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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(1): 75-87, Jan-Abr. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362684

ABSTRACT

O cigarro eletrônico surgiu como uma tentativa para minimizar a dependência ao uso de tabaco, entretanto, engloba controvérsias e dúvidas acerca das reais implicações para o organismo humano. Diante disso, o presente estudo tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura a fim de relacionar o uso de cigarro eletrônico com suas consequências para os humanos. Os estudos analisados relatam experimentos in vitro e in vivo em camundongos, demonstrando menor concentração de poluentes e nocividades no cigarro eletrônico comparado ao convencional, porém, seu potencial efeito maléfico está relacionado à composição do e-líquido, à maneira do uso e à variedade de aromas presentes nos produtos. Além disso, foram verificadas lesões celulares, hiperreatividade das vias aéreas, liberação de citocinas ­ IL-8, IL-10 e TNF, redução da ação antimicrobiana de queratinócitos e potencial apoptose nas células alveolares. Foi observado também um aumento em até cinco vezes da concentração de carboxihemoglobina em comparação ao cigarro comum e um aumento na auto renovação de células de adenocarcinoma pulmonar de células não pequenas, devido à expressão de SOX2. Observa-se também que em casos de DPOC, o cigarro eletrônico não apresenta agravamentos na fisiologia respiratória, contrapondo outras ocorrências como asma, pneumonia, câncer de pulmão e doenças infecciosas que podem ser ocasionadas ou exacerbadas pelo seu uso. Contudo, pelo curto prazo de observação de seus efeitos, não é possível determinar com precisão a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos, dessa forma, faz-se necessário que mais pesquisas longitudinais sejam desenvolvidas, auxiliando, assim, na construção de evidências sobre a segurança dos cigarros eletrônicos e na regulamentação futura do produto.


Electronic cigarettes emerged as an attempt to minimize tobacco dependence. However, its use is surrounded by controversies and doubts about the real implications for the human organism. Therefore, this study aims at performing a review of the most recent literature to corelate the use of e-cigarettes with their consequences for the human body. The analyzed studies relate in vitro and in vivo experiments on mice, demonstrating lower concentration of pollutants and harmfulness in the electronic cigarette than in conventional cigarettes. However, its potential harmful effect is related to the composition of the e-liquid, in its use and in the variety of aromas in the products. In addition, cellular lesions, airway hyperreactivity, release of IL-8, IL-10 and TNF cytokines could be observed, as well as reduced keratinocyte antimicrobial action and potential apoptosis in alveolar cells. An increase of up to five-fold the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin in comparison to ordinary cigarettes and an increase in self-renewal of non-small pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells due to the expression of SOX2 have also been related. It could also be observed that in COPD cases, e-cigarettes do not present worsening in respiratory physiology, which contrasts with other occurrences such as asthma, pneumonia, lung cancer, and infectious diseases that can be caused or exacerbated by its use. However, due to the short term of observation of the effects, the safety of e-cigarettes could not be accurately determined, thus, the need for further longitudinal research is necessary, which could be used to help build evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes and also to create future regulation of the product.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Lung Diseases , Pneumonia/complications , Asthma/complications , Tobacco Use Disorder/complications , Smoking , Disease , Lung Injury , Tobacco Use , Vaping , Smokers , E-Cigarette Vapor/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms
2.
Fisioter. Bras ; 23(1): 128-151, Fev 11, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358609

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Envelhecer resulta em transformações biológicas que afetam os indivíduos de maneira heterogênea. A maioria dos sistemas orgânicos experimenta redução em suas funções motoras e cognitivas, interferindo na capacidade de adaptação frente a agentes estressores. Na pneumonia pelo SARS-CoV2, evidenciaram-se implicações da função pulmonar em idosos com doenças pulmonares crônicas. Objetivo: Investigar as evidências científicas sobre implicações clínicas da COVID-19 em indivíduos idosos com doença pulmonar crônica não transmissível. Métodos: revisão integrativa realizada em novembro de 2020 nas bases de dados CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Embase, Scopus, Medline/Pubmed (via National Library of Medicine) e Web of Science, utilizando-se os descritores "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV2 infection", "aged", "chronic pulmonar obstructive disease", "non-communicable diseases" e operadores booleanos AND e OR. Foram incluídos textos científicos originais, a exemplo de artigos disponibilizados na íntegra, sobre a COVID-19 em idosos com Doenças Respiratórias Crônicas Não Transmissíveis. Resultados: Idosos com comorbidades estão propensos a complicações durante a infecção por COVID-19, com altas taxas de mortalidade e alterações tomográficas atípicas. Conclusão: A forma grave da COVID-19 e a elevada mortalidade em idosos podem ser atribuídas à alta comorbidade, prevalência de demência e síndromes geriátricas. (AU)


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Comorbidity , Mortality , COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Aged
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 142-146, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365338

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The vast majority of patients who hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are given empirical antibiotic therapy. However, information on the frequency, microorganism species, and resistance rates of secondary bacterial infections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are insufficient. We aimed to show the frequency of secondary infections and resistance conditions in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized in the intensive care unit. METHODS: The results of tracheal aspirate culture, blood culture, and urine culture obtained from coronavirus disease 2019 patients - at least 2 days after their admission to the intensive care unit - were examined microbiologically. RESULTS: A total of 514 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit were included in our study. Tracheal aspirate, blood, or urine cultures were collected from 369 patients (71.8%). Bacterial reproduction was detected in at least one sample in 171 (33.3%) of all patients. The rate of respiratory tract infection and/or bloodstream infection was found to be 21%. Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tracheal aspirate culture; Coagulase-negative staphylococci, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in blood culture; and Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis in urine culture were the most common microorganisms. A. baumannii was resistant to most antibiotics except colistin and P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to most antibiotics except amikacin, colistin, cefepime, and imipenem. In K. pneumoniae, the highest meropenem sensitivity (73%) was observed; there was a strong resistance to most of the remaining antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: We think that our study can be useful in choosing empirical antibiotic therapy in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and reducing the mortality that may occur with secondary infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii , Coinfection , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene. 04, 2022. 24 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1353081

ABSTRACT

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 51/2021. Alertas internacionales, situación epidemiológica de dengue, situación epidemiológica de zika y Chikungunya, infección respiratoria aguda, neumonías, situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS), vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios, vigilancia centinela de rotavirus y enfermedad diarreica aguda


Summary of notification events until SE 51/2021. International alerts, epidemiological situation of dengue, epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya, acute respiratory infection, pneumonia, global situation of 2019-nCov (WHO), sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses, sentinel surveillance of rotavirus and acute diarrheal disease


Subject(s)
Viruses , Epidemiology , Electronic Publications , Infections , Pneumonia , Alert , Notification
5.
San Salvador; MINSAL; ene, 10, 2022. 24 p. ilus, graf, tab, mapas.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1353083

ABSTRACT

Resumen de eventos de notificación hasta SE 52/2021. Alertas internacionales, situación epidemiológica de dengue, situación epidemiológica de zika y Chikungunya, infección respiratoria aguda, neumonías, situación mundial del 2019-nCov (OMS), vigilancia centinela de influenza y otros virus respiratorios, vigilancia centinela de rotavirus y enfermedad diarreica aguda


Summary of notification events until SE 52/2021. International alerts, epidemiological situation of dengue, epidemiological situation of Zika and Chikungunya, acute respiratory infection, pneumonia, global situation of 2019-nCov (WHO), sentinel surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses, sentinel surveillance of rotavirus and acute diarrheal disease


Subject(s)
Epidemiology , Electronic Publications , Infections , Pneumonia , Rotavirus , Alert , Notification
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e228009, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249287

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common opportunistic pathogenic bacterium with the ability to develop a strong communication pathway by quorum sensing system and different virulent factors. Among the various important secretions of P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid is important biological detergent, believed to be involved in the development of the biofilm and intercellular communication. It readily dissolves the lung surfactants that are then easily catalyzed by the phospholipases and in this way is involved in the acute pulmonary infection. Objective research work was designed to investigate virulence and gene associated with virulence in P. aeruginosa responsible for pulmonary infections. Methods In current study polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the detection of the rhlR (rhamnolipid encoding) gene of isolated strains. A number of assays were performed that ensured its virulent behavior. Disc diffusion method was used to check its antibiotic resistance. Isolated strains were resistant to a number of antibiotics applied. Result It was found that males are more prone to respiratory infections as compared to females. Male members with age of 44-58 and 59-73 are at a higher risk, while females with age of 44-58 are also at a risk of pulmonary infections. Antibiotic resistance was observed by measuring zone of inhibition in strains GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 and GCU-SG-M6. GCU-SG-M2 was resistant to fluconazole (FLU), clarithromycin (CLR), cefixime (CFM) and Penicillin (P10). No zone of inhibition was observed. But it showed unusual diffused zone around the Ak and MEM antibiotic discs. rhl R gene and 16s rRNA gene were characterized and analyzed. Conclusion Findings from current study would help in raising awareness about antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa, and also the sequence of rhl R gene can be used as the diagnostic marker sequence to identify the virulent rhl R gene sequence from the samples when isolated from sputum of Pneumonia patients.


Resumo Antecedentes Pseudomonas aeruginosa é uma bactéria patogênica oportunista comum, com a capacidade de desenvolver uma forte via de comunicação pelo sistema de detecção de quorum e diferentes fatores virulentos. Entre as várias secreções importantes de P. aeruginosa rhamnolipid, há um importante detergente biológico, que se acredita estar envolvido no desenvolvimento do biofilme e na comunicação intercelular. Dissolve rapidamente os surfactantes pulmonares que são facilmente catalisados pelas fosfolipases e, dessa maneira, estão envolvidos na infecção pulmonar aguda. Objetivo O trabalho de pesquisa foi desenhado para investigar a virulência e o gene associado à virulência em P. aeruginosa responsável por infecções pulmonares. Métodos No presente estudo, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) foi utilizada para a detecção do gene rhlR (codificação ramnolipídeo) de cepas isoladas. Foram realizados vários ensaios que garantiram seu comportamento virulento. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para verificar sua resistência a antibióticos. As estirpes isoladas foram resistentes a vários antibióticos aplicados. Resultado Verificou-se que os homens são mais propensos a infecções respiratórias em comparação às mulheres. Membros do sexo masculino com idade entre 44 e 58 e 59 e 73 anos correm maior risco, enquanto mulheres com idade entre 44 e 58 anos também correm risco de infecções pulmonares. A resistência aos antibióticos foi observada medindo a zona de inibição nas cepas GCU-SG-M4, GCU-SG-M3, GCU-SG-M5, GCU-SG-M2, GCU-SG-M1 e GCU-SG-M6. O GCU-SG-M2 foi resistente ao fluconazol (FLU), claritromicina (CLR), cefixima (CFM) e penicilina (P10). Nenhuma zona de inibição foi observada. Mas se notou uma zona difusa incomum ao redor dos discos antibióticos Ak e MEM. Os genes rhl R e 16s rRNA foram caracterizados e analisados. Conclusão As conclusões do presente estudo ajudariam a aumentar a conscientização sobre a resistência a antibióticos de P. aeruginosa e, também, a sequência do gene rhl R pode ser usada como sequência de diagnóstico para identificar a sequência virulenta do gene rhl R das amostras quando isoladas do escarro de pacientes com pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Glycolipids , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
7.
SA j. radiol ; 26(1): 1-7, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1354428

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the subsequent global outbreak (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) was declared a public health emergency in January 2020. Recent radiologic literature regarding COVID-19 has primarily focused on Computed Tomography (CT) chest findings, with chest radiography lacking in comparison. Objectives: To describe the demographic profile of adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring hospital admission. To describe and quantify the imaging spectrum on chest radiography using a severity index, and to correlate the severity of disease with prognosis. Method: Retrospective review of chest radiographs and laboratory records in patients admitted to a South African tertiary hospital with confirmed COVID-19 infection. The chest X-rays were systematically reviewed for several radiographic features, which were then quantified using the Brixia scoring system, and correlated to the patient's outcome. Results: A total of 175 patients (mean age: 53.34 years) admitted with COVID-19 were included. Ground glass opacification (98.9%), consolidation (86.3%), and pleural effusion (29.1%) was commonly found. Involvement of bilateral lung fields (96.6%) with no zonal predominance (61.7%), was most prevalent. Correlation between the Brixia score and outcome was found between severe disease and death (odds ratio [OR]: 12.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.58­104.61). Many patients had unknown TB (71.4%) and HIV (72.6%) statuses. Conclusion: In this study population, ground glass opacification, consolidation, and pleural effusions, with bilateral lung involvement and no zonal predominance were the most prevalent findings in proven COVID-19 infection. Quantification using the Brixia scoring system may assist with timeous assessment of disease severity in COVID-19 positive patients, as an overall predicator of clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pneumonia , Radiography , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Hospitals, Isolation , Inpatients
8.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 42: e06953, 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1356553

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the main anatomopathological findings of Testudines necropsied in the Distrito Federal, all necropsy records performed at the "Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária" of the "Universidade de Brasília" (LPV-UnB) on Testudines during the period from January 2008 to July 2020 were reviewed. The 72 cases reviewed were grouped and classified according to species, sex, origin, season of occurrence, and diagnosis. In 69.44% of the cases the species was informed in the necropsy protocols, which included Phrynops geoffroanus (38%), Trachemys dorbigni (36%), Chelonoidis carbonaria (14%), Chelonoidis denticulata (10%) and Podocnemis expansa (2%). In 30.55% of the cases this parameter was not informed and were classified only as Testudines. In 41.66% of the cases the sex was informed, being female 22.22%, male 19.44%, and 58.33% were not informed. Of these animals 79.16% were from environmental agencies and 20.84% from zoos and/or guardians. In 70.83% of the animals analyzed they were directly related to the autumn and winter seasons, with June being the most frequent month (29.17%). The conclusive diagnosis was possible in 68.05% of the cases. The category of disorders caused by injurious agents (48.97%) was the most prevalent, followed by inflammatory disorders (32.65%) and nutritional and metabolic disorders (28.57%). The main diagnoses were carapace and/or plastron fracture with 30.61%, hepatic steatosis (20.40%) and pneumonia (10.22%). Most cases of carapace or plastron fracture and hepatic steatosis occurred in animals from environmental agencies.(AU)


Com o objetivo de determinar os principais achados anatomopatológicos de Testudines necropsiados no Distrito Federal, foram revisadas todas as fichas de necropsia realizadas no Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade de Brasília (LPV-UnB) em Testudines, durante o período de janeiro de 2008 a julho de 2020. Os 72 casos revisados foram agrupados e classificados quanto à espécie, sexo, procedência, estação do ano de ocorrência e diagnóstico. Em 69,44% dos casos havia a espécie informada nos protocolos de necropsia, que incluíam Phrynops geoffroanus (38%), Trachemys dorbigni (36%), Chelonoidis carbonaria (14%), Chelonoidis denticulata (10%) e Podocnemis expansa (2%). Em 30,55% dos casos não tiveram esse parâmetro informado e foram classificados apenas como Testudines. Em 41,66% casos foi informado o sexo, sendo fêmea 22,22%, macho 19,44% e não informados 58,33%. Destes animais 79,16% eram de órgão ambiental e 20,84% de zoológicos e ou tutores. Em 70,83% dos animais analisados tiveram direta relação com as estações de outono e inverno, sendo o mês de junho o mais frequente (29,17%). O diagnóstico conclusivo foi possível em 68,05% dos casos. A categoria de distúrbios causados por agentes lesivos (48,97%) foi a mais prevalente, seguido por distúrbios inflamatórios (32,65%) e dos distúrbios nutricionais e metabólicos (28,57%). Os principais diagnósticos foram fratura de carapaça e ou plastrão com 30,61%, esteatose hepática (20,40%) e pneumonia (10,22%). A maior parte dos casos de fratura de carapaça ou plastrão e de esteatose hepática ocorreram em animais provenientes de órgão ambiental.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pneumonia/mortality , Turtles/anatomy & histology , Turtles/injuries , Fractures, Bone/mortality , Fatty Liver/mortality , Autopsy/veterinary
9.
Infectio ; 25(4): 296-299, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286726

ABSTRACT

Resumen La identificación del nuevo Coronavirus tipo 2 en marzo de 2020 en Colombia ha generado paradigmas e incógnitas en la epidemiología nacional con respecto a la llegada aproximada del virus y sus mecanismos de diseminación local en los departamentos y ciudades principales. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con COVID-19 que tuvo su inicio de síntomas dos semanas antes de la declaración del primer caso en Colombia, lo que sugiere circulación del virus y transmisión local en Colombia previo a la declaración de la epidemia.


Abstract The identification of Coronavirus type 2 in March 2020 in Colombia has generated paradigms and unknows in the national epidemiology regarding the approxi mate arrival of the virus and its mechanisms of local dissemination in the main departments and cities. We present the case of a patient with COVID-19 that had its onset of symptoms two weeks before the declaration of the first case in Colombia, wich moves the circulation of the virus and local transmission in Colombia prior the declaration of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Coronavirus , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Viruses , Epidemiology , Colombia , Epidemics , Infections
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1431-1435, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355672

ABSTRACT

A radiologia é uma importante ferramenta complementar para o diagnóstico de diversas afecções em diferentes espécies. O uso de exames complementares na medicina de animais silvestres, em especial o exame de imagem, traz inúmeras informações acerca do paciente. Este trabalho apresenta os dados obtidos por meio de um levantamento dos exames radiográficos realizados em animais silvestres entre os anos de 2017 e 2020, no Laboratório de Diagnóstico de Imagem e Cardiologia (LADIC), do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (HCV/UFPel). Ao todo, foram avaliados 464 prontuários, sendo 293 (63,1%) de aves, 135 (29,1%) de mamíferos e 36 (7,8%) de répteis. As alterações mais encontradas nos exames radiológicos foram fratura de membros torácicos para as duas primeiras classes, e pneumonia para a última.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Animals, Wild/injuries , Brazil , Radiography/veterinary , Radiography/statistics & numerical data
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 117(4): 728-736, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345236

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A nova doença por coronavírus (COVID-19) pode levar a uma enfermidade grave e causar a morte. Sabe-se que a COVID-19 afeta o sistema cardiovascular. A detecção precoce da progressão para um estágio grave da doença que afeta o sistema cardiovascular pode desempenhar um papel crítico no tratamento da COVID-19. Objetivos Explorar a possível relação entre a pneumonia por COVID-19 e os achados de strain do ventrículo direito no eletrocardiograma (ECG). Métodos Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de 141 pacientes hospitalizados com COVID-19. A correlação de Spearman e as análises de regressão logística foram aplicadas para avaliar as relações entre as manifestações de strain ventricular direito na ECG e os níveis de biomarcadores e outros achados laboratoriais e de imagem do tórax. O nível de significância foi considerado estabelecido como p < 0,05. Resultados Os sinais de ECG de estresse ventricular direito foram significativamente mais frequentes e os níveis de fibrinogênio, PCR e ferritina foram significativamente mais elevados em pacientes com COVID-19 com níveis elevados de hs-cTnI, procalcitonina e dímero-D. A análise univariada mostrou que existem relações significativas entre a presença de pneumonia bilateral, a maioria dos sinais eletrocardiográficos de strain ventricular direito e lesão cardíaca e biomarcadores inflamatórios e trombóticos. A análise multivariada revelou que o supradesnivelamento do segmento ST em V1 e padrão S1Q3T3 são preditores independentes de lesão cardíaca ( odds ratio =0,23; IC95%, 0,06 a 0,90; p=0,035) e níveis elevados de procalcitonina ( odds ratio =0,19; IC 95%, 0,06 a 0,62; p=0,006), respectivamente. Conclusão Os achados do presente estudo sugerem que a dano cardíaco direito é prevalente na COVID-19. Além disso, nosso estudo demonstra o valor clínico do ECG na avaliação e monitoramento de pacientes com pneumonia por COVID-19.


Abstract Background The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may lead to severe disease that can cause death. COVID-19 is known to affect the cardiovascular system. Early detection of the progression to the severe disease stage that affects the cardiovascular system may play a critical role in the treatment of COVID-19. Objectives To explore the possible relationship between the COVID-19 pneumonia and right ventricular strain findings on electrocardiography (ECG). Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 141 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression analyses were applied to assess relationships between ECG manifestations of right ventricular strain and levels of biomarkers and other laboratory and chest imaging findings. The significance level was considered as < 0.05. Results The ECG signs of right ventricular stress were significantly more frequent and the levels of fibrinogen, CRP, and ferritin were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with elevated levels of hs-cTnI, procalcitonin and D-dimer. The univariate analysis showed there are significant relations between the presence of bilateral pneumonia, most of the ECG signs of right ventricular strain and cardiac injury and inflammatory and thrombotic biomarkers. The multivariate analysis revealed that ST-segment elevation in V1and the S1Q3T3pattern are independent predictors of cardiac damage (odds ratio=0.23; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.90; p=0.035) and elevated procalcitonin levels (odds ratio=0.19; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.62; p=0.006), respectively. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that right heart damage is prevalent in COVID-19. In addition, our study shows the clinical value of ECG in evaluating and monitoring the patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Retrospective Studies , Electrocardiography , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Rev. Méd. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 59(5): 423-430, 01-oct-2021. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357991

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el SARS-CoV-2 fue notificado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud en enero de 2020 como emergencia mundial debido a su intenso contagio y cuadro clínico, que se agrava en personas susceptibles. Objetivo: describir factores asociados a defunción en pacientes con COVID-19 y neumonía hospitalizados en tercer nivel.Material y métodos: estudio de casos y controles no pareado. Se obtuvo información general mediante entrevista; del expediente se tomaron datos de hospitalización, imágenes radiológicas, parámetros de laboratorio y tratamientos. Se empleó estadística descriptiva, t de student, U de Mann-Whitney y chi cuadrada para identificar variables asociadas a defunción, y modelos de regresión logística binaria ajustada para proponer variables de antecedentes del paciente, parámetros clínicos y tratamientos que explicaran la defunción.Resultados: atendimos 5339 pacientes sospechosos de COVID-19: 3117 positivos (59%), 1029 hospitalizados por neumonía y 513 defunciones (16.46%). Para el análisis, se tomaron 1110, se seleccionaron 399 casos de defunción y 357 controles egresados por mejoría. La edad promedio fue 57.8 años; 59% fueron hombres. La estancia hospitalaria en casos fue 9.8 (DE 10.9) y en controles 12.5 (DE 10.2).Conclusiones: las variables asociadas a mortalidad fueron: mayores de 40 años, radiografía de tórax > 50% de afectación, intubación, deshidrogenasa láctica > 500, proteína C reactiva > 10 e insuficiencia orgánica; las asociadas a mejoría: estancia en unidad de cuidados intensivos, uso de antibióticos parenterales de amplio espectro, esteroides y anticoagulante enoxiheparina. El sexo, la diabetes y las comorbilidades no mostraron asociación.


Background: SARS-CoV-2 virus was notified by the World Health Organization in January 2020 as a global emergency, due to its intense transmission, and the clinical picture, that is aggravated in susceptible people.Objective: To describe the factors associated with death in COVID-19 and pneumonia patients hospitalized in a third-level center. Material and methods: An undivided case-control study was conducted. It was conducted an interview to obtain general information; from the medical record were collected hospitalization data, radiological images, laboratory parameters, and treatments used. It was used descriptive statistics. Student's t, Mann-Whitney U, and chi-squared were used to identify variables associated with death, and models of adjusted binary logistic regression to propose which variables of the patient's history, clinical parameters and treatments explained the death. Results: We treated 5339 patients with suspicion of COVID-19: 3117 positive (59%), 1029 hospitalized due to pneumonia, and 513 deaths (16.46%). For the analysis, 1110 patients were taken, 399 death cases were selected and 357 controls discharged due to improvement. The average age was 57.8 years; 59% were male. The hospital stay in cases was 9.8 (SD 10.9), and in controls 12.5 (SD 10.2). Conclusions: The variables associated with mortality were: patients older than 40 years, chest radiography image > 50% involvement, intubation, lactic dehydrogenase > 500, C-reactive protein > 10, and organ failure; variables associated with improvement were: stay in the intensive care unit, use of broad spectrum parenteral antibiotics, steroids, and use of the anticoagulant enoxyheparin. Sex, diabetes, and comorbidities did not show significant association.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia , Case-Control Studies , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Association , Logistic Models , Medical Records , Emergencies , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Intubation , Mexico
13.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 62-75, oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355760

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Bacterial pneumonia and meningitis are vaccine-preventable diseases. Sentinel surveillance provides relevant information about their behavior. Objective: To present the data from sentinel surveillance carried out at the Fundación HOMI, Fundación Hospital Pediátrico La Misericordia in 2016. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive study from January 1 to December 31, 2016, on the daily surveillance of patients under 5 years of age diagnosed with pneumonia or bacterial meningitis according to PAHO's definitions. We identified the microorganisms using the automated VITEKTM 2 system. Bacterial isolates were sent to the Microbiology Group at the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud for confirmation, serotyping, phenotypic, and genotypic characterization. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were established. Results: From 1,343 suspected cases of bacterial pneumonia, 654 (48.7%) were probable, 84% had complete Hib vaccination schedules, and 87% had complete pneumococcal vaccination schedules for age. Blood culture was taken in 619 (94.6%) and 41 (6.6%) were positive while S. pneumoniae was isolated in 17 (41%) of them. The most frequent serotype was 19A in five cases (29.4%), and four 19A serotypes were associated with the reference isolate ST320. The incidence rate of probable bacterial pneumonia was 7.3 cases/100 hospitalized patients, and lethality was 2.1%. As for bacterial meningitis, 22 suspected cases were reported, 12 (54%) were probable, four (33%) were confirmed: two by Escherichia coli and two by group C N. meningitidis. The incidence of probable bacterial meningitis was 0.14 cases/100 hospitalized patients. Conclusion: Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 19A and 3 were the most frequent cause of pneumonia. Spn19A is related to the multi-resistant clone ST320. Strengthening and continuing this strategy will allow understanding the impact of vaccination.


Resumen | Introducción. La neumonía y la meningitis bacterianas son enfermedades inmunoprevenibles; la vigilancia centinela aporta información relevante acerca de su comportamiento. Objetivo. Presentar los resultados de la vigilancia centinela de neumonía y meningitis llevada a cabo en la HOMI, Fundación Hospital Pediátrico La Misericordia. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo entre el 1 de enero y el 31 diciembre del 2016, de la vigilancia diaria de pacientes menores de 5 años con diagnóstico de neumonía o meningitis bacteriana, según las definiciones de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS). Los microorganismos fueron identificados usando el sistema automatizado VITEK TM2. Los aislamientos se enviaron al grupo de microbiología del Instituto Nacional de Salud para confirmación, serotipificación, y caracterización genotípica y fenotípica. Asimismo, se establecieron los perfiles de sensibilidad antimicrobiana. Resultados. De 1.343 casos sospechosos de neumonía bacteriana, 654 (48,7 %) fueron probables, el 84 % tenía el esquema de vacunación completo para la edad contra Haemophilus influenzae de tipo b, y el 87 %, contra neumococo. En 619 (94,6 %) pacientes se hizo hemocultivo y 41 (6,6 %) fueron positivos. S. pneumoniae se aisló en 17 (41 %) casos. El serotipo más frecuente fue el 19A, en cinco pacientes (29,4 %), en tanto que cuatro aislamientos de spn19A fueron relacionados con el clon ST320. La tasa de incidencia de neumonía bacteriana probable fue de 7,3 casos/100 pacientes hospitalizados. La letalidad fue de 2,1 %. Hubo 22 casos sospechosos de meningitis bacteriana, 12 (54 %) probables, y cuatro (33 %) confirmados: dos por Escherichia coli y dos por Neisseria meningitidis del grupo C. La incidencia de meningitis bacteriana probable fue de 0,14/100 pacientes hospitalizados. Conclusión. Los serotipos 19A y 3 de S. pneumoniae fueron la causa más frecuente de neumonía. El Spn19A se relacionó con el clon ST320 mulitirresistente. El fortalecimiento continuo de la vigilancia centinela permitirá entender el impacto de la vacunación.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Meningitis , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Sentinel Surveillance
14.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 93(3): e1572, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347544

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La presentación clínica de la enfermedad provocada por el SARS-CoV-2 es heterogénea. Los pacientes pueden ser asintomáticos o tener una enfermedad leve de las vías respiratorias superiores o desarrollar una neumonía grave que puede progresar al síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda y provocar la muerte. La fisiopatología de las formas graves de la enfermedad se caracteriza por una marcada hiperinflamación. Las terapias que modulan la respuesta inmunitaria pueden ser cruciales para tratar y prevenir este estado. El péptido CIGB-258, marca comercial Jusvinza, es una opción terapéutica para este propósito, por sus propiedades inmunomoduladoras. Objetivo: Describir la evolución clínica de un paciente pediátrico con neumonía grave por SARS-CoV-2, tratado con el péptido CIGB-258 Presentación del caso: Adolescente de 12 años con epilepsia refractaria, parálisis cerebral infantil y antecedentes epidemiológicos de contacto con paciente positivo a test confirmatorio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa para SARS-CoV-2 que ocho días después del contacto, muestra evidencias clínicas, radiográficas y de laboratorio de neumonía grave por COVID-19. Dentro del protocolo terapéutico, recibió tratamiento con el péptido inmunomodulador CIGB-258, con una evolución favorable y egreso hospitalario. Conclusiones: El uso del péptido CIGB-258 en el tratamiento de la neumonía grave por COVID-19 en pediatría, podría contribuir a evitar la progresión hacia las etapas críticas de la enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: The clinical presentation of the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is heterogeneous. Patients may be asymptomatic or have mild upper respiratory tract disease, or develop severe pneumonia that can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome and lead to death. The pathophysiology of severe forms of the disease is characterized by a marked hyperinflammation. Therapies that modulate the immune response can be crucial in treating and preventing this state. The CIGB-258 peptide, brand name Jusvinza, is a therapeutic option for this purpose, due to its immunomodulatory properties. Objective: Describe the clinical evolution of a pediatric patient with severe pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2, and treated with the CIGB-258 peptide. Case Presentation: A 12-year-old adolescent with refractory epilepsy, infantile cerebral palsy, and an epidemiological history of contact with a patient positive to PCR confirmatory test for SARS-CoV-2 who, eight days after contact, shows clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evidence of severe pneumonia due to COVID-19. Within the therapeutic protocol, he received treatment with CIGB-258 immunomodulatory peptide, with a favorable evolution and hospital discharge. Conclusions: The use of CIGB-258 peptide in the treatment of severe pneumonia due to COVID-19 in pediatrics could contribute to prevent progression to the critical stages of the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Evolution , Clinical Protocols
15.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 7(3): 272-289, set. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1344158

ABSTRACT

Introdução:A ventilação mecânica invasiva é um recurso terapêutico artificial, que possui a finalidade de equilíbrio da ventilação e/ou oxigenação de pacientes com insuficiência respiratória, entre as complicações desta intervenção, destaca-se a pneumonia. Nesse âmbito, o enfermeiro tem um papel primordial na criação de programas de prevenção das infecções, sobretudo na precaução da pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica nas unidades de terapia intensiva. Objetivo:Descrever as ações de enfermagem para prevenção da pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica invasiva na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva. Metodologia:Trata-se de um estudo do tipo revisão integrativa da literatura, para qual, definiu-se como ambiente de pesquisa as bases de dados BDENF, LILACS e MEDLINE. Elencou-se artigos publicados nos idiomas português, inglês e espanhol no período entre 2015 a 2019. Explorou-se os artigos a partir dos parâmetros estabelecidos pelo guia PRISMA, verificação dos títulos, resumos e texto completo, considerando os estudos que estivessem de acordo com o objetivo proposto, sendo selecionados 7 artigos para compor esta revisão. Resultados:Observou-se nos artigos analisadosa importância da adesão de ferramentas de ações no processo de cuidado, como os protocolos e bundles (um conjunto de medidas e intervenções) de prevenção da pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica, para quais compreendem práticas como a verificação da pressão do cuff, elevação da cabeceira, aspiração de secreção, higiene oral, validade dos artigos médicos, lavagens das mãos e a interrupção da infusão de sedativos. Conclusões:Preconiza-se a adesão de medidas preventivas da pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica nas unidades de terapia intensiva, as quais precisam ser praticadas rigorosamente pelos profissionais de enfermagem, por serem representantes do cuidado. Ressalta-se a necessidade de atualizações e construções de protocolos com medidas que possam prevenir as infecções de trato respiratório oriundas do uso da ventilação mecânica invasiva (AU).


Introduction:Invasive mechanical ventilation is an artificial therapeutic resource, which aims to balance ventilation and / or oxygenation of patients with respiratory failure, among the complications of this intervention, pneumonia stands out. In this context, the nurse has a primary role in creating infection prevention programs, especially in the prevention of pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. Objective:To describe nursing actions to prevent pneumonia associated with invasivemechanical ventilation in the Intensive Care Unit.Methodology:This is a bibliographic study, of the type integrative literature review, for which the databases BDENF, LILACS and MEDLINE were defined as a research environment. Articles published in Portuguese, English and Spanish from 2015 to 2019 were listed. Articles were explored using the parameters established by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) guide, verification of titles, abstracts and full text, considering studies that were in accordance with the proposed objective, with 7 articles selected to compose this review. Results: It was observed in the analyzed articles the importance of adhering to action tools in the care process, such as protocols and bundles (a set of measures and interventions) for preventing pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation, for which they comprise practices such as checking the cuff pressure, elevating the headboard, secretion aspiration , oral hygiene, validity of medical articles, hand washing and stopping the infusion of sedatives. Conclusions:Adherence to preventive measures for pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation in intensive care units is recommended, which must be strictly practiced by nursing professionals, as they are representatives of care. The need to update and build protocols with measures that can prevent respiratory tract infections arising from the use of invasive mechanical ventilation is emphasized (AU).


Introducción:La ventilación mecánica invasiva es un recurso terapéutico artificial, con la finalidad de equilibrar la ventilación y / u oxigenación enpacientes con insuficiencia respiratoria, entre las complicaciones de esta intervención se destaca la neumonía. En este contexto, la enfermera es fundamental en la creación de programas de prevención de infecciones, especialmente en neumonía asociada a ventilador en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Objetivo:Describir las acciones de enfermería para prevenir la neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica invasiva en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. Metodología:Se trata de una revisión integradora de la literatura, realizada a través de las bases de datos BDENF, LILACS y MEDLINE. Se enumeraron los artículos publicados en portugués, inglés y español en el período comprendido entre 2015 y 2019. Los artículos fueron explorados en base a los parámetros establecidos por la guía Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA), verificación de títulos, resúmenes y texto completo.,considerando los estudios que estaban de acuerdo con el objetivo propuesto, seleccionándose 7 artículos. Resultados:Se observó la importancia de la adherencia a herramientas de acción en el proceso de atención, como protocolos y paquetes (conjunto de medidas e intervenciones) para la prevención de la neumonía asociada al ventilador, que incluyen prácticas comoel control de la presión del paciente. manguito, elevación de la cabeza, aspiración de secreciones, higiene bucal, vigencia de artículos médicos, lavado de manos e interrupción de la infusión de sedantes. Conclusiones:Se recomienda la adherencia a las medidas preventivas, las cuales deben ser practicadas con rigor por los profesionales de enfermería, por ser representantes del cuidado. Se destaca la necesidad de actualización y construcción de protocolos con medidas que puedan prevenir las infecciones deltracto respiratorio derivadas del uso de ventilación mecánica invasiva (AU).


Subject(s)
Quality of Health Care , Ventilators, Mechanical , Intensive Care Units , Nurse Practitioners , Nursing Care , Pneumonia , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Brazil/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/pathology
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): e345-e348, agosto 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281782

ABSTRACT

El talco, un silicato de magnesio hidratado, formó parte durante décadas del cuidado tradicional de lactantes y niños pequeños. Si bien en los niños su inhalación aguda, que suele ser accidental durante el cambio de pañales, no es frecuente, es una condición potencialmente peligrosa, que puede provocar dificultad respiratoria grave e incluso cuadros mortales. Se describe el grave compromiso respiratorio por neumonitis química asociado con la inhalación accidental de talco en un lactante de 14 meses. El niño presentó un cuadro de dificultad respiratoria con requerimiento de asistencia respiratoria mecánica (ARM) durante una semana. En cuanto al tratamiento, no existe un estándar, se utilizaron antibióticos y corticoides sistémicos y aerosolterapia. No presentó complicaciones en otros órganos o sistemas. Su evolución fue favorable, se pudo externar al décimo día de internación y presentó posteriormente episodios aislados de hiperreactividad bronquial.


Talc is a hydrated magnesium silicate. It was part of traditional infant and young child care for decades. In children, its acute inhalation, generally accidental during diaper changes, although not frequent, is a potentially dangerous condition, and can cause severe respiratory distress and even death. We describe the case of a 14-month child who had an accidental inhalation of talc, chemical pneumonitis and severe respiratory compromise. The patient had acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring mechanical ventilation for one week. There is no standard treatment, we used systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids and aerosol therapy. He did not have complications in other organs or systems. He was hospitalized for ten days. In the follow up, he had isolated episodes of bronchial hyperresponsiveness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Respiratory Insufficiency/chemically induced , Talc/adverse effects , Pneumonia/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Accidents, Home , Inhalation , Intubation, Intratracheal
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): S171-S197, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1281039

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias agudas bajas (IRAB) continúan representando una importante causa de morbimortalidad en nuestro medio. El manejo normatizado de casos constituye una valiosa herramienta para enfrentarlas.Además de los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de estas enfermedades, el análisis de factores de riesgo (tanto biológicos como socioambientales), desde una perspectiva local y actual, permitie implementar medidas efectivas de control y/o prevención, así como identificar aquellos pacientes susceptibles de presentar formas graves o complicaciones.Desde 1996 la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría asumió el desafío de generar un documento que guíe el manejo integral de los pacientes con IRAB. En esta cuarta actualización se incluyen los últimos adelantos en el tema.


Acute lower respiratory infections (ARI) continue being an important cause of morbidity and mortality in our region. Standardized case management is a valuable tool to deal with them.In addition to aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases, the analysis of risk factors (both biological and socio-environmental) from a local and current perspective, allows the implementation of effective control and/or prevention measures, as well as identifying those patients susceptible to presenting serious forms or complications.Since 1996, the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría asumed the challenge of generating a document that guides the comprehensive management of patients with ARI. This fourth update includes the latest advances on the subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bronchiolitis/diagnosis , Bronchiolitis/therapy , Bronchiolitis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Risk Factors
19.
J. nurs. health ; 11(3): 2111317637., jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1342786

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: investigar como a literatura científica aborda a assistência de enfermagem na prevenção de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica. Método: revisão integrativa da literatura na biblioteca eletrônica de periódicos científicos, disponíveis online nas bases de dados Literatura Latino-americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online. Foram utilizados, para as buscas, os descritores controlados "Pneumonia", "Ventilação Mecânica", "Prevenção e Controle" e "Assistência de Enfermagem". Resultados: os estudos foram sintetizados em duas categorias A Enfermagem nos Protocolos ou medidas de prevenção da Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica; e Conhecimento dos Profissionais de Enfermagem sobre a prevenção da Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica. Conclusão: a Pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica deve ser prevenida através de ações e intervenções da equipe multiprofissional. Embora seja uma infecção que pode ser evitada pelo cuidado de enfermagem, fundamentado em evidências científicas.(AU)


Objective: to investigate how the scientific literature approaches nursing care in the prevention of pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation. Method: an integrative literature review was carried out in the electronic library of scientific journals, available online in the databases Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online. The controlled keywords "Pneumonia", "Mechanical Ventilation", "Prevention and Control" and "Nursing Assistance" were used for the searches. Results: the studies were summarized in two categories Nursing in Protocols or preventive measures for Pneumonia Associated with Mechanical Ventilation; and Knowledge of Nursing Professionals on the prevention of Pneumonia Associated with Mechanical Ventilation. Conclusion: pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation must be prevented through actions and interventions by the multi-professional team. Although it is an infection that can be avoided by nursing care, based on scientific evidence.(AU)


Objetivo: investigar cómo la literatura científica aborda los cuidados de enfermería en la prevención de la neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica. Método: revisión integradora de la literatura en la biblioteca electrónica de revistas científicas, disponible en línea en las bases de datos Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud y Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online. Para las búsquedas se utilizaron las palabras clave controladas "Neumonía", "Ventilación mecánica", "Prevención y control" y "Asistencia de enfermería". Resultados: los estudios se sintetizaron en dos categorías Enfermería en Protocolos o medidas preventivas de Neumonía Asociada a Ventilación Mecánica; y Conocimiento de los profesionales de enfermería sobre la prevención de la neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica. Conclusión: la neumonía asociada a la ventilación mecánica debe prevenirse mediante acciones e intervenciones del equipo multiprofesional. Aunque es una infección que puede evitarse con cuidados de enfermería, según la evidencia científica.(AU)


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Respiration, Artificial , Nursing , Infection Control
20.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 107-116, 30 junio 2021. 107^c116
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292982

ABSTRACT

La neumonía es una infección frecuente que se presenta en todas las edades, en cualquier tipo de pacientes y a nivel co-munitario u hospitalario. La neumonía que se origina en la comunidad afecta a los pacientes con comorbilidades y en los extremos de la vida. La mortalidad de la neumonía comunitaria (NC) per-manece elevada, los sistemas de salud deben implementar estrategias para diagnosticar y tratar de forma rápida a estos pacientes. Cuando un paciente con neumonía comunitaria es ingresado en la emergencia de cualquier hospital se debe categorizar su estado para que reciba el mejor tratamiento posible. La Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) participa en la detección de los pacientes con neu-monía adquirida en la comunidad grave, con el objetivo de priorizar su atención para lograr las metas de manejo lo más rápido posible y disminuir la mortalidad de estos pacientes.


Pneumonia is a common infection that occurs in all ages, in any type of patient and at the community or hospital level. Community-originating pneumonia affects patients with comorbidities and at the ex-tremes of life. Mortality from commu-nity pneumonia remains high, health sys-tems must implement strategies to quickly diagnose and treat these patients. When a patient with community pneumonia is admitted to any hospital emergency, their condition must be categorized so that they receive the best possible treat-ment. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) participates in the detection of patients with severe community-acquired pneu-monia, with the objective of prioritizing their care to achieve management goals as quickly as possible and reduce the mortality of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Chlamydial Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Shock, Septic , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Infections , Intensive Care Units
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