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1.
Infectio ; 25(1): 59-62, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154404

ABSTRACT

Resumen La neumonía en el paciente inmunocomprometido es un reto diagnóstico al cual el clínico se enfrenta cada vez con más frecuencia , al momento de hablar de infiltrados en vidrio esmerilado es menester tener siempre en cuenta la posibilidad de neumonía por Pneumocystis Jirovecii, que por mucho tiempo se pensó como una enfermedad propia del huésped inmunosuprimido con VIH, a través del tiempo se ha manifestado en pacientes con trasplantes de órgano sólido y de precursores hematopoyéticos, asociado a autoinmunidad, al uso crónico de corticoesteroides y más recientemente al uso de terapia biológicas. La descripción de esta enfermedad y sus métodos diagnósticos en huéspedes inmunosuprimidos no VIH no es del todo claro, sabemos que el tratamiento de elección en estos casos es el trimetropin-sulfametoxazol (TMP-SMX) el cual no cuenta con evidencia de alta calidad al momento de plantear una dosis ni un tiempo de duración establecidos. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de glomerulonefritis por enfermedad de cambios mínimos corticodependiente y quien desarrolló neumonía por Pneumocystis Jirovecii confirmada por histopatología quien recibió tratamiento y tuvo un desenlace positivo.


Abstract The pneumonia in the immunocompromised patient is a diagnostic challenge that the clinician faces more and more frequently, every time we talk about ground glass infiltrates it is necessary to always take into account the possibility of pneumonia due to Neumocystis Jirovecii, which for a long time was thought as a disease of the immunosuppressed host with HIV, but that across the time it has manifested itself in patients with solid organ transplants and hematopoietic precursors, associated with autoimmunity, the chronic use of corticosteroids and more recently the use of biological therapy. The description of this disease and the diagnostic methods in non-HIV immunosuppressed hosts is not entirely clear, we know that the treatment of choice in these cases is trimethropin-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), which does not have high-quality evidence at the time of a dose or a time of established duration. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with glomerulonephritis due to corticodependent minimal change disease and who suffers from pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia confirmed by histopathology, which received treatment and had a positive outcome


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Autoimmunity , HIV , Immunocompromised Host , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Glass
3.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 554-556, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287209

ABSTRACT

Resumen El SARS-CoV-2 es el virus causante de la enfermedad COVID-19, desconocida antes del brote que ocurrió en diciembre de 2019 en Wuhan, China, y desencadenó la actual pandemia. Las manifestaciones de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 son muy variables entre los pacientes. Los peores desenlaces se suelen asociar a edad avanzada y factores de riesgo reconocidos. Entre estos sería razonable considerar los distintos tipos de inmunodeficiencia, en particular la producida por HIV. Sin embargo, no existen hasta el momento, estudios que demuestren que la infección HIV empeore la evolución y el pronóstico de COVID-19. La neumonía por el hongo Pneumocystis jirovecii (antes denominado P. carinii) afecta con mayor frecuencia a inmunodeprimidos y puede tener desenlace fatal. Exponemos el caso de una mujer de mediana edad con síndrome de Raynaud que ingresó con neumonía y durante la internación se le diagnosticó infección simultánea por HIV, SARS-CoV-2 y P. jirovecci. Evolucionó de forma favorable con tratamiento empírico sin requerir maniobras invasivas ni soporte ventilatorio, logrando el alta y seguimiento de forma ambulatoria.


Abstract SARS-CoV-2 causes the disease named COVID-19, which emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and developed into the current pandemic. The manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are highly variable. The worst outcomes are usually associated with advanced age and known risk factors. Among these, it would be reasonable to consider conditions compromising the immune system, particularly the immunodeficiency associated to HIV. To date, however, there is no evidence of HIV infection worsening the evolution and prognosis of COVID-19. Pneumocystis jirovecii (previously-P. carinii) pneumonia, is a fungal disease that most commonly affects immunocompromised persons and can be life-threatening. Typically, patients at risk are those with any underlying condition altering host immunity. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with Raynaud's syndrome who was admitted with pneumonia. During hospitalization she was simultaneously diagnosed with infection by HIV, COVID-19 and P. jirovecci. The patient evolved favorably upon empirical treatment without requiring invasive maneuvers or ventilatory support. Outpatient follow-up after hospital discharge was uneventful.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification , Pandemics , Coronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
4.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e512, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149911

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía por Pneumocystis jirovecii (PcP) es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en los pacientes con VIH/sida y provoca una alta morbilidad y mortalidad. La radiología juega un papel fundamental para su diagnóstico presuntivo. Objetivo: Describir los hallazgos radiológicos de neumonía por Pneumocystis jirovecii en una serie de casos de fallecidos cubanos por VIH/sida, y relacionarlos con el estado inmunológico de los pacientes. Métodos: Se realizó el estudio de una serie de 69 fallecidos por sida con PcP en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kourí desde enero de 1996 a enero de 2014. El diagnóstico de la PcP se confirmó por estudios anatomopatológicos mediante la observación de estructuras compatibles con el hongo. Resultados: De los 69 casos del estudio, 57 (82,6 por ciento) presentaron alteraciones en la radiografía de tórax. De ellos, 44 (77,2 por ciento) y 13 (22,8 por ciento) presentaron un patrón radiológico típico y atípico de la PcP, respectivamente. En 12 (17,4 por ciento) fallecidos la radiografía de tórax fue normal. En 76,8 por ciento de los casos se detectó niveles de linfocitos T CD4+ inferior a 200 cél/ 956;L. La relación entre el patrón radiológico y el estado inmunológico de los fallecidos analizados no fue significativa. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos radiológicos descritos en los fallecidos cubanos por sida con PcP son similares a los informados en la literatura internacional. Sin embargo, el diagnóstico de la PcP no debe excluirse en pacientes con radiografías de tórax normales o con patrones atípicos que presenten un cuadro clínico sugestivo de la enfermedad(AU)


Introduction: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) is one of the most common diseases among HIV / AIDS patients, causing great morbidity and mortality. Radiology plays a fundamental role in its presumptive diagnosis. Objective: Describe the radiological findings of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a series of Cuban deceased HIV / AIDS patients and relate them to the patients' immune status. Methods: A study was conducted of a series of 69 deceased AIDS patients with PcP at Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute from January 1996 to January 2014. PcP diagnosis was confirmed through anatomopathological studies based on observation of structures compatible with the fungus. Results: Of the 69 study cases, 57 (82.6 percent) presented alterations in their chest radiographs. Of these, 44 (77.2 percent) and 13 (22.8 percent) followed a typical and atypical radiological pattern, respectively. In 12 deceased patients (17.4 percent) chest radiography was normal. In 76.8 percent of the cases, levels of T CD4+ lymphocytes were below 200 cell/ml. The relationship between the radiological pattern and the immune status of the deceased patients analyzed was not significant. Conclusions: The radiological findings described for Cuban deceased AIDS patients with PcP are similar to those reported in the international literature. However, PcP diagnosis should not be excluded in patients with normal chest radiographs or atypical patterns who present a clinical status suggestive of the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnostic imaging , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/diagnostic imaging , Case Reports , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Cuba/epidemiology
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879797

ABSTRACT

A boy, aged 6 years and 11 months, was admitted due to nephrotic syndrome for 2 years, cough for 1 month, and shortness of breath for 15 days. The boy had a history of treatment with hormone and immunosuppressant. Chest CT after the onset of cough and shortness of breath showed diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Serum (1, 3)-beta-D glucan was tested positive, and the nucleic acid of cytomegalovirus was detected in respiratory secretions. After the anti-fungal and anti-viral treatment, the child improved temporarily but worsened again within a short period of time.


Subject(s)
Child , Cough/etiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/therapy , Dyspnea/etiology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Male , Nephrotic Syndrome/complications , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy
6.
Infectio ; 23(supl.1): 58-60, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-984509

ABSTRACT

La era del VIH empezó oficialmente el 5 de junio de 1981, cuando el CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) de Estados Unidos convocó una conferencia de prensa donde describieron cinco casos de pacientes adultos que cursaban con neumonía por Pneumocystis carinii, asociado a una disminución marcada de linfocitos CD4 circulantes. Desde ese instante el mundo enfrenta una de las epidemias mas largas, mortales y de difícil control que persiste a pesar de los esfuerzos de la ciencia, la industria farmacéutica, la sociedad y los diferentes entes gubernamentales. Al recorrer los casi 40 años del VIH dentro de la humanidad, hemos vivido múltiples etapas: la presencia de una sociedad señaladora, con capacidad de juzgar desde el desconocimiento; la desafortunada participación de una población infantil afectada, que está padeciendo una enfermedad que no se merece, una economía alrededor de una enfermedad que sigue avanzando de forma arrolladora con estadísticas que revelan que desde su inicio 76.1 millones de personas han adquirido la enfermedad, y aproximadamente 35 millones de personas han muerto por su causa. Por último, los avances científicos agigantados en medicamentos antiretrovirales que intentan ir más adelante que la enfermedad misma.


The era of HIV officially began on June 5, 1981, when the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) of the United States convened a press conference where they described five cases of adult patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, associated with a marked decrease in circulating CD4 lymphocytes. Since then, the world has been facing one of the longest, deadliest and most difficult to control epidemics that persists despite the efforts of science, the pharmaceutical industry, society and the different governmental bodies. As we have gone through almost 40 years of HIV within humanity, we have lived through multiple stages: the presence of a society that points fingers, with the ability to judge from ignorance; the unfortunate participation of an affected child population, who are suffering from a disease that they do not deserve; an economy around a disease that continues to advance in a sweeping manner with statistics that reveal that since its inception 76.1 million people have acquired the disease, and approximately 35 million people have died from it. Finally, the scientific breakthroughs in antiretroviral drugs that attempt to outpace the disease itself.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV , Integrase Inhibitors , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Lymphocytes , CD4 Antigens , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(11): 849-857, Nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056918

ABSTRACT

Infection by Rhodococcus equi is considered one of the major health concerns for foals worldwide. In order to better understand the disease's clinical and pathological features, we studied twenty cases of natural infection by R. equi in foals. These cases are characterized according to their clinical and pathological findings and immunohistochemical aspects. Necropsy, histologic examination, bacterial culture, R. equi and Pneumocystis spp. immunohistochemistry were performed. The foals had a mean age of 60 days and presented respiratory signs (11/20), hyperthermia (10/20), articular swelling (6/20), prostration (4/20), locomotor impairment (3/20) and diarrhea (3/20), among others. The main lesions were of pyogranulomatous pneumonia, seen in 19 foals, accompanied or not by pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis (10/20) and pyogranulomatous and ulcerative enterocolitis (5/20). Pyogranulomatous osteomyelitis was seen in 3 foals, one of which did not have pulmonary involvement. There was lymphoplasmacytic (4/20), lymphoplasmacytic and neutrophilic (1/20) or pyogranulomatous arthritis (1/20), affecting multiple or singular joints. Immunohistochemistry revealed to be a valuable tool for the detection of R. equi, confirming the diagnosis in all cases. Furthermore, pulmonary immunostaining for Pneumocystis spp. demonstrates that a coinfection with R. equi and this fungal agent is a common event in foals, seen in 13 cases.(AU)


Infecção por Rhodococcus equi é considerado um dos maiores problemas sanitários para potros em todo o mundo. Para melhor compreender a apresentação clínica e patológica da enfermidade, foram avaliados vinte casos de infecção natural por R. equi em potros. Os casos são caracterizados de acordo com seus achados clínicos e patológicos e aspectos imuno-histoquímicos. Foram realizados exames de necropsia, histologia, bacteriologia e imuno-histoquímica para R. equi e Pneumocystis spp. Os potros tinham idade media de 60 dias e apresentaram sinais respiratórios (11/20), hipertermia (10/20), aumento de volume articular (6/20), prostração (4/20), distúrbios locomotores (3/20) e diarreia (3/20), entre outros. As lesões mais importantes eram pneumonia piogranulomatosa, vista em 19 potros, acompanhada ou não por linfadenite piogranulomatosa (10/20) e enterocolite ulcerativa (5/20). Osteomielite piogranulomatosa foi constatada em três potros, um dos quais não apresentava envolvimento pulmonar. Artrites afetando uma ou múltiplas articulações eram caracterizadas por infiltrado linfoplasmocítico (4/20), linfoplasmocítico e neutrofílico (1/20) e piogranulomatoso (1/20). A imuno-histoquímica demonstrou ser uma ferramenta valiosa na detecção de R. equi, permitindo confirmar o diagnóstico em todos os casos avaliados. Além disso, a imuno-histoquímica para Pneumocystis spp. demonstra que a coinfecção por R. equi e o agente fúngico é um evento frequente em potros, constatado em 13 casos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/veterinary , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/epidemiology , Actinomycetales Infections/veterinary , Actinomycetales Infections/epidemiology , Rhodococcus equi/isolation & purification , Horse Diseases/microbiology , Horses
9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1368-1380, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760302

ABSTRACT

Lung cysts are commonly seen on computed tomography (CT), and cystic lung diseases show a wide disease spectrum. Thus, correct diagnosis of cystic lung diseases is a challenge for radiologists. As the first diagnostic step, cysts should be distinguished from cavities, bullae, pneumatocele, emphysema, honeycombing, and cystic bronchiectasis. Second, cysts can be categorized as single/localized versus multiple/diffuse. Solitary/localized cysts include incidental cysts and congenital cystic diseases. Multiple/diffuse cysts can be further categorized according to the presence or absence of associated radiologic findings. Multiple/diffuse cysts without associated findings include lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. Multiple/diffuse cysts may be associated with ground-glass opacity or small nodules. Multiple/diffuse cysts with nodules include Langerhans cell histiocytosis, cystic metastasis, and amyloidosis. Multiple/diffuse cysts with ground-glass opacity include pneumocystis pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. This stepwise radiologic diagnostic approach can be helpful in reaching a correct diagnosis for various cystic lung diseases.


Subject(s)
Amyloidosis , Birt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome , Bronchiectasis , Diagnosis , Emphysema , Histiocytosis , Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell , Lung Diseases , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Lymphangioleiomyomatosis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785838

ABSTRACT

Lenvatinib is a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for use in patients with iodine-131–refractory thyroid cancer. The common adverse events of lenvatinib include hypertension, proteinuria, fatigue, and diarrhea. To date, no report on Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients receiving lenvatinib has been published. Here, we present a case of severe PCP that led to the death of a 79-year-old woman who was diagnosed with poorly differentiated thyroid cancer and received lenvatinib. The development of PCP should be considered when patients taking lenvatinib show clinical symptoms of pneumonia, and regular chest X-ray follow-up is needed for patients receiving lenvatinib.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diarrhea , Fatigue , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypertension , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Proteinuria , Thorax , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
11.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2019037-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785750

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To manage evidence-based diseases, it is important to identify the characteristics of patients in each country.METHODS: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study seeks to identify the epidemiological characteristics of 1,442 Korean individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (12% of Korean individuals with HIV infection in 2017) who visited 21 university hospitals nationwide. The descriptive statistics were presented using the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort data (2006-2016).RESULTS: Men accounted for 93.3% of the total number of respondents, and approximately 55.8% of respondents reported having an acute infection symptom. According to the transmission route, infection caused by sexual contact accounted for 94.4%, of which 60.4% were caused by sexual contact with the same sex or both males and females. Participants repeatedly answered the survey to decrease depression and anxiety scores. Of the total participants, 89.1% received antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the initial ART, 95.3% of patients were treated based on the recommendation. The median CD4 T-cell count at the time of diagnosis was 229.5 and improved to 331 after the initial ART. Of the patients, 16.6% and 9.4% had tuberculosis and syphilis, respectively, and 26.7% had pneumocystis pneumonia. In the medical history, sexually transmitted infectious diseases showed the highest prevalence, followed by endocrine diseases. The main reasons for termination were loss to follow-up (29.9%) and withdrawal of consent (18.7%).CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and ART should be performed at an appropriate time to prevent the development of new infection.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Anxiety , Cohort Studies , Communicable Diseases , Depression , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases , Female , Follow-Up Studies , HIV Infections , HIV , Hospitals, University , Humans , Korea , Male , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Syphilis , T-Lymphocytes , Tuberculosis
12.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 13(3): 122-124, sept. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-947642

ABSTRACT

We describe an unusual case of severe pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii in a previously healthy 2-month-old patient who had been hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis.


Se describe un caso inusual de neumonía grave por Pneumocystis jirovecci en un paciente de 2 meses de vida previamente sano, quien había sido hospitalizado por una bronquiolitis por VRS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/therapy , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/microbiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification , Immunocompetence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis is difficult to culture or detect in laboratory environments. Its ecology including the timing and method of transmission as well as environmental sources and communicability remain unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the pattern and treatment outcome of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who received chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 56 patients with ALL were evaluated. While on chemotherapy, all patients received PCP prophylaxis. PCP were found in a total of 6 patients, including definite PCP in 2, probable PCP in 2, and possible PCP in 2 patients. There were no significant differences in sex, age group, National Cancer Institute risk group, or pneumocystis prophylaxis type between PCP and non-PCP groups. However, there was a significant statistical difference in the times of ALL diagnosis. Regarding recent chemotherapy at the time of PCP diagnosis, there were one induction, one consolidation, and four maintenance cases. All PCP patients were treated with high-dose sulfamethoxazole (100 mg/kg/day) and trimethoprim (20 mg/kg/day) intravenously. Five patients survived, while one patient with endotracheal mechanical ventilation therapy died due to respiratory failure in spite of aggressive treatment. CONCLUSION: Pediatric PCP became extremely rare due to routine prophylaxis in clinical practice of pediatric malignancy. Nevertheless, we analyzed patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had received PCP prophylaxis for 14 years, and analyzed the clustered outbreaks of PCP. It is still important to emphasize the need for prophylaxis and to increase the level of attention and isolation under environmental and personal risk factors.


Subject(s)
Child , Compliance , Diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Therapy , Ecology , Humans , Methods , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sulfamethoxazole , Treatment Outcome , Trimethoprim
14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 350-356, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722310

ABSTRACT

In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is one of the most difficult IRIS types to manage. We report an unusual case of MAC-associated IRIS. At first the patient was diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after he was admitted with pneumocystis pneumonia. After starting antiretroviral therapy he presented unmasked IRIS with MAC infection. Next, he was hospitalized with continuous loose stools and new-onset fever. Investigation included computed tomography (CT), which showed homogeneous enhancement and enlargement of the lymph nodes (LN), elevation of ferritin (>1,650 ng/mL) and lactate dehydrogenase (306 IU/L) levels, and F- fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) scan, which showed increased FDG uptake. These findings were highly indicative of lymphoma. We performed laparoscopic biopsy of the mesenteric LN, and the biopsy culture grew MAC. So we made a diagnosis of MAC-associated. Therefore, IRIS must be considered as a possible diagnosis when AIDS patients develop new symptoms or exhibit exacerbations of existing symptoms. Furthermore the biopsies should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Electrons , Ferritins , Fever , HIV , Humans , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome , Iris , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lymph Nodes , Lymphoma , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis
15.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 350-356, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721805

ABSTRACT

In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is one of the most difficult IRIS types to manage. We report an unusual case of MAC-associated IRIS. At first the patient was diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after he was admitted with pneumocystis pneumonia. After starting antiretroviral therapy he presented unmasked IRIS with MAC infection. Next, he was hospitalized with continuous loose stools and new-onset fever. Investigation included computed tomography (CT), which showed homogeneous enhancement and enlargement of the lymph nodes (LN), elevation of ferritin (>1,650 ng/mL) and lactate dehydrogenase (306 IU/L) levels, and F- fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) scan, which showed increased FDG uptake. These findings were highly indicative of lymphoma. We performed laparoscopic biopsy of the mesenteric LN, and the biopsy culture grew MAC. So we made a diagnosis of MAC-associated. Therefore, IRIS must be considered as a possible diagnosis when AIDS patients develop new symptoms or exhibit exacerbations of existing symptoms. Furthermore the biopsies should be conducted.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Electrons , Ferritins , Fever , HIV , Humans , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome , Iris , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lymph Nodes , Lymphoma , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Mycobacterium avium , Mycobacterium , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis
16.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 571-574, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718858

ABSTRACT

Nivolumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor approved for the treatment of metastatic cancers. Here, we report the case of a 65-year-old male with recurrent renal cell carcinoma. After six cycles of nivolumab treatment, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed to evaluate the response. PET/CT revealed diffuse ground glass opacities in both lungs. He developed a cough, sputum, chills, and a febrile sense. After bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage, pneumocystis pneumonia was finally diagnosed.


Subject(s)
Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Carcinoma, Renal Cell , Chills , Cough , Electrons , Glass , Humans , Lung , Male , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Sputum
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dapsone (diaminodiphenyl sulfone, DDS) is currently used to treat leprosy, malaria, dermatitis herpetiformis, and other diseases. It is also used to treat pneumocystis pneumonia and Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV-positive patients. The most common adverse effect of DDS is methemoglobinemia from oxidative stress. Ascorbic acid is an antioxidant and reducing agent that scavenges the free radicals produced by oxidative stress. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of ascorbic acid in the treatment of DDS induced methemoglobinemia. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: an ascorbic acid group, a methylene blue (MB) group, and a control group. After DDS (40 mg/kg) treatment via oral gavage, ascorbic acid (15 mg/kg), MB (1 mg/kg), or normal saline were administered via tail vein injection. Depending on the duration of the DDS treatment, blood methemoglobin levels, as well as the nitric oxide levels and catalase activity, were measured at 60, 120, or 180 minutes after DDS administration. RESULTS: Methemoglobin concentrations in the ascorbic acid and MB groups were significantly lower compared to those in the control group across multiple time points. The plasma nitric oxide levels and catalase activity were not different among the groups or time points. CONCLUSION: Intravenous ascorbic acid administration is effective in treating DDS-induced methemoglobinemia in a murine model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ascorbic Acid , Catalase , Dapsone , Dermatitis Herpetiformis , Free Radicals , Humans , Leprosy , Malaria , Male , Methemoglobin , Methemoglobinemia , Methylene Blue , Nitric Oxide , Oxidative Stress , Plasma , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tail , Toxoplasmosis , Veins
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(3): 401-403, May-June 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886977

ABSTRACT

Abstract Methotrexate has immunosuppressive effects and is administered for refractory chronic urticaria. We present a case of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in a patient with refractory chronic urticaria managed by low-dose weekly methotrexate treatment (total cumulative dose 195mg). Our study highlights the importance of providing prompt diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with chronic urticaria under methotrexate therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/chemically induced , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Pneumocystis carinii , Dermatologic Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/diagnostic imaging , Urticaria/drug therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Methotrexate/administration & dosage , Chronic Disease , Dermatologic Agents/administration & dosage
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155821

ABSTRACT

Primaquine is often administered for the hypnozoite stage of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. Primaquine (with clindamycin) is also an alternative drug for treatment of pneumocystis pneumonia when trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole cannot be used. Primaquine may cause methemoglobinemia, an altered state of hemoglobin in which the ferrous state of heme is oxidized to the ferric state. We report a case of methemoglobinemia caused by a standard dose of primaquine plus clindamycin in a 27-year-old female recipient of a kidney transplant who was diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Clindamycin , Female , Heme , Humans , Kidney , Methemoglobin , Methemoglobinemia , Plasmodium ovale , Plasmodium vivax , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Primaquine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-138431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pneumocystis jirovecii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be helpful in diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP); however it has limitations. We evaluated the prevalence of positive P. jirovecii PCR from non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunocompromised patients and tried to determine the risk of PCP development. METHODS: Between May 2009 and September 2012, P. jirovecii PCR was performed in bronchoscopic specimens from 1,231 adult non-HIV immunocompromised patients suspected of respiratory infection. Only 169 patients (13.7%) who were tested positive for P. jirovecii PCR were enrolled. Retrospective chart review was performed. PCP was defined in patients with positive P. jirovecii PCR who were treated for PCP based on the clinical decision. RESULTS: From 169 P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients, 90 patients were in the PCP group (53.3%) and 79 patients were in the non-PCP group (46.7%). In the PCP group, 38% of patients expired or aggravated after therapy, whereas the majority of patients (84%) in the non-PCP group recovered without treatment for PCP. Independent risk factors for PCP by binary logistic regression analysis were underlying conditions- hematological malignancies, solid tumors or solid organ transplantation, dyspnea, age < 60 years, and albumin < 2.9 g/dL. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that not all P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients need to be treated for PCP. Among P. jirovecii PCR-positive patients, those who are less than 60 years old, with hematological malignancies, solid tumors or solid organ transplantation, low albumin, and with symptoms of dyspnea, the possibility of PCP might be higher. Treatment should also be selected to these patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Dyspnea , Hematologic Neoplasms , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Logistic Models , Organ Transplantation , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumocystis , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transplants
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