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1.
Oncología (Ecuador) ; 32(1): 100-111, 30-04-2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368954

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Cerca del 50 % de los derrames pleurales (DP) es neoplásico. El comportamiento clínico del DP neoplásico es altamente sintomático por el gran volumen y su recidiva temprana. Propósito de la revisión: El objetivo de la revisión es delinear el papel de los diferentes métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de DP maligno. Buscamos reportes actualizados en donde se incluye los resultados de mejor supervivencia para los distintos tratamientos actuales. Recientes hallazgos: Los criterios de Light es el método estándar para diferenciar un exudado maligno. La toracocentesis guiada por ultrasonido debe ser usada como método diagnóstico/terapéutico. En pacientes con DP maligno se recomienda el drenaje permanente con el posicionamiento de un tubo de tórax y un sello hidráulico con drenaje cerrado. La pleurodesia con instilación de talco está recomendada en pacientes con DP maligno en busca de disminuir el volumen, las recidivas del DP y el tiempo de hospitalización. Conclusiones: Para el correcto manejo del DP maligno, hay que tomar en cuenta varios aspectos, como identificar la presencia de células malignas mediante estudio citológico y descartar una infección. La ecografía pleural permite definir el volumen del DP y permite decidir drenaje en ese momento, con la posibilidad de inserción de catéter intrapleural, con el objetivo de evaluar la posibilidad de esclerosar las pleuras a través de pleurodesia. Sin embargo, para llegar a esta decisión hay que analizar cada uno de los detalles que podrían tener un papel de importancia para el buen manejo y resolución definitiva o por el contrario decidir el manejo a título paliativo, siempre analizando cada caso con el objetivo de proveer de mejoría de síntomas y mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente.


Introduction: Approximately 50% of pleural effusions (PE) are neoplastic. The clinical behavior of neoplastic PE is highly symptomatic due to its large volume and early recurrence. Purpose of review: This review aims to outline the role of the different diagnostic and therapeutic methods of malignant PE. We look for updated reports that include the best survival results for the other current treatments. Recent findings: Light's criteria are the standard to differentiate a malignant exudate. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis should be used as a diagnostic/therapeutic method. In patients with malignant PE, permanent drainage is recommended with the placement of a chest tube and a hydraulic seal with closed drainage. Pleurodesis with the installation of talc is recommended in patients with malignant PE to reduce volume, PE recurrences, and hospitalization time. Conclusions: For the correct management of malignant PE, several aspects must be considered, such as identifying the presence of malignant cells by cytological study and ruling out infection. Pleural ultrasound allows for defining the volume of the PE. It will enable deciding on drainage at that time, with the possibility of inserting an intrapleural catheter, to evaluate the likelihood of sclerosing the pleurae through pleurodesis. However, to reach this decision, it is necessary to analyze each of the details that could play an essential role in good management and definitive resolution or, on the contrary, decide on palliative management, constantly investigating each case to provide symptom improvement. In addition, improving the patient's quality of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pleural Effusion , Talc , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Thoracentesis , Pleural Diseases , Thoracoscopy , Pleurodesis , Pleural Cavity , Exudates and Transudates
2.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 26(1): 14-21, ene.-mar. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407968

ABSTRACT

Resumen Revisión narrativa sobre cómo el cáncer altera la fisiología de la pleura, cómo se estudia el derrame pleural maligno y cómo se puede brindar paliación al paciente con derrame pleural mediante el catéter pleural permanente tunelizado, cuyo uso demuestra mayores beneficios en diferentes ámbitos clínicos, siendo utilizado principalmente para el tratamiento del derrame pleural tumoral recurrente, pero también en algunos casos de derrame pleural benigno repetitivo, convirtiéndolo en un recurso terapéutico útil en el cáncer avanzado.


Abstract This narrative review examines how cancer causes changes in pleural physiology, how to study malignant pleural effusion, and how to bring palliative care to patients with pleural effusion by means of indwelling tunneled pleural catheter. This catheter shows greater benefits in clinical practice, being used mainly for the treatment of recurrent malignant pleural effusion, but also in some cases of recurrent benign pleural effusion, making it a useful therapeutic tool in advanced cancer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Pleural Effusion , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Therapeutics , Catheters
3.
Hepatología ; 3(2): 218-224, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1396105

ABSTRACT

El hidrotórax hepático es una entidad poco frecuente en pacientes con cirrosis. A la fecha se han propuesto varias alternativas terapéuticas, tanto médicas como quirúrgicas, previas al trasplante hepático como manejo definitivo. A continuación, se presenta el caso de una paciente de 78 años con cirrosis secundaria a infección por virus de la hepatitis C, que acudió al servicio de urgencias por dificultad respiratoria, donde se documentó un derrame pleural derecho masivo de tipo trasudado, que respondió parcialmente a terapia diurética e inserción de dren pleural; posteriormente falleció por complicaciones hemorrágicas asociadas a la cirrosis. Se considera importante describir esta patología, dada su baja frecuencia en pacientes con cirrosis y los retos terapéuticos a los que nos enfrentamos con la poca evidencia disponible en la actualidad.


Hepatic hydrothorax is a rare entity in patients with cirrhosis. To date, several therapeutic alternatives have been proposed, both medical and surgical, prior to liver transplantation as the definitive management. Here we present the case of a 78-year-old patient with cirrhosis secondary to hepatitis C virus infection, who consulted the emergency department for respiratory distress, documenting a massive right pleural effusion of transudate type, which responded partially to diuretic therapy and drainage with pigtail, and later died due to hemorrhagic complications associated with cirrhosis. It is important to describe this pathology given its low frequency in patients with cirrhosis and the therapeutic challenges we face with the limited currently available evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hydrothorax , Pleural Effusion , Drainage , Hepatitis Viruses , Liver Cirrhosis
4.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e20213139, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365379

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to assess safety, efficacy and quality of life in patients with benign pleural effusions undergong pleural drainage with Wayne pleural catheter (DW) in an outpatient setting. Method: this is a prospective study, in which 47 patients were evaluated between July 2017 and October 2018. Patients with non-malignant pleural effusions underwent pleural drainage with clinical evolution compatible with outpatient care were included. Patients who underwent drainage due to other conditions and patients were excluded. Results: after catheter placement, the mean length of hospital stay was 3.14 (± 3.85) days, and 21 patients (44.68%) were discharged within 24 hours. The mean time with the catheter was 12.63 (± 7.37) days. The analysis of the pleural fluid was transudate in 87.3% of cases and exudate in 12.3%. The causes of pleural effusion were heart failure (72.3%), renal failure (19.1%), liver failure (6.3%) and pneumonia (8.5%). The quality of life, analyzed according to the parameters of the questionnaire SF 36, showed low average values when compared to other studies. Analyzing each descriptor, the average was greater only in the limitation related to physical aspects. In the other descriptors, the results were similar, but smaller. Conclusion: the outpatient use of pleural catheters of the Wayne type (pigtail) proved to be feasible, safe and with a low associated infection rate. This is a viable option for selected patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a segurança, a eficácia, as complicações e a qualidade de vida da alta precoce e acompanhamento ambulatorial de pacientes com derrames pleurais benignos submetidos à drenagem pleural com dreno de Wayne (DW). Método: estudo prospectivo, em que foram avaliados 47 pacientes entre julho de 2017 e outubro de 2018. Foram incluídos os pacientes com derrames pleurais não malignos, submetidos a drenagem pleural com evolução clínica compatível com o cuidado ambulatorial. Foram excluídos os pacientes submetidos a drenagem por outras afecções. Resultados: após a drenagem, a média do tempo de internação dos pacientes foi de 3,14 (±3,85) dias, sendo que 21 pacientes (44,68%) tiveram alta em até 24 horas após a drenagem. O tempo médio de permanência com o dreno foi de 12,63 (±7,37) dias. A análise do líquido pleural mostrou tratar-se de transudato em 87,3% dos casos e de exsudato em 12,3%. Dentre as causas do derrame pleural, destacaram-se insuficiência cardíaca (72,3%), insuficiência renal (19,1%), hepatopatias (6,3%) e pneumonias (8,5%). A qualidade de vida, analisada segundo os parâmetros do questionário SF 36, teve valores médios baixos, principalmente em relação a outros estudos. Na análise de cada descritor, a média apresentou-se maior somente na limitação por aspectos físicos. Nos demais descritores, os resultados foram semelhantes, mas menores. Conclusão: o uso ambulatorial de cateteres pleurais do tipo Wayne (pigtail) mostrou-se factível, seguro e com baixa taxa de infecções associadas. Trata-se de opção viável para pacientes selecionados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleural Effusion/therapy , Drainage/adverse effects , Drainage/methods , Catheters/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
5.
Femina ; 50(5): 316-320, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380713

ABSTRACT

Os disgerminomas são tumores malignos de células germinativas ovarianas, são raros, geralmente acometem mulheres em idade fértil e têm bom prognóstico e sobrevida elevada. Paciente de 20 anos, primigesta com 26 semanas de gestação, foi admitida no centro obstétrico da Fundação Hospitalar Santo Antônio em Blumenau- SC com quadro de dor abdominal intensa refratária à analgesia e desconforto respiratório. Ressonância magnética demonstrou derrame pleural, moderada ascite e volumosa lesão expansiva de aspecto sólido-cístico em anexo direito. Foram realizadas salpingo-oforectomia à direita e omentectomia parcial e coletado lavado peritoneal. Anatomopatológico evidenciou disgerminoma. A paciente seguiu acompanhamento gestacional nos serviços de pré-natal de alto risco e oncologia. Devido à imaturidade fetal, manteve-se conduta expectante e, após o parto normal com 37 semanas, foi realizado estadiamento e iniciada quimioterapia adjuvante. Devido à baixa incidência e à raridade de tumores de células malignas ovarianas, relatos de casos como este são importantes para discutir as melhores estratégias de manejo clínico.(AU)


Dysgerminomas are rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors that generally affect adolescence and early adulthood, have a good prognosis and high survival. Patient 20 years old, gestation 1, at 26 weeks of gestation, was hospitalized at the obstetric center of Fundação Hospitalar Santo Antônio in Blumenau-SC, with severe abdominal pain refractory to analgesia and respiratory discomfort. Magnetic resonance showed pleural effusion, moderate ascites and a massive expansive lesion with a solid cystic aspect in the right ovary. Right salpingoophorectomy, partial omentectomy and peritoneal lavage were collected. Anatomopathological evidence showed dysgerminoma. Patient followed gestational follow-up at high-risk prenatal and oncology services. Due to fetal immaturity, expectant management was maintained and after vaginal delivery at 37 weeks, staging was performed and adjuvant chemotherapy was started. Due to the low incidence and rarity of ovarian malignant cell tumors, case reports such as this one are important to discuss the best clinical management strategies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Dysgerminoma , Dysgerminoma/surgery , Dysgerminoma/drug therapy , Pain , Pleural Effusion , Prognosis , Ascites , Survival , Brazil , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Risk , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Labor, Induced
6.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32105, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1390847

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O derrame pleural modifica as capacidades pulmonares, provocando distúrbio ventilatório restritivo. As terapias respiratórias evitam a progressão e tratam a restrição de volumes pulmonares. Objetivo: Comparar o efeito agudo de três recursos fisioterapêuticos em pacientes com derrame pleural após procedimento de drenagem torácica. Métodos: Estudo experimental, randomizado e prospectivo, realizado com 60 pacientes com derrame pleural, todos hospitalizados. A amostra foi dividida em 3 grupos com 20 pacientes, cada grupo recebeu uma terapia respiratória: exercícios respiratórios, Threshold PEP™ ou Powerbreathe®. Para avaliar a função pulmonar foram utilizados, a espirometria, a manovacuometria e o peak flow. Os atendimentos foram diários, seguiu-se o protocolo de 4 séries de 15 repetições. Análise estatística: aplicou-se os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson, Shapiro-Wilk, Friedman, Wilcoxon e correlação de Spearman. Para todos os testes considerou-se o nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Os exercícios respiratórios resultaram em diferenças significativas na capacidade vital forçada (CVF), antes 1,66±0,60 e depois 1,84±0,50 (p=0,01), no volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1), antes 1,25±0,46 e depois 1,57±0,52 (p=0,01), enquanto o grupo tratado com Threshold PEP™ a diferença significativa foi apenas na CVF, antes 1,49±0,78 e depois 1,78±0,85 (p=0,04). Em relação à força muscular respiratória, nenhuma das terapias resultou em diferença significativa na PImax e PEmax. Conclusão: O protocolo com exercícios respiratórios demonstrou superioridade na função pulmonar quando comparado com o Threshold PEP™ e Powerbreath®, tornando-se mais indicado no manejo de pacientes com derrame pleural após drenagem torácica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleural Effusion , Breathing Exercises , Physical Therapy Modalities , Lung Diseases
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929003

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with pleural effusion have no opportunity for surgery treatment. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are the first-line drugs for these patients with EGFR-sensitive mutation. However, the disease progression and drug update during or after treatment of EGFR-TKIs bring more challenges and puzzles to clinical diagnosis and treatment, which inevitably requires archived pleural cell samples for EGFR re-examination or comparative study. Understanding the DNA quality of archived pleural fluid samples and effectively using archival data of pleural fluid cells are of great significance for tracing the origin of cases and basic medical research. This study aims to evaluate the consistency of EGFR mutant gene expression between the 2 methods, and to explore a reliable way for preserving cytological data and making full use of cytological archival data via cell HE staining smear and cell paraffin section.@*METHODS@#A total of 57 pleural fluid cytology cases in the Department of Pathology of China Aerospace Center Hospital from October 2014 to April 2021 were selected. Tumor cells were detected by cell HE staining smears and immunohistochemical staining for TTF-1 and Napsin A in the paired cell paraffin sections. There were more than 200 tumor cells in cell HE staining smear and the proportion of tumor cells were ≥70% in matched cell paraffin sections. Patients with 2 cell smears (one for cell data retention and the other for DNA extraction) were selected as the research subjects, and 57 pleural fluid samples were enrolled. EGFR gene mutation was detected by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction in 57 paired cell HE staining smears and cell paraffin sections. DNA concentration was 2 ng/μL. Cell HE smear was amplified side-by-side with DNA samples from paired cell paraffin sections. Result determination was according to the requirements of the reagent instructions. The external control cycle threshold (Ct) value of the No. 8 well of the samples to be tested was between 13 and 21, which was considered as successful and reliable samples. When the Ct value of EGFR gene mutation was <26, it was considered as positive; when the Ct value was between 26 and 29, it was critical positive; when the Ct value was equal or more than 29, it was negative. ΔCt value was the difference between mutant Ct value and externally controlled Ct value. The smaller the ΔCt value was, the better the quality of DNA of the detected sample was.@*RESULTS@#Among the 57 pleural effusion samples, 42 patients were hospitalized with pleural effusion as the first symptom, accounting for 73.7% (42/57). EGFR mutation was detected in 37 samples [64.9% (37/57)]. The mutation rate for 19del was 37.8% (14/37) while for L858R was 48.6% (18/37). Females were 56.7% (21/37) of mutation cases. The mutation consistency rate of cell HE staining smear and matched cell paraffin sections was 100%. The ΔCt values of cell HE staining smears were less than those of matched cell paraffin sections. The mutation Ct values of 37 cytological samples were statistically analyzed according to the preservation periods of the years of 2014-2015, 2016-2017, 2018-2019, and 2020-2021. There were significant differences in cell paraffin section in the years of 2014-2015 and 2016-2017 compared with the years of 2018-2019 and 2020-2021, while no significant differences were found in cell HE staining smear. Statistical analysis of externally controlled Ct values of 57 cytological samples showed that there were significant differences between cell HE staining smears and cell paraffin section in the years of 2014-2015 and 2016-2017, compared with the years of 2018-2019 and 2020-2021. The mutational Ct values of 37 paired cell blocks and smears were all <26, and the externally controlled Ct values of 57 paired cell paraffin sections and HE staining smears were all between 13 and 21.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The DNA quality of cell HE smears and matched cell paraffin section met the qualified requirements. Two methods possess show an excellent consistency in detecting EGFR mutation in NSCLC pleural fluid samples. The DNA quality of cell HE staining smear is better than that of cell paraffin sections, so cell HE staining smear can be used as important supplement of the gene test source. It should be noted that the limitation of cell HE staining smears is non-reproducibility, so multiple smears of pleural fluid are recommended to be prepared for multiple tests.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , DNA Mutational Analysis/methods , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Male , Mutation , Paraffin/therapeutic use , Pleural Effusion/genetics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Staining and Labeling
8.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 156-166, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Malignant pleural effusion is one of the common clinical manifestations of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with pleural effusion at the initial diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma usually indicate poor prognosis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations mainly occur in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with different mutant subtypes have different prognosis. The clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of patients with EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma of different molecular subtypes combined with pleural effusion at initial diagnosis are still unclear. This study was designed to explore the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of these patients in order to provide management recommendations for them.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis of the clinical characteristics, treatment, outcomes and progression-free survival (PFS) of first-line treatment in patients with EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma combined with pleural effusion at initial diagnosis admitted to Department of Medical Oncology and Radiation Sickness, Peking University Third Hospital from January 2012 to June 2021 was performed. Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were performed for comparison between groups. Kaplan-Meier method was performed for survival analysis and Cox proportional risk regression model was performed for multivariate analysis.@*RESULTS@#76 patients met the inclusion criteria in this study. The incidences of EGFR classical mutations 19del, 21L858R and non-classical mutations were 46.0%, 38.2% and 15.8%, respectively among these patients. There was no significant difference between the three mutations in terms of gender, age, presence of dyspnea at presentation, whether other distant metastases were combined, site of pleural effusion, volume of pleural effusion, presence of other combined effusions, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, presence of other gene mutations, and treatment of pleural effusion (P>0.05). In patients with EGFR classical mutations 19del or 21L858R or non-classical mutations subtype, the proportion of chemotherapy in first-line regimens were 17.1%, 20.7% and 58.3%, respectively (P=0.001); and first-line disease control rates were 94.3%, 75.9% and 50%, respectively (P=0.003); pleural effusion control rates were 94.3%, 79.3% and 66.7%, respectively (P=0.04); PFS were 287 d, 327 d and 55 d, respectively (P=0.001). Univariate analysis showed that EGFR mutation subtype, control of pleural effusion, first-line treatment agents, and first-line treatment efficacy were significantly associated with PFS (P<0.05). Cox multifactorial analysis showed that only EGFR mutation subtype and first-line treatment efficacy were independent prognostic factors for PFS (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#PFS was significantly better for classical mutations than for non-classical mutations in patients with EGFR mutated lung adenocarcinoma combined with pleural effusion at initial diagnosis. Improving the efficacy of first-line therapy is the key to improve the prognosis of these patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Pleural Effusion/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
9.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(3): 313-321, jul.-set. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347346

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: mostrar la eficacia y seguridad de los stents metálicos autoexpandibles para el manejo endoscópico de las fístulas esofágicas. Materiales y métodos: se evalúo una serie de casos de manera retrospectiva entre el 2007 y el 2017, en los que se manejaron a 11 pacientes con un stent metálico autoexpandible para el manejo de fístula esofágica, en quienes se realizó el diagnóstico por clínica, endoscopia digestiva alta o estudios radiológicos en la unidad de gastroenterología del Hospital Universitario San Ignacio (HUSI) de Bogotá D. C., Colombia. Resultados: el principal síntoma inicial fue la disnea en 27,3 % de los casos, seguido por tos en un 18,2 %. El hallazgo más frecuentemente encontrado durante el seguimiento fue el derrame pleural en el 36,4 %, se realizó el diagnóstico de fístula en el 45,5 % con esofagograma y el tipo de lesión más reportada fue la fuga en la anastomosis esofagoentérica, con un 45,5 %, seguida de la esofagopleural, con un 36,4 %; y estos pacientes fueron manejados con un stent metálico autoexpandible. En el 100 % hubo éxito técnico y la resolución del defecto se evidenció en el 72,7 % de los casos. La única complicación reportada fue el desplazamiento del stent en el 27,3 %, y en un paciente se requirió el cambio del stent en 3 oportunidades. El promedio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 41,5 días. Conclusiones: el manejo endoscópico de las fístulas esofagogástricas con stents metálicos autoexpandibles es efectivo y seguro, con una baja tasa de complicaciones.


Abstract Objective: To demonstrate the efficacy and safety of self-expanding metal stents for endoscopic management of esophageal fistulas. Materials and methods: Retrospective case series between 2007 and 2017. A total of 11 patients were treated with self-expanding metal stents for esophageal fistula management, after being diagnosed based on symptoms, upper endoscopy, and/or radiological studies in the gastroenterology unit of the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio (HUSI) in Bogotá D.C, Colombia. Results: The most common initial symptom was dyspnea in 27.3% of cases, followed by cough in 18.2%. The most frequent finding during follow-up was pleural effusion in 36.4% of the cases, of which 45.5% received a diagnosis of fistula through esophagogram. The most reported lesion was esophagoenteric anastomotic leak with 45.5%, followed by esophagopleural injury with 36.4%; these patients were those who received self-expanding metal stent management. Technical success was achieved in 100% of the cases, and the defect was resolved in in 72.7% of them. The only complication reported was stent migration in 27.3%, requiring 3 changes in 1 patient. The average hospital stay was 41.5 days. Conclusions: Endoscopic management of esophagogastric fistulas with self-expanding metal stents is effective and safe, with a low complication rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pleural Effusion , Esophageal Fistula , Dyspnea , Self Expandable Metallic Stents , Patients , Efficacy , Cough , Endoscopy , Gastroenterology
10.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3539, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280435

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las neumonías constituyen un grave problema de salud al ser causa frecuente de morbilidad y mortalidad infantil en el mundo. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de las neumonías graves en un grupo de pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica (UTIP) del Hospital Pediátrico Docente Borrás-Marfán. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, en 223 pacientes que ingresaron en el servicio de terapia intensiva mencionado, entre agosto de 2015 y diciembre de 2019, con diagnóstico de neumonía grave. Se caracterizó la muestra según variables demográficas, complicaciones, procederes invasivos realizados, aislamiento microbiológico, antibióticos utilizados y estadía en el servicio. Para el análisis de los resultados se empleó la estadística descriptiva. Resultados: El grupo de edades más representativo fue el de 1-4 años, con un ligero predominio de varones. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron el derrame pleural, el neumatocele y el neumotórax. Requirieron toracocentesis el 40,81 por ciento de los casos y pleurotomía el 33,18 por ciento. El principal germen aislado fue el Streptococcus Pneumoniae y la mayoría de los pacientes necesitaron dos antibióticos para el tratamiento. Conclusiones: En el período estudiado, la principal complicación de la neumonía fue el derrame pleural y se realizó toracocentesis y pleurotomía en aproximadamente la mitad de los casos con buenos resultados. El uso de dos antibióticos en la mayoría de los pacientes según los protocolos establecidos resultó efectivo(AU)


Introduction: Pneumonia is a serious health problem because it is a frequent cause of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objective: To describe the behavior of severe pneumonia in a group of patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Borrás-Marfán Pediatric Hospital. Material and Methods: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 223 patients with the diagnosis of severe pneumonia admitted to the aforementioned intensive care service from August 2015 to December 2019. The sample was characterized according to demographic variables, complications, invasive procedures performed, microbiological isolation, type of antibiotics used, and the number of days spent in the hospital. Descriptive statistics was used for the analysis of results. Results: The most representative age group was 1-4 years, with a slight predominance of males. The most frequent complications were pleural effusion, pneumatocele and pneumothorax. In this group, 40.81 percentof the cases required thoracentesis and 33.18 percent underwent pleurotomy. The main isolated germ was the Streptococcus Pneumoniae and most of the patients needed treatment with two antibiotics. Conclusions: During the period studied, the principal complication of pneumonia was the pleural effusion. Approximately half of the cases underwent thoracentesis and pleurotomy and good results were achieved. The use of two antibiotics according to established protocols were effective, too(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pleural Effusion , Pneumothorax , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Critical Care , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Retrospective Studies
11.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(2): e1268, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280363

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad continúa siendo un problema de salud global. Objetivo: Caracterizar desde la óptica clínico-epidemiológica la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad en la edad pediátrica. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal y prospectivo de pacientes entre 1 mes-18 años, no vacunados con antineumocócica, ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico Centro Habana, enero 2018-julio 2019 con diagnóstico confirmado por radiología de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad. Los pacientes no presentaban enfermedades crónicas, exceptuando el asma. Los padres o tutores dieron su consentimiento. Se evaluaron variables demográficas y clínicas, factores de riesgo, evolución y complicaciones según grupo de edad. Resultados: Se estudiaron 277 enfermos, predominaron los niños entre 1 a 4 años de edad (39,4 por ciento), superioridad del sexo masculino (55,2 por ciento). Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron: fiebre (98,9 por ciento), disnea (99,3 por ciento), tos (98,9 por ciento) y disminución del murmullo vesicular (96,4 por ciento). Como factores de riesgo predominaron la asistencia a círculos infantiles (31,8 por ciento), lactancia materna inadecuada (23,8 por ciento) y el tabaquismo pasivo (16,6 por ciento). Hubo complicaciones en 110 niños (39,7 por ciento) con predominio de derrame pleural, sobre todo en prescolares y asociación significativa entre complicaciones y edad. No hubo fallecimientos. Conclusiones: Es importante la vigilancia de las neumonías y su desarrollo clínico epidemiológico, para la prevención y diagnóstico en esa etapa previa a la introducción de la vacuna antineumoccócica. En población no vacunada contra el neumococo, es estrategia significativa reducir los factores de riesgo modificables como la insuficiente lactancia materna, el tabaquismo pasivo y la malnutrición(AU)


Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia continues to be a global health problem. Objective: Characterize from the clinical-epidemiological perspective community-acquired pneumonia in the pediatric ages. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional and prospective study of patients from 1 month to 18 years old not vaccinated with pneumococcal vaccine, admitted in Centro Habana Pediatric Hospital from January 2018 to July 2019 with diagnosis confirmed by radiology of pneumonia acquired in the community. Patients did not have chronic diseases, except for asthma. Parents or guardians consented. Demographic and clinical variables, risk factors, evolution and complications were assessed according to the age group. Results: 277 patients were studied, children from 1 to 4 years old predominated (39.4 percent); there was male superiority (55.2 percent). The most common symptoms were fever (98.9 percent), dyspnea (99.3 percent), cough (98.9 percent) and decreased vesicular murmur (96.4 percent). As risk factors, attendance to nurseries (31.8 percent), inadequate breastfeeding (23.8 percent) and passive smoking (16.6 percent) predominated. There were complications in 110 children (39.7 percent) with prevalence of pleural effusion, especially in pre-schoolers and significant association among complications and age. There were no deaths. Conclusions: Monitoring of pneumonia and its epidemiological clinical development is important for prevention and diagnosis at this stage prior to the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine. In populations not vaccinated against pneumococcus, it is a significant strategy to reduce modifiable risk factors such as insufficient breastfeeding, passive smoking and malnutrition(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleural Effusion , Asthma , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Dyspnea , Malnutrition
12.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(2): e1148, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280374

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El derrame pleural paraneumónico es la enfermedad pleural más frecuente de la infancia, el 40-60 por ciento de los casos se presenta como complicación de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad. Ante la aparición de líquido pleural viscoso, con fibrina o tabiques, la fibrinólisis intrapleural aporta beneficios en la resolución de esta grave afección. Objetivo: Describir la evolución clínica e imagenológica de tres niños graves con derrame pleural paraneumónico complicado complejo y empiema. Presentación de casos: Pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva del Hospital Pediátrico Provincial "Dr. Eduardo Agramonte Piña" con el diagnóstico de neumonía adquirida en la comunidad complicada con derrame pleural paraneumónico complicado complejo, tratados con estreptoquinasa recombinante por vía intrapleural; la primera paciente presentó crecimiento de Pseudomona en el cultivo de líquido pleural, patógeno no habitual en las infecciones respiratorias agudas procedentes de la comunidad. El segundo caso, se recibió complicada con shock séptico y el tercer paciente con ecografía torácica que mostró derrame pleural multitabicado, con grandes bolsones y gruesos tabiques. Los tres casos evolucionaron satisfactoriamente, sin necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico, ni aparición de reacciones adversas atribuibles al fibrinolítico. Conclusiones: La administración intrapleural de la estreptoquinasa recombinante en niños graves con derrame pleural paraneumónico complicado complejo y empiema, resulta un método eficaz y seguro en la evacuación del foco séptico pleural, lo que favorece el control de la infección, sin aparición de complicaciones. Los casos presentados tuvieron evolución satisfactoria y en ninguno se produjo evento adverso relacionado con la administración de la estreptoquinasa recombinante intrapleural(AU)


Introduction: Parapneumonic pleural effusion is the most common pleural disease in childhood; 40-60 percent of cases occur as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia. Given the onset of viscous pleural fluid, with fibrin or septums, intra-pleural fibrinolysis provides benefits to solve this serious condition. Objective: Describe the clinical and imaging evolution of three seriously ill children with complex complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion and empyema. Case presentation: Patients admitted to the Intensive Therapy Unit of "Dr. Eduardo Agramonte Piña" Provincial Pediatric Hospital with the diagnosis of pneumonia acquired in the community worsen with complex complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion, and treated in the intrapleural way with recombinant streptokinase. The first patient showed growth of Pseudomona in the culture of pleural fluid, a pathogen which is not common in acute respiratory infections from the community. The second case was complicated with septic shock; and the third patient had a chest ultrasound that showed multi-sited pleural effusion, with large bags and thick septums. All three cases evolved satisfactorily, without needing surgical treatment, or having adverse reactions attributable to fibrinolytic ones. Conclusions: Intrapleural administration of recombinant streptokinase in seriously ill children with complex complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion and empyema is an effective and safe method in the evacuation of pleural septic focus, which favors infection control, without complications. The cases presented had satisfactory evolution and none of them occurred adversely related to the administration of intrapleural recombinant streptokinase(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Infection Control , Growth , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): e264-e268, Junio 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1248231

ABSTRACT

La linfangiomatosis pulmonar difusa es una enfermedad rara caracterizada por una marcada proliferación y dilatación de los vasos linfáticos en los pulmones, la pleura y el mediastino. Se desconoce la prevalencia, y la etiología no se comprende completamente.Una niña de 22 meses ingresó por poliserositis, con derrame pericárdico y pleural. Requirió pericardiocentesis y avenamiento pleural, y presentó drenaje de quilo (1,5-4 litros/día) sin respuesta al tratamiento médico (ayuno, nutrición parenteral y octreotide). Se realizó biopsia pulmonar. La anatomía patológica mostró hallazgos compatibles con linfangiomatosis difusa pulmonar. Comenzó tratamiento con sirolimus y propanolol, que disminuyeron las pérdidas por el drenaje pleural a la semana. Presentó buena evolución; suspendió aporte de oxígeno y se retiró el drenaje pleural. Se externó al cuarto mes de internación. El diagnóstico temprano de la linfangiomatosis pulmonar difusa es difícil de lograr, pero permite aplicar terapéuticas que evitan la progresión de enfermedad y disminuir la morbimortalida


Diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis is a rare disease characterized by marked proliferation and dilation of lymphatic vessels in the lungs, pleura, and mediastinum. The prevalence is unknown and the etiology is not fully understood.A 22-month-old girl was admitted for polyserositis, with pericardial and pleural effusion. She required pericardiocentesis and pleural drainage, presenting chyle drainage (1.5-4 liters/day) without response to medical treatment (fasting, parenteral nutrition and octreotide). A lung biopsy was performed. The pathological anatomy showed findings compatible with diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis. Treatment with sirolimus and propanolol began, decreasing losses due to pleural drainage one week after treatment. She progressed well, discontinued oxygen supply and pleural drainage was removed, leaving the patient after the fourth month of hospitalization.Early diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary lymphangiomatosis is difficult to achieve, but it allows the application of therapies that prevent disease progression, reducing morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Lung Diseases/congenital , Lymphangiectasis/congenital , Pleural Effusion , Propranolol/therapeutic use , Biopsy , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases/pathology , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lymphangiectasis/pathology , Lymphangiectasis/diagnostic imaging
14.
CorSalud ; 13(1): 59-67, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345921

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN A lo largo de la historia de la cirugía numerosas inexactitudes han rodeado el capítulo relacionado con el surgimiento de las incisiones torácicas. Siempre será muy difícil precisar la fecha exacta y el nombre de quienes realmente realizaron las primeras toracotomías; obviamente debe asumirse como tales a quienes publicaron o informaron las descripciones originales, pero la historia no siempre ha sido correctamente contada. En unos casos solo se conocen apellidos; en otros, la incongruencia de los lapsos de tiempo se opone a toda lógica. Se ha realizado una profunda investigación histórica que ha permitido confeccionar un breve recuento del surgimiento de las toracotomías más importantes y descubrir algunos hallazgos desconocidos para la mayoría de los cirujanos torácicos. Esta es la primera parte de un breve relato de hechos conocidos, pero especialmente, de la historia desconocida del origen de las incisiones torácicas que han vencido la prueba del tiempo.


ABSTRACT Throughout the history of surgery many inaccuracies have surrounded the chapter related to the emergence of thoracic incisions. It will always be very difficult to determine the exact date and names of those who actually performed the first thoracotomies; obviously those who published or reported the first descriptions should be assumed as such, but the history has not always been well told. In some cases, only surnames are known; in some others, the inconsistency of time lapses opposes all logic. A thorough historical research has been carried out, which has made it possible to compile a brief account about the emergence of the most important thoracotomies, as well as to reveal some findings that are unknown to most thoracic surgeons. This is the first part of a brief account about the known facts, but also, it is especially about the unknown history of the thoracic incisions' origin, which has overcome the test of time.


Subject(s)
Pericardium , Pleural Effusion , Thoracotomy , Abscess , History of Medicine , Lung
15.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(1): e1365,
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156563

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se denomina derrame pleural al acúmulo de líquido en el espacio pleural por encima de 5 y 15 mL en un hemitórax. Diferentes etiologías son las responsables de su aparición, pero un grupo estas están dadas por la etiología medicamentosa. El síndrome de hiperestimulación ovárica constituye una complicación secundaria al uso de la terapia con inductores de la ovulación. Es poco conocida en la literatura médica la asociación del tratamiento con inductores de la ovulación en la génesis del derrame pleural. Objetivo: Revisar los aspectos clínico-fisiopatológicos más importantes reportados sobre la pleuresía en el síndrome de hiperestimulación ovárica. Desarrollo: Se realizó una revisión a propósito de un caso clínico de una paciente de 34 años de edad con antecedentes de salud, seguida en consulta de fertilidad, a la cual se le aplicó tratamiento con citrato de clomifeno y desarrolló un síndrome de hiperestimulación ovárica moderado e inmediato, cuya expresión clínica fue un derrame pleural derecho de moderada cuantía. La pleuresía es poco frecuente, depende de la predisposición genética individual de la paciente y la susceptibilidad a los medicamentos; la incidencia varía entre 0,6 y 10 por ciento. Se han descrito diferentes factores de riesgo de presentarlo, aunque cualquier mujer sometida a estos tratamientos lo puede desarrollar. El tratamiento es sintomático restituyendo el volumen intravascular con la administración de cristaloides y/o albúmina. Conclusiones: La asociación del síndrome de hiperestimulación ovárica y la pleuropatía secundaria al tratamiento con citrato de clomifeno no es frecuente(AU)


Introduction: Pleural effusion is called the accumulation of fluid in the pleural space above 5 and 15 mL in a hemithorax. Different etiologies are responsible for its appearance but a group of them are given by drug etiology. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a secondary complication to the use of ovulation inducer therapy. The association of treatment with ovulation inducers in the genesis of pleural effusion is little known in the medical literature. Objective: To review the most important clinical-pathophysiological aspects reported on pleurisy in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Methods: A review was carried out on the purpose of a clinical case of a 34-year-old patient with a medical history, followed in a fertility consultation. She was treated with clomiphene citrate and she developed an immediate moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The clinical expression was a moderate right pleural effusion. Pleurisy is rare. It depends on the individual genetic predisposition of the patient and the susceptibility to drugs; the incidence varies between 0.6 and 10 percent. Different risk factors have been described, although any woman subjected to these treatments can develop it. Treatment is symptomatic, restoring the intravascular volume with the administration of crystalloids and / or albumin. Conclusions: The association of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and pleuropathy secondary to treatment with clomiphene citrate is not frequent(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
16.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 43: e55460, Feb.11, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369392

ABSTRACT

Changes in ventilatorymechanics and their consequent pulmonary complications are common after surgical procedures, particularly in cardiac surgery (CS), and may be associated with both preoperative history and surgical circumstances. This study aims to compare ventilatory mechanics in the moments before and after cardiac surgery (CS), describing how pulmonary complications occurred. An experimental, uncontrolled study was conducted, of the before-and-after type, and with a descriptive and analytical character. It was carried out in a private hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and involved 30 adult patients subjected to CS. In addition to clinical and epidemiological variables, minute volume (VE), respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (VT), forced vital capacity (FVC), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were also recorded. Data were collected in the following moments: preoperative (PRE-OP) period, immediate postoperative (IPO) period, and 1stpostoperative day (1stPOD). The sample was aged 48.1 ± 11.8 years old and had a body mass index of 25.5 ± 4.9 kg m-2; 60% of the patients remained on mechanical ventilation for less than 24 hours (17.5 [8.7-22.9] hours). There was a significant reduction in VT, FVC, MIP and PEF when PRE-OP versus IPO, and PRE-OP versus 1stPOD were compared (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes between IPO and the 1stPOD. The highest incidence of pulmonary complications involved pleural effusion (50% of the patients). This study showed that patients subjected to CS present significant damage to ventilatory parameters after the surgery, especially in the IPO period and on the 1stPOD. It is possible that the extension of this ventilatory impairment has led to the onset of postoperative pulmonary complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Thoracic Surgery , Respiratory Mechanics , Patients/statistics & numerical data , Pleural Effusion/complications , Reference Standards , Respiration, Artificial , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Tobacco Use Disorder/diagnosis , Body Mass Index , Respiratory Rate , Arterial Pressure , Heart Rate , Hypertension/complications , Lung Diseases/complications , Myocardial Revascularization/mortality
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(2): e10462, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153510

ABSTRACT

Infections caused by uncommon and resistant pathogens in unusual sites have been increasingly reported in medical literature. We describe four cases of rare cytological findings and clinical impact for patients. In the first case, Aspergillus sp and Pneumocystis jirovecii were observed in the bronchoalveolar lavage of a patient with severe systemic lupus. In the second and third cases, we describe the presence of Trichomonas sp and Strongyloides sp larvae in samples of pleural and peritoneal fluid, respectively. The fourth report is about a patient with a wrist subcutaneous nodule whose synovial aspiration and cytology revealed the presence of brown septate hyphae. The early identification of the infectious agent in the cytological examination was essential for the introduction and/or re-adaptation of therapy in the four cases described. Patients in this report were immunocompromised with severe comorbidities, conditions often associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Cytodiagnosis/methods , Pleural Effusion/parasitology , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Strongyloides/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/diagnosis , Trichomonas/isolation & purification , Trichomonas Infections/diagnosis , Ascitic Fluid/parasitology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Fatal Outcome , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification
18.
Rev. Méd. Paraná ; 79(1): 59-62, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282436

ABSTRACT

Feminino, 13 anos, deu entrada em um pronto atendimento de um hospital universitário na cidade de Curitiba-PR, referindo diminuição da ingesta alimentar, astenia, febre e tosse seca, com início há 15 dias. Na admissão foi realizado swab nasal para detecção de SARS-CoV-2, o qual apresentou-se negativo. Foram realizados exames laboratoriais e de imagem para investigação do caso clínico, aventando-se a possibilidade de a paciente estar apresentando quadro de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES), pneumonia adquirida na comunidade ocasionando o derrame parapneumônico e tuberculose extrapulmonar. O relato de caso ratificou a importância de se pensar na tuberculose pulmonar e extrapulmonar como possíveis diagnósticos diferenciais em pacientes que apresentam inicialmente quadro típico de dispneia aos mínimos esforços, febre persistente e tosse


A 13-year-old female was admitted to an emergency room at a University Hospital in the city of Curitiba-PR, reporting inappetence, asthenia, fever and dry cough, which had started 15 days before. Admission was performed with a nasal swab to detect SARS-CoV-2, which was negative. Laboratory and imaging exams were performed to investigate the clinical case, considering the possibility that a patient might have Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Community-acquired Pneumonia causing parapneumonic effusion and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The case report confirmed the importance of thinking about pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis as possible differential diagnoses in patients who presents typical dyspnea to small efforts, persistent fever and cough


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pleural Effusion , Tuberculosis , Cough
19.
Clinics ; 76: e2515, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We compared the diagnostic potential of cancer ratio (CR, serum lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]/pleural fluid adenosine deaminase [pfADA]), cancer ratio plus (CR plus, cancer ratio/pleural lymphocyte percentage), and age/pfADA ratio with pfADA in malignant pleural effusion. METHODS: Data from 100 patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and 119 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) were retrospectively collected. PfADA, age/pfADA ratio, CR, and CR plus were compared between patients with MPE and those with TPE in two age groups (≤50 and >50 years). The best cut-off value was determined, and the diagnostic performance was evaluated according to the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: PfADA was statistically significantly lower while age/pfADA ratio, CR, and CR plus were significantly higher in the MPE group than in the TPE group in both age groups (p<0.05). For patients aged ≤50 years, the differential diagnostic value of pfADA for MPE was better than those of age/pfADA ratio, CR, and CR plus. At a cut-off value of 13.0 U/L, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 88.9%, 100.0%, and 98.9%, respectively. For patients aged >50 years, the diagnostic performance of CR plus was superior to those of pfADA, age/pfADA ratio, and CR. At a cut-off value of 22.6, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CR plus for the diagnosis of MPE were 86.8%, 84.6%, and 86.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The best parameter for diagnosing MPE was different for patients aged ≤50 years and >50 years. For patients aged >50 years, CR plus was a good parameter for the differential diagnosis of MPE. For patients aged ≤50 years, pfADA was better.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/diagnosis , Adenosine Deaminase , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Differential
20.
J. bras. pneumol ; 47(2): e20200558, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250201

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of determining the adenosine deaminase (ADA) level, the 2'-deoxyadenosine/ADA ratio, and the LDH/ADA ratio in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis (PT) in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary hospital in a high-tuberculosis-incidence area, between 2001 and 2018. All patients with ADA in pleural fluid and a confirmed diagnosis of PT (cPT) or parapneumonic effusion (PPE) were included. Results: The cPT and PPE groups comprised 25 and 68 individuals, respectively. At a cutoff of 40 U/L, ADA measurement showed the following: sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 31%; positive predictive value (PPV), 32%; negative predictive value (NPV), 88%; and overall accuracy, 46%. The best cutoffs were an ADA level of 125 U/L, a 2'-deoxyadenosine/ADA ratio of 0.5, and an LDH/ADA ratio of 8.3, with AUC of 0.67, 0.75, and 0.82, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and overall accuracy of the 125 U/L ADA cutoff were 84%, 65%, 47%, 92%, and 70%, respectively, compared with 79%, 79%, 59%, 91%, and 79%, respectively, for the 8.3 LDH/ADA ratio cutoff. Changing the LDH/ADA ratio cutoff to 3.0 increased the specificity to 98%. Conclusions: The ADA level and the 2'-deoxyadenosine/ADA ratio are not good biomarkers for the diagnosis of PT in pediatric patients. Determination of the LDH/ADA ratio provides the best overall accuracy for the diagnosis of PT in such patients.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a acurácia da determinação do nível de adenosina desaminase (ADA), da relação 2'-desoxiadenosina/ADA e da relação LDH/ADA no líquido pleural para o diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural (TP) em crianças e adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal retrospectivo realizado em um hospital terciário em uma área de alta incidência de tuberculose entre 2001 e 2018. Todos os pacientes com determinação de ADA no líquido pleural e com diagnóstico confirmado de TP (TPc) ou de derrame parapneumônico (DPP) foram incluídos. Resultados: Os grupos TPc e DPP foram compostos por 25 e 68 indivíduos, respectivamente. Num ponto de corte de 40 U/L, a medida de ADA mostrou o seguinte: sensibilidade, 88%; especificidade, 31%; valor preditivo positivo (VPP), 32%; valor preditivo negativo (VPN), 88%; e acurácia geral, 46%. Os melhores pontos de corte foram ADA de 125 U/L, relação 2'-desoxiadenosina/ADA de 0,5 e relação LDH/ADA de 8,3, com ASC de 0,67, 0,75 e 0,82, respectivamente. A sensibilidade, especificidade, VPP, VPN e acurácia geral do ponto de corte de 125 U/L para ADA foram de 84%, 65%, 47%, 92% e 70%, respectivamente, em comparação com 79%, 79%, 59%, 91% e 79%, respectivamente, para o ponto de corte de 8,3 para a relação LDH/ADA. Ao alterar o ponto de corte da relação LDH/ADA para 3,0 a especificidade aumentou para 98%. Conclusões: O nível de ADA e a relação 2'-desoxiadenosina/ADA não são bons biomarcadores para o diagnóstico de PT em pacientes pediátricos. A determinação da relação LDH/ADA fornece a melhor acurácia geral para o diagnóstico de PT nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Adenosine Deaminase , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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