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1.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eRW5772, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154099

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ground-glass opacity is a very frequent and unspecified finding in chest computed tomography. Therefore, it admits a wide range of differential diagnoses in the acute context, from viral pneumonias such as influenza virus, coronavirus disease 2019 and cytomegalovirus and even non-infectious lesions, such as vaping, pulmonary infarction, alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary edema. For this diagnostic differentiation, ground glass must be correlated with other findings in imaging tests, with laboratory tests and with the patients' clinical condition. In the context of a pandemic, it is extremely important to remember the other pathologies with similar findings to coronavirus disease 2019 in the imaging exams.


RESUMO A opacidade em vidro fosco é uma alteração muito frequente e pouco específica na tomografia computadorizada de tórax. Ela admite grande leque de diagnósticos diferenciais no contexto agudo, desde pneumonias virais, como as causadas pelo vírus influenza, pela doença do coronavírus 2019 e pelo citomegalovírus, até mesmo lesões de origem não infecciosa, como vaping , infarto pulmonar, hemorragia alveolar e edema pulmonar. Para essa diferenciação diagnóstica, deve-se correlacionar o vidro fosco com os demais achados nos exames de imagem, exames laboratoriais e quadro clínico do paciente. É de suma importância, no contexto de pandemia, recordar as demais patologias com os achados semelhantes aos da doença do coronavírus 2019 nos exames de imagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/classification , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cytomegalovirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1580-1585, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134482

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Los pulmones son el sitio predominante en la infección por COVID-19. Esta puede conducir al síndrome distrés respiratorio agudo (SDRA). Frente a su sintomatología severa, la ventilación mecánica (VM), y sus valores de mecánica ventilatoria aparecen como una herramienta fundamental. Un complemento, para analizar el estado de avance de esta patología es la radiografía de tórax (RT), aunque en ocasiones esta depende de la experiencia del equipo de salud. Así el objetivo de esta investigación fue explorar la relación de las medidas de mecánica ventilatoria y radiográficas con el tiempo de conexión a VM en pacientes COVID-19. Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó a 23 pacientes en VM. Se recolectó información de variables de mecánica ventilatoria; PEEP, presión plateau, presión de distensión y compliance estática. Desde la RT se midió, altura y ancho pulmonar, ángulo costodiafragmático y espacio intercostal. Los resultados indicaron que las variables de mecánica ventilatoria tales como el PEEP y el plateau se relacionaron significativamente con el tiempo de conexión a VM (r=0,449; p=0,035 y r=0,472; p=0,026), mientras que las variables radiográficas construidas en base al ángulo costodiafragmático y el espacio intercostal presentaron similares comportamientos (r= 0,462; p=0,046 y r=-0,543; p=0,009). En conclusión, la presión resultante de la programación del ventilador mecánico junto a cambios estructurales observados en la RT, se relacionan con el tiempo de conexión a VM.


SUMMARY: The lungs are the predominant site of COVID-19 infection. This can lead to severe acute respiratory síndrome (ARDS). In view of its severe symptoms, mechanical ventilation (MV) and its ventilatory mechanics values appear as a fundamental tool. Chest radiography (CR) is a complement to analyze the state of progress of this pathology, although this sometimes depends on the experience of the health team. Thus, the aim of this research was to explore the relationship of ventilatory mechanics and radiographic measures with connection time to MV in COVID-19 patients. Retrospective study, which included 23 patients on MV. Information on ventilatory mechanics variables was collected; PEEP, plateau pressure, distension pressure and static compliance. And from CR, lung height and width, costodiaphragmatic angle and intercostal space were measured. The results indicated that ventilatory mechanics variables such as PEEP and plateau were significantly related to connection time to MV (r = 0.449; p = 0.035 and r = 0.472; p = 0.026), while the radiographic variables Constructed on the basis of the costodiaphragmatic angle and the intercostal space, they showed similar behaviors (r = 0.462; p = 0.046 and r = -0.543; p = 0.009). In conclusion, the pressure resulting from mechanical ventilator programming, together with the structural changes observed in CR, are related to the connection time to MV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial , Radiography, Thoracic , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pressure , Time Factors , Retrospective Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration
5.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 144-150, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129376

ABSTRACT

El cuadro clínico de la enfermedad conocida como COVID-19, causada por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 puede variar desde síntomas respiratorios leves hasta una insuficiencia respiratoria severa. Sus efectos en el organismo, especialmente la afección pulmonar, pueden ser visualizados a través de los estudios por imágenes. Si bien el diagnóstico de certeza se confirma mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa reversa (RT-PCR), los estudios por imágenes, especialmente la radiografía y la tomografía computarizada (TC) de tórax, desempeñan un papel fundamental en el manejo clínico de estos pacientes. Conocer su utilidad, casos de uso y hallazgos esperables brinda herramientas para el equipo de salud, temas que serán abordados en esta actualización y guía práctica. (AU)


The clinical pattern of the disease known as COVID-19, caused by the new coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 can range from mild respiratory symptoms to severe respiratory failure. Its effects on the body, especially the lung condition, can be visualized through imaging studies. While the diagnosis of certainty is confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), imaging studies, especially chest xray and computed tomography (CT), play a critical role in the clinical management of these patients. Knowing their usefulness, use cases, and expected findings provides tools for the health care team, topics that will be addressed in this update, and practical guide. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ultrasonography/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus
6.
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(3): 108-128, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282578

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: en el mismo año en que se declara Año Internacional de la Enfermería y Partería, la inesperada aparición del nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2,dio un giro a lo que se tenía planeado dentro de los programas de salud a nivel mundial y deja en evidencia las debilidades de los sistemas sanitarios, donde el continente más afectado por dicho virus fue América, ya que sus esfuerzos por contener la pandemia fueron insuficientes, el tiempo de reacción para establecer protocolos de salud fue tardío y la disponibilidad para dotar al personal de salud de equipos de protección fue mínimo, y aun así el accionar del personal sanitario en especial de enfermería. OBJETIVO: describir la situación de enfermería en América, frente a la pandemia Covid-19. METODOLOGÍA: la investigación se realizó mediante un diseño narrativo, de carácter documental, analítico de enfoque cualitativo y método inductivo; obteniendo la información de fuentes secundarias confiables. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: la actual pandemia demuestra la importancia de disponer de profesionales de salud en un número adecuado según las necesidades y cuidados que requiere cada paciente; es por esta razón que se precisa que los países inviertan en mejorar las condiciones de trabajo de los profesionales de enfermería, que incluyan equipos de protección individual, apoyo al trabajo en equipo y educación continua en enfermería, lo cual llevará a importantes logros, evidenciando el profesionalismo de enfermería y su entrega absoluta, al aplicar sus cuatro roles fundamentales con el fin de proteger la salud y mejorar la vida de las personas, a pesar de los evidentes riesgos reales y potenciales a los que se enfrentan a nivel laboral.


INTRODUCTION: in the same year in which the International Year of Nursing and Midwifery is declared, the unexpected appearance of the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, gave a turn to what was planned within health programs worldwide and leaves in evidence the weaknesses of the health systems, where the continent most affected by this virus was America, since their efforts to contain the pandemic were insufficient, the reaction time to establish health protocols was late and the availability to provide staff with The health ofprotective equipment was minimal, and even so, the actions of health personnel, especially nursing personnel. OBJECTIVE: to describe the nursing situation in America, in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: the research was carried out through a narrative, documentary, analytical design with a qualitative approach and an inductive method; obtaining the information from reliable secondary sources. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: the current pandemic shows the importance of having adequate numbers of health professionals according to the needs and care that each patient requires; It is for this reason that it is necessary for countries to invest in improving the working conditions of nursing professionals, which include individual protection equipment, support for teamwork and continuing education in nursing, which will lead to important achievements, evidencing the Nursing professionalism and its absolute dedication, by applying its four fundamental roles in order to protect health and improve people's lives, despite the obvious real and potential risks they face at the work level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Americas/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Nurse's Role , Ecuador/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care Nursing , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging
9.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(2): 46-51, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126193

ABSTRACT

Resumen: La llegada de la pandemia COVID-19 originada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 ha requerido de una rápida respuesta de múltiples especialidades médicas, incluída la Imagenología. El Ultrasonido pulmonar es una técnica que previamente ha demostrado utilidad en otras patologías pulmonares, la cual ofrece alta disponibilidad, bajo costo, ausencia de radiaciones ionizantes y la posibilidad de evaluar al paciente in situ. En algunos de los países afectados más temprana e intensamente por la pandemia, como China e Italia, se ha utilizado como estudio imagenológico complementario para evaluación y seguimiento de los pacientes afectados por esta patología. Para obtener un resultado satisfactorio es necesario seleccionar el equipamiento, protección, desinfección y protocolo adecuados. Los hallazgos ecográficos descritos hasta el momento en la literatura son de carácter inespecífico, pero su combinación y distribución anatómica en un contexto clínico y epidemiológico compatible, los hacen sugerentes de esta enfermedad y permiten evaluar en forma seriada la evolución del cuadro. La literatura disponible es incipiente y es necesaria la generación de más evidencia para cuantificar adecuadamente el aporte de esta modalidad de estudio en los pacientes con COVID-19.


Abstract: The arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic originated by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has required a quick response by multiple medical specialties, including Imaging. Lung Ultrasound is an exam that has previously demonstrated its utility in other lung diseases, with high availability, low cost, absence of ionizing radiation and the possibility to have a bed-side assessment. In some of the countries that experienced earlier and more intense effects of the pandemic, as China and Italy, it has been used as an imaging modality for evaluation and follow-up for COVID-19 patients. In order to achieve a satisfactory result, adequate equipment, protection, disinfection and protocol must be chosen. The US findings described so far in the literature are nonspecific, but their combination and anatomical distribution in a compatible clinical and epidemiologic context, made them highly suggestive of this disease and allow for a serial follow-up. The current literature is scarce and more evidence is needed to truly estimate the usefulness of this imaging modality in the evaluation of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics
11.
Brasília, DF; OPAS; 11 Jun. 2020. 42 p. ilus. (OPAS-W/BRA/COVID-19/20-079).
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BIGG | ID: biblio-1147331

ABSTRACT

Desde sua identificação na China em dezembro de 2019, o novo coronavírus responsável pela COVID-19 evoluiu rapidamente para uma pandemia. A COVID-19 se manifesta com sintomas respiratórios inespecíficos de gravidade variável e pode exigir suporte respiratório avançado. Atualmente, o diagnóstico de COVID- 19 é confirmado por testes laboratoriais através da identificação de RNA viral na reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcriptase reversa (RT-PCR). Os exames de imagem de tórax foram considerados como parte da investigação diagnóstica de pacientes com suspeita ou probabilidade de COVID-19, nos lugares em que a RT-PCR não está disponível ou em que os resultados demoram ou são inicialmente negativos na presença de sintomas sugestivos de COVID-19. Os exames de imagem também foram considerados na complementação da avaliação clínica e dos parâmetros laboratoriais no tratamento de pacientes já diagnosticados com COVID-19. Antes de iniciar o desenvolvimento deste guia, vários estados-membros solicitaram um parecer da OMS sobre o papel dos exames de imagem do tórax em pacientes com suspeita ou confirmação de COVID-19. Uma revisão das práticas de exames de imagem em pacientes com suspeita ou confirmação de COVID-19 em todo o mundo encontrou grandes variações. Isso motivou o desenvolvimento de diretrizes globais sobre o uso de exames de imagem de tórax para apoiar os estados membros na resposta à pandemia da COVID-19. Este guia de aconselhamento rápido examina as evidências e faz recomendações para o uso de exames de imagem do tórax em pacientes agudos com suspeita, probabilidade ou confirmação de COVID-19, incluindo radiografia de tórax, tomografia computadorizada (TC) e ultrassonografia pulmonar. Destina-se a ser um guia prático para os profissionais de saúde envolvidos na evolução da atenção à COVID-19, desde o momento de chegada a um estabelecimento de saúde até a alta hospitalar. A orientação é relevante para pacientes com diferentes níveis de gravidade da doença, desde indivíduos assintomáticos a pacientes críticos...


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification
14.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(2): 330-338, mayo 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099679

ABSTRACT

The CoVID-19 pandemic has impacted in a lesser extent and intensity to patients younger than 15 years. The role of different imaging studies of lung involvement has been extensively addressed, from the first cases of severe pneumonia and respiratory distress syndrome in adults. There are fewer reports of the comparative usefulness of conventional radiology, ultrasound, and computed axial tomography in children. Of those, ground glass opacities, crazy paving pattern and surrounding halo consolidation are the most characteristic. Even though none of them allows diagnostic confirmation, their correct interpretation helps in decision flows. Computed axial tomography is more accurate for defining the type and extent of lung parenchymal involvement. The role of the ultrasound in early stages in the emergency department is clearer in adults than in children, in whom there is a good correlation with chest tomography. This article addresses the different radiological patterns, their pathophysiological representation and differential diagnoses, in order to alert pediatricians of their interpretation, as well as the potential role of imaging diagnoses most frequently used in children with low acute respiratory infection.


La pandemia CoVID-19 ha impactado en una proporción e intensidad menor a los pacientes menores de 15 años. El rol de los diferentes estudios por imágenes del compromiso pulmonar ha sido extensamente abordado, desde los primeros casos de neumonías graves y síndrome de distrés respiratorio en adultos. En niños existen menos reportes de la utilidad de la radiología convencional, ecografía y tomografía axial computarizada. Sin embargo, los patrones más característicos observados en adultos se repiten en los niños. De ellos, el vidrio esmerilado, el patrón en empedrado y la consolidación con halo circundante son los más característicos. Aun cuando ninguno de ellos permite confirmación diagnóstica, su correcta interpretación ayuda en los flujos de decisiones. La tomografía axial computarizada es más certera para la definición de tipo y extensión del compromiso parenquimatoso pulmonar. El rol en los estadios tempranos en el servicio de urgencia de la ecografía es más claro en adultos que en niños, donde existe buena correlación con la tomografía de tórax. Este artículo aborda los diferentes patrones radiológicos, su representación fisiopatológica y diagnósticos diferenciales, con el objeto de apoyar a los pediatras en su interpretación, como también reconocer el rol de las técnicas de imágenes diagnósticas más frecuentemente utilizadas en niños con infección respiratoria aguda baja.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Pandemics
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200405, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136882

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to retrospectively review chest computed tomography (CT) findings in a Brazilian cohort of patients with pneumonia caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Chest CT scans of 78 patients with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19), obtained in March and April 2020, were reviewed. Of 78 cases, the CT scans of 48 (61.5%) showed lung opacities. CT opacity features, their distribution, and the extent of infiltration were evaluated. RESULTS: The most common CT findings were ground-glass opacities (97.9%), crazy-paving pattern (58.3%), and mixed pattern (18.8%). Rounded lung opacities were observed most frequently (70.8%). Other findings were cystic airspace changes (37.5%), vascular dilatation (35.4%), and the organizing pneumonia pattern (14.6%). The findings were frequently bilateral (87.5%), symmetrical (68.9%), and peripheral (60.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The most common CT findings were ground-glass opacities and the crazy-paving pattern. Involvement was mostly bilateral, symmetrical, and peripheral. Round opacity morphology was frequently observed and might have some degree of specificity to viral COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Lung/virology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200227, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136858

ABSTRACT

Abstract The novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) outbreak occurred in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. Here, we report the clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for a case of severe NCP. The patient was started on glucocorticoids and non-invasive ventilator treatment. After treatment, the patient's symptoms improved, and the status was confirmed as NCP negative. Our results may provide clues for the treatment of NCP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Pandemics , Noninvasive Ventilation , Middle Aged
20.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(supl.1): 15-18, may. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152837

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por SARS-CoV-2 tiene como manifestación clínica la enfermedad conocida como COVID-19. Si bien el conocimiento de la naturaleza de la enfermedad es dinámico, publicándose cada día decenas de artículos científicos sobre nuevas características de COVID-19, la presentación típica es la de neumonía intersticial. A pesar de la gran cantidad de información que se ha desarrollado en las últimas semanas, se ha estimado que esta enfermedad puede llegar a tener hasta un 72% de infradiagnóstico, por lo que se requieren herramientas clínicas que sean simples, de fácil acceso, que incrementen la detección de casos de forma factible y que arrojen información con valor pronóstico. Ante esta necesidad, han surgido algunas propuestas para poder realizar el diagnóstico, seguimiento y respuesta al tratamiento de los pacientes con COVID-19, tales como el ultrasonido pulmonar (USP). Cabe mencionar que el USP ha probado ser una técnica eficiente y de fácil reproducibilidad para diagnosticar insuficiencia cardiaca y patologías pleuro-pulmonares, sobre todo en pacientes críticamente enfermos. La evidencia de la utilidad de USP en COVID-19 es aún escasa, aunque de forma preliminar, parece ser una técnica sensible cuyos hallazgos tienen una elevada gold-standard. En esta breve revisión haremos énfasis en sus aspectos técnicos, las ventajas y desventajas, y por último una propuesta para el abordaje en este tipo de pacientes.


Abstract The SARS-CoV-2 infection has as a clinical manifestation the disease known as COVID-19. Although knowledge of the nature of the disease is dynamic, with dozens of scientific articles being published every day about new features of COVID-19, the typical presentation is that of interstitial pneumonia. Despite the large amount of information that has been developed in recent weeks, it has been estimated that this disease can have up to 72% underdiagnosis, which requires clinical tools that are simple, easily accessible, and increase the detection of cases in a feasible way and that yield information with prognostic value. Given this need, some proposals have emerged to be able to diagnose, monitor and respond to the treatment of patients with COVID-19, such as pulmonary ultrasound (USP). It is worth mentioning that the USP has proven to be an efficient and easily reproducible technique for diagnosing heart failure and pleuro-pulmonary pathologies, especially in critically ill patients. Evidence of the usefulness of USP in COVID-19 is still scarce, although preliminary, it seems to be a sensitive technique whose findings have a high gold standard. In this brief review we will emphasize its technical aspects, the advantages and disadvantages, and finally a proposal for the approach in this type of patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography/methods , Critical Illness , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19
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