Introducción: Cerca del 50 % de los derrames pleurales (DP) es neoplásico. El comportamiento clínico del DP neoplásico es altamente sintomático por el gran volumen y su recidiva temprana. Propósito de la revisión: El objetivo de la revisión es delinear el papel de los diferentes métodos diagnósticos y terapéuticos de DP maligno. Buscamos reportes actualizados en donde se incluye los resultados de mejor supervivencia para los distintos tratamientos actuales. Recientes hallazgos: Los criterios de Light es el método estándar para diferenciar un exudado maligno. La toracocentesis guiada por ultrasonido debe ser usada como método diagnóstico/terapéutico. En pacientes con DP maligno se recomienda el drenaje permanente con el posicionamiento de un tubo de tórax y un sello hidráulico con drenaje cerrado. La pleurodesia con instilación de talco está recomendada en pacientes con DP maligno en busca de disminuir el volumen, las recidivas del DP y el tiempo de hospitalización. Conclusiones: Para el correcto manejo del DP maligno, hay que tomar en cuenta varios aspectos, como identificar la presencia de células malignas mediante estudio citológico y descartar una infección. La ecografía pleural permite definir el volumen del DP y permite decidir drenaje en ese momento, con la posibilidad de inserción de catéter intrapleural, con el objetivo de evaluar la posibilidad de esclerosar las pleuras a través de pleurodesia. Sin embargo, para llegar a esta decisión hay que analizar cada uno de los detalles que podrían tener un papel de importancia para el buen manejo y resolución definitiva o por el contrario decidir el manejo a título paliativo, siempre analizando cada caso con el objetivo de proveer de mejoría de síntomas y mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente.
Introduction: Approximately 50% of pleural effusions (PE) are neoplastic. The clinical behavior of neoplastic PE is highly symptomatic due to its large volume and early recurrence. Purpose of review: This review aims to outline the role of the different diagnostic and therapeutic methods of malignant PE. We look for updated reports that include the best survival results for the other current treatments. Recent findings: Light's criteria are the standard to differentiate a malignant exudate. Ultrasound-guided thoracentesis should be used as a diagnostic/therapeutic method. In patients with malignant PE, permanent drainage is recommended with the placement of a chest tube and a hydraulic seal with closed drainage. Pleurodesis with the installation of talc is recommended in patients with malignant PE to reduce volume, PE recurrences, and hospitalization time. Conclusions: For the correct management of malignant PE, several aspects must be considered, such as identifying the presence of malignant cells by cytological study and ruling out infection. Pleural ultrasound allows for defining the volume of the PE. It will enable deciding on drainage at that time, with the possibility of inserting an intrapleural catheter, to evaluate the likelihood of sclerosing the pleurae through pleurodesis. However, to reach this decision, it is necessary to analyze each of the details that could play an essential role in good management and definitive resolution or, on the contrary, decide on palliative management, constantly investigating each case to provide symptom improvement. In addition, improving the patient's quality of life.
Subject(s)Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pleural Effusion , Talc , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Thoracentesis , Pleural Diseases , Thoracoscopy , Pleurodesis , Pleural Cavity , Exudates and Transudates
Resumen Revisión narrativa sobre cómo el cáncer altera la fisiología de la pleura, cómo se estudia el derrame pleural maligno y cómo se puede brindar paliación al paciente con derrame pleural mediante el catéter pleural permanente tunelizado, cuyo uso demuestra mayores beneficios en diferentes ámbitos clínicos, siendo utilizado principalmente para el tratamiento del derrame pleural tumoral recurrente, pero también en algunos casos de derrame pleural benigno repetitivo, convirtiéndolo en un recurso terapéutico útil en el cáncer avanzado.
Abstract This narrative review examines how cancer causes changes in pleural physiology, how to study malignant pleural effusion, and how to bring palliative care to patients with pleural effusion by means of indwelling tunneled pleural catheter. This catheter shows greater benefits in clinical practice, being used mainly for the treatment of recurrent malignant pleural effusion, but also in some cases of recurrent benign pleural effusion, making it a useful therapeutic tool in advanced cancer.
Subject(s)Humans , Palliative Care , Pleural Effusion , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Therapeutics , Catheters
Background@#The etiology of pleural effusion remains unclear in nearly 20% of cases. One way to diagnose malignancy is by doing pleural fluid cytology. There are factors that influence the yield of pleural fluid cytology and one of them is appropriate and timely fixation of samples. Currently, there is no local consensus regarding the timing with which the specimen should be fixed.@*Objective@#The study aims to compare the yield of malignancy between early fixation versus usual fixation of pleural fluid samples, meaning there is no set time for fixation to be done.@*Methodology@#The study employed a prospective cross-sectional research design. All patients with pleural effusion who fulfilled the criteria set by the study were included. Two sets of pleural fluid samples were collected amounting to 20cc each. First sample was assigned as Bottle #1 and placed immediately with fixative while the second sample was assigned as Bottle #2. Bottle #2 underwent routine fixation which follows no fixed or standard time of fixation. The time difference between the fixation of two sample groups greatly varied with Bottle #1 fixed immediately right after collection while Bottle#2 depends on the time it will be processed by the laboratory personnel. Both samples were submitted for cell block and cell cytology reading.@*Results@#Characteristics of the 55 patients included in the study showed age group range from 41 to 65 years of age, with 27 male and 28 female patients. Only one third had history of smoking. There were 21.82% who had family history of cancer and with and suspicious mass on chest radiograph. Out of 55 patients, 29 patients had history of previous diagnosis of cancer, 23 had recurrent pleural effusion, and 28 had chest radiograph with suspicious nodules. Based on gross appearance, there were 20 serous and 21 sanguineous pleural fluid noted. Mean cell count was high (1,115.50 ± 741.02) with lymphocytic predominance (82.56 ± 24.46). Elevated protein concentration (5,388.25 ± 8,230.46) and LDH (484.17 ± 248.72) were noted. Glucose (8.78 ± 6.68 mmol/L) was low. There were 21 patients who had high WBC, 24 with high protein and 16 with elevated LDH. There were 3 patients who were positive for AFB and none for KOH. Comparative analysis showed that the pleural fluid samples assigned to the routinely fixed group which were handed to the nurse after thoracentesis, then forwarded to the laboratory through a ward laboratory aide or patient watcherfor fixation with with 95% alcoholby thelaboratory personnel significantly had a longer duration of 406.62 minutes as compared to immediately fixed at 12.27 minutes (P<0.01). For diagnosis of malignancy, significantly more cases were diagnosed in the immediately fixed group with 36.36% cases versus 18.18% (p=0.016).@*Conclusion@#Among patients with suspected malignant pleural effusions, early fixation of pleural fluid samples resulted in higher histopathology yields as compared to those fixed after going through the routine fixation.
Subject(s)Pleural Effusion, Malignant
OBJECTIVES: We compared the diagnostic potential of cancer ratio (CR, serum lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]/pleural fluid adenosine deaminase [pfADA]), cancer ratio plus (CR plus, cancer ratio/pleural lymphocyte percentage), and age/pfADA ratio with pfADA in malignant pleural effusion. METHODS: Data from 100 patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and 119 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) were retrospectively collected. PfADA, age/pfADA ratio, CR, and CR plus were compared between patients with MPE and those with TPE in two age groups (≤50 and >50 years). The best cut-off value was determined, and the diagnostic performance was evaluated according to the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: PfADA was statistically significantly lower while age/pfADA ratio, CR, and CR plus were significantly higher in the MPE group than in the TPE group in both age groups (p<0.05). For patients aged ≤50 years, the differential diagnostic value of pfADA for MPE was better than those of age/pfADA ratio, CR, and CR plus. At a cut-off value of 13.0 U/L, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 88.9%, 100.0%, and 98.9%, respectively. For patients aged >50 years, the diagnostic performance of CR plus was superior to those of pfADA, age/pfADA ratio, and CR. At a cut-off value of 22.6, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CR plus for the diagnosis of MPE were 86.8%, 84.6%, and 86.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The best parameter for diagnosing MPE was different for patients aged ≤50 years and >50 years. For patients aged >50 years, CR plus was a good parameter for the differential diagnosis of MPE. For patients aged ≤50 years, pfADA was better.
Subject(s)Humans , Child, Preschool , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/diagnosis , Adenosine Deaminase , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Differential
Introducción: El derrame pleural recidivante maligno se reproduce en breve tiempo y requiere el diagnóstico etiológico positivo de malignidad, la etiología más frecuente es el cáncer de pulmón. La pleurodesis química es el tratamiento de elección con la aplicación intrapleural de sustancias sinfisiantes. Objetivo: Describir la respuesta clínica y radiológica de los enfermos con derrame pleural recidivante maligno con el uso de bleomicina. Método: Estudio observacional comparativo en 30 pacientes con derrame pleural recidivante maligno divididos en dos grupos, en uno se aplicó la bleomicina intrapleural y al otro yodo povidona. Resultado: El 33,3 por ciento fueron del sexo masculino, 60 por ciento perteneció al grupo de edades de 60-69 años. El grupo tratado con bleomicina presentó una respuesta clínica favorable en los síntomas, p<0,005 después de la pleurodesis. En la evaluación de la respuesta radiológica, 66,6 por ciento pacientes tratados con la bleomicina tuvieron una resolución completa. Conclusiones: Se logró una buena respuesta clínica-radiológica con la pleurodesis química similar entre ambas modalidades de tratamiento. Se obtuvieron mejores resultados y menos reacciones adversas con la bleomicina intrapleural(AU)
Introduction: The malignant recurrent pleural effusion reproduces in short time and it requires a positive etiological diagnosis of malignancy, the most frequent etiology is lung cancer. Chemical pleurodesis is the treatment of choice with the intrapleural application of symphysiating substances. Objective: To describe the clinical and radiological response of patients with malignant recurrent pleural effusion with the use of bleomycin. Method: A comparative observational study in 30 patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusion was carried out. They were divided into two groups, one used intrapleural bleomycin and the other group used povidone iodine. Result: 33.3 percent were male, 60 percent belonged to the 60-69 age group. The group treated with bleomycin presented favorable clinical response in symptoms, p <0.005 after pleurodesis. At the evaluation of the radiological response, 66.6 percent patients treated with bleomycin had a complete resolution. Conclusions: Good clinical-radiological response was achieved with similar chemical pleurodesis between both treatment modalities. Better results and fewer adverse reactions were obtained with intrapleural bleomycin(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Bleomycin/therapeutic use , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Observational Study
Background: In the West African sub-region, significant morbidity and mortality are known to affect patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) but are highly under reported unlike USA, Europe or South Africa. Aim/Objective: To review cases of MPE in our tertiary hospital in the last 13 years with a view to determining the challenges and prospects. Materials and Method: This is a retrospective study spanning over a decade from January, 2007 to December, 2019. Malignant pleural effusion from various neoplasms constitutes the commonest thoracic malignancy in our tertiary hospital. After 13 years of management of such patients, we reviewed the datafrom the hospital record's department. The data obtained were demography, aetiology, total number of pleural fluid specimens for cytology and pleural biopsies submitted for histology, pleurodesis and other treatment modalities. Result: 211 patients with MPE were admitted and managed during the period under review. Of these numbers, 135(64.0%) were confirmed cytologically positive (MPE). 76(36.0%) tested falsely negative and were initially regarded as paramalignant, later confirmed MPE. The age affected was from 7 to 81 years with a mean of 44 years. Of 211 patients with MPE, 94 were males while 117 were females, with a male to female ratio of 4:5. Aetiologically, metastatic breast cancer was the highest followed by advance lung cancer. Conclusion: Submission of insufficient samples resulted in false negative cytology. Review of recurrent pleural effusion and exophytic tumour at the sites of CTTD resulted in late diagnosis of MPE. Additionally, prolonged hospital stay awaiting CTTD and cytology results are among the challenges
Subject(s)Nigeria , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Pleurodesis , Sclerosing Solutions , Tertiary Care Centers
Comparar el uso del talco estéril versus yodopovidona como agentes químicos en pleurodesis para el tratamiento del derrame pleural maligno.Materiales y Métodos: Estudio clínico, analítico, observacional, prospectivo, el cual incluyó 12 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico e histopatológico de derrame pleural maligno, a quienes se les practicó pleurodesis empleando talco estéril y yodopovidona.Resultados : Edad promedio fue de 46,25 ± 17,3 y la neoplasia primaria más común fue el cáncer de mama, representando el 50% de los casos estudiados. El grupo de pacientes tratados con yodopovidona tuvo 100% de efectividad en la fusión pleural posterior a la pleurodesis, y presentaron menos complicaciones durante el procedimiento y 24 horas posteriores al mismo con respecto al grupo tratado con talco estéril, el cual tuvo un 71,4% de efectividad y un 28,6% de falla al procedimiento; asimismo, estos últimos presentaron mayor porcentaje de complicaciones. Por otra parte, no se evidenció recidiva del derrame pleural en los 30 días de valoración posteriores al procedimiento. Estas diferencias no fueron estadísticamente significativas.Conclusiones : Ambos agentes esclerosantes fueron eficaces para lograr la fusión de las pleuras en pacientes con derrame pleural maligno, siendo el talco estéril el agente con mayor tendencia a producir complicaciones y fallo del procedimiento, en comparación a la yodopovidona(AU)
To compare the use of sterile talc versus povidone-iodine as chemical agents on pleurodesis for the treatment of malignant pleural effusion.Materials and Methods : A total of 12 patients with clinical and histopathologic diagnose of malignant pleural effusion were enrolled in a clinical, analytic, observational and prospective trial, to whom sterile talc and povidone-iodine pleurodesis was applied.Results : The mean age was 46,25 ± 17,3 and the most common primary neoplasm was breast cancer, which was present in 50% of the surveyed cases. The group of patients who received povidone-iodine had 100% of effectiveness on post-pleurodesis pleural fusion, and had fewer complications during the procedure and 24 hours afterwards vis-à-vis the group who received sterile talc powder, which had 74.4% of effectiveness and 28.6% of procedure failure; furthermore, the last mentioned had higher percentage of complications. Moreover, there was no evidence of recurrence of pleural effusion in the 30 days post-procedure assessment.Conclusions : Both sclerosant agents were efficient to accomplish pleural fusion in patients with malignant pleural effusion, with sterile talc being the agent with higher tendency to generate more complications and procedure failure compared to povidone-iodine(AU)
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Povidone-Iodine , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/pathology , Pleurodesis , General Surgery , Talc , Breast Neoplasms , Clinical Diagnosis , Sterilization
BACKGROUND@#The aim of this study is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of Lobaplatin and Cisplatin in the treatment of malignant pleural effusion.@*METHODS@#The databases of Medline (PubMed), Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Wanfang, CNKI and VIP were retrieved so as to search the studies about the randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) that compared the Lobaplatin and Cisplatin for malignant pleural effusion. The main outcome indicators include objective response rate, complete response, partial response, nephrotoxicity, chest pain, gastrointestinal reaction, myelosuppression, fever response and hepatotoxicity. Relative risk was used as the effect size, which was expressed as 95% confidence interval. The meta-analysis was performed using Stata 14.0 statistical software.@*RESULTS@#A total of 12 RCTs and 720 MPE patients were included. The results showed that the ORR (RR=1.27, 95%CI: 1.15-1.40, P<0.001), CR (RR=1.39, 95%CI: 1.09-1.78, P=0.007), PR (RR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.02-1.42, P=0.026) in LBP thoracic perfusion chemotherapy were significantly higher than those in DDP thoracic perfusion chemotherapy. The incidence of nephrotoxicity (RR=0.31, 95%CI: 0.13-0.71, P=0.005) and gastrointestinal reactions (RR=0.44, 95%CI: 0.31-0.62, P<0.001) in the LBP group were significantly lower than those in DDP group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with DDP pleural perfusion chemotherapy, the ORR, CR and PR of LBP pleural perfusion chemotherapy for MPE are significantly better than DDP, and its nephrotoxicity and gastrointestinal reactions are remarkably lower than DDP.
Subject(s)Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Cisplatin , Therapeutic Uses , Cyclobutanes , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Organoplatinum Compounds , Therapeutic Uses , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Drug Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) caused by advanced lung cancer seriously affect the patients' quality of life and prognosis. The management of MPE includes thoracentesis, pleurodesis, indwelling pleural catheters and drug perfusion in pleural cavity. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor are a group of important ligands and receptors that affect angiogenesis. They are the main factors controlling angiogenesis, and they play an important role in the formation of MPE. Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized VEGF monoclonal antibody, competitively binding to endogenous VEGF receptor. Bevacizumab can inhibit new blood vessel formation, reduce vascular permeability, prevent pleural effusion accumulation and slow the growth of cancers. This review aims to discuss the progress of bevacizumab in the treatment of MPE caused by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and explore the clinical application, efficacy, safety and future direction of bevacizumab. .
Subject(s)Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , Therapeutic Uses , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Pathology , Humans , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Drug Therapy , Pleural Neoplasms , Drug Therapy
RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: O derrame pleural neoplásico é caracterizado pelo acúmulo anormal de líquido com células malignas no espaço pleural. Pode ser assintomático porém, seu principal sintoma é a dispneia. As causas mais frequentes de neoplasias com derrame pleural maligno são: carcinoma broncogênico, neoplasia mamária, mesotelioma, linfoma de Hodgkin, leucemias, tumores de ovário e carcinomas do trato digestivo. OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão da literatura sobre os derrames pleurais neoplásicos e o uso da pleurodese como opção de tratamento. MÉTODO: Foi realizada revisão da literatura, retrospectiva, com os dados coletados entre os meses de maio a agosto de 2019, utilizando as palavras-chave "pleurodese", "derrame pleural neoplásico" e "talco" no portal de periódicos da CAPES e na Cochrane. Revisado 39 artigos dos quais foram incluídos 14 artigos publicados nos últimos 15 anos. DISCUSSÃO: Para os casos inéditos de derrame pleural maligno e sintomático, deve-se realizar toracocentese de alívio. A pleurodese está indicada em pacientes sintomáticos, com derrame de repetição e expansão pulmonar adequada. O talco é o agente esclerosante de escolha na realização da pleurodese, devido seu baixo custo, disponibilidade, fácil administração, poucas complicações e boa efetividade. Atualmente, o talco é aplicado por toracoscopia ou pelo dreno, neste caso, sob a forma do talco "slurry" (suspensão de talco). O talco slurry é a forma de escolha, quando comparado ao talco em pó, pois apresenta menos efeitos colaterais, com eficácia semelhante. CONCLUSÃO: A pleurodese em derrame neoplásicos se destina à remissão dos sintomas, com melhora da qualidade de vida. Não tem efeito no prognóstico do paciente e aumento de sua sobrevida. Palavras-Chave: Pleurodese. Talco. Derrame pleural maligno
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Talc , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Pleurodesis
OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical value of detecting carcinoembryonic antigen levels in pleural effusion (PCEA) and serum (SCEA) and their ratio (P/S) in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusions resulting from tuberculosis and lung cancer.@*METHODS@#This retrospectively study was conducted among 82 patients with pleural effusion caused by pulmonary tuberculous (TB; control group) and 120 patients with pleural effusion resulting from lung cancer in our hospital between April, 2016 and March, 2018. PCEA, SCEA and P/S were compared between the two groups and among the subgroups of lung cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SqCa), adenocarcinoma (ACA), small cell carcinoma (SCLC). The receiveroperating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to confirm the optimal critical value to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of different combinations of PCEA, SCEA and P/S.@*RESULTS@#PCEA, SCEA and P/S were significantly higher in the overall cancer patients and in all the 3 subgroups of cancer patients than in the patients with TB ( < 0.05). The areas under the ROC curve of PCEA, SCEA and P/S were 0.925, 0.866 and 0.796, respectively; PCEA had the highest diagnostic value, whose diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accurate rate, and diagnostic threshold were 83.33%, 96.34, 88.61%, and 3.26 ng/ml, respectively; SCEA had the lowest diagnostic performance; the diagnostic performance of P/S was between that of SCEA and PCEA, but its combination with SCEA greatly improved the diagnostic performance and reduced the rates of misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis. Parallel tests showed that the 3 indexes combined had significantly higher diagnostic sensitivity than each or any two of the single indexes ( < 0.05), but the diagnostic specificity did not differ significantly. The area under the ROC curve of combined detections of the 3 indexes was 0.941 for diagnosis of lung cancer-related pleural effusion, higher than those of any other combinations of the indexes.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The combined detection of PCEA, SCEA and P/S has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of lung cancer-related pleural effusion and provides important information for rapid and accurate diagnosis of suspected cases.
Subject(s)Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Blood , Case-Control Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Blood , Pleural Effusion , Blood , Diagnosis , Allergy and Immunology , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Blood , Chemistry , Diagnosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
To analyze the components of tumor infiltrating T lymphocyte (TIL) cells in malignant pleural effusion of lung adenocarcinoma, and evaluate their killing activities to autologous tumor cells. Methods: Malignant pleural effusions were collected from 17 patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and flow cytometer was used to analyze TIL cell components. TIL and tumor cells were separated through adherent culture. The tumor cells were identified via intramuscular injection of adherent cells into nude mice and the killing effect of cultured lymphocytes on autologous tumor cells was studied. Results: Of the TIL in malignant pleural effusions, T cells accounted for 60.6%-79.3%, while T helper cells were significantly higher than T killer cells (36.63%±1.90% vs 24.64%±2.32%, P<0.001). There were also natural killer (NK) cells and NK T cells in the effusions. Tumor cells were successfully isolated and cultured. The killing activity of cultured TIL to autologous tumor cells was 39.14%±12.04%, and the killing activity of TIL with high proliferation rate to autologous tumor cells was higher than that of low proliferation group (50.51%±3.80% vs 29.04%±5.77%, P<0.001). Conclusion: T lymphocytes are the major components of TIL in malignant pleural effusions derived from lung adenocarcinoma, and T helper cells are more than T killer cells. The killing activity of TIL with strong proliferation ability to autologous tumor cells is higher than that of TIL with weak proliferation ability. Therefore, cells from malignant pleural effusions could be used for cellular immunotherapy against tumor.
Subject(s)Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Animals , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Humans , Interleukin-2 , Lung Neoplasms , Mice , Mice, Nude , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , T-Lymphocytes
Summary Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of paclitaxel combined with avastin for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients diagnosed with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Method: Total of 33 patients diagnosed with NSCLC as well as malignant pleural effusion were included. All of them received paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) and avastin (5 mg/kg). Clinical efficacy was evaluated using the total response rate, overall survival, progression-free survival and changes in MPE volume. Adverse events and rates of toxicities were examined as well. Results: The total response rate reached 77% while the overall survival and the median progression-free survival were respectively 22.2 months and 8.4 months. Toxicities of grade 3-4 consisted of neutropenia in 57% of patients, anemia in 17% of them, febrile neutropenia in 11%, as well as anorexia in 7%. No treatment-correlated deaths were found. Conclusion: Paclitaxel combined with avastin decreased MPE volume and increased survival rate of NSCLC patients via inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor expression.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Bevacizumab/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Safety , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Survival Analysis , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Paclitaxel/adverse effects , Disease-Free Survival , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Bevacizumab/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/adverse effects
Spontaneous regression of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) was reported over the last century. However, there are no reports on spontaneous regression of mRCC by talc pleurodesis. A 43-year-old man who underwent left nephrectomy by RCC visited emergency room with headache and hallucination. Tumor was metastasized to brain, lung, and pleura accompanied by malignant pleural effusion. Talc pleurodesis by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed to treat malignant pleural effusion. After 7 months without specific chemotherapy, pulmonary lesions of mRCC gradually regressed. We thought that this phenomenon appears as an immunologic response of talc pleurodesis. We herein present a rare case of spontaneous regression of mRCC following talc pleurodesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous regression in mRCC following talc pleurodesis.
Subject(s)Adult , Brain , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Drug Therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hallucinations , Headache , Humans , Lung , Nephrectomy , Pleura , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Pleurodesis , Talc , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
PURPOSE: Malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) are often observed in lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status in lung adenocarcinoma-associated MPEs (LA-MPEs) and its correlation with efficacy of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples comprised 40 cell blocks of pathologically-confirmed LA-MPEs collected before the start of EGFR TKI therapy. EGFR mutation status was re-evaluated by peptide nucleic acid clamping and the clinical outcomes of EGFR TKI-treated patients were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: EGFR mutations were detected in 72.5% of LA-MPE cell blocks (29/40). The median progression-free survival for patients with EGFR mutations in LA-MPEs was better than that for patients with wild-type EGFR (7.33 months vs. 2.07 months; hazard ratio, 0.486; 95% confidence interval, 0.206 to 1.144; p=0.032). The objective response rate (ORR) of 26 patients with EGFR mutations in LA-MPEs among the 36 patients with measurable lesions was 80.8%, while the ORR of the 10 patients with wild-type EGFR in LA-MPEs was 10% (p < 0.001). Among the 26 patients with EGFR mutations in LA-MPEs, the ORR of target lesions and LA-MPEs were 88.5% and 61.5%, respectively (p=0.026). CONCLUSION: EGFR mutation status in cell blocks of LA-MPEs confirmed by pathologic diagnosis is highly predictive of EGFR TKI efficacy. For patients with EGFR mutations in LA-MPEs, the response to EGFR TKIs seems to be worse for pleural effusions than for solid tumors.
Subject(s)Adenocarcinoma , Constriction , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Pleural Effusion , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Retrospective Studies , Tyrosine
We present a case of 55-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and sputum for a month. He was an ex-smoker with a history of prostate cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis. Chest radiographs revealed bilateral pleural effusions of a small to moderate amount. Pigtail catheters were inserted for drainage. The pleural fluid consisted of large clusters and tightly cohesive groups of malignant cells, which however could not be ascribed to prostate cancer with certainty. We performed immunocytochemical panel studies to determine the origin of cancer metastasis. The immunostaining results were positive for prostate-specific antigen, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, and Nkx 3.1, consistent with prostate cancer. Pleural effusion associated with prostate cancer is rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in Korea to describe cytologic features of malignant pleural effusion associated with prostate cancer.
Subject(s)Catheters , Drainage , Dyspnea , Humans , Korea , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pleural Effusion , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiography, Thoracic , Sputum , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
BACKGROUND@#Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) refers to pleural effusion which arises from primary malignant tumor of pleura or other pleural metastatic tumors. Injection of elemene in chest makes good effect on the treatment of MPE, and is widely used in clinic. Adverse effects also exist, but the severe adverse effects and relevant managements are rarely reported. The aim of this study is to observe the adverse reactions induced by the treatment of malignant pleural effusion through elemene injection and to explore the solutions.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was made on 14 cases of patients receiving intra-pleural injections with elemene, and the incidence of severe adverse reactions of 7 cases were disscussed in detail.@*RESULTS@#Most of the severe adverse reactions caused by elemene were severe chest pain, dyspnea, wheezing, clouding of consciousness and coagulopathy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Strict screening, full preprocessing and close monitoring are necessary to prevent serious adverse reactions caused by elemene injection in the treatment of malignant pleural effusion.
Subject(s)Aged , Female , Humans , Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Drug Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sesquiterpenes , Therapeutic Uses , Thorax
Chest tube insertion is a common procedure usually done for the purpose of draining accumulated air or fluid in the pleural cavity. Small-bore chest tubes (≤14F) are generally recommended as the first-line therapy for spontaneous pneumothorax in non-ventilated patients and pleural effusions in general, with the possible exception of hemothoraces and malignant effusions (for which an immediate pleurodesis is planned). Large-bore chest drains may be useful for very large air leaks, as well as post-ineffective trial with small-bore drains. Chest tube insertion should be guided by imaging, either bedside ultrasonography or, less commonly, computed tomography. The so-called trocar technique must be avoided. Instead, blunt dissection (for tubes >24F) or the Seldinger technique should be used. All chest tubes are connected to a drainage system device: flutter valve, underwater seal, electronic systems or, for indwelling pleural catheters (IPC), vacuum bottles. The classic, three-bottle drainage system requires either (external) wall suction or gravity (“water seal”) drainage (the former not being routinely recommended unless the latter is not effective). The optimal timing for tube removal is still a matter of controversy; however, the use of digital drainage systems facilitates informed and prudent decision-making in that area. A drain-clamping test before tube withdrawal is generally not advocated. Pain, drain blockage and accidental dislodgment are common complications of small-bore drains; the most dreaded complications include organ injury, hemothorax, infections, and re-expansion pulmonary edema. IPC represent a first-line palliative therapy of malignant pleural effusions in many centers. The optimal frequency of drainage, for IPC, has not been formally agreed upon or otherwise officially established.
Subject(s)Catheters , Chest Tubes , Drainage , Gravitation , Hemothorax , Humans , Palliative Care , Pleura , Pleural Cavity , Pleural Effusion , Pleural Effusion, Malignant , Pleurodesis , Pneumothorax , Pulmonary Edema , Suction , Surgical Instruments , Thorax , Ultrasonography , Vacuum
ABSTRACT Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated that closed pleural biopsy (CPB) has a sensitivity of less than 60% for diagnosing malignancy. Therefore, controversy has recently emerged regarding the value of CPB as a diagnostic test. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of CPB in diagnosing malignancy in patients with pleural effusion. Methods: This was a prospective 8-year study of individuals who underwent CPB to establish the etiology of pleural effusion. Information on each patient was obtained from anatomopathological reports and medical records. When CPB findings showed malignancy or tuberculosis, the biopsy was considered diagnostic, and that was the definitive diagnosis. In cases in which biopsy histopathological findings were nonspecific, a definitive diagnosis was established on the basis of other diagnostic procedures, such as thoracoscopy, thoracotomy, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, biochemical and cellular measurements in pleural fluid, and/or microbiological tests. The accuracy of CPB was determined with 2 × 2 contingency tables. Results: A total of 1034 biopsies from patients with pleural effusion were studied. Of those, 171 (16.54%) were excluded from the accuracy analysis either because of inadequate samples or insufficient information. The results of the accuracy analysis were as follows: sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 98%; positive predictive value, 99%; negative predictive value, 66%; positive likelihood ratio, 38.5; negative likelihood ratio, 0.23; pre-test probability, 2.13; and post-test probability, 82. Conclusions: CPB is useful in clinical practice as a diagnostic test, because there is an important change from pre-test to post-test probability.
RESUMEN Objetivo: Estudios previos demuestran que la biopsia pleural cerrada (BPC) para diagnóstico de malignidad tiene una sensibilidad menor al 60%, por lo que recientemente ha despertado controversia su valor como prueba diagnóstica. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la exactitud de la BPC para diagnóstico de malignidad en pacientes con derrame pleural. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo de 8 años en individuos que se sometieron a la realización de BPC para establecer la etiología del derrame. La información de cada paciente se tomó de los registros de anatomopatología y del expediente clínico. Cuando el resultado de la BPC demostró malignidad o tuberculosis, esto se tomó como biopsia diagnóstica y quedó éste como diagnóstico definitivo. En los casos en que el resultado del estudio histopatológico de la biopsia resultó inespecífico, el diagnóstico definitivo se estableció en base a otros procedimientos diagnósticos, como toracoscopia, toracotomía, fibrobroncoscopia, estudio bioquímico y celular del líquido pleural y/o pruebas microbiológicas. Mediante una tabla de contingencia de 2 × 2 se midieron los indicadores para una prueba diagnóstica. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1034 biopsias de pacientes con derrame pleural, de las cuales se excluyeron 171 (16.54%) por muestra inadecuada o información insuficiente. El desempeño para malignidad fue: sensibilidad, 77%; especificidad, 98%; valores predictivos positivo y negativo, 99% y 66%, respectivamente; índices de probabilidad positivo y negativo, 38.5 y 0.23, respectivamente; probabilidad antes y después de la prueba, 2.13 y 82, respectivamente. Conclusión: La BPC es útil como prueba diagnóstica en la práctica clínica, debido a que produce un cambio importante de la probabilidad antes de la prueba a la probabilidad después de la prueba.
Subject(s)Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Biopsy/classification , Biopsy/methods , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/pathology , Pleura/pathology , Thoracoscopy , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the role of intrapleural positioning of a pleural catheter in early lung expansion and pleurodesis success in patients with recurrent malignant pleural effusion (RMPE). Methods: This was a retrospective study nested into a larger prospective cohort study including patients with RMPE recruited from a tertiary university teaching hospital between June of 2009 and September of 2014. The patients underwent pleural catheter insertion followed by bedside pleurodesis. Chest CT scans were performed twice: immediately before pleurodesis (iCT) and 30 days after pleurodesis (CT30). Catheter positioning was categorized based on iCT scans as posterolateral, anterior, fissural, and subpulmonary. We used the pleural volume on iCT scans to estimate early lung expansion and the difference between the pleural volumes on CT30 and iCT scans to evaluate radiological success of pleurodesis. Clinical pleurodesis success was defined as no need for any other pleural procedure. Results: Of the 131 eligible patients from the original study, 85 were included in this nested study (64 women; mean age: 60.74 years). Catheter tip positioning was subpulmonary in 35 patients (41%), anterior in 23 (27%), posterolateral in 17 (20%), and fissural in 10 (12%). No significant differences were found among the groups regarding early lung expansion (median residual pleural cavity = 377 mL; interquartile range: 171-722 mL; p = 0.645), radiological success of pleurodesis (median volume = 33 mL; interquartile range: −225 to 257 mL; p = 0.923), and clinical success of pleurodesis (85.8%; p = 0.676). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the position of the tip of the pleural catheter influences neither early lung expansion nor bedside pleurodesis success in patients with RMPE.
RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o papel do posicionamento intrapleural do cateter pleural na expansão pulmonar precoce e no sucesso da pleurodese em pacientes com derrame pleural maligno recorrente (DPMR). Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo aninhado em um estudo prospectivo de coorte maior com pacientes com DPMR recrutados em um hospital-escola universitário terciário entre junho de 2009 e setembro de 2014. Os pacientes foram submetidos a inserção de cateter pleural e, em seguida, pleurodese à beira do leito. A TC de tórax foi realizada duas vezes: imediatamente antes da pleurodese (TCi) e 30 dias após a pleurodese (TC30). Com base na TCi, a posição do cateter foi classificada em posterolateral, anterior, fissural e subpulmonar. Usamos o volume pleural na TCi para estimar a expansão pulmonar precoce e a diferença entre os volumes pleurais na TC30 e na TCi a fim de avaliar o sucesso radiológico da pleurodese. Considerou-se que a pleurodese teve êxito clínico quando não foi necessário realizar nenhum outro procedimento pleural. Resultados: Dos 131 pacientes elegíveis do estudo original, 85 foram incluídos neste estudo aninhado (64 mulheres; média de idade: 60,74 anos). A posição da ponta do cateter foi subpulmonar em 35 pacientes (41%), anterior em 23 (27%), posterolateral em 17 (20%) e fissural em 10 (12%). Não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos quanto à expansão pulmonar precoce (mediana da cavidade pleural residual = 377 ml; intervalo interquartil: 171-722 ml; p = 0,645), sucesso radiológico da pleurodese (mediana do volume = 33 ml; intervalo interquartil: −225 a 257 ml; p = 0,923) e sucesso clínico da pleurodese (85,8%; p = 0,676). Conclusões: Nossos resultados sugerem que a posição da ponta do cateter pleural não influencia nem a expansão pulmonar precoce nem o sucesso da pleurodese à beira do leito em pacientes com DPMR.