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1.
Medisan ; 27(6)dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1534911

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por Streptococcus pneumoniae constituye una causa importante de morbimortalidad en el mundo, sobre todo en niños menores de 5 años, en los que ocasiona de 1 a 2 millones de muertes anuales. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de S. pneumoniae en muestras clínicas obtenidas en niños. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal en niños menores de 5 años de edad con diagnóstico clínico de enfermedad neumocócica invasiva, asistidos en dos hospitales pediátricos de Santiago de Cuba durante el periodo 2014-2018. De las 1466 muestras clínicas tomadas y procesadas, en 131 fue aislado el agente patógeno; estas correspondieron a 59 pacientes con formas clínicas de la infección y 72 portadores. Para el procesamiento estadístico de la información se utilizaron las frecuencias absoluta y relativa como medidas de resumen. Resultados: En general, la positividad por S. pneumoniae fue de 8,9 %, con mayores frecuencias de aislamiento en las muestras de líquido cefalorraquídeo (81,8 %), líquido pleural (47,1 %) y exudado ótico (21,9 %), que asimismo coincidieron con los porcentajes más elevados de neumonía (61,0), otitis media aguda (23,7) y meningitis (15,3), como formas clínicas de la enfermedad neumocócica, que aquejó principalmente a niños de 1 año de edad, seguidos de los mayores de 2 años. De igual modo, se identificaron 9 serotipos de S. pneumoniae, con predominio del 19A (39,0 %), el 14 (25,4 %) y el 6A (11,9 %). En los pacientes que portaban la bacteria en la nasofaringe se identificaron 8 tipos serológicos, predominantemente el 19A y el 14. Por último, se halló una alta resistencia microbiana a la eritromicina y a la combinación trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio proporcionaron un referente científico antes de la introducción de la vacuna antineumocócica cubana, lo que permitirá evaluar su impacto en la incidencia de dicha enfermedad.


Introduction: The infection due to Streptococcus pneumoniae constitutes an important cause of morbimortality in the world, mainly in children under 5 years, that causes from 1 to 2 million annual deaths. Objective: To determine the presence of S. pneumoniae in clinical samples obtained in children. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in children under 5 years with clinical diagnosis of invasive pneumococcus disease, assisted in two children hospitals from Santiago de Cuba during the period 2014-2018. Of the 1466 clinical samples taken and processed, in 131 the pathogen agent was isolated; these corresponded to 59 patients with clinical forms of the infection and 72 carriers of the disease. For the statistical processing of the information the absolute and relative frequencies were used as summary measures. Results: In general the positivity for S. pneumoniae was of 8.9 %, with more isolation frequencies in the samples of cerebrospinal fluid (81.8 %), pleural fluid (47.1 %) and otic exudate (21.9 %) that also coincided with the highest percentages of pneumonia (61.0), acute otitis media (23.7) and meningitis (15.3), as clinical forms of the neumococcus disease that mainly affected 1 year children, followed by those over 2 years. In a same way, 9 serotypes of S. pneumoniae were identified, with prevalence of the 19A (39.0 %), and 14 (25.4 %) and the 6A (11.9 %). In the nasopharyngeal carriers 8 serotypes were identified, of which the 19A and 14 prevailed. Lastly, a high microbian resistance to erythromycin and the combination trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole was found. Conclusions: The results of this study provided a scientific referent before the introduction of the Cuban antipneumococcus vaccine that will allow to evaluate its impact in the incidence of this disease.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections
2.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 91(1): 46-49, ene.-jun. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1443356

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: La neumonía redonda es una enfermedad que se presenta comúnmente en niños menores de 8 años, Streptococcus pneumoniae es el agente más frecuente que causa este tipo característico de neumonía. Tiene una incidencia que representa menos del 1% de las lesiones de monedas. Este es el primer caso documentado de neumonía redonda en Honduras. Descripción del caso clínico: Se reporta el caso de una paciente preescolar con historia de 7 días de presentar tos húmeda sin predominio de horario, acompañada de fiebre de 5 días de evolución, por lo que solicita atención médica en la Sala de Emergencia del Hospital de Occidente. Al examen físico: paciente en buen estado general, con frecuencia respiratoria 32 respiraciones por minuto, saturación de oxígeno 95%, sin dificultad respiratoria y pulmones bien ventilados. Fue ingresada a Sala de Pediatría, ya que presentaba un hemograma con leucocitosis y neutrofilia. En radiografía de tórax se observó radiopacidad homogénea en lóbulo inferior en pulmón izquierdo, motivo por el cual se decidió realizar tomografía computarizada de tórax en la cual se concluyó diagnóstico de neumonía redonda. Posteriormente después de terapia antibiótica con ampicilina se realizó radiografía control donde se observó resolución del consolidado neumónico. Conclusiones: El conocimiento de esta patología permitirá al médico reconocer que se trata de una enfermedad que tiene un curso benigno. Se recomienda siempre sospecharla en el contexto de un cuadro indicativo de infección respiratoria más un consolidado neumónico esférico de bordes definidos para evitar pruebas diagnósticas innecesarias...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1508241

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad neumocócica invasiva (ENI) es la presentación clínica más severa de la infección confirmada por el aislamiento del S. pneumoniae a partir de un sitio normalmente estéril, como sangre, líquido cefalorraquídeo, líquido pleural y otros líquidos estériles.1,2,3 Las neumonías, sepsis y meningitis engloban 25 por ciento de los 10 millones de fallecidos que ocurren en niños en todo el mundo. El Streptococcus pneumoniae es el agente causal de estas defunciones. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) estima que, aproximadamente, 800 000 niños fallecen cada año por enfermedad neumocócica, y 90 por ciento de estas defunciones ocurren en países en desarrollo.4 La infección neumocócica presenta un interés creciente por múltiples razones, ya que la morbilidad y mortalidad de las infecciones neumocócicas, tanto localizadas como invasoras, permanecen elevadas a pesar de la antibioterapia. Además, las muertes por infección neumocócica grave ocurren en los primeros 5 días de la enfermedad a pesar del tratamiento y la presencia de más de 90 distintos serotipos de S. pneumoniae, que presentan distinta distribución geográfica, dificulta el desarrollo de una vacuna de aplicación universal. También el elevado y creciente porcentaje de neumococos resistentes a Penicilina y/o a otros antibióticos está planteando importantes problemas terapéuticos.3 Por ello, se hace necesario la identificación de factores de riesgos que predisponen al padecimiento de dicha enfermedad cuya versatilidad de la bacteria S. pneumoniae ha desarrollado diversos mecanismos para evadir la respuesta inmunológica, entre los que destacan las diferencias antigénicas de los polisacáridos capsulares.5 Teniendo en cuenta que, en la mayoría de los casos, los neumococos se transportan en la mucosa del aparato respiratorio superior sin síntomas aparentes, los factores de riesgos que se describen para desarrollar una enfermedad respiratoria constituyen primordial su identificación para actuar sobre la prevención de estos. Hablamos de factores socioeconómicos y sociodemográficos, factores adquiridos del huésped y la predisposición genética del huésped.6 Entre los factores socioeconómicosy sociodemográficos se destacan los hogares con bajos ingresos, donde diversos estudios señalan que hay una mayor incidencia de infección neumocócica, malnutrición y déficit de micronutrientes, prácticas inapropiadas de la lactancia materna y la alimentación, contaminación ambiental (humo del cigarro, combustibles domésticos, otros) y la contaminación atmosférica tras la emisión de gases de fábricas e industrias cercanas al hogar. Y aunque los reportes de la Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) y la OMS no consideran la desnutrición un problema de salud en Cuba; durante las consultas de puericultura es importante evaluar el estado nutricional de los pacientes; debido a que los pacientes desnutridos son muy susceptibles de sufrir infecciones respiratorias agudas, ya que estos niños presentan alteración en la adherencia, quimiotaxis, fagocitosis y en la capacidad microbicida de estas células. Las deficiencias específicas de la cobalamina y el hierro, presentes en estos niños, disminuyen la función de los leucocitos polimorfonucleares de la actividad metabólica asociada a la fagocitosis en macrófagos y disminución de la depuración bacteriana por las células del sistema retículo endotelial. El déficit de estos oligoelementos y otros como cobre, selenio y vitaminas A, E y C también pueden interferir la actividad del sistema de defensa antioxidante y antinfeccioso del pulmón.7 Como riesgo social se identifica el hacinamiento, el nivel cultural alcanzado por la familia al cuidado del infante y; los problemas económicos: las condiciones de la vivienda y el acceso a los servicios de salud y a medicamentos. Otros autores destacan la presencia de animales domésticos.8 De los factores adquiridos del huésped podemos mencionar el bajo peso al nacer, la edad; que es importante señalar que entre más temprano en la vida se presente la infección más riesgo de gravedad presenta el paciente. Se destaca además la presencia...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Risk Factors , Health Promotion , Cuba
4.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(4): [469-473], oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424348

ABSTRACT

El propósito del presente estudio fue describir las características clínicas, serotipos y susceptibilidad antibiótica en pacientes con enfermedad neumocócica invasiva (ENI). Se revisaron las historias clínicas de los pacientes con ENI hospitalizados en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño-Breña (Lima, Perú). Se evaluaron a 29 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue 1,9 años (rango intercuartílico 1 a 4 años). El 51,7% eran mujeres y la forma clínica de la ENI más frecuente fue la bacteriemia en 18 (62,1%) pacientes. El 65,5% tenía el esquema de vacunación completo, según el Ministerio de Salud de Perú. El 82,8% del aislamiento del germen fue de sangre. La resistencia antibiótica fue más frecuente a la eritromicina (55,2%), trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol (48,3%) y penicilina (24,1%). Los serotipos registrados fueron 6C, 19A, 23A y 24F. Un paciente falleció por meningitis. En conclusión, la ENI fue más frecuente en niños de uno a cinco años y en la forma clínica de bacteriemia. Se encontraron cinco serotipos reportados en estudios previos con resistencia a penicilina y eritromicina.


This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, serotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The medical records of patients with IPD who were hospitalized at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño-Breña (Lima, Peru) were reviewed. We evaluated 29 patients. The median age was 1.9 years (interquartile range: 1 to 4 years). Of the sample, 51.7% were women and the most frequent clinical form of IPD was bacteremia in 18 (62.1%) patients; 65.5% had a complete vaccination schedule, according to the Peruvian Ministry of Health. Germ isolation was performed from blood samples in 82.8% of patients. Antibiotic resistance to erythromycin (55.2%) was the most frequent, followed by resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (48.3%) and penicillin (24.1%). The isolated serotypes were 6C, 19A, 23A and 24F. One patient died of meningitis. In conclusion, IPD was more frequent in children aged one to five years and the most frequent clinical form was bacteremia. Five serotypes reported in previous studies were found to be resistant to penicillin and erythromycin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Child Health , Patients , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Meningitis
5.
Brasília; CONITEC; maio 2022.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | BRISA, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1377728

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A doença pneumocócica (DP), causada pelo Streptococcus pneumoniae, também denominado de pneumococo, é uma condição de elevada incidência na população mundial e brasileira. Ela compreende uma gama de infecções em que se destacam a pneumonia adquirida na comunidade, otite média aguda, sinusite bacteriana e meningite bacteriana aguda. Sua manifestação mais grave ocorre nos quadros de infecção secundária de corrente sanguínea pelo pneumococo, em geral por uma pneumonia primária, e nas meningites, condições definidas como doença pneumocócica invasiva (DPI) e que apresentam elevado risco de óbito. A doença pneumocócica está entre as principais causas de internação no Brasil e também de óbito. Certas condições de base aumentam muito o risco de desenvolvimento de DP e DPI, bem como elevam sua letalidade, das quais se destaca a população idosa. A presença de comorbidades tais como doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, insuficiência cardíaca, asma, doença renal ou hepática crônica, diabete mélito e tabagismo, associados a redução do movimento mucociliar na mucosa respiratória e a imunossenescência tornam a população idosa muito vulnerável a DP e DPI. Além disso, é crescente a resistência bacteriana do pneumococo incrementando as taxas de mortalidade por esta condição. A prevenção da DP


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/immunology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Unified Health System , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics
6.
Clin. biomed. res ; 42(4): 302-307, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451363

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pneumococcal pneumonia is a leading cause of severe disease, leading to approximately 2.2 million hospital admissions in 2019 in Brazil. Since 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine was introduced in Brazil, as part of the National Immunization Program (NIP) with universal access, approximated coverage of 91.4% in 2019. Although studies from many countries are available, there is still a need to understand the effect of the vaccine introduction on the incidence of pneumonia hospitalizations in Brazil.Methods: Data on hospitalization associated with the diagnosis of pneumonia in the population assisted by the Brazilian Public Health System were accessed to fit a time series analysis, which tested the main hypothesis of the influence of vaccination on the trends for the incidence of pneumonia hospitalizations.Results: The post-vaccination period showed a negative trend, reducing 1.75, 0.16, and 0.11 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per month for the groups < 1, 1­4, and 5­9 years old, respectively. In individuals older than 20 years, the post-vaccination period has a positive trend, but not as great as compared trends before the vaccination period. These results indicate a protective herd effect in the older population, nine years after introducing the pneumococcal vaccine in the NIP.Conclusion: Vaccination with pneumococcal conjugated vaccine reduces hospitalizations associated with pneumonia diagnosis in vaccinated and non-vaccinated populations in a sustained and progressive manner.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Conjugate/therapeutic use , Immunization Programs/statistics & numerical data
7.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 209-214, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935672

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the clinical features of Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (SP-HLH), and the serotypes and drug-resistant characteristics of the isolated strains. Methods: There were 15 children with SP-HLH admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2013 to December 2020 were included in this study. Clinical data including children's general characteristics, clinical features, laboratory examinations, treatments, prognosis and the outcomes of follow-up by May 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. The serotypes and drug resistance of the isolated strains were identified. All children were divided into the clinical improvement group and the death group. Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test were used to compare the data of the two groups. Results: Among the 15 children with SP-HLH, 8 were males and 7 were females. The age of these children was 1.0 (1.0, 2.5) years. Regarding the primary infection, there were 9 cases of severe pneumonia, 3 cases of meningitis and 3 cases of blood stream infection. None of these children had received pneumoniae conjugate vaccine (PCV) and all of them were admitted to the PICU. Respiratory failure was observed in 10 patients, acute renal injury in 5, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in 3 patients. All children received glucocorticoids and high-dose intravenous immunogloblin (IVIG) in addition to anti-infective treatment. Eight of the children were cured while the other 7 died. The neutrophil count in the death group was lower than that in the clinical improvement group ((5.0 (1.7, 9.3) × 109 vs. 5.2 (3.4, 10.5) ×109/L, Z =-2.43, P<0.015), and the length of hospital stay and days of PICU stay in the death group were both shorter than those in the improvement group statistically (3 (1, 11) vs. 39 (34, 48) d, 2 (1, 4) vs. 19 (12, 31) d, Z=-3.25, -3.24, both P=0.001). Ten serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae were identified, including 4 strains of 19F, 3 of 19A, 1 of 23F, 1 of 15A and 1 of 14, among which 9 strains (9/10) were covered by PCV13. All strains were resistant to erythromycin yet sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid. Conclusions: SP-HLH is more common in children under the age of 3, with a high mortality rate. The death cases have lower neutrophil count and rapid disease progression. The comprehensive treatment is anti-infective combined with glucocorticoids and high-dose IVIG. The predominant serotypes are 19F and 19A and all isolated strains were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid.


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Serogroup , Streptococcus pneumoniae
8.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 659-667, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935340

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has spread all over the world. Streptococcus pneumoniae as a common pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia shares similar high-risk susceptible populations with COVID-19. Streptococcus pneumoniae co-infection is a key risk factor for severe COVID-19 and death. Pneumococcal vaccination has a beneficial impact on reducing the incidence and mortality of COVID-19. The vaccination rate of streptococcus pneumoniae is still low in China. Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccination may be one of effective strategies in the management of COVID-19 for high-risk population such as the elderly and those who have underlying chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccination
9.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(4): e3867, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289623

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Desde hace más de 15 años, las vacunas antineumocócicas conjugadas (PCVs) están disponibles en muchas partes del mundo, y son efectivas en la prevención de las enfermedades neumocócicas en niños. La OMS recomienda la inclusión de las PCVs en los programas de inmunización infantil en todo el mundo. Objetivo: Valorar el abordaje ético y el impacto socioeconómico de las vacunas antineumocócicas conjugadas para la decisión de uso en diferentes contextos. Material y Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos PubMed y SciELO, considerando informes de la web de la OMS. Desarrollo: Está globalmente considerado que para la reglamentación, el desarrollo y el uso de las PCVs,se deben tener en cuenta aspectos regulatorios, resultados de investigaciones y el consentimiento informado (CI) de los sujetos. En el contexto de países como China,la PCV13 de la empresa Pfizer es de la Clase II debido a su alto precio de importación, en otros contextos como Cuba no se ha introducido la vacunación contra neumococo por limitaciones financieras. Los equipos de investigación trabajan en el desarrollo de las PCVs para reducir el coste de la importación de estas vacunas, haciendo realidad la inclusión de las PCVs en el programa nacional de inmunización. A pesar de complejidad cada vez mayor de la investigación vacunológica, los investigadores seguirán obligados a adherirse a los principios éticos. Conclusiones: Es necesario una vacuna antineumocócica conjugada más económica para tener un impacto socio-económico más alto. Los profesionales sanitarios tienen la obligación de ser éticos y rigurosos en las investigaciones vacunológicas. Además, estas investigaciones requieren de la revisión por parte de un consejo de revisión ética a escala nacional y su seguimiento debe ser sistemático. Cabe señalar que los estudios en población infantil deben ser fuertemente regulados y controlados(AU)


Introduction: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been available in many parts of the world for more than 15 years and are effective in preventing pneumococcal diseases in children. The WHO recommends the inclusion of PCVs in childhood immunization programmes worldwide. Objective: To value the approach to ethics and the socioeconomic impact of the conjugate pneumococcal vaccines. Material and Methods: A bibliographic review was carried out in databases such as PubMed and SciELO, considering reports from the WHO website. Development: It is globally considered that regulatory aspects, research results and informed consent (IC) of the subjects should be taken into account for the regulation, development and use of PCVs. In the context of countries such as China,the PCV13 of the Pfizer company is Class II due to its high import price. In other contexts, such as Cuba, pneumococcal vaccination has not been introduced due to financial limitations. Research teams are working on the development of PCVs to reduce the cost of importing these vaccines, making the inclusion of PCVs in the national immunization program a reality. Despite the increasing complexity of vaccinology research, researchers will continue to be obliged to adhere to ethical principles. Conclusions: A cheaper pneumococcal conjugate vaccine would be needed to have a higher socioeconomic impact. Healthcare professionals have the obligation to be ethical and rigorous in vaccinology research. In addition, such research requires review by a national ethical review board and should be systematically monitored. It should be noted that studies in the pediatric population should be strongly regulated and controlled(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Social Control, Formal , Immunization Programs , Delivery of Health Care
10.
Infectio ; 25(2): 108-113, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250076

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Las infecciones neumocócicas son una de las causas más importantes de enfermedades en niños menores de 5 años en Colombia. Objetivo: Calcular la mortalidad por neumonía y por todas las causas en niños menores de 5 años en Colombia. Métodos: Estudio ecológico, los principales desenlaces del estudio fue mortalidad por todas las causas y neumonía (CIE-10 J12-18). Resultados: Durante el año 2005 al 2016 se encontraron un total de 122.074 muertes por todas las causas, de las cuales 13359 (10.94%) correspondieron a muerte por neumonía, 750 a meningitis (0.61%) y 17.511 a muerte por otras causas respiratorias (14.34%). Conclusiones: Se ha observado una disminución de la mortalidad en las tasas de mortalidad por todas las causas, y las demás estudiadas en este artículo.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Pneumococcal infections are one of the most important causes of diseases in children under 5 years old in Colombia. Objective: Evaluate mortality from pneumonia and all causes in children under 5 years old in Colombia. Methods: Ecological study, the main outcomes of the study was all-cause mortality and pneumonia (ICD-10 J12-18). Results: During 2005 to 2016, a total of 122,074 deaths were found for all causes, of which 13,359 (10.94%) corresponded to death due to pneumonia, 750 to meningitis (0.61%) and 17,511 to death due to other respiratory causes (14.34% ). Conclusions: A decrease in mortality has been observed in all-cause mortality rates, and the others studied death causes in this article.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia , Mortality , Vaccines , Cause of Death , Colombia , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Meningitis
11.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(2): e3759, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251799

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La colonización nasofaríngea por neumococo se define como el momento inicial en el que la bacteria se aloja en la nasofaringe del individuo. Objetivo: Estimar la proporción de factores de riesgo asociados a la colonización nasofaríngea por neumococo en niños vacunados con vacunas conjugadas antineumocócicas (PCV). Material y Métodos: Un año después de la vacunación antineumócocica mediante un ensayo clínico fase II/III, controlado, aleatorizado y doble ciego en niños de 1 a 5 años, se ejecutó un estudio de seguimiento con un diseño casos y controles, tipo caso-caso. El horizonte temporal fue desde noviembre de 2015 hasta abril de 2016. Se incluyó 50 por ciento del total de vacunados en el estudio experimental. El universo lo constituyó los 1 135 niños vacunados en el ensayo clínico. Se siguió un muestreo aleatorio simple y se incluyeron 555 sujetos. Se realizó una encuesta y una toma de muestra de exudado nasofaríngeo. Se presentaron tablas de frecuencias. Se utilizó la razón de prevalencia como medida de asociación. Se calcularon los intervalos de confianza a 95 por ciento para cada proporción. Resultados: Tener entre 2 y 5 años actúa como factor protector para la colonización nasofaríngea con respecto al niño pequeño. Convivir con personas mayores de 65 años constituye un factor de riesgo significativamente relacionado con la colonización nasofaríngea. Conclusiones: La introducción de vacunas antineumocócicas en niños preescolares puede impactar de manera significativa la carga de colonización y en la trasmisión de la enfermedad neumocócica(AU)


Introduction: Nasopharyngeal colonization by pneumococci is defined as the initial moment when the bacterium lodges in the nasopharynx of the person. Objective: To estimate the proportion of risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal colonization by pneumococci in children vaccinated with conjugate pneumococcal vaccines (CPV). Material and Methods: One year after pneumococcal vaccination, a follow-up case-case-control study was conducted in children aged 1-5 years by means of a phase II/III controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial. The time horizon was from November 2015 to April 2016. The study included 50 percent of the total of children vaccinated during the experimental study. The universe consisted of 1135 children who were vaccinated during the clinical trial. A simple random sampling that included 555 persons was applied. A survey was conducted and nasopharyngeal exudate samples were taken. Tables of frequencies were presented. Prevalence ratio was used as a measure of association. Also, 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated for each proportion. Results: Being between the ages of 2-5 years acts as protective factor against nasopharyngeal colonization with respect to the young child. Living with persons older than 65 years is a significantly associated risk factor with nasopharyngeal colonization. Conclusions: The introduction of pneumococcal vaccines in pre-school children can have a significant impact on colonization burden and the transmission of pneumococcal diseases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Pneumococcal Infections , Simple Random Sampling , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Prevalence Ratio
12.
Nursing (Ed. bras., Impr.) ; 24(273): 5255-5266, fev.2021.
Article in Portuguese | BDENF, LILACS | ID: biblio-1148502

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a estimativa dos indicadores de saúde da COVID-19 nos quatro primeiros meses da pandemia a partir da confirmação do primeiro caso. Método: Estudo ecológico. Foram coletados os casos confirmados de COVID-19 do Estado de São Paulo (ESP) dos meses de fevereiro a junho, obtidos do Centro de Vigilância Epidemiológica do ESP. A análise dos dados foi realizada a partir de indicadores de saúde e a população foi obtida pela Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados do ESP. O estudo não passou por Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa por se tratar de dados públicos. Resultado: Nos primeiros quatro meses da pandemia da COVID-19 no ESP houve aumento consecutivos do número de municípios afetados, casos confirmados, óbitos, coeficientes de incidência e mortalidade e declínio do coeficiente de letalidade. Conclusão: Verificamos diminuição dos óbitos da COVID-19 no ESP e isso pode estar associado ao aprimoramento do manejo clínico da doença.(AU)


Objective: To analyze the estimate of the health indicators of COVID-19 in the first four months of the pandemic from the confirmation of the first case. Method: Ecological study. Confirmed cases of COVID-19 from the State of São Paulo (ESP) from February to June were collected from the Center for Epidemiological Surveillance of ESP. Data analysis was carried out based on health indicators and the population was obtained by the ESP State System of Data Analysis Foundation. The study did not go through the Ethics and Research Committee because it is public data. Result: In the first four months of the COVID-19 pandemic in ESP, there was a consecutive increase in the number of affected municipalities, confirmed cases, deaths, incidence and mortality rates and a decline in the lethality rate. Conclusion: We verified a decrease in the deaths of COVID-19 in the ESP and this may be associated with the improvement of the clinical management of the disease.(AU)


Objetivo: Analizar la estimación de los indicadores de salud de COVID-19 en los primeros cuatro meses de la pandemia desde la confirmación del primer caso. Método: Estudio ecológico. Los casos confirmados de COVID-19 del Estado de São Paulo (ESP) de febrero a junio fueron recolectados del Centro de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de ESP. El análisis de los datos se realizó con base en indicadores de salud y la población fue obtenida por la Fundación Sistema Estatal de Análisis de Datos ESP. El estudio no pasó por el Comité de Ética e Investigación por tratarse de datos públicos. Resultado: En los primeros cuatro meses de la pandemia de COVID-19 en ESP, hubo un aumento consecutivo en el número de municipios afectados, casos confirmados, defunciones, tasas de incidencia y mortalidad y una disminución en la tasa de letalidad. Conclusión: Verificamos una disminución de las muertes por COVID-19 en el ESP y esto puede estar asociado a la mejora del manejo clínico de la enfermedad.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumococcal Infections/mortality , Health Status Indicators , Pandemics , Epidemiological Monitoring , COVID-19/mortality , Residence Characteristics , Incidence , Ecological Studies , Data Analysis
13.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 466-470, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879878

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical data of children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or noninvasive pneumococcal disease (NIPD), and to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data and the drug susceptibility test results of isolated strains of 518 children who were hospitalized due to @*RESULTS@#The children with IPD had a median age of 2.2 years, and the children aged ≤5 years accounted for 80.0%. For the children with IPD, the main type of infection was meningitis which was observed in 19 children (54.3%), and the most common underlying disease was hematological malignancy in 8 children (22.9%); 14 children (40.0%) were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), 18 children (51.4%) experienced complications, and 8 children (22.9%) died. For the children with NIPD, the median age was 1.2 years; the main type of infection was pneumonia in 429 children (88.8%), and the most common underlying disease was congenital heart disease in 60 children (12.4%); 60 children (12.4%) were admitted to the PICU, 102 children (21.1%) experienced complications, and 11 children (2.3%) died. The IPD group had significantly higher incidence rate of complications, PICU admission rate, and mortality rate than the NIPD group (@*CONCLUSIONS@#SP infection is common in children under 5 years of age, and the children with underlying diseases including hematological malignancy are at high risk for IPD. Although the complication rate, PICU admission rate, and mortality rate of NIPD children are lower than those of IPD children, they still cannot be ignored. Penicillin may be used as an empirical treatment for children with NIPD, but not for those with IPD.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Incidence , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pneumococcal Infections/drug therapy , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus pneumoniae
14.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Society of the Philippines Journal ; : 6-11, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-962257

ABSTRACT

@#This review article gives an overview of pneumonia in the Philippines, with focus on childhood pneumonia. Its primary objective is to provide information on epidemiology, etiology, economic burden, risk factors and prevention of pneumonia. A review of literature was done to gather information about the disease, with emphasis on local data. In the Philippines, pneumonia is the third leading cause of death across all ages and is the most common cause of death among children<5 years of age. A prospective study on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease conducted in the Philippines looked at the incidence of chest x-ray–confirmed pneumonia (N=5,940) in three hospitals over a 2-year period. The highest incidence was seen in those 28 days to <6 months of age at two sites and those 6–12 months of age in another site. Risk factors include not exclusively breastfeeding infants <6 months, undernutrition, zinc deficiency, crowding and exposure to indoor air pollution, low birth weight, poverty and socio-economic factors, presence of underlying comorbidities and immunodeficiency states. CAP ranks number one in processed Philippine Health Insurance (PhilHealth) claims, showing the huge economic burden. Therefore, rationalizing its management with simple standardized guidelines, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months and continued breastfeeding with appropriate complementary feeding, improving indoor air pollution, and promoting vaccination are effective interventions.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Pneumococcal Infections
15.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(6): 489-496, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153497

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Pediatric oncology patients (POP) have a high risk of infections due to impaired immunity. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is an important cause of severe infection in these patients and it is associated with high mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors associated with IPD at a Pediatric Oncology Center in Brazil. Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study. All IPD cases in children with cancer from 2005 through 2016 were reviewed. Each case of IPD was matched with two controls from a cohort of patients matched for year of IPD, age and disease in order to assess risk factors. The incidence density was calculated as the number of IPD per 100,000 patients-year. Results: A total of 51 episodes of IPD in 49 patients was identified. All pneumococci were isolated from blood cultures. The median age was five years and 67% were male; mortality rate was 7.8%. The IPD incidence density rate in POP was 311.21 per 100,000 patients-year, significantly higher than the rate in the general pediatric population. Severe neutropenia was the only risk factor associated with IPD, after multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Although pneumococcal disease decreased after the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine in the Brazilian national immunization schedule in 2010, there was no decrease in the IPD incidence rate in our cohort. A higher coverage rate of pneumococcal vaccination in children in the general population might be necessary to reduce the incidence rate in this high-risk population.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Pneumococcal Infections , Neoplasms , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serogroup , Neoplasms/epidemiology
16.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 53(4)nov. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354983

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Austrian Syndrome is the rare combination of a triad of endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia in the context of pneumococcal infection. Due to the involvement of several anatomical sites, the Austrian syndrome has a high mortality. Importantly, endocarditis is usually not considered during pneumococcal infection. We present a case of Austrian syndrome in a previously healthy 67-year-old woman. She featured with mental state alteration, respiratory failure, and shock, and was diagnosed with ceftriaxone-sensitive pneumococcal bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed vegetation of the mitral valve. Despite an improvement in her medical condition, she remained in a coma and died due to neurological complications. Even though the major cause of mortality in Austrian syndrome is cardiac involvement, meningitis is also linked with high morbidity and eventually death. We emphasize the relevance of an early diagnosis of the triad in order to decrease the very high mortality associated with this syndrome


RESUMO: A síndrome de Austrian é uma entidade extremamente rara, pautada por meningite, endocardite e pneumonia secundárias a doença pneumocócica invasiva. Devido à expressão multissistêmica, a mortalidade associada é elevada. Particularmente, a manifestação como endocardite é muitas vezes clinicamente insuspeita, carecendo de elevado índice de suspeita. Apresenta-se um caso de síndrome de Austrian numa doente do sexo feminino, 67 anos, previamente saudável. Clinicamente, apresentava coma, insuficiência respiratória e choque, tendo sido diagnosticada pneumonia e meningite, e com bacteremia a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ecocardiograma transesofágico evidenciou uma vegetação na válvula mitral. Apesar da regressão do quadro respiratório, persistiu um quadro de coma, acabando a doente por morrer. Apesar da principal causa de morte descrita na síndrome de Austrian estar relacionada com complicações de endocardite, apresenta-se um caso único de apresentação e morte por meningite. Com poucos casos descritos mundialmente, sublinha-se a necessidade de um diagnóstico precoce desta tríade, motivo pelo qual relatamos o caso descrito


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia , Respiratory Insufficiency , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Ceftriaxone , Bacteremia , Endocarditis , Meningitis
17.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(3): e1582, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1144552

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cálculo de la carga económica de las enfermedades neumocócicas en niños de edad preescolar en el nivel primario de salud en Cuba contribuye a visualizar la necesidad de buscar vías para prevenir su padecimiento. Objetivo: Estimar la carga económica de la enfermedad neumocócica en niños de edad preescolar en el Policlínico Docente de Playa en el 2016. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal. Para estimar la carga económica se aplicó el enfoque del costo de la enfermedad sobre la base de la incidencia, desde la perspectiva institucional. Para calcular el costo de atención por paciente se empleó el método de costeo paciente tipo. Resultados: La otitis media aguda fue la enfermedad de mayor incidencia, con el 49 por ciento de los casos seguida por la neumonía con el 47 por ciento. El costo esperado de la enfermedad fue entre 47,97 CUP y 103,38 CUP para la otitis media aguda, de entre 83,99 CUP y 194,94 CUP para la neumonía y entre 105,69 CUP y 189,97 CUP para la meningitis y la sepsis. Dentro de los procesos, las visitas al hogar presentaron el mayor gasto y dentro de las partidas, el salario. La enfermedad neumocócica representó una carga económica de 8849,15 CUP para el área de salud estudiada. Conclusiones: La enfermedad neumocócica en niños no presenta alto nivel de incidencia en el área del Policlínico Docente de Playa, pero representa una carga económica para los servicios de salud en el primer nivel de atención. Estos costos son susceptibles a disminuir con la introducción de la vacuna antineumocócica conjugada(AU)


Introduction: Calculation of the economic burden caused by pneumococcal diseases in pre-school age children in the primary health care of Cuba contributes to visualize the need for finding ways to prevent them. Objective: To estimate the economic burden caused by the pneumococcal disease in pre-school age children from Playa Teaching Policlinic during 2016. Methods: It was conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study. For estimating the economic burden, it was used the approach of cost of the disease based on the incidence and from the institutional perspective. For calculating the cost of the care per patient, it was used the method of cost-patient-type. Results: Acute otitis media was the disease with higher incidence with 49 percent of the cases, followed by pneumonia with 47 percent . The expected cost by diseases was among 47,97 CUP (Cuban peso) and 103,38 CUP for acute otitis media; among 83,99 CUP and 194,94 CUP for pneumonia; and among 105,69 CUP and 189,97 CUP for meningitis and sepsis. Within the processes, home visits showed the higher expense, and among the entries, it was the salary. Pneumococcal disease represented an economic burden of 8849,15 CUP for the studied health area. Conclusions: Pneumococcal disease in children does not represent a high level of incidence in the area of Playa Teaching Policlinic, but it represents an economic burden for health services in the primary care level. These costs are likely to decrease with the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Primary Health Care , Cost of Illness
18.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 52(3): 121-130, Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340911

ABSTRACT

Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of severe invasive disease associated with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. To identify the serotypes most commonly associated with infection in adults in Argentina, 791 pneumococcal isolates from 56 hospitals belonging to 16 provinces and Buenos Aires city were serotyped. The isolates were submitted as part of a National Surveillance Program for invasive pneumococcal disease in adults, which started in 2013. Serotypes 3, 8, 12F, 7F and 1 were the most prevalent among adult patients. During the study period there was no significant difference in serotype distribution between the age groups studied (18-64 and >65 years old), except for serotype 1, 3 and 23A. Most prevalent serotypes in pneumonia were serotype 7F, 1, 12F, 8, and 3. When the clinical diagnosis was meningitis, serotype 3 and 12F were the most prevalent, whereas when the diagnosis was sep-sis/bacteremia the most prevalent was serotype 8. In this work, for the 18-64-year-old group, PPSV23 and PCV13 serotypes accounted for 74.56% and 44.54% respectively of the cases in the studied period. On the other hand, for the >65-year-old group, these serotypes represented 72.30% and 41.42% respectively. The aim of this work was to establish the knowledge bases of the serotypes that cause invasive pneumococcal diseases in the adult population in Argentina and to be able to detect changes in their distribution over time in order to explore the potential serotype coverage of the vaccines in current use.


Resumen Streptococcus pneumoniae es una causa importante de enfermedad invasiva grave asociada con una alta mortalidad y morbilidad en todo el mundo. Para identificar los serotipos principales asociados con la infección en adultos en Argentina, 791 aislamientos de neumococo de 56 hospitales pertenecientes a 16 provincias y la ciudad de Buenos Aires fueron serotipificados. Los aislamientos fueron remitidos como parte del Programa Nacional de Vigilancia para la enfermedad neumocócica invasiva en adultos, que comenzó en 2013. Los serotipos 3, 8, 12F, 7F y 1 fueron los más prevalentes. Durante el período de estudio no hubo diferencias significativas en la distribución de serotipos entre los dos grupos de adultos estudiados (18-64 y >65 años), excepto para los serotipos 1, 3 y 23A. Los serotipos más prevalentes en casos de neumonía fueron 7F, 1, 12F, 8 y 3. Cuando el diagnóstico clínico fue meningitis, los serotipos 3 y 12F fueron los más prevalentes. Y el serotipo 8 fue el más prevalente en la sepsis/bacteriemia. En el grupo de 18-64 años, los serotipos PPSV23 y PCV13 representaron, respectivamente, el 74,56 y el 44,54% de los casos de enfermedad invasiva en el período estudiado. En el grupo de >65 años, estos serotipos representaron el 72,30 y 41,42%, respectivamente. Es importante conocer los serotipos causantes de infecciones neumocócicas invasivas en la población adulta en Argentina y detectar eventuales cambios en su distribución a lo largo del tiempo, para explorar la potencial cobertura de las vacunas utilizadas.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Serogroup
19.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 270-275, Jul.-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249910

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Influenza virus infection is often complicated by a bacterial infection, with this coinfection causing severe pneumonia. If not timely treated, the disease can cause death. Objective: To demonstrate, in animal models, that coinfection with influenza virus and bacteria that affect the respiratory tract causes multisystemic damage. Method: Six groups of mice were formed: a control group, one infected with the influenza virus, two infected with bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively; and two co-infected with influenza virus and Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. Results: Of the six groups of mice, only the group co-infected with influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae showed damage to thoracic and abdominal organs. A decrease in serum cytokine levels was found in all study groups, which was more pronounced in the co-infected mice. Conclusions: The groups of mice infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae or influenza virus alone showed no damage, which indicates that coexistence of these infections caused the damage in the group of co-infected mice.


Resumen Antecedentes: La infección por el virus de la influenza con frecuencia se complica con una infección bacteriana, coinfección que provoca cuadros graves de neumonía, la cual puede ocasionar la muerte si no es tratada en forma oportuna. Objetivo: Demostrar en modelos animales que la coinfección por el virus de la influenza y bacterias que afectan el tracto respiratorio ocasiona daño multisistémico. Método: Se formaron seis grupos de ratones: un grupo control, uno infectado de virus de la influenza, dos infectados de bacterias: Haemophilus influenzae y Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectivamente; y dos coinfectados de virus de la influenza y Haemophilus influenzae y Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectivamente. Resultados: De los seis grupos de ratones, solo en el grupo coinfectado de virus de la influenza y Streptococcus pneumoniae se observó daño en órganos torácicos y abdominales. En todos los grupos se encontró disminución de los niveles séricos de las citocinas, mayor en los ratones coinfectados. Conclusiones: Los grupos de ratones infectados solo de Streptococcus pneumoniae o el virus de la influenza no presentaron daños, lo cual indica que la coexistencia de estas infecciones fue la que ocasionó el daño en el grupo de ratones coinfectados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pneumococcal Infections/physiopathology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Haemophilus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Cytokines/blood , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Coinfection/physiopathology , Haemophilus Infections/microbiology , Mice, Inbred BALB C
20.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(2)mayo.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1127511

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus pneumoniae es un patógeno oportunista que puede causar infecciones como otitis media, neumonía, sepsis y meningitis. Sin embargo, existen muchas limitaciones para el cultivo en zaranda de este microorganismo en los laboratorios de microbiología. Por esta razón, se realizó un estudio de la consistencia del cultivo en zaranda de Streptoccoccus pneumoniae 19A a escala de 40 L. Para esto se desarrolló previamente la curva de crecimiento patrón hasta las 5 h. Desde el pre-inóculo se inocularon 6 frascos de 100 mL, de los cuales se realizó la inoculación en botellones de 1 L y 5 L. En todos los casos, se determinó la pureza a partir de la tinción de Gram y el crecimiento bacteriano se monitoreó por el método de conteo de viables y la densidad óptica cada 1 h. Además, se evaluó el rendimiento del cultivo a partir de la cantidad de biomasa obtenida por peso húmedo. Cada proceso se llevó a cabo en condiciones iguales por triplicado. En los tres procesos se obtuvieron curvas de crecimiento similares, tanto por densidad óptica como por conteo de viables, alcanzando una viabilidad máxima de 109 UFC/mL en la última escala. Además, se obtuvieron rendimientos de biomasa de 11,62; 11,92 y 11,60 g/L, respectivamente. Estos resultados demuestran que la metodología utilizada ofrece una consistencia de este proceso, a pesar del alto volumen de cultivo en zaranda, lo cual no afectó la calidad de la biomasa, demostrado por la viabilidad final(AU)


Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause infections including otitis media, pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. However, there are many limitations for the cultivation in shaker of this microorganism in microbiology laboratories. For this reason, a study of the consistency of the culture in shaker of Streptoccoccus pneumoniae 19A was carried out at a scale of 40 L. The pattern growth curve was made until 5 h, under our laboratory conditions and culture medium. From the pre-inoculum 6 bottles of 100 mL were inoculated, from which the scaling was accomplished to bottles of 1 L and 5 L. In all cases the purity was determined by Gram staining and the bacterial growth by viable counting method and the optical density were monitored every 1 h. In addition, the yield was evaluated from the determination of the amount of biomass obtained by wet weight. Each process has been made in equal conditions in triplicate. In the three processes, similar growth curves were obtained both by optical density and by viable counts, reaching a maximum viability of 109 CFU/mL on the last scale. In addition, biomass yields of 11.62, 11.92 and 11.60 g/L were obtained, respectively. These results demonstrate that the methodology used offers a high process consistency, despite the high volume of culture in rotational shaker, and did not affect the quality of the biomass, which could be demonstrated by the viable count(AU)


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Biomass , Culture Media
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