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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 537-541, nov.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249964

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Existen índices hematológicos que correlacionan la severidad y predicen la mortalidad, principalmente en estados sépticos y de inflamación. Objetivo: Correlacionar los índices neutrófilo/linfocito (INL), plaqueta/linfocito (IPL) e inmunidad/inflamación sistémica (IIIS) con la severidad de COVID-19. Método: Estudio descriptivo, analítico y retrospectivo de pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19, en quienes se analizaron INL, IPL e IIIS. Resultados: Se incluyeron 100 pacientes, 54 hombres y 46 mujeres, con una media de 49.4 ± 19.3 años. Las medias de INL, IPL e IIIS fueron 10.7 ± 10.9, 290.1 ± 229.2 y 2.6 ± 3.4 × 109, respectivamente. En 54 %, la neumonía fue leve y en 46 %, grave. En cuanto a los desenlaces hospitalarios, 75 % egresó por mejoría y 25 % falleció. Las medias de INL, IPL e IIIS de los pacientes que fallecieron versus las de los pacientes que mejoraron fueron 20.4 ± 16.9 versus 7.5 ± 4.9 (p = 0.001), 417.1 ± 379.7 versus 247.7 ± 127.4 (p = 0.038) y 4.8 ± 6.1 versus 1.9 ± 1.2 × 109 (p = 0.030), respectivamente. Conclusión: Los índices hematológicos en pacientes con neumonía por COVID-19 pueden ser empleados como predictores de severidad y pronóstico.


Abstract Introduction: There are hematological parameters that correlate severity and predict mortality mainly in septic and inflammatory states. Objective: To correlate the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) with COVID-19 severity. Method: Descriptive, analytical, retrospective study of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, in which NLR, PLR and SII were analyzed. Results: One-hundred patients were included, 54 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 49.4 ± 19.3 years. NLR, PLR and SII means were 10.7 ± 10.9, 290.1 ± 229.2, and 2.6 ± 3.4 × 109, respectively. In 54 %, pneumonia was mild, and in 46 %, severe. Regarding hospital outcomes, 75 % were discharged due to improvement and 25 % died. NLR, PLR and SII means of the patients who died versus the patients who improved were 20.4 ± 16.9 versus 7.5 ± 4.9 (p = 0.001), 417.1 ± 379.7 versus 247.7 ± 127.4 (p = 0.038) and 4.8 ± 6.1 versus 1.9 ± 1.2 × 109 (p = 0.030), respectively. Conclusion: Hematological parameters can be used in patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia as predictors of severity and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology , Neutrophils/metabolism
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 526-532, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249962

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se informa que la mayoría de los niños afectados por SARS-CoV-2 cursan asintomáticos y que en ellos la mortalidad por COVID-19 es baja; en México se desconoce la información al respecto en este grupo de la población. Objetivo: Evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados a mortalidad en niños mexicanos con COVID-19. Método: Análisis secundario de la base de datos de la Dirección General de Epidemiología. Se incluyeron niños menores de 19 años, en quienes se confirmó SARS-CoV-2 mediante RT-PCR. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1443 niños. La mediana de edad fue de ocho años; 3.3 % ingresó a la unidad de cuidados intensivos, 1.8 % requirió ventilación mecánica asistida y la mortalidad fue de 1.9 %. En los modelos multivariados, el desarrollo de neumonía constituyó el principal factor de riesgo de mortalidad, con razón de momios (RM) de 6.45 (IC 95 % 1.99, 20.89); los pacientes que requirieron intubación tuvieron RM de 8.75 (IC 95 % 3.23, 23.7). Conclusiones: Los niños con COVID 19 tienen alta mortalidad en México, por lo que en ellos se debe procurar evitar la neumonía, especialmente en los menores de cuatro años, con riesgo cardiovascular o inmunosupresión.


Abstract Introduction: Most children affected by SARS-CoV-2 are reported to be asymptomatic, and COVID-19-related mortality in them is low; in Mexico, there is a lack of information on the subject in this population group. Objective: To assess the risk factors associated with mortality in Mexican children with COVID-19. Method: Secondary analysis of the General Directorate of Epidemiology database. Children younger than 19 years, in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by RT-PCR, were included. Results: 1443 children were included. Median age was eight years; 3.3 % were admitted to the intensive care unit, 1.8 % required assisted mechanical ventilation, and mortality was 1.9 %. In multivariate models, the development of pneumonia was the main risk factor for mortality, with an odds ratio (OR) of 6.45 (95 % CI 1.99, 20.89); patients who required intubation had an OR of 8.75 (95 % CI 3.23, 23.7). Conclusions: Children with COVID-19 exhibit high mortality in Mexico, and avoiding pneumonia should therefore be tried in them, especially in children younger than four years with cardiovascular risk or immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Mexico/epidemiology
4.
Salud bienestar colect ; 4(3): 108-128, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282578

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: en el mismo año en que se declara Año Internacional de la Enfermería y Partería, la inesperada aparición del nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2,dio un giro a lo que se tenía planeado dentro de los programas de salud a nivel mundial y deja en evidencia las debilidades de los sistemas sanitarios, donde el continente más afectado por dicho virus fue América, ya que sus esfuerzos por contener la pandemia fueron insuficientes, el tiempo de reacción para establecer protocolos de salud fue tardío y la disponibilidad para dotar al personal de salud de equipos de protección fue mínimo, y aun así el accionar del personal sanitario en especial de enfermería. OBJETIVO: describir la situación de enfermería en América, frente a la pandemia Covid-19. METODOLOGÍA: la investigación se realizó mediante un diseño narrativo, de carácter documental, analítico de enfoque cualitativo y método inductivo; obteniendo la información de fuentes secundarias confiables. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: la actual pandemia demuestra la importancia de disponer de profesionales de salud en un número adecuado según las necesidades y cuidados que requiere cada paciente; es por esta razón que se precisa que los países inviertan en mejorar las condiciones de trabajo de los profesionales de enfermería, que incluyan equipos de protección individual, apoyo al trabajo en equipo y educación continua en enfermería, lo cual llevará a importantes logros, evidenciando el profesionalismo de enfermería y su entrega absoluta, al aplicar sus cuatro roles fundamentales con el fin de proteger la salud y mejorar la vida de las personas, a pesar de los evidentes riesgos reales y potenciales a los que se enfrentan a nivel laboral.


INTRODUCTION: in the same year in which the International Year of Nursing and Midwifery is declared, the unexpected appearance of the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, gave a turn to what was planned within health programs worldwide and leaves in evidence the weaknesses of the health systems, where the continent most affected by this virus was America, since their efforts to contain the pandemic were insufficient, the reaction time to establish health protocols was late and the availability to provide staff with The health ofprotective equipment was minimal, and even so, the actions of health personnel, especially nursing personnel. OBJECTIVE: to describe the nursing situation in America, in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: the research was carried out through a narrative, documentary, analytical design with a qualitative approach and an inductive method; obtaining the information from reliable secondary sources. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: the current pandemic shows the importance of having adequate numbers of health professionals according to the needs and care that each patient requires; It is for this reason that it is necessary for countries to invest in improving the working conditions of nursing professionals, which include individual protection equipment, support for teamwork and continuing education in nursing, which will lead to important achievements, evidencing the Nursing professionalism and its absolute dedication, by applying its four fundamental roles in order to protect health and improve people's lives, despite the obvious real and potential risks they face at the work level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Americas/epidemiology , Radiography, Thoracic , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Nurse's Role , Ecuador/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care Nursing , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging
5.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 324-329, Jul.-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249919

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the efforts to explain COVID-19 pathophysiology, studies are being carried out on the correspondence between the expression of SARS-CoV-2 cell receptors and viral sequences. ACE2, CD147 and TMPRSS2 receptors expression could indicate poorly explored potential infection targets. For the genomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 receptors, using BioGPS information was decided, which is a portal that centralizes genetic annotation resources, in combination with that of The Human Protein Atlas, the largest portal of human transcriptome and proteome data. We also reviewed the most recent articles on the subject. RNA and viral receptor proteins expression was observed in numerous anatomical sites, which partially coincides with the information reported in the literature. High expression in testicular cells markedly stood out, and it would be therefore important ruling out whether this anatomical site is a SARS-CoV-2 reservoir; otherwise, germ cell damage, as it is observed in infections with other RNA viruses, should be determined.


Resumen En el afán por explicar la fisiopatogenia de COVID-19 se están realizando estudios en torno a la correspondencia entre la expresión de receptores celulares de SARS-CoV-2 y las secuencias virales. La expresión de los receptores ACE2, CD147 y TMPRSS2 podría indicar blancos de infección poco explorados. Para el análisis genómico de los receptores de SARS-CoV-2 se optó por utilizar la información del BioGPS, un portal que centraliza los recursos de anotación genética, en combinación con la de The Human Protein Atlas, el portal más grande de datos del transcriptoma y proteoma humanos. También se revisaron los artículos más recientemente respecto al tema. En numerosos sitios anatómicos se observó la expresión de ARN y proteínas de los receptores del virus, que coinciden parcialmente con la información reportada en la literatura. Resaltó la alta expresión en las células de los testículos, por lo que sería importante descartar si este sitio anatómico es un reservorio de SARS-CoV-2; de no ser así, determinar el daño en las células germinales, tal como sucede en infecciones por otros virus ARN.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Testis/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Virus Latency , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Basigin/genetics , Pandemics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
6.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(7): 420-426, July 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137853

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronavirus infection (COVID-19) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020, there have been many concerns about pregnant women and the possible effects of this emergency with catastrophic outcomes inmany countries. Information on COVID-19 and pregnancy are scarce and spread throughout a fewcase series, with no more than 50 cases in total. The present review provides a brief analysis of COVID-19, pregnancy in the COVID-19 era, and the effects of COVID-19 on pregnancy.


Resumo Desde que a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) declarou a infecção por coronavírus (COVID-19) uma emergência de saúde pública de interesse internacional emjaneiro de 2020, houve muitas preocupações sobre mulheres grávidas e os possíveis efeitos dessa emergência com resultados catastróficos em muitos países. As informações sobre COVID-19 e gravidez são escassas e se espalham por algumas séries de casos, com não mais do que 50 casos no total. A presente revisão fornece uma breve análise da COVID- 19, gravidez na era COVID-19 e os efeitos da COVID-19 na gravidez.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prenatal Care , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
8.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(2): 122-132, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138544

ABSTRACT

Resumen La infección por SARS-CoV-2 (y la enfermedad causada por este virus: COVID-19), es de menor frecuencia y gravedad en pediatría. La naturaleza de esto sigue siendo motivo de análisis. No obstante, los niños tienen la potencialidad de infectarse, enfermarse y de transmitir la infección a otras personas. Este artículo revisa lo conocido hasta el momento acerca de epidemiología, etiopatogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico y tratamiento de COVID-19 en niños.


SARS-CoV-2 infection (and the disease it causes: COVID-19), is less frequent and milder in the pediatric population. The reasons behind this milder clinical expression are under investigation. Nevertheless, children are still susceptible to be infected, to develop symptoms and disease, and to transmit the virus. In this article, we review the information about COVID-19 in children, including epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic approach, clinical outcomes and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pediatrics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus/physiology
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 330-338, jun. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126169

ABSTRACT

Resumen: El sistema renina angiotensina aldosterona (SRAA) es el principal regulador del volumen plasmático, manteniendo la homeostasis cardiovascular e hidrosalina. En la vía clásica, la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (ECA) genera Angiotensina II (AngII), de potente efecto inflamatorio y vasoconstrictor. Esta vía clásica es a su vez regulada por la ECA2, que convierte AngII a Ang 1-7, cuyas acciones vaso dilatadoras y antiinflamatorias dan balance a los efectos de AngII. La ECA2 se ha relacionado con la patogenia de infecciones respiratorias como el virus respiratorio sincicial y el síndrome respiratorio agudo grave por coronavirus (SARS-CoV y SARS-CoV-2). Estudios recientes han demostrado que la ECA2 corresponde al principal receptor del SARS-CoV-2, que en conjunto con otros receptores como la serin proteasa TMPRSS2, permiten la fijación, fusión y entrada del virus a la célula huésped. En animales infectados por SARS-CoV se produce una caída de la concentración tisular de ECA2 y Ang 1-7, con la consiguiente sobreexpresión de AngII, y sus efectos vasoconstrictores e inflamatorios. Experimentos con ECA2 recombinante han mostrado un efecto protector frente a la sobreexpresión del SRAA en animales infectados por SARS-CoV, efecto similar al demostrado con el uso de bloquea- dores del receptor de AngII, AT1. La evidencia sobre el rol protector de ECA2 parece respaldar las recomendaciones respecto a no suspender estos medicamentos en la infección SARS-CoV-2. En este artículo presentamos el conocimiento actual sobre el rol del SRAA en la infección por SARS-CoV, a partir de conceptos fisiopatológicos, bases moleculares, y evidencia experimental y clínica.


Abstract: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is the main plasma volume regulator, which maintains cardiovascular and hydrosaline homeostasis. In the classical pathway, the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) generates Angiotensin II (AngII), which is powerfully inflammatory and vasoconstrictive. This classical pathway is also regulated by ACE2, which converts AngI to Ang 1-9, and degrades AngII to Ang 1-7, whose vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory functions balance out the effects of AngII. ACE2 has been associated with the pathogenesis of respiratory infections such as RSV and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). Recent studies have shown that ACE2 corresponds to the main SARS-CoV-2 receptor, which together with other receptors such as the TMPRSS2, allows the virus to attach, fuse, and enter the host cell. These studies have shown that in animals infected with coronavirus there is a drop in tissue concentration of ACE2 and Ang 1-7, leading to overexpression of AngII and its vasoconstrictive and inflammatory effects. Experiments with recombinant ACE2 have shown a protective effect against overexpression of RAAS in coronavirus-infected animals, which is similar to that demonstrated with the use of AnglI receptor blockers (AT1). Evidence on the protective role of ACE2 seems to support the recommendations re garding not discontinuing these drugs in COVID-19 infection. In this article, we present the current knowledge about the role of RAAS in coronavirus infection, based on physiopathological concepts, molecular bases, and experimental and clinical evidence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Pandemics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
12.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(2): 301-307, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099514

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19) has been brought to global attention in the search of knowledge about the virus and its pathogenesis. The immune response is essential to control and eliminate the infection, however, maladjusted immune responses may result in severe disease fisiopathology. Gaining a deeper understanding of the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune systems of the hosts may help us anticipate the development of persistent pulmonary inflammation and, why not, be the first step to therapeutic success and trying to save more lives. In this review, we provide an update on CoV virology and our vision of pathogenesis understanding it from the stages of infection, without forgetting the cytokine storm resulting from the interaction of the virus with ACE2 receptors widely distributed in the body.


La reciente emergencia de síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo producido por coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), enfermedad denominada COVID-19 ha traído la atención mundial a la búsqueda de conocimiento sobre este virus y su patogenia. La respuesta inmune es esencial para controlar y erradicar la infección, sin embargo, las respuestas inmunes descontroladas pueden resultar en la fisiopatología de la enfermedad grave. Lograr una comprensión más profunda de la interacción entre SARS-COV-2 y el sistema inmune de los huéspedes podría ayudar a anticiparnos al desarrollo de una inflamación pulmonar persistente causada por el SARS-CoV-2, y por qué no, ser la puerta de entrada al éxito terapéutico e intentar salvar mayor número de vidas. En esta revisión, proporcionamos una actualización sobre la virología y nuestra visión de la patogenia, entendiéndola desde las fases o etapas de la infección, sin olvidar el estallido de citoquinas resultantes de la interacción del virus con los receptores ACE2 ampliamente distribuidos en el organismo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Cytokines/physiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Immunity, Innate/physiology
14.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 3, 2020. 10 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096509

ABSTRACT

En enero de 2020, el agente etiológico responsable de un grupo de casos de neumonía grave en Wuhan, China, fue identificado como un nuevo betacoronavirus (2019-nCoV), distinto del SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV (1) (2) (3). La secuencia genómica completa de este nuevo agente está disponible y se han desarrollado diferentes protocolos de detección, aunque aún no se han validado por completo. Sin embargo, a la luz de la posible introducción de un caso sospechoso relacionado con el 2019-nCoV en la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios Nacionales o de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Biological Specimen Banks/supply & distribution , Containment of Biohazards/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China/epidemiology
15.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; feb. 1, 2020. 5 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096511

ABSTRACT

Los coronavirus son un grupo de virus ARN altamente diversos de la familia Coronaviridae que se dividen en 4 géneros: alfa, beta, gamma y delta, y que causan enfermedades de leves a graves en humanos y animales (1) (2) (3). Existen coronavirus humanos endémicos como los alfacoronavirus 229E y NL63 y los betacoronavirus OC43 y HKU1 que pueden causar enfermedades de tipo influenza o neumonía en humanos (1) (3). Sin embargo, dos coronavirus zoonóticos que causan enfermedades graves en humanos han emergido: el coronavirus del Síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV) en 2002-2003 y el coronavirus del Síndrome respiratorio de Oriente Medio (MERS-CoV) (4) (5). En enero de 2020, el agente etiológico responsable de un grupo de casos de neumonía grave en Wuhan, China, fue identificado como un nuevo betacoronavirus (2019-nCoV), distinto del SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV (6) (7). La secuencia genómica completa de este nuevo agente está disponible y se han desarrollado diferentes protocolos de detección, aunque aún no se han validado por completo. Sin embargo, a la luz de la posible introducción de un caso sospechoso relacionado con el 2019-nCoV en la Región de las Américas, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud / Organización Mundial de la Salud (OPS / OMS) recomienda a los Estados Miembros garantizar su identificación oportuna, el envío de las muestras a laboratorios Nacionales y de referencia y la implementación del protocolo de detección molecular para 2019-nCoV, según la capacidad del laboratorio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Containment of Biohazards/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , China/epidemiology
16.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1961-1969, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878457

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a type of positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with envelope and widely exist in nature to cause respiratory infectious diseases. The novel coronavirus is a new outbreak virus that is susceptible to all people. Up to now, the disease has been widely spread in the world and poses a great threat to public health. In this review, the genomic features, key proteins, host infection and replication of coronaviruses and novel coronaviruses are reviewed in order to provide theoretical basis for the study of the pathogenic mechanism of virus infection on host cells and to provide basic support for the development of specific antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879926

ABSTRACT

A large number of viruses have been found to be associated with ocular diseases, including human adenovirus, human herpesvirus (HHV), human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), and newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This group of diseases is prone to be misdiagnosed or missed diagnosis, resulting in serious tissue and visual damage. Etiological diagnosis is a powerful auxiliary mean to diagnose the ocular diseases associated with human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus, and it provides the leading diagnosis evidence of infections with herpes simplex virus 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, HHV-6/7, HHV-8, HTLV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. Virus isolation, immunoassay and genetic diagnosis are usually used for etiologic diagnosis. For genetic diagnosis, the PCR technique is the most important approach because of its advantages of rapid detection, convenient operation, high sensitivity and high specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/genetics , Eye Diseases/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Research/trends , Virus Diseases/virology
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200310, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135251

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] is currently causing a life-threatening pandemic. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing and genetic characterisation of a SARS-CoV-2 detected in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, and the protocol we designed to generate high-quality SARS-CoV-2 full genome data. The isolate was obtained from an asymptomatic carrier returning from Madrid, Spain. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed a total of nine mutations in comparison with the original human case in Wuhan, China, and support this case as belonging to the recently proposed lineage A.2. Phylogeographic analysis further confirmed the likely European origin of this case. To our knowledge, this is the first SARS-CoV-2 genome obtained from the North Brazilian Region. We believe that the information generated in this study may contribute to the ongoing efforts toward the SARS-CoV-2 emergence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Spain , Brazil , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Asymptomatic Infections , Phylogeography , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Mutation
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(9): 3567-3571, Mar. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133151

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Ministério da Saúde declarou em 03 de fevereiro de 2020 estado de emergência em saúde pública de importância nacional em decorrência da pandemia pelo novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2. Com isso, o IBGE adiou a realização do Censo Demográfico de 2020 e passou a formular uma PNAD COVID-19. O inquérito contou com uma amostra total de 349 mil pessoas em cerca de 200 mil domicílios. Do total da população-residente brasileira, o IBGE estimou em maio/2020 que 24,0 milhões (11,4%) tiveram pelo menos um dos sintomas de síndrome gripal (SG). Desse contingente, 20,2 milhões (84,3% do total dos sintomáticos) não procuraram unidade de saúde. As inovações trazidas para a vigilância em saúde e o pioneirismo do IBGE demonstram ser possível, em um país continental e que vem experimentando diversas epidemias locais em momentos diferentes em seu território, que outros países também desenvolvam inquéritos domiciliares semelhantes, com coleta de dados semanal (referida às semanas epidemiológicas) por telefone de forma inovadora e tempestiva. A PNAD COVID-19 trouxe ainda uma nova tecnologia para o Instituto, resgatando o papel de avaliador externo do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).


Abstract On February 3, 2020, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a state of emergency in public health of national relevance due to the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. As a result, IBGE postponed the 2020 Demographic Census and started to formulate a COVID-19 PNAD. The survey included a total sample of 349 thousand people in about 200 thousand households. Of the total Brazilian resident population, the IBGE estimated in May/2020 that 24.0 million (11.4%) had at least one of the flu-like syndrome symptoms. Of this contingent, 20.2 million (84.3% of all symptomatic patients) did not seek health care. The innovations brought to health surveillance and the IBGE's pioneering spirit show that it is possible, in a continental country that has been experiencing several local epidemics at different times in its territory, that other countries also develop similar household surveys, with weekly data collection (referred to epidemiological weeks) by telephone in an innovative and timely manner. The COVID-19 PNAD also brought new technology to the Institute, reviving its role as an external evaluator of the Unified Health System (SUS).


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Brazil , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Biomedical Technology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Betacoronavirus 1/isolation & purification
20.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(9): 3517-3554, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1133149

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar efeitos de tratamentos medicamentosos para infecções por coronavírus. Revisão sistemática rápida com buscas nas bases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, BVS, Global Index Medicus, Medrix, bioRxiv, Clinicaltrials.gov e International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Foram incluídos 36 estudos avaliando alternativas medicamentosas contra SARS, SARS-CoV-2 e MERS. A maioria dos estudos incluídos foi conduzida na China com delineamento observacional para tratamento da COVID-19. Os tratamentos mais estudados foram antimaláricos e antivirais. Nos antimaláricos, a metanálise de dois estudos com 180 participantes não identificou benefício da hidroxicloroquina em relação à negativação da carga viral via reação em cadeia de polimerase em tempo real e o uso de antivirais comparado ao cuidado padrão foi similar em relação aos desfechos. As evidências científicas disponíveis são preliminares e de baixa qualidade metodológica, o que sugere cautela na interpretação dos dados. Pesquisas que avaliem a eficácia comparativa em ensaios clínicos randomizados, controlados, com tempo de acompanhamento adequado e com os métodos devidamente divulgados e sujeitos à revisão científica por pares são necessárias. Recomenda-se atualização periódica da presente revisão.


Abstract This work aimed to evaluate the effects of drug therapies for coronavirus infections. Rapid systematic review with search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, BVS, Global Index Medicus, Medrix, bioRxiv, Clinicaltrials.gov and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases. Thirty-six studies evaluating alternative drugs against SARS, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS were included. Most of the included studies were conducted in China with an observational design for the treatment of COVID-19. The most studied treatments were with antimalarials and antivirals. In antimalarial, the meta-analysis of two studies with 180 participants did not identify the benefit of hydroxychloroquine concerning the negative viral load via real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the use of antivirals compared to standard care was similar regarding outcomes. The available scientific evidence is preliminary and of low methodological quality, which suggests caution when interpreting its results. Research that evaluates comparative efficacy in randomized, controlled clinical trials, with adequate follow-up time and with the methods properly disclosed and subject to scientific peer review is required. A periodic update of this review is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , SARS Virus/drug effects , Pandemics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Antimalarials/administration & dosage
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