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2.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 18, 2021. 10 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151148

ABSTRACT

El Centro Panamericano de Fiebre Aftosa y Salud Pública Veterinaria de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (PANAFTOSA-OPS/OMS) y la Protección Animal Mundial (PAM) comunican al público en general los aspectos referentes al COVID-19 y la relación con las mascotas (perros y gatos).


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity
4.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 468-473, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134522

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El 11 de marzo del 2020, la OMS reconoció al COVID-19 como pandemia mundial. El coronavirus (COVID-19) ha desafiado a los sistemas de salud y demanda una rápida reacción de respuesta, ante el aumento de infectados. El ámbito del trabajo odontológico, está sujeto a un riesgo significativo de contaminación cruzada y difusión de esta enfermedad, siendo muy importante las estrictas medidas de protección. El objetivo de esta revisión es informar sobre las medidas que se deben realizar durante los tratamientos dentro del consultorio dental para prevenir la propagación del COVID-19.


ABSTRACT: On March 11, 2020, the WHO recognized COVID-19 as a global pandemic. The coronavirus (COVID-19) has challenged health systems and demands a quick response reaction, due to the increase in infected people. The field of dental work is subject to a significant risk of cross contamination and spread of this disease, with strict protection measures being very important. The aim of this review is to inform about the measures that must be carried out during treatments in the dental office to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Dental Care , Infection Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Dental Offices/standards
5.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 474-480, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134523

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La nueva enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es la última patología de preocupación internacional. Originada en Wuhan, China, se extendió rápidamente a nivel mundial, razón por la cual fue declarada una emergencia de salud pública. Sus síntomas principales son fiebre, tos, dolor de garganta, dificultad respiratoria, fatiga, malestar general y la anosmia, que ha sido incorporada recientemente. Sin embargo, también se han descrito múltiples casos asintomáticos que han alarmado a la población general. Esta enfermedad, se caracteriza por su alta tasa de contagio y su mecanismo de propagación es el contacto cercano entre personas y a través de fluidos corporales como la saliva y secreciones de las vías aéreas. El personal de salud es especialmente vulnerable a la infección debido a su gran exposición a las secreciones oronasales de los pacientes, sobre todo, aquellas especialidades médicas y odontológicas cuyo campo de acción se centra en estas áreas, siendo la cirugía oral y maxilofacial una de ellas, teniendo un alto riesgo de transmisión de SARS-CoV-2. Por lo tanto, es fundamental para este personal, seguir protocolos de prevención y control de infecciones, junto con una correcta anamnesis, examen y diagnóstico de los pacientes que permita establecer una priorización en las atenciones quirúrgicas, disminuyendo la propagación del virus. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer las recomendaciones básicas para la priorización de pacientes y el cuidado en los procedimientos quirúrgicos por parte del equipo de cirugía maxilofacial durante la pandemia por COVID-19.


ABSTRACT: The new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the latest pathology of international concern. Originating in Wuhan, China, it spread rapidly worldwide, which is why it was declared a public health emergency. Its main symptoms are fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, fatigue, general discomfort, and anosmia, which has been recently incorporated. However, multiple asymptomatic cases have also been described that have alarmed the general population. This disease is characterized by its high contagion rate and its propagation mechanism is close contact between people and through bodily fluids such as saliva and airway secretions. Health personnel are especially vulnerable to infection due to their high exposure to patients' oronasal secretions, especially those medical and dental specialties whose field of action focuses on these areas, oral and maxillofacial surgery being one of them, having a high risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, it is essential for these personnel to follow infection prevention and control protocols, together with a correct anamnesis, examination, and diagnosis of patients, which allows prioritizing surgical care, reducing the spread of the virus. The objective of this review is to know the basic recommendations for patient prioritization and care in surgical procedures by the maxillofacial surgery team during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surgery, Oral/methods , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Surgery, Oral/classification , Algorithms , Elective Surgical Procedures , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Personal Protective Equipment
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 481-488, dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134524

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por el Coronavirus 2 del Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave (SARS-CoV-2). La mayoría de los pacientes infectados con SARS-CoV-2 tiene una evolución asintomática o leve. Sin embargo, una parte de los infectados presentará un deterioro en su condición de salud, desarrollando una neumonía aguda grave, que puede producir la muerte. Las personas vinculadas a las clínicas odontológicas están en riesgo de infección por SARS-CoV-2, pues la saliva es un importante método de transmisión del virus. Por su naturaleza, la atención odontológica se realiza a corta distancia del paciente, con constante exposición a saliva, sangre y otros fluidos corporales, y es frecuente el manejo de instrumentos cortopunzantes. Por consiguiente, los elementos de protección personal cobran gran importancia y las reglamentaciones de la autoridad sanitaria en el contexto de la pandemia que actualmente se vive deben cumplirse a cabalidad, debido a obligaciones éticas y legales. En esta revisión narrativa se revisa y discute la reglamentación de la autoridad sanitaria que involucra las prestaciones odontológicas en el contexto del COVID-19, cómo se aplicará en las clínicas universitarias y cómo complementar la normativa con la evidencia científica disponible.


ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by Coronavirus 2 of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2). The majority of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have an asymptomatic or mild evolution. However, a part of those infected will present a deterioration in their health condition, developing severe acute pneumonia, which can lead to death. People linked to dental clinics are at risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, since saliva is an important method of transmission of the virus. Due to its nature, dental care is performed at a short distance from the patient, with constant exposure to saliva, blood and other body fluids, and the use of sharp instruments is frequent. Consequently, the elements of personal protection are very important and the regulations of the health authority in the context of the current pandemic must be fully complied with, due to ethical and legalobligations. This narrative review reviews and discusses the regulation of the health authority that involves dental services in the context of COVID-19, how it will be applied in university clinics and how to complement the regulations with the available scientific evidence.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Dental Care/legislation & jurisprudence , Dental Care/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dentistry/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Students, Dental , Universities/standards , Chile , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Dentists , Legislation as Topic
8.
Medwave ; 20(10)18 nov. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145808

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Proporcionar una revisión de la literatura sobre la presencia de SARS-CoV-2 en los fluidos sexuales de pacientes con COVID-19 y su posible transmisión sexual de manera oportuna, rigurosa y continuamente actualizada. Fuentes de datos Realizaremos búsquedas en PubMed / Medline, Embase, Registro Cochrane Central de Ensayos Controlados (CENTRAL), literatura gris y en un repositorio centralizado en L · OVE (Living OVerview of Evidence). L · OVE es una plataforma que mapea las preguntas PICO a la evidencia de la base de datos Epistemonikos. En respuesta a la emergencia de COVID-19, L · OVE se adaptó para ampliar el rango de evidencia que cubre y se personalizó para agrupar todas las pruebas de COVID-19 en un solo lugar. La búsqueda cubrirá el período hasta el día anterior al envío a una revista. Criterios de elegibilidad para la selección de estudios y métodos Adaptamos un protocolo común ya publicado para múltiples revisiones sistemáticas paralelas a las especificidades de esta pregunta. Incluiremos ensayos aleatorios que evalúen la transmisión sexual del virus SARS-CoV-2. Se buscarán ensayos aleatorizados que evalúen la transmisión sexual de otros coronavirus, como MERS-CoV y SARS-CoV, y estudios no aleatorizados en COVID-19 en caso de que no se encuentre evidencia directa de ensayos aleatorizados, o si la evidencia directa proporciona una - o certeza muy baja para resultados críticos. Dos revisores evaluarán de forma independiente la elegibilidad de cada estudio, extraerán datos y evaluarán el riesgo de sesgo. Realizaremos metanálisis de efectos aleatorios y utilizaremos GRADE para evaluar la certeza de la evidencia para cada resultado. Una versión viva basada en la web de esta revisión estará disponible abiertamente durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Lo volveremos a enviar si las conclusiones cambian o hay actualizaciones sustanciales Registro PROSPERO (CRD42020189368).


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Research Design , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S67-S74, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138650

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La reciente pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ha hecho resurgir preocupación sobre la exposición inadvertida del equipo quirúrgico a agentes infecciosos transmisibles por vía aérea durante el acto quirúrgico. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la confección de un sistema de filtrado simple y de bajo costo que permite reducir el riesgo de exposición al virus, particularmente en el proceso de aspiración, recambio y remoción del neumoperitoneo en cirugía laparoscópica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODO: Se diseñó e implementó un circuito cerrado de evacuación y de filtrado del neumoperitoneo en cirugías ginecológicas laparoscópicas en un centro de salud terciario. El circuito incluye un filtro HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) y una trampa de vacío que contiene una solución de inactivación en base a amonio cuaternario o hipoclorito de sodio. RESULTADOS: Desde su implementación se han realizado 17 cirugías laparoscópicas ginecológicas por diversas patologías. Dos de ellas fueron en pacientes Covid-19 (+). A la fecha no se han reportado contagios en el equipo médico que participó en la cirugía. CONCLUSIONES: Es posible implementar un sistema de evacuación del neumoperitoneo en cirugía laparoscópica presumiblemente eficaz en minimizar el riesgo de exposición al virus SARS-COV-2 (Covid-19). Su bajo costo lo hace especialmente recomendable en países en vías de desarrollo.


INTRODUCTION: The recent SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemics has raised concern on the incidental exposition of health team to air transmissible infectious agents during surgeries. The main goal of this work is to communicate a simple and low-cost filtering system allowing to reduce the risk of contagion related to the virus, associated with pneumoperitoneum removal during surgical laparoscopy. METHODS: A closed circuit of gas removal and filtering was developed and implemented in laparoscopic gynecologic procedures at a tertiary teaching hospital. The circuit included an HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filter and a vacuum trap containing an inactivating solution based on quaternary ammonium or sodium hypochlorite. RESULTS: Since its introduction, seventeen laparoscopic surgeries have been carried out for different gynecologic pathologies. Two of them in Covid (+) cases. To date, no contagion has been reported among health teammates participating in these surgeries. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to implement a pneumoperitoneum evacuation system in laparoscopic surgery presumably effective in minimizing the risk of exposure to the SARS-COV-2 virus (Covid-19). Its low cost makes it especially recommended in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumoperitoneum , Security Measures , Sodium Hypochlorite , Laparoscopy/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Low Cost Technology , Ammonium Compounds , Betacoronavirus
10.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S111-S121, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138656

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La Organización Mundial de La Salud ha reportado recientemente que el nuevo foco de la pandemia global de la enfermedad Covid-19 es el continente americano. OBJETIVO: Realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre la experiencia internacional de la pandemia Covid 19 y embarazo. MÉTODO: Se realiza una búsqueda de la base de datos PubMed para las palabras clave Pregnancy / Pregnant / Novel Coronavirus / SARS-CoV-2 / Covid-19, desde el 1 de noviembre 2019 hasta el 21 de mayo 2020. RESULTADOS: Un total de 365 artículos fueron inicialmente seleccionados de acuerdo con la estrategia de búsqueda diseñada. El total de artículos revisados de acuerdo con los criterios fueron 42. Las series clínicas seleccionadas acumularon un total de 1098 embarazadas y enfermedad de Covid-19. Las co-morbilidades mas frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, obesidad y asma. La mortalidad en relación con el total de pacientes fue de un 1,2 % y la transmisión al recién nacido de 1,7% (15 de 875). CONCLUSIÓN: La información obtenida permite inferir que la presentación clínica de la enfermedad es a lo menos equivalente a la de mujeres de la misma edad no embarazadas. Dada la severidad de la enfermedad por SARS-CoV-2 reportada, las lecciones aprendidas deben ser rápidamente asimiladas y utilizadas en el contexto de la situación nacional epidémica.


INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization has recently reported that the new focus of the global pandemic of Covid-19 disease is the American continent. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on the international experience of the Covid 19 pandemic and pregnancy. METHOD: A PubMed database search is performed for the keywords Pregnancy / Pregnant / Novel Coronavirus / SARS-CoV-2 / Covid-19, from November 1, 2019 to May 21, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 365 articles were initially selected according to the designed search strategy. The total of articles reviewed according to the criteria was 42. The selected clinical series accumulated a total of 1098 pregnant women and Covid-19 disease. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and asthma. Mortality in relation to the total number of patients was 1.2% and transmission to the newborn was 1.7% (15 of 875). CONCLUSION: The information obtained allows us to infer that the clinical presentation of the disease is at least equivalent to that of non-pregnant women of the same age. Given the severity of the reported SARS-CoV-2 disease, the lessons learned must be quickly assimilated and used in the context of the national epidemic situation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Comorbidity , Maternal Mortality , Global Health , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics
11.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(supl.1): S131-S147, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138658

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO Una enfermedad nueva, COVID-19, está afectando dramáticamente al mundo. Conocer los riesgos para la salud reproductiva es un imperativo para la práctica obstétrica y ginecológica. Esta investigación analiza los riesgos maternos y perinatales asociados a COVID-19, con el objetivo de identificar desafíos que la enfermedad plantea a la práctica de la matronería. MÉTODOS Revisión narrativa. Se consultaron artículos científicos de fuentes primarias indexados en las bases Scielo, Pubmed, Scope, WOS, mediante los siguientes términos de búsqueda: "embarazo" "transmisión vertical" "salud materna y perinatal", "riesgos maternos y perinatales" "lactancia materna", COVID-19", "Coronavirus". Se realizaron 3 fases de selección. Los tópicos de análisis fueron: Transmisión vertical, Riesgo materno y perinatal, Lactancia materna. RESULTADOS. En mujeres embarazadas las formas severas de COVID-19 se presentan en presencia de enfermedades crónicas. A nivel perinatal el riesgo mayor es el parto prematuro, generalmente por indicación médica y por cesárea. Aunque no hay evidencias de transmisión vertical, tampoco puede descartarse. Los riesgos neonatales se relacionan con el contagio por proximidad y con medidas restrictivas que pueden afectar la lactancia materna y la interacción madre-hija(o). CONCLUSIONES. La COVID-19 aporta varios desafíos para la práctica de la matronería: implementación de métodos de prevención del contagio a la gestante y a su entorno cercano; adecuación de la preparación al parto en caso de positividad; prevención del estrés y desgaste emocional materno desde el inicio de la gestación hasta el postparto; adecuación de cuidados al recién nacido; investigación aplicada en Latinoamérica, y evaluación de nuevos protocolos.


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE A new disease, COVID-19, is dramatically affecting the world. Knowing the risks for the reproductive health is an imperative for the obstetric and gynecological practice. This research analyzes the maternal and perinatal risks associated with COVID-19, with the aim of identifying challenges that the disease poses to the practice of midwifery. METHODS Narrative review. Scientific articles from primary sources indexed in Scielo, Pubmed, Scope, and WOS, are consulted by using the following search terms: "pregnancy" "vertical transmission" "maternal and perinatal health", "maternal and perinatal risks" "breastfeeding", COVID-19", "Coronavirus". Three selection phases were carried out. The topics of analysis were vertical transmission, maternal and perinatal risk, breastfeeding. RESULTS In pregnant women severe forms of COVID-19 occur in the presence of chronic diseases. At the perinatal level, the biggest risk is premature delivery, generally for medical indications and by cesarean section. Although there is no evidence of vertical transmission, it cannot be ruled out either. Neonatal risks are related to transmission by proximity and restrictive measures that may affect breastfeeding and mother-child interaction. CONCLUSIONS COVID-19 brings several challenges to the practice of midwifery: implementation of methods to prevent infection of the pregnant woman and her close environment; adaptation of birth preparation in case of positivity; prevention of maternal stress and emotional distress from the beginning of pregnancy to postpartum; adequacy of care for the newborn; research in Latin America, and evaluation of new protocols.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Betacoronavirus , Breast Feeding , Risk Assessment , Pandemics , Midwifery
12.
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(3): 83-93, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282060

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el COVID-19 es una afección ocasionada por el SARS COV2 que ha tenido grandes repercusiones en la salud de la población a nivel mundial, principalmente en la población vulnerable, entre los cuales se encuentra el personal de salud, ya que están en la primera línea de atención en las unidades de salud, es por ello que se ven en la necesidad del uso del equipo de protección personal para disminuir el nivel de riesgo de contagio. OBJETIVO: identificar los elementos de protección y el nivel de contagio de COVID-19 en el personal de Salud que labor en los Hospitales Ecuatorianos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: el actual estudio es de alcance descriptivo, enfoque cuantitativo, en un periodo de tiempo determinado, con una muestra del estudio de 218 trabajadores entre médicos, enfermeros y auxiliares a los cuales se les aplico la encuesta virtual. RESULTADOS: el 95.9% recibió mascarilla N95,76.6 % overol, 87.2%zapatones, 86.2 % las gafas, 91.7 % gorro, 93,1% guantes y 56,9% protector facial, el 96.3 % menciona que ha recibido capacitación sobre el uso de Equipo de Protección Personal (EPP) por parte de la institución, el 76.6 %del personal refieren haber presentado signos y síntomas de COVID-19, el 63.1 % de los resultados de prueba rápida fue positivos y la prueba de hisopado nasofaríngeo el 32,7 % tuvieron un resultaron positivo y 45,7% aún se encuentran en espera de los resultados. CONCLUSIONES: los elementos de protección que recibieron por parte de la Institución, en la pandemia de COVID-19 fueron: mascarilla N95, overol, zapatones, gafas, protector facial, gorro y guantes para la atención de los pacientes en el área hospitalaria, además de obtener capacitaciones acerca del uso correcto del EPP. Sin embargo, el nivel de contagio es elevado según las pruebas positivas rápidas e hisopado nasofaríngeo.


INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a condition caused by SARS COV2 that has had great repercussions on the health of the population worldwide, mainly on the vulnerable population, among which are health personnel, since they are on the front line. Care in health units, that is why they are in need of the use of personal protective equipment to reduce the level of risk of infection. OBJECTIVE: to identify the protection elements and the level of contagion of COVID-19 in the Health personnel who work at the Ecuadorians Hospitals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the current study is descriptive in scope, quantitative approach, in a given period of time, with a sample of the study of 218 workers including doctors, nurses and assistants to whom the virtual survey was applied. RESULTS: 95.9% received N95 mask, 76.6% overalls, 87.2% sneakers, 86.2% glasses, 91.7% hat, 93.1% gloves and 56.9% face protector, 96.3% mention that they have received training on the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) by the institution, 76.6% of the staff report having presented signs and symptoms of COVID-19, 63.1% of the rapid test results were positive and the nasopharyngeal swab test was 32, 7% had a positive result and 45.7% are still awaiting the results. CONCLUSIONS: the protection elements received by the Institution in the COVID-19 pandemic were: N95 mask, overalls, shoes, glasses, face shield, hat and gloves for patient care in the hospital area, in addition to obtain training on the correct use o PPE. However, the level of infection is high according to rapid positive tests and nasopharyngeal swab.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ecuador/epidemiology , Equipment and Supplies, Hospital/virology , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(9): 562-568, Sept. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The present comprehensive review aims to show the full extent of what is known to date and provide a more thorough view on the effects of SARS-CoV2 in pregnancy. Methods Between March 29 and May, 2020, the words COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID- 19 and pregnancy, SARS-CoV2 and pregnancy, and SARS and pregnancy were searched in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases; the guidelines from well-known societies and institutions (Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists [RCOG], American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists [ACOG], International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology [ISUOG], Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO]) were also included. Conclusion The COVID-19 outbreak resulted in a pandemic with > 3.3 million cases and 230 thousand deaths until May 2nd. It is caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus and may lead to severe pulmonary infection and multi-organ failure. Past experiences show that unique characteristics in pregnancy make pregnant women more susceptible to complications from viral infections. Yet, this has not been reported with this new virus. There are risk factors that seem to increase morbidity in pregnancy, such as obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 35), asthma and cardiovascular disease. Current reports describe an increased rate of pretermbirth and C-section. Vertical transmission


Resumo Objetivo A presente revisão detalhada busca fornecer dados objetivos para avaliar o que se sabe até o momento e possibilitar uma visãomais ampla dos efeitos do SARSCoV2 na gravidez. Métodos Entre 29 demarço e 2 de maio de 2020, foi realizada uma busca nos bancos de dados PubMed e Google Scholar com as palavras COVID-19, SARS-CoV2, COVID-19 e gravidez, SARS-CoV2 e gravidez, e SARS e gravidez. As recomendações dos principais órgãos sobre o tema também foram acessadas. Conclusão O surto de COVID-19 resultou em uma pandemia com> 3.3 milhões de casos e 230 mil mortes até 2 de maio. É uma condição causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV2 e pode levar ao acometimento pulmonar difuso e à falência de múltiplos órgãos. Características únicas da gestante tornam essa população mais propensas a complicações de infecções virais. Até o momento, essa tendência não foi observada para esse novo vírus. Os fatores que parecem estar associados à maior morbidade materno-fetal são obesidade (índice demassa corporal [IMC] > 35), asma e doença cardiovascular. Há descrição de aumento de parto prematuro e parto cesáreo. Não se pode descartar a possibilidade de transmissão vertical da doença, devido a relatos de positividade de reação em cadeia de polimerase (RT-PCR) de swab nasal, RT-PCR de líquido amniótico e imunoglobulina M (IgM) de recém-nascidos. Tratamentos devem ser analisados caso a caso, dada a falta de qualidade de estudos que comprovem a sua eficácia e segurança na gravidez. O corpo clínico deve utilizar equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) ao manusear pacientes suspeitos ou confirmados e ficar atento aos sinais de descompensação respiratória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Global Health , Risk Factors , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Perinatal Care/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
15.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 336-344, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1139699

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection has high transmissibility and several measures have been adopted for controlling its dissemination. OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) regarding measures for controlling the dissemination of COVID-19 infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: This review of Cochrane SRs was carried out in the Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery and in the Division of Emergency Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A comprehensive search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews retrieved all Cochrane SRs directly related to measures for controlling COVID-19 dissemination. The main characteristics and results of all the SRs included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Three Cochrane SRs were included in the qualitative synthesis. These evaluated population-based and individual measures for controlling the dissemination of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Low-certainty evidence shows that quarantine for people exposed to confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases prevented 44% to 81% of incident cases and 31% to 63% of deaths, compared with situations of no measures. Moreover, the sooner the quarantine measures were implemented, the greater the cost savings were. High-confidence evidence showed that clear communication about infection control and prevention guidelines was vital for successful implementation. Low-certainty evidence showed that healthcare professionals with long gowns were less exposed to contamination than were those using coveralls. In addition, coveralls were more difficult to doff. Further SRs on controlling the dissemination of COVID-19 infection are desirable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Quarantine , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Systematic Reviews as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 512-515, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287204

ABSTRACT

Resumen La novel enfermedad COVID-19 ha tenido una rápida diseminación. Desde China, el virus viajó por todo el mundo. El potencial de la propagación global de COVID-19 fue anticipado y calculado mediante el uso de modelos matemáticos precisos. A estos modelos predictores se puede agregar información obtenida mediante la comparación de mapas gratuitos que representan la propagación internacional de la enfermedad y la densidad de las rutas aerocomerciales. Este análisis proporciona información de lo que parece ser una relación directa entre la distribución mundial inicial desigual de la enfermedad y la densidad del flujo aerocomercial. Esta comparación también puede estar sugiriendo la presencia de centros internacionales de distribución secundaria fuera de China. Con esta información de rápido acceso se puede contribuir a la mejor comprensión del derrame internacional de COVID-19 y orientar los esfuerzos de las políticas de salud para el control de esta y otras enfermedades infecciosas respiratorias agresivas.


Abstract COVID-19 has had a rapid dissemination. Departing from China, the virus has traveled all around the world. With the use of accurate mathematical models, the global spread of the disease was anticipated. Some additional information to these predictive models could be provided by the comparison of freely available maps depicting commercial air travel routes and disease spread. This analysis informs on what seems to be a direct relationship between the initially unequal worldwide distribution of the disease and the density of the commercial air traffic. This comparison may also help to identify international distributional hubs of the disease out of China. The observation of this easily accessible information may contribute to the understanding of COVID-19 spill over and help health control policies to better focus on the spread of this and other aggressively spreading respiratory infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Air Travel , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(supl.1): 215-221, July 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134295

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Known laparoscopic and robotic assisted approaches and techniques for the surgical management of urological malignant and benign diseases are commonly used around the World. During the global pandemic COVID-19, urology surgeons had to reorganize their daily surgical practice. A concern with the use of minimally invasive techniques arose due to a proposed risk of viral transmission of the coronavirus disease with the creation of pneumoperitoneum. Due to this, we reviewed the literature to evaluate the use of laparoscopy and robotics during the pandemic COVID-19. A literature review of viral transmission in surgery and of the available literature regarding the transmission of the COVID-19 virus was performed up to April 30, 2020. We additionally reviewed surgical society guidelines and recommendations regarding surgery during this pandemic. Few studies have been performed on viral transmission during surgery. No study has been made regarding this area during minimally invasive urology cases. To date there is no study that demonstrates or can suggest the ability for a virus to be transmitted during surgical treatment whether open, laparoscopic or robotic. There is no society consensus on restricting laparoscopic or robotic surgery. However, there is expert consensus on modification of standard practices to minimize any risk of transmission. During the pandemic COVID-19 we recommend the use of specific personal protective equipment for the surgeon, anesthesiologist and nursing staff in the operating room. Modifications of standard practices during minimally invasive surgery such as using lowest intra-abdominal pressures possible, controlled smoke evacuation systems, and minimizing energy device usage are recommended.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Urologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Urology/standards , Urology/trends , Laparoscopy/methods , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Pandemics , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Urologists , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Urologic Surgical Procedures/trends , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Workflow , Robotic Surgical Procedures/trends , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
18.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jul. 21, 2020. 5 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1103787

ABSTRACT

El SARS-CoV-2 es un agente patógeno que causa la enfermedad por COVID-19, la cual fue notificada por primera vez en diciembre de 2019. Se cree que el SARS-CoV-2 fue originado de una fuente animal y posteriormente diseminado a la población humana. A pesar de que se han aislado virus genéticamente relacionados en murciélagos Rhinolophus, no se ha establecido el origen exacto de SARS-CoV-2 y la ruta de introducción de este virus a la población humana sigue siendo objeto de investigación.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epidemiological Monitoring/veterinary , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity
19.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(7): 415-419, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137852

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is estimated that around 28 million surgeries will be postponed or canceled worldwide as a result of this pandemic, causing a delay in the diagnosis and treatment of more than 2 million cancer cases. In Brazil, both the National Health Agency (ANS) and National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) advised the postponement of elective and non-essential surgeries, causing a considerable impact on the number of surgical procedures that decreased by 33.4% in this period. However, some women need treatment for various gynecological diseases that cannot be postponed. The purpose of this article is to present recommendations on surgical treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Resumo Estima-se que cerca de 28 milhões de cirurgias sejam postergadas ou canceladas nomundo em decorrência desta pandemia, causando atraso no diagnóstico e tratamento de mais de 2 milhões de casos oncológicos. No Brasil, tanto a ANS (Agencia Nacional de Saúde) comoa ANVISA (Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária) orientaram o adiamento das cirurgias eletivas e não essenciais, tendo um impacto considerável no número de procedimentos cirúrgicos comdiminuição de 33,4% neste período no Brasil.No entanto, algumasmulheres necessitam de tratamento para várias doenças ginecológicas, algumas das quais não podem ser adiadas. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar recomendações sobre o tratamento cirúrgico durante a pandemia de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Patient Care Planning , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
20.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 250-261, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131583

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT To identify and classify available information regarding COVID-19 and eye care according to the level of evidence, within four main topics of interest: evidence of the virus in tears and the ocular surface, infection via the conjunctival route, ocular manifestations, and best practice recommendations. A structured review was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar on COVID-19 and ophthalmology. The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence worksheet was used for quality assessments. 1018 items were identified in the search; 26 records were included in the qualitative synthesis, which encompassed 6 literature reviews, 10 case series or cross-sectional studies, 4 case reports, and 6 intervention descriptions. Seventeen out of 26 records (65%) were categorized as level 5 within the Oxford CBME methodology grading system, the rest were level 4. The evidence generated on COVID-19 and ophthalmology to date is limited, although this is understandable given the circumstances. Both the possible presence of viral particles in tears and conjunctiva, and the potential for conjunctival transmission remain controversial. Ocular manifestations are not frequent and could resemble viral infection of the ocular surface. Most recommendations are based on the strategies implemented by Asian countries during previous coronavirus outbreaks. There is a need for substantive studies evaluating these strategies in the setting of SARS-CoV-2. In the meantime, plans for applying these measures must be implemented with caution, taking into account the context of each individual country, and undergo regular evaluation.


RESUMO Identificar e classificar as informações disponíveis sobre o COVID-19 e o tratamento oftalmológico de acordo com o nível de evidência, dentro de quatro tópicos principais de interesse: evidência do vírus nas lágrimas e na superfície ocular, infecção pela via conjuntival, manifestações oculares e recomendações de melhores práticas. Foi realizada uma revisão estruturada no PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, Biblioteca Cochrane e Google Scholar no COVID-19 e oftalmologia. A planilha de Níveis de Evidência 2011 do Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 foi usada para avaliações de qualidade. Mil e dezoito itens foram identificados na busca; Foram incluídos 26 registros na síntese qualitativa, que incluiu 6 revisões de literatura, 10 séries de casos ou estudos transversais, 4 relatos de casos e 6 descrições de intervenções. Dezessete dos 26 registros (65%) foram classificados como nível 5 no sistema de classificação da metodologia Oxford CBME, o restante foi no nível 4. As evidências geradas no COVID-19 e na oftalmologia até o momento são limitadas, embora isso seja compreensível dadas as circunstâncias. Tanto a possível presença de partículas virais em lágrimas e conjuntiva quanto o potencial de transmissão conjuntival permanecem controversos. As manifestações oculares não são frequentes e podem se assemelhar a infecção viral da superfície ocular. A maioria das recomendações baseia-se nas estratégias implementadas pelos países asiáticos durante surtos anteriores de coronavírus. Há necessidade de estudos aprofundados avaliando essas estratégias no cenário da SARS-CoV-2. Enquanto isso, os planos para a aplicação dessas medidas devem ser implementados com cautela, levando em consideração o contexto de cada país e submetidos a auditorias periódicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Conjunctiva/virology , Eye Diseases/complications , COVID-19 , Ophthalmology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Tears/virology , Review Literature as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Evidence-Based Medicine , Pandemics/prevention & control
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