no responsivos o resistentes a la aspirina. Se conceptúa resistencia clínica a la aspirina por la ocurrencia de eventos cardiovasculares en pacientes en la vigencia del tratamiento con aspirina, mientras que la resistencia de laboratorio es definida como la persistencia de la agregación plaquetaria, documentada por test de laboratorio, en pacientes tomando regularmente aspirina. Pacientes resistentes a la aspirina tuvieron, de acuerdo con tests de laboratorio, en media, 3,8 veces más eventos cardiovasculares cuando fueron comparados a los no resistentes.


A meta-analysis of clinical studies of patients with cardiovascular disease demonstrated that the use of aspirin was associated with a 22 percent decrease in death rates and relevant ischemic vascular events. However, clinical studies demonstrated that patients that regularly took aspirin presented recurrence of cardiovascular events. Such observation led to the question whether, in some patients, the aspirin was not effective in blocking platelet aggregation and these patients were called unresponsive to aspirin or aspirin-resistant. The clinical aspirin resistance is characterized as the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients during treatment with aspirin, whereas the laboratory resistance is defined as the persistence of platelet aggregation, documented by laboratory test, in patients regularly taking aspirin. Patients that are aspirin-resistant presented, according to laboratory tests, on average 3.8 times more cardiovascular events when compared to non-resistant ones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspirin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/chemically induced , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Recurrence
18.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 44(1): 15-24, ene.-mar. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633104

ABSTRACT

Los eventos coronarios constituyen la primera causa de muerte en sujetos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Un incremento en la agregación plaquetaria y altos niveles de colesterol asociado a la lipoproteína de baja densidad (C-LDL) contribuyen al riesgo coronario en diabéticos. El D-003, una mezcla de ácidos grasos obtenida de la caña de azúcar, ha mostrado reducir la agregación plaquetaria y los niveles séricos de C-LDL en sujetos normo e hipercolesterolémicos. Este estudio a doble ciego, controlado con placebo, investigó los efectos del D-003 sobre la agregación plaquetaria y el perfil lipídico en 50 diabéticos tipo 2, los que fueron aleatorizados para recibir después de un periodo inicial, D-003 (10 mg/día) o placebo por 10 semanas. Todos los sujetos completaron el estudio. El D-003 redujo significativamente la agregación plaquetaria inducida por ácido araquidónico (52,9%) y por colágeno (54,4%) y los niveles séricos de C-LDL (26,7%), colesterol total (CT) (19,6%) y triglicéridos (23,9%), mientras que incrementó el C-HDL (12,4%) en relación a los niveles básales y al grupo placebo. El D-003 fue seguro y bien tolerado. Se concluye que el D-003 redujo significativamente la agregación plaquetaria y los niveles séricos de C-LDL en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2, pero otros estudios deben confirmar estos resultados.


Coronan/ events are the leading cause of death in subjects with type 2 diabetes, and increased platelet aggregation and serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (C-LDL) contribute to coronary risk in diabetes patients. D-003, a mixture of sugarcane wax acids, has shown to reduce platelet aggregation and serum C-LDL in normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects. This doubleblinded, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of D-003 on platelet aggregation and lipid profile in 50 type 2 diabetes patients who were randomized, after a baseline phase, to D-003 (10 mg/d) or placebo for 10 weeks. Al I the subjects completed the study. D-003 significantly lowered arachidonic acid- (52.9%) and collagen-induced (54.4%) platelet aggregation, C-LDL (26-7%), total cholesterol (TC) (19.6%) and triglycerides (23.9%), while increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (C-HDL) (12.4%) vs baseline and placebo. D-003 was safe and well tolerated. To conclude with, D-003 significantly reduced platelet aggregation and serum C-LDL in type 2 diabetes, but further studies should confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Lipids
19.
Acta amaz ; 40(1): 199-206, mar. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-546975

ABSTRACT

O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae) é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como "maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA), etanólico (EE) e hexânico (EH) de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP) e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa). O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP) e adrenalina (ADR) como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL) de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.


The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae) is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as "maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of fruits of this species by the local population for gastrointestinal disorders. Considering the pharmacological potential of the genus, this work aimed to carry out study of phytochemical characterization of this species and study the effects of the aqueous (AE), ethanol (EE) and hexane (HE) extracts from its leaves on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. Thin-layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance were carried out for the phytochemical characterization. The effect of the extracts on the coagulation was evaluated by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) tests. The effect on the platelet aggregation was evaluated in platelet-rich plasma by spectrophotometric method, using adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adrenaline (ADR) as inducers of aggregation. The AE, EE and HE extracts showed coagulant activity by the PT test, and the EE showed anticoagulant activity by the aPTT. When induced by ADP, the AE, EE and HE extracts showed 50% inhibitory concentration values (IC50, µg/mL) of 450.5 ± 50.7, 511.2 ± 35.5 and 394.4 ± 8.9, respectively, and when induced by ADR showed values of 438.7 ± 5.2, 21.0 ± 1.9 and 546.9 ± 49.9, respectively. The EE showed inhibitory effect on the aggregation. The phytochemical characterization was suggestive of the presence of flavonoids and coumarins, which can be attributed in part to the biological effects studied.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Passiflora/chemistry , Phytotherapy
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58461

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In patients with coronary artery stents, the cost of clopidogrel has been cited as a factor in the premature discontinuation of therapy. Thus, the introduction of lower-cost generic clopidogrel may increase patient compliance. However, platelet inhibition by generic clopidogrel has not been compared to the original clopidogrel formulation in patients with coronary artery stents. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 20 patients receiving chronic therapy with the original clopidogrel bisulfate (Plavix(R)). After assessing patient compliance with Plavix(R), maintenance therapy was switched to generic clopidogrel bisulfate (Plavitor(R)). Platelet reactivity was assessed at baseline and 30-day after the switch using conventional aggregometry and the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. RESULTS: All patients completed maintenance therapy with Plavitor(R). Before and after switching therapy maximal (36.5 +/- 7.9% vs. 39.8 +/- 16.2%, p = 0.280) and late platelet aggregation (23.5 +/- 10.9% vs. 29.1 +/- 18.3%, p = 0.156) with 5 micromol/L adenosine diphosphate (ADP) stimulus did not differ. Likewise, 20 micromol/L ADP-induced platelet aggregation and P2Y12 reaction unit in patients on Plavitor(R) therapy was comparable to that in patients on Plavix(R) therapy. However, Bland-Altman analysis showed wide limits of agreement between measured platelet reactivity on Plavix(R) vs. Plavitor(R) therapies. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients on Plavix(R) maintenance therapy with coronary stents, replacement with Plavitor(R) shows a comparable inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. However, due to poor inter-therapy agreement, between two regimens, physicians may be cautious when introducing generic clopidogrel bisulfate.


Subject(s)
Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/drug therapy , Drug-Eluting Stents , Drugs, Generic/administration & dosage , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Compliance , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Receptors, Purinergic P2/metabolism , Ticlopidine/administration & dosage
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