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1.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 107-116, 30 junio 2021. 107^c116
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292982

ABSTRACT

La neumonía es una infección frecuente que se presenta en todas las edades, en cualquier tipo de pacientes y a nivel co-munitario u hospitalario. La neumonía que se origina en la comunidad afecta a los pacientes con comorbilidades y en los extremos de la vida. La mortalidad de la neumonía comunitaria (NC) per-manece elevada, los sistemas de salud deben implementar estrategias para diagnosticar y tratar de forma rápida a estos pacientes. Cuando un paciente con neumonía comunitaria es ingresado en la emergencia de cualquier hospital se debe categorizar su estado para que reciba el mejor tratamiento posible. La Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) participa en la detección de los pacientes con neu-monía adquirida en la comunidad grave, con el objetivo de priorizar su atención para lograr las metas de manejo lo más rápido posible y disminuir la mortalidad de estos pacientes.


Pneumonia is a common infection that occurs in all ages, in any type of patient and at the community or hospital level. Community-originating pneumonia affects patients with comorbidities and at the ex-tremes of life. Mortality from commu-nity pneumonia remains high, health sys-tems must implement strategies to quickly diagnose and treat these patients. When a patient with community pneumonia is admitted to any hospital emergency, their condition must be categorized so that they receive the best possible treat-ment. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) participates in the detection of patients with severe community-acquired pneu-monia, with the objective of prioritizing their care to achieve management goals as quickly as possible and reduce the mortality of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pneumonia, Staphylococcal , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Chlamydial Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Shock, Septic , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Infections , Intensive Care Units
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the consistency between nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in pathogen detection in children with pneumonia@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the data of pathogens detected in 533 children with pneumonia from February 2017 to March 2020. The paired McNemar's test was used to compare the difference in pathogen detection between NPA and BALF groups. The @*RESULTS@#NPA had a sensitivity of 28%, a specificity of 74%, a positive predictive value of 14%, and a negative predictive value of 91% in detecting bacteria, and a @*CONCLUSIONS@#There is poor consistency between NPA and BALF in the detection of bacteria and viruses, and clinicians should be cautious in diagnosing lower respiratory tract infection based on bacteria or viruses detected in NPA. There is moderate consistency between NPA and BALF in the detection of


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Respiratory Tract Infections , Retrospective Studies
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922387

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical features of @*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed on the medical data of 228 children with MPP alone and 28 children with MPP and ADV infection. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical features, laboratory results, and treatment outcome.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the MPP group, the MPP+ADV group had significantly longer duration of fever and length of hospital stay, a significantly higher proportion of patients with severe lesions (erosion and exfoliation) of the airway mucosa under bronchoscopy, a significantly higher clinical pulmonary infection score, and a significantly higher proportion of patients requiring oxygen therapy (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Compared with children with MPP alone, children with MPP and ADV infection tend to have more severe clinical manifestations and airway mucosal lesions and are more likely to require oxygen therapy, but most of the laboratory markers lack specificity.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Retrospective Studies
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921719

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy of 14 oral Chinese patent medicines combined with Azithromycin in the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia in children with network Meta-analysis. Computer retrieval was performed for such databases as CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, CBM, PubMed, EMbase and Cochrane Library to screen out randomized controlled trials of oral Chinese patent medicines combined with Azithromycin in the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia in children from the time of database establishment to September 2020. The included studies were evaluated by the Cochrane Risk Assessment tool. Stata 14.0 and Review Manager 5.3 software were used for data statistical analysis. A total of 60 RCTs were included in this study, involving 14 oral Chinese patent medicines. The efficacy ranking based on network Meta-analysis was as follows:(1)in terms of total effective rate, top five Chinese patent medicines in surface under the cumulative ranking curve(SUCRA) were Xiao'er Xiaoji Zhike Oral Liquid, Xiao'er Chiqiao Qingre Granules, Xiao'er Feike Granules, Pudilan Xiaoyan Oral Liquid and Lanqin Oral Liquid;(2)in terms of antifebrile time, top five Chinese patent medicines in SUCRA were Huaiqihuang Granules, Xiao'er Magan Granules, Xiao'er Kechuanling Granules/Oral Liquid, Shuanghuang-lian Oral Liquid for children and Xiao'er Xiaoji Zhike Oral Liquid;(3)in terms of cough disappearance time, top five Chinese patent medicines in SUCRA were Xiao'er Magan Granules, Huaiqihuang Granules, Xiao'er Chiqiao Qingre Granules, Xiao'er Feire Kechuan Oral Liquid and Xiao'er Kechuanling Granules/Oral Liquid;(4)in terms of rale disappearance time, top five Chinese patent medicines in SUCRA were Xiao'er Magan Granules, Huaiqihuang Granules, Xiao'er Feire Kechuan Oral Liquid, Shuanghuanglian Oral Liquid for children and Yupingfeng Granules. The results showed that on the basis of the use of Azithromycin, combined administration with oral Chinese patent medicines could improve the overall clinical efficacy in the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia in children. However, due to the large differences in the quality and the number of included studies among various therapeutic measures, the ranking results of SUCRA of Chinese patent medicines need to be verified by high-quality multi-center, large-sample, randomized double-blind trials in the future.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , Child , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Nonprescription Drugs , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the drug resistance of @*METHODS@#BALF specimens were collected from 245 children with RMPP who were admitted to the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Zhengzhou University from March 2016 to December 2020. A rapid cultured drug sensitivity assay was used to detect the resistance of MP isolates to nine commonly used antimicrobial drugs. The real-time PCR was used to measure MP DNA. The direct sequencing was used to detect gene mutations in MP 23SrRNA V region central ring.@*RESULTS@#Among the 245 BALF specimens, 207 tested positive for MP DNA, with a positive rate of 84.5%. The results of drug susceptibility test showed that the children with RMPP had a resistance rate of > 70% to macrolide antimicrobial drugs, with the highest resistance rate to clarithromycin, followed by roxithromycin, clindamycin, acetylspiramycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin, and these children had a resistance rate of < 5% to quinolone antimicrobial drugs. Among the 207 MP DNA-positive specimens, 41 (19.8%) had no drug-resistance gene mutations and 166 (80.2%) had drug-resistance gene mutations, among which 154 (74.4%) had an A→G mutation at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring, 7 (3.4%) had an A→G mutation at 2064 locus, and 5 (2.4%) had mutations in both 2063 and 2064 loci. Among the 166 specimens with point mutations of the MP 23SrRNA gene, 159 (95.8%) had point mutations at 2063 locus. The A→G point mutation at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring had a great impact on resistance to macrolide antimicrobial drugs. There was a significant difference in the distribution of alleles at 2063 locus between the children with resistance to clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, acetylspiramycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin (@*CONCLUSIONS@#MP in the BALF of children with RMPP has a relatively high resistance rate to macrolide antimicrobial drugs. Resistance to macrolide antimicrobial drugs is closely associated with the A→G point mutation in the 23SrRNA gene, and the point mutation at 2063 locus of 23SrRNA V region central ring may affect the drug-resistance mechanism of MP.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical features of children with @*METHODS@#A total of 310 MPP children who were hospitalized and underwent bronchoalveolar lavage from June 2018 to June 2019 were enrolled and divided into two groups: simple MPP group with 241 children (without peripheral lymphocytopenia) and MPP + peripheral lymphocytopenia group with 69 children. The two groups were compared in terms of clinical data and treatment outcome.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the simple MPP group, the MPP + peripheral lymphocytopenia group had significantly longer duration of fever and length of hospital stay and significant increases in C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and @*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with MPP and peripheral lymphocytopenia tend to have more severe immunologic injury. Peripheral blood lymphocyte count may be used to evaluate the severity of MPP.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Humans , Lymphopenia/etiology , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/complications , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879879

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the value of chitinase-like protein YKL-40 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for predicting refractory @*METHODS@#A total of 50 children with common @*RESULTS@#Compared with the common MPP group, the RMPP group had significantly higher incidence rates of fever, shortness of breath, lung consolidation, and pleural effusion (@*CONCLUSIONS@#There is an increase in the level of YKL-40 in BALF in children with RMPP, and the level of YKL-40 in BALF has a certain value for predicting RMPP.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1 , Chitinases , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis
8.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 347-352, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126171

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La infección por Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mypn) podría estar ocurriendo a edades más tempranas, debido a fenómenos sociales como concurrencia a centros de cuidado diurno en forma más frecuente y precoz. Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Mypn en niños de 0-12 años, y explorar si la edad, asistencia a centro de cuidados diurnos/escuela, hacinamiento o convivencia con niños incrementan el riesgo de seropositividad. Pacientes y Método: Estudio transversal incluyendo niños de 0-12 años de edad que requirieron extracciones de sangre para control, por lo demás sanos. En todos los casos se consignaron las variables mencionadas y se determinó IgG anti-Mypn mediante enzimoinmunoanálisis. Se evaluó la asociación entre predictores y seropositividad en un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados: Se incluyeron 232 pacientes (edad promedio 56,4 ± 40,0 meses). El 56,9% concurría a centro de cuidado diurno/escuela, 63,8% convivían con menores de 12 años y 15,9% presentaban hacinamiento. El 14,6% presentaba anticuerpos anti-Mypn. Los niños seroposi- tivos no mostraron diferencias significativas con aquellos seronegativos en relación a edad (63,1 ± 40,7 vs. 55,4 ± 41,3 meses), escolaridad (64,7% vs 55,5%), hacinamiento (14,7% vs 14,9%), ni con vivencia con menores (64,7% vs 63,6%). La edad tampoco se mostró como predictor independiente de seropositividad en el modelo multivariado. Conclusión: La prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Mypn fue 14,6%. La edad no fue predictor de seropositividad.


Abstract: Introduction: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mypn) infection could be occurring at an earlier age due to social pheno mena such as attending daycare centers more frequently and earlier than decades ago. Objective: to estimate the prevalence of anti-Mypn antibodies in children aged 0-12 years, and to explore whether age, attendance to daycare center/school, overcrowding or the presence of children aged below 12 years in the households increase the risk of seropositivity. Patients and Method: Cross-sectional stu dy including healthy children aged 0-12 years which required blood draws for routine laboratory tests. In all cases, the aforementioned variables were recorded and anti-Mypn IgG was determined by enzyme immunoassay. The association between predictors and seropositivity was assessed in a logistic regression model. Results: We included 232 patients (average age 56.4 ± 40.0 months). 56.9% attended a daycare center/school, 63.8% co-habited with children under 12 years old, and 15.9% lived in overcrowded households. The prevalence of anti-Mypn antibodies was 14.6%. There were no significant differences between seropositive and seronegative children regarding age (63.1 ± 40.7 vs. 55.4 ± 41.3 months), school/day-care attendance (64.7% vs. 55.5%), overcrowding (14.7% vs. 14.9%), or co-habiting with children (64.7% vs. 63.6%). Age was not an independent predictor of seropositivity in the multivariate model. Conclusion: The prevalence of anti-Mypn antibodies in children was 14.6% and age was not a predictor of seropositivity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/immunology , Argentina/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/blood , Schools , Biomarkers/blood , Crowding , Logistic Models , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Child Day Care Centers , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879776

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the respiratory pathogens and clinical features in children with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma.@*METHODS@#Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 225 children with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma, aged <14 years, who attended the outpatient service or were hospitalized from August 2017 to August 2019. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 pathogens, i.e., respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), influenza virus A (IFVA), influenza virus B (IFVB), parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (PIV1-3), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), adenovirus (ADV), Bordetella pertussis (BP), Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP).@*RESULTS@#The overall detection rate of virus was 46.2% (104/225), and 7 kinds of viruses were detected, i.e., HRV (19.6%, 44/225), ADV (16.0%, 36/225), IFVB (5.8%, 13/225), RSV (4.9%, 11/225), IFVA (3.6%, 8/225), PIV3 (1.8%, 4/225), and HMPV (0.4%, 1/225). Of all pathogens, BP had the highest detection rate of 28.4% (64/225), and the detection rates of MP and CP were 16.4% (37/225) and 0.4% (1/225), respectively. The mild exacerbation group had a higher detection rate of BP than the severe exacerbation group (P<0.05), while the severe exacerbation group had significantly higher detection rates of RSV and MP than the mild exacerbation group (P<0.05). There were significant differences in the proportion of children with paroxysmal cough, spasmodic cough, fever, lung rales and abnormal lung imaging findings among the simple BP infection, simple virus infection and simple MP infection groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#BP, HRV, and MP are common respiratory pathogens detected in children with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma, and respiratory virus infection is an important pathogen of acute exacerbation of asthma in children. Acute exacerbation of asthma caused by different pathogens has different clinical features and severities.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asthma/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the influencing factors for the clinical effect of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) and atelectasis.@*METHODS@#A total of 75 children with MPP and atelectasis were divided into a good response group with 51 children and a poor response group with 24 children according to the clinical effect of BAL treatment. LASSO logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the factors influencing the clinical effect of BAL treatment. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and restricted cubic spline model analysis were used to evaluate the value of the course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment in predicting the clinical effect of BAL treatment.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the good response group, the poor response group had a significantly lower percentage of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, a significantly higher proportion of children with atelectasis of two or more lung lobes or stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening caused by inflammation, and a significantly longer course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment and azithromycin treatment (P<0.05). The LASSO logistic regression analysis showed that a prolonged course of the disease at the time of BAL treatment (OR=1.23), atelectasis of two or more lung lobes (OR=11.99), and stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening caused by inflammation (OR=5.31) were independent risk factors for poor clinical effect of BAL treatment (P<0.05). The ROC curve analysis showed that the course of disease of ≥11.5 days at the time of BAL treatment suggested a poor clinical effect of BAL treatment, with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 54.9%. The restricted cubic spline model analysis showed that there was a non-linear dose-response relationship between the course of disease at the time of BAL treatment and the clinical effect of BAL treatment (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early BAL treatment may have a good clinical effect in children with MPP and atelectasis. Atelectasis of two or more lung lobes and inflammation-induced stenosis of the bronchial cavity or opening shown under bronchoscope may indicate a poor clinical effect of BAL treatment.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pulmonary Atelectasis
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828477

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To early differentiate between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and adult mycoplasma pneumonia with chest CT scan.@*METHODS@#Twenty-six patients with COVID-19 and 21 patients with adult mycoplasma pneumonia confirmed with RT-PCR test were enrolled from Zibo First Hospital and Lanshan People's Hospital during December 1st 2019 and March 14th 2020. The early chest CT manifestations were analyzed and compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The interstitial changes with ground glass density shadow (GGO) were similar in two groups during first chest CT examination (>0.05). There were more lung lobes involved on the first chest CT in COVID-19 patients, which were mostly distributed in the dorsal outer zone (23/26, 88.5%), and nearly half of them (12/26, 46.2%) were accompanied by crazy-paving sign; while the lesions in adult mycoplasma pneumonia patients were mostly distributed along the bronchi, and the bronchial wall was thickened (19/21, 90.5%), accompanied with tree buds / fog signs (19/21, 90.5%). The above CT signs were significantly different between the two kinds of pneumonia (all <0.01). COVID-19 had a longer course compared with mycoplasma pneumonia, the disease peaks of COVID-19 patients was on day (10.5±3.8), while the disease on CT was almost absorbed on day (7.9±2.2) in adult mycoplasma pneumonia. The length of hospital stay in COVID-19 patients was significantly longer than that of mycoplasma pneumonia patients [(19.5±4.3) d vs (7.9±2.2) d, <0.01].@*CONCLUSIONS@#The lesions of adult mycoplasma pneumonia are mostly distributed along the bronchi with tree buds/fog signs, while the lesions of COVID-19 are mainly distributed in the dorsal outer zone accompanied by crazy-paving sign, which can early distinguish two diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Reference Standards , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Lung , Diagnostic Imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Diagnostic Imaging , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnostic Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827962

ABSTRACT

Systematic evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of Xiaoer Xiaoji Zhike Oral Liqud combined with azithromycin in the treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia in children. Clinical literatures were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase, VIP, CNKI, SinoMed, WanFang from inception to September 2019. Two reviewers independently screened out the literatures, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Then, Meta-analysis was performed by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 17 RCT were included, involving 1 712 patients. In this study, there were two subgroups by the application approach of azithromycin: oral azithromycin subgroup and intravenous azithromycin subgroup. According to Meta-analysis results, in terms of the alleviation of clinical symptoms and signs, such as shortening of antifebrile time, cough disappeared time, rales disappearance time, and lung X-ray infiltrating shadow disappearance time, Xiaoer Xiaoji Zhike Oral Liquid combined with oral azithromycin or intravenous azithromycin were better than single-dose azithromycin; in the aspect of the improvement of the overall effective rate, the two combination subgroups were better than the single-use azithromycin; In terms of the decline of IgM, the combination subgroups were also more efficient than the single-use azithromycin, with statistically significant differences. In terms of the incidence of adverse reactions, there was no significant difference between the two combination subgroups and the single-use azithromycin in children, and no serious adverse reactions were found. In inclusion, Xiaoer Xiaoji Zhike Oral Liquid combined with azithromycin can improve the clinical efficacy in treating pediatric mycoplasma pneumonia, with a high safety. Due to the limited quantity and quality of the included studies, more high-quality studies are needed to verify the above conclusion.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , Child , Cough , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma
13.
Medwave ; 20(7): e8006, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122649

ABSTRACT

Una de las principales causas de neumonía en niños entre 5 y 15 años es el Mycoplasma pneumoniae, una bacteria que causa manifestaciones clínicas atípicas como la miositis y encefalitis. Reportamos un caso de una niña de cinco años que presentó limitación funcional en extremidades inferiores precedida por una infección respiratoria superior. Posteriormente, se complicó con neumonía y encefalitis. Se administraron antibióticos y antivirales debido al deterioro clínico del paciente. La serología de inmunoglobulinas para Mycoplasma pneumoniae fue positiva; mientras que los demás estudios virales fueron negativos. El curso clínico fue favorable con disminución progresiva de la dificultad respiratoria, trastorno del sensorio y mejoría en la limitación funcional en las extremidades inferiores a los 15 días de tratamiento.


One of the leading causes of pneumonia in children between 5 to 15 years is Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a bacterium that causes atypical clinical manifestations such as myositis and encephalitis. We report a 5-year-old girl who presented functional limitations of the lower extremities preceded by an upper respiratory infection. Later on, she developed pneumonia and encephalitis. Antibiotics and antivirals were administered due to the clinical deterioration of the patient. IgM serology for Mycoplasma pneumoniae was positive, while the other viral studies were negative. The clinical course was favorable with a progressive decrease in respiratory distress, sensorial disorder, and improvement in the functional limitations of the lower limbs after 15 days of treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Myositis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/microbiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Encephalitis/microbiology , Encephalitis/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Myositis/microbiology , Myositis/drug therapy
14.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 91(4): e754, oct.-dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093738

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Mycoplasma penumoniae es un patógeno reconocido como principal agente causal de neumonía atípica, así como también por generar diferentes tipos de complicaciones extrapulmonares, especialmente de carácter neurológico y afectar directamente el sistema nervioso, gracias a sus mecanismos de virulencia, mimetismo y de inmunomodulación en el huésped. Causa afecciones como neuropatías, polineuropatías, encefalopatías, síndrome de Guillain Barré y otros. Objetivo: Reforzar en el área pediátrica la necesidad de modificar criterios diagnósticos e incorporar variantes clínicas del síndrome de Guillain Barre, además de instrumentos para diagnóstico de afecciones neuropáticas. Presentación del caso: Paciente masculino, 9 años 8 meses de edad, quien consulta en repetidas ocasiones por: dispepsias, episodios de diarrea, constipación y fiebre. Se constató según consulta: disbiosis, resfriado común, y finalmente, neumonía atípica por Mycoplasma Pneumoniae. Paciente evoluciona, con debilidad muscular, paresia, hiperalgesia y alodinia de extremidades superiores e inferiores. Acude a neurólogo, quien indica exámenes neurofisiológicos (velocidad de conducción nerviosa, potenciales evocados y se descartó una electromiografía, debido a la hiperalgesia). Se diagnosticó una polineuropatía axonal, la que se caracterizó por presentar ciertos aspectos del síndrome de Guillain-Barré. Tanto la evolución clínica de este síndrome, así como sus variantes clínicas, tienen un curso en adultos, caracterizado por un comienzo y signos distintos, lo que puede retrasar y errar el diagnóstico en pacientes pediátricos. Conclusiones: Hace falta nuevos criterios diagnósticos y su amplitud y herramientas de abordaje, para hacer un diagnóstico rápido y eficaz, y contribuir a la recuperación optima del paciente(AU)


Introduction: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a pathogen know as to the main causal agent of atypical pneumonia, as well as to generate different extrapulmonary sickness, especially in neurological ways, directing to the nervous system, thanks to all its different mechanisms, like: virulence, mimetysm and immunomodulation in to the host. Producing, pathologies like neuropathies, polyneuropathies, encephalopathies, Guillain Barré Syndrome. Objetives: To highlight in the pediatric area, the need to modificate diagnosis criteria and incorporate Guillain-Barre Syndrome clinicals variants, also instruments to diagnosis of neuropathic pathologies. Case presentation: Male patient, 9 years, 8 months old, who consulted in repeated occasions for: dyspepsia, diarrhea and constipation episodes and fiber. Confirmed according to consultation: dysbiosis, common cold, and finally, atypical pneumonia by Mycoplasma Pneumoniae. The patient evolves with: muscular weakness, hyperalgesia and allodynia of upper and inferior extremities. Then, the Neurologist, indicates neurophysiological exams (nerve conduction velocity, evoked potentials, discarding an electromyography, due to hyperalgesia). Diagnosing an axonal polyneuropathy. Which was characterized to present some same aspects, from clinical course of Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Highlighting that the clinical evolution, as also, the syndrome clinical variants, has it a course in adults, characterized by a different beginning and signs, than in children. Retarding and do a wrong diagnosis in pediatric patients. Conclusion: Lack of new diagnosis criteria, the amplitude of these and tools of approach to give a fast and effective diagnosis, and contribute to the optimal recovery of the patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/complications , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/transmission
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the correlation of Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA (MP-DNA) replication level in throat swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with disease severity in children with severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (SMPP).@*METHODS@#A total of 44 children with SMPP who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage were enrolled as subjects. The serum levels of cytokines and MP-DNA replication times in throat swab were measured in the acute stage and the recovery stage, and the levels of interleukin (IL)-8 and MP-DNA replication times in BALF were measured in the acute stage. According to whether mechanical ventilation was needed for respiratory failure, the children were divided into a mechanical ventilation group (n=19) and a non-mechanical ventilation group (n=25), and the two groups were compared in MP-DNA replication times in BALF.@*RESULTS@#For the children with SMPP, serum levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lactate dehydrogenase, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-18 in the acute stage were significantly higher than those in the recovery stage (P<0.05). In the acute stage, MP-DNA replication times in throat swab were positively correlated with those in BALF (r=0.613, P<0.05), and MP-DNA replication times in BALF were positively correlated with IL-18 levels in peripheral blood and BALF (r=0.613 and 0.41 respectively, P<0.05). Compared with the non-mechanical ventilation group, the mechanical ventilation group had significantly higher MP-DNA replication times in BALF, a significantly longer duration of systemic hormone treatment, significantly higher serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and IL-18, and significantly higher white blood cell count and IL-18 level in BALF (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#In children with SMPP, MP-DNA replication level in throat swab and BALF can be used as a reference index for the assessment of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Child , Cytokines , DNA Replication , DNA, Bacterial , Humans , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760216

ABSTRACT

Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has been generally susceptible to macrolides, the emergence of macrolide-resistant MPP (MRMP) has made its treatment challenging. MRMP rapidly spread after the 2000s, especially in East Asia. MRMP is more common in children and adolescents than in adults, which is likely related to the frequent use of macrolides for treating M. pneumoniae infections in children. MRMP is unlikely to be related to clinical, laboratory, or radiological severity, although it likely prolongs the persistence of symptoms and the length of hospital stay. Thereby, it causes an increased burden of the disease and poor quality of life for the patient as well as a societal socioeconomic burden. To date, the only alternative treatments for MRMP are secondary antimicrobials such as tetracyclines (TCs) or fluoroquinolones (FQs) or systemic corticosteroids; however, the former are contraindicated in children because of concerns about potential adverse events (i.e., tooth discoloration or tendinopathy). A few guidelines recommended TCs or FQs as the second-line drug of choice for treating MRMP. However, there have been no evidence-based guidelines. Furthermore, safety issues have not yet been resolved. Therefore, this article aimed to review the benefits and risks of therapeutic alternatives for treating MRMP in children and review the recommendations of international or regional guidelines and specific considerations for their practical application.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Child , Drug Resistance , Far East , Fluoroquinolones , Humans , Length of Stay , Macrolides , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Quality of Life , Risk Assessment , Tetracycline , Tetracyclines , Tooth Discoloration
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical usefulness of serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels in Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (M. pneumonia) and viral pneumonia in children. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 348 patients admitted between June 2015 and December of 2015. There were 162 patients with M. pneumonia without virus coinfection (group 1) and 186 patients with viral pneumonia (group 2). All subjects had radiographic evidence of pneumonia with available specimens for both M. pneumonia and viral testing, and levels of serum PCT, white blood cell counts (WBC), neutrophil portion, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Fifty-eight children who performed follow-up sampling at the time of no fever for more than 48 hours were subdivided into group 3 (M. pneumonia with follow-up sampling, n=41) and group 4 (viral pneumonia with follow-up sampling, n=17). RESULTS: No difference was noted in the levels of serum PCT (P=0.168), CRP (P=0.296), WBC (P=0.732), and neutrophil proportion (P=0.069) between groups 1 and 2, after adjusting for age. Serial changes in serum PCT levels between the first and second samples were significant in group 3 (P=0.046). Serial changes in serum CRP levels between the first and second samples were significant in group 4 (P=0.008). CONCLUSION: Serum PCT and CRP levels may change differently after infection according to the etiology of pneumonia.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Child , Coinfection , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fever , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Medical Records , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Neutrophils , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Pneumonia, Viral , Retrospective Studies
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741870

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between cytokine and chemokine levels and the clinical severity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters were performed. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured. The severity of patients' clinical course and radiologic findings were also assessed. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients (35 males and 37 females) with a median age of 3.9 years (range, 1–16 years) were enrolled. Patients with lobar pneumonia (n=29) had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and IL-18 values than those with broncho-interstitial pneumonia (n=43). However, the cytokine and chemokine values did not differ between the group that was treated with corticosteroids (n=31) and the one that was not (n=41). The CRP, ESR, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), IL-18, and IP-10 values showed positive correlations with fever duration prior to admission. The CRP and ESR values were positively correlated with IL-18, and LDH, with IP-10 levels. CONCLUSIONS: CRP, ESR, LDH, IL-18, and IP-10 values were associated with the severity of the disease, manifesting lobar pneumonia or prolonged fever duration prior to admission.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines , Fever , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Macrophages , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Necrosis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741869

ABSTRACT

Antiphospholipid antibodies may be produced in cases involving autoimmune diseases and can sometimes be caused by infections, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. However, antiphospholipid antibodies causing thrombosis associated with M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children have rarely been reported. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with M. pneumoniae pneumonia with antiphospholipid antibodies, complicated by brachial artery thrombosis. He was found to have antiphospholipid antibodies and low protein S levels. The brachial artery thrombus was removed via thrombectomy. The titers of antiphospholipid antibodies turned normal within 5 months. This is a rare case of M. pneumoniae infection with brachial artery thrombosis associated with transient antiphospholipid antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid , Autoimmune Diseases , Brachial Artery , Child , Humans , Male , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Protein S , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741867

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is the most common causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia in school-aged children. An 8-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with autism looked severely ill when he presented to our hospital due to dyspnea and lethargy. He had fever and cough 7 days prior to hospitalization. He had signs and symptoms of severe respiratory distress. The percutaneous oxygen saturation was 88% at high oxygen supply. Chest radiography showed diffusely increased opacity with moderate pleural effusion. He was intubated immediately and admitted to the intensive care unit. Under the clinical impression of mycoplasmal pneumonia, intravenous clarithromycin was started. Laboratory findings showed leukocytosis, hepatitis, decreased renal function, and presence of serum MP immunoglobulin (Ig) M (+) IgG (+) and sputum MP polymerase chain reaction (+). On hospital day 2, the patient developed multiple organ failure with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was performed with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and was weaned successfully. This is the first reported case of an ARDS due to MP infection complicated by multiple organ failure that was successfully treated with ECMO and CRRT in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Child , Clarithromycin , Cough , Dyspnea , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Fever , Hepatitis , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Intensive Care Units , Korea , Lethargy , Leukocytosis , Male , Multiple Organ Failure , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Oxygen , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Radiography , Renal Replacement Therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sputum , Thorax
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