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Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 8(2): 1-15, jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284390


La importancia de la evaluación inicial de la gravedad del paciente con neumonía es una acción diagnóstica de importancia bien establecida. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la relación entre la frecuencia y calidad del proceso de estratificación de pacientes con neumonía, y el cumplimiento de las sugerencias de ubicación intrahospitalaria y de tratamiento antimicrobiano inicial de un instrumento de estratificación. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo sobre una población de 1,809 pacientes hospitalizados durante 10 años. Se analizó el comportamiento de los índices de ubicación intrahospitalaria y tratamiento antimicrobiano inicial acorde a la sugerencia de un instrumento de estratificación utilizado; en el análisis estadístico se utilizó el Odds ratio y el estadígrafo X2, con un nivel de significación de 95%. En los resultados se destacan que la ubicación intrahospitalaria estuvo acorde a la sugerencia del instrumento en el 96%, con el valor más bajo en los pacientes con neumonía grave y altas probabilidades de recuperación (82%, p<,05). Se constató mayor frecuencia de ubicación intrahospitalaria acorde a la sugerencia del instrumento en los pacientes bien estratificados (p<,05), fundamentalmente en los pacientes con neumonía grave y altas probabilidades de recuperación. La correspondencia del tratamiento antimicrobiano inicial con la propuesta del instrumento fue del 61%; el estrato IIIA mostró el valor más elevado (80%, p<,05). Como conclusiones del estudio se constató un elevado desempeño en el cumplimiento de la sugerencia de ubicación intrahospitalaria del instrumento de estratificación, no así en el cumplimiento de la sugerencia de tratamiento antimicrobiano inicial. Se demostró la existencia de una relación entre el proceso de estratificación y el cumplimiento de la ubicación intrahospitalaria sugerida por el instrumento empleado.

The initial evaluation of the patient's condition with pneumonia is a very important assistance action. The objective was evaluate the relationship between the frequency and quality of the stratification process of the patient with pneumonia, and the execution of suggestions of intrahospitalary location and the initial antimicrobial treatment of stratification instrument. A descriptive study was done on a population of 1,809 patients hospitalized during 10 years. The indexes of intrahospitalary location and of antimicrobian initial treatment were analized according to the suggestions of the instrument; in the statistical analysis it was used the odds ratio and the statistician X2, with a significant level of 95%. The intrahospitalary location was in agreement with the suggestion of the instrument in 96% of the cases, with the lowest value in patients with serious pneumonia and high recovery probabilities (82%, p <,05). The frequency of intrahospitalary location was bigger and veryfied with the suggestion of the instrument in the termed well stratified patients (p <,05), fundamentally in the patients with serious pneumonia and high recovery probabilities. The correspondence of the initial antimicrobial treatment with the proposal of the instrument was of 61%; the stratum IIIA showed the highest value (80%, p <,05). As conclusions, a high performance in the execution of the suggestion of the intrahospitalary location has been one of the characteristics of the process, although as a negative element it stands out the frequent non-fulfillment of the suggestion of the initial antimicrobial treatment. There was a relationship between the stratification process and the execution of the suggestion of the intrahospitalary location.

Humans , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Quality Management , Cuba , Patient Acuity , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888089


To systematically evaluate the efficiency and safety of Tanreqing Injection in the treatment of stroke-associated pneumonia(SAP). Seven domestic and foreign databases(CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMbase) were retrieved from the establishment to July 2020. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trial of the effect of Tanreqing Injection in the treatment of SAP was selected. NoteExpress software was used to screen out literatures. RevMan 5.4 software was used for data analysis. GRADE system was used to evaluate the evidence quality of the outcome indicators. A total of 1 755 cases in 21 studies were retrieved, including 879 cases in experimental group and 876 cases in control group. In general, the quality of stu-dies received was not high. According to Meta-analysis,(1) in terms of shortening the length of hospital stay, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine was better than conventional western medicine(MD=-4.04, 95%CI[-4.43,-3.65], P<0.000 01);(2) in terms of increasing effective rate, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine was better than conventional western medicine(RR=1.22, 95%CI[1.17, 1.27], P<0.000 01);(3) in terms of reducing inflammation indicators, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine was better than conventional western medicine(MD_(CRP)=-10.75, 95%CI[-15.61,-5.88], P<0.000 01; MD_(WBC count)=-1.62, 95%CI[-2.55,-0.69], P=0.000 6; MD_(PCT)=-0.58, 95%CI[-0.89,-0.26], P=0.000 3];(4) in terms of improving symptoms and signs, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional wes-tern medicine was better than conventional western medicine(MD_(cough)=-2.73, 95%CI[-4.93,-0.53], P=0.02; MD_(antipyretic)=-1.07, 95%CI[-1.17,-0.98), P<0.000 01];(5) in terms of decreasing the NIHSS scores, Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine was better than conventional western medicine(MD=-3.02, 95%CI[-4.91,-1.13], P=0.002);(6) in terms of adverse reactions, there was no statistically significant difference between Tanreqing Injection combined with conventio-nal western medicine compared with conventional western medicine treatment(RR=1.19, 95%CI[0.61,2.29], P=0.61). GRADE system showed that the evidence levels of above outcome indicators were low and extremely low. The results proved that Tanreqing Injection combined with conventional western medicine had a good advantage in the treatment of SAP, with better observation indicators better than western medicine conventional treatment, and no increase in the incidence of adverse reactions. However, this study had certain limitations. The overall quality of the included studies was low, which affected the reliability of the results. Therefore, the conclusions of this study shall be used cautiously.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results , Stroke/drug therapy
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879141


To investigate the potential molecular mechanism of the combination of Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus with the homology of medicine and food in the treatment of pneumonia by means of network pharmacology and in vitro verification experiment. Under the condition of bioavailability(OB)≥30% and drug-like(DL)≥0.18, the active components of Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus were screened in TCMSP database; the prediction targets of active components were searched from TCMSP, DrugBank and other databases, and the potential targets of pneumonia were obtained through GeneCards and OMIM database. The common targets were obtained by the intersection of drug and disease targets. The PPI network of common targets was constructed by STRING 11.0, and the core targets were obtained by topological analysis. Then the core targets received GO and KEGG analysis with use of WebGestalt and Metascape. The "component-target-pathway" network was constructed with the help of Cytoscape 3.7.1 software, and the component-target molecular docking verification was carried out with Discovery Studio 2016 software. Finally, the core targets and pathways were preliminarily verified in vitro. In this study, 12 active components were screened, 225 drug prediction targets and 420 potential diseases targets were obtained based on data mining method, and 14 core targets were obtained by topological analysis, including TNF, MMP9, AKT1, IL4 and IL2. The enrichment results of GO and KEGG showed that "Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus" drug pair may regulate inflammation, cell growth and metabolism by acting on 20 key signaling pathways such as TNF and IL-17, thereby exerting anti-pneumonia effects. The results of molecular docking showed that 12 active components had good binding ability with 14 core targets. In vitro experiment results showed that the core components of "Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus" drug pair could inhibit the expression of MMP9 and TNF-α by regulating TNF signal pathway. This study confirmed the scientificity and reliability of the prediction results of network pharmacology, and preliminarily revealed the potential molecular mechanism of the compatibility of Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus in the treatment of pneumonia. It provides a novel insight on systematically exploring the mechanism of the compatible use of Platycodonis Radix and Lilii Bulbus, and has a certain reference value for the research, development and application of new drugs.

Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Reproducibility of Results
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879029


To systemically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Maxing Shigan Decoction in the treatment of community acquired pneumonia(CAP) and provide a reference for the treatment of CAP. Databases of CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, EMbase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and PubMed were searched(from inception to May 30, 2020) to screen the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) of Maxing Shigan Decoction in treating CAP. Two authors independently screened and selected relevant literature and extracted data based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Any disagreement or differences was resolved through discussion. The bias risk assessment tool recommended by Cochrane handbook was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for data analysis. Seventeen RCTs were finally included, involving 1 309 patients. Meta-analysis showed that Maxing Shigan Decoction combined with conventional Western medicine treatment could improve clinical efficacy in patients with CAP more effectively as compared with conventional Western medicine treatment alone, mainly in terms of anti-inflammatory effects, a decrease in C-reactive protein(CRP) content(MD=-6.01, 95%CI[-10.95,-1.06], P=0.02)and white blood cell(WBC) count, a decrease in procalcitonin(PCT) level(MD=-0.74, 95%CI[-0.77,-0.71], P<0.000 1), and shortened recovery time of cough and fever. Maxing Shigan Decoction has certain curative effect on CAP, but there are problems in the methodology of included studies. High-quality stu-dies are still needed for further verification.

Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Cough , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878965


To systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Lianhua Qingwen in the treatment of adult pneumonia. The randomized controlled trial of Lianhua Qingwen combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of pneumonia were retrieved from PubMed, EMbase, Wanfang database, VIP database, and CNKI from the establishment of database to March 2020. Two researchers independently conducted literature screening and data extraction, and the third researcher was in charge of arbitration in case of any disagreement. Outcome indicators included total clinical effective rate, symptom improvement time, and incidence of adverse events. R 3.6.1 was used for Meta-analysis, and RevMan 5.3 was used for quality evaluation. Twenty-two studies were included, with a total of 2 007 patients, including 1 017 patients in the experimental group and 990 patients in the control group. The results showed that the total clinical effective rate of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group(RR=1.11, 95%CI[1.08, 1.15], P<0.001), and the antifebrile time(MD=-1.81, 95%CI[-2.42,-1.21], P<0.001), cough duration(MD=-2.32, 95%CI[-2.89,-1.76], P<0.001), rale duration(MD=-2.19, 95%CI[-2.74,-1.63], P<0.001), imaging recovery time(MD=-2.17, 95%CI[-2.76,-1.58], P<0.001) and post-treatment CRP(MD=-4.07, 95%CI[-6.39,-1.75], P<0.001] were all significantly lower than those of the control group. However, it did not proved that the experimental group was safer than the control group(RR=0.84, 95%CI[0.57, 1.24], P=0.382). The results confirmed that Lianhua Qingwen combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of pneumonia could improve the clinical treatment efficiency, shorten the time of fever, cough, rale disappearance and imaging recovery, improve CRP index and accelerate the recovery of pneumonia patients. However, the literatures included in this study had a low quality, and the conclusions still need to be further confirmed by more high-quality, multi-center, rigorously designed randomized controlled trial.

Adult , Cough , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 139-143, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880941


The rationale for the antibiotic treatment of viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults was analyzed to develop a clinical reference standard for this condition. Clinical data from 166 patients diagnosed with viral pneumonia across 14 hospitals in Beijing from November 2010 to December 2017 were collected. The indications for medications were evaluated, and the rationale for the use of antibiotics was analyzed. A total of 163 (98.3%) patients with viral pneumonia were treated with antibiotics. A combination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) was used as markers to analyze the possible indications for antibiotic use. With threshold levels set at 0.25 µg/L for PCT and 20 mg/L for CRP, the rate of unreasonable use of antibiotics was 55.2%. By contrast, at a CRP level threshold of 60 mg/L, the rate of antibiotic misuse was 77.3%. A total of 39 of the 163 (23.9%) patients did not meet the guidelines for drug selection for viral CAP in adults. The unreasonable use of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of viral CAP in adults is a serious concern. Clinicians must reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics.

Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Calcitonin , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Protein Precursors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880570


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the changes of symptoms, Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome, and lung inflammation absorption during convalescence in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had not totally recovered after hospital discharge and whether CM could promote the improvement process.@*METHODS@#This study was designed as a prospective cohort and nested case-control study. A total of 96 eligible patients with COVID-19 in convalescence were enrolled from Beijing Youan Hospital and Beijing Huimin Hospital and followed up from the hospital discharged day. Patients were divided into the CM (64 cases) and the control groups (32 cases) based on the treatment with or without CM and followed up at 14, 28, 56, and 84 days after discharge. In the CM group, patients received the 28-day CM treatment according to two types of CM syndrome. Improvements in clinical symptoms, CM syndrome, and absorption of lung inflammation were observed.@*RESULTS@#All the 96 patients completed the 84-day follow-up from January 21 to March 28, 2020. By the 84th day of follow-up, respiratory symptoms were less than 5%. There was no significant difference in the improvement rates of symptoms, including fatigue, sputum, cough, dry throat, thirst, and upset, between the two groups (P>0.05). Totally 82 patients (85.42%) showed complete lung inflammation absorption at the 84-day follow-up. On day 14, the CM group had a significantly higher absorption rate than the control group (P<0.05) and the relative risk of absorption for CM vs. control group was 3.029 (95% confidence interval: 1.026-8.940). The proportions of CM syndrome types changed with time prolonging: the proportion of the pathogen residue syndrome gradually decreased, and the proportion of both qi and yin deficiency syndrome gradually increased.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Patients with COVID-19 in convalescence had symptoms and lung inflammation after hospital discharge and recovered with time prolonging. CM could improve lung inflammation for early recovery. The types of CM syndrome can be transformed with time prolonging. (Registration No. ChiCTR2000029430).

Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Convalescence , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Horiz. enferm ; 32(1): 79-90, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1224728


OBJETIVO: el propósito de este estudio fue determinar los principales desenlaces clínicos en lactantes con insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (IRA), tratados con cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF) en una unidad de cuidado intensivo pediátrico (UCIP). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo de cohorte histórica, se reclutaron niños entre 1 y 24 meses que ingresaron a la UCIP de un hospital de referencia con diagnóstico de IRA (Julio 1, 2016 a junio 30, 2017) tratados con CNAF como terapia inicial. Los datos extraídos incluyeron variables demográficas, clínicas y principales desenlaces. RESULTADOS: se identificaron 112 casos que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión durante el periodo del estudio. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue neumonía multilobar (41%), seguido por bronquiolitis (34%). Se encontró que el 22.4% de los niños poseía alguna comorbilidad, siendo la más frecuente la displasia broncopulmonar. El virus más frecuentemente aislado fue el virus sincitial respiratorio (VSR) en el 37.5% de los casos. De los 112 pacientes, 59 niños (53%) requirieron intubación traqueal. Los factores asociados con el riesgo de intubación fueron el diagnóstico de neumonía multilobar, el uso de sedación, el aislamiento de VSR y el sexo femenino. CONCLUSIONES: la CNAF es un sistema de soporte respiratorio no invasivo, seguro, bien tolerado y capaz de disminuir la necesidad de intubación y los días de estancia en cuidado intensivo. En niños con IRA, el diagnóstico de neumonía multilobar, la necesidad de sedación, la presencia de comorbilidades asociadas y el sexo femenino son factores asociados con la necesidad de requerir ventilación mecánica invasiva.

OBJECTIVE: the purpose of this study was to determine the main clinical outcomes in infants with acute respiratory failure (ARF), treated with a high-flow nasal cannula (CNAF) in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: a retrospective observational study was conducted on a cohort of children between 1 and 24 months of age who were admitted to the PICU entered UCIP of a referral hospital with a diagnosis of ARF treated with CNAF as initial therapy. The data extracted included demographic and clinical variables and main outcomes. RESULTS: 112 cases were identified that met the inclusion criteria during the study period. The most frequent diagnosis was pneumonia (41%), followed by bronchiolitis (34%). It was found that 22.4% of the children had some comorbidity, the most frequent being bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The most frequently isolated virus was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 37.5% of the cases. Of the 112 patients, 59 children (53%) required tracheal intubation. The factors associated with the risk of intubation were the diagnosis of pneumonia, the use of sedation, the isolation of RSV and the female gender. CONCLUSIONS: CNAF is a non-invasive respiratory support system, capable of reducing the need for intubation and days of stay in intensive care. In children with ARF, the diagnosis of pneumonia, the need for sedation, the presence of associated comorbidities, and the female gender are factors associated with the need to require invasive mechanical ventilation.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Cannula , Intubation , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Bronchiolitis , Colombia , Intensive Care Units
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(6): 449-452, Dec. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976146


Las enfermedades relacionadas con inmunoglobulina G4 (IgG4) son un grupo heterogéneo de cuadros clínicos que pueden afectar un solo órgano o tener compromiso sistémico. Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 55 años, internada por un cuadro de tos seca, fiebre, disnea progresiva e insuficiencia respiratoria. La tomografía de tórax evidenció áreas de vidrio esmerilado difusas, patrón reticular y consolidación alveolar. Recibió tratamiento habitual para neumonía de la comunidad y corticoides sistémicos, presentando buena evolución y otorgándose el alta. Al mes se reinterna por estenosis subglótica, progresión de infiltrados pulmonares y aumento del volumen palpebral y de las glándulas submaxilares. Se realizaron biopsias transbronquial y de glándulas salivales que mostraron infiltración por IgG4. También se detectó aumento de los niveles de IgG4 en plasma. Recibió tratamiento con inmunosupresores evolucionando con buena respuesta.

IgG4-related disease is a heterogeneous group of diseases that can affect a single organ or manifest as a systemic disease. We present the case of a 55-year-old female, admitted for dry cough, fever, progressive dyspnea and respiratory failure. Chest CT showed areas of diffuse ground glass, reticular pattern and alveolar consolidation. She received treatment for community acquired pneumonia and systemic corticosteroids with good response. One month later, she was admitted again due to subglottic stenosis, progression of pulmonary infiltrates, and increased palpebral and submaxillary glands volume. Transbronchial and salivary gland biopsies showed infiltration by IgG4. Increased levels of plasma IgG4 were also detected. Immunosuppressive therapy was given with good response.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Biopsy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/immunology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/drug therapy
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 583-603, nov. 2018. mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007363


Ethnobotanical studies focusing on the documentation of folk therapies employed for pneumonia are almost non-existence in Africa and elsewhere. Data on plants used to treat this ailments was obtained through informed consent semi-structured face-to-face interview and field observations with 128 conveniently selected Bapedi traditional healers (THs) residing in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 57 plant species distributed across 54 genera and 32 botanical families, mostly the Asteraceae (21.8%) and Fabaceae (18.7%) were used by THs to treat pneumonia and related symptoms. Therapeutic uses of larger number of the documented species are not recorded elsewhere in literature as treatments of these ailments. Overall, the most widely used species by all interviewed THs were Acacia erioloba, Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Enicostema axillare, Lasiosiphon caffer and Stylochaeton natalensis. Ethnopharmacological studies validating the reported therapeutic claims of the species by Bapedi THs should be a subject of future investigation.

Los estudios etnobotánicos que se centran en la documentación de las terapias populares empleadas para la neumonía son casi inexistentes en África y en otros lugares. Los datos sobre plantas utilizadas para tratar estas dolencias se obtuvieron a través de entrevistas personales semiestructuradas con consentimiento informado y observaciones de campo a 128 curanderos tradicionales (TH) convenientemente seleccionados que residen en la provincia de Limpopo, Sudáfrica. Las TH utilizaron un total de 57 especies de plantas distribuidas en 54 géneros y 32 familias botánicas, en su mayoría Asteraceae (21.8%) y Fabaceae (18.7%) para tratar la neumonía y los síntomas relacionados. Los usos terapéuticos de un gran número de las especies documentadas no se registran en ninguna otra parte de la literatura como tratamientos para estas dolencias. En general, las especies más utilizadas por todos los TH entrevistados fueron Acacia erioloba, Clerodendrum ternatum, Cryptocarya transvaalensis, Enicostema axillare, Lasiosiphon caffer y Stylochaeton natalensis. Los estudios etnofarmacológicos que validan las afirmaciones terapéuticas informadas de las especies por parte de Bapedi TH deben ser un tema de investigación futura.

Humans , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Ethnobotany , South Africa , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Medicine, African Traditional , Phytotherapy
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(4): 261-266, July-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975932


ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the patient profile, mortality rates, the accuracy of prognostic scores, and mortality-associated factors in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a general hospital in Brazil. Methods: This was a cohort study involving patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of CAP and requiring admission to a public hospital in the interior of Brazil between March 2014 and April 2015. We performed multivariate analysis using a Poisson regression model with robust variance to identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: We included 304 patients. Approximately 70% of the patients were classified as severely ill on the basis of the severity criteria used. The mortality rate was 15.5%, and the ICU admission rate was 29.3%. After multivariate analysis, the factors associated with in-hospital mortality were need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 3.60; 95% CI: 1.85-7.47); a Charlson Comorbidity Index score > 3 (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.18-1.43); and a mental Confusion, Urea, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, and age > 65 years (CURB-65) score > 2 (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.09-1.98). The mean time from patient arrival at the emergency room to initiation of antibiotic therapy was 10 h. Conclusions: The in-hospital mortality rate of 15.5% and the need for ICU admission in almost one third of the patients reflect the major impact of CAP on patients and the health care system. Individuals with a high burden of comorbidities, a high CURB-65 score, and a need for mechanical ventilation had a worse prognosis. Measures to reduce the time to initiation of antibiotic therapy may result in better outcomes in this group of patients.

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o perfil dos pacientes, taxas de mortalidade, acurácia de escores prognósticos e fatores associados à mortalidade em pacientes com pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC) em um hospital geral no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo de coorte envolvendo pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de PAC e necessidade de internação hospitalar entre março de 2014 e abril de 2015 em um hospital público do interior do Brasil. Foi realizada a análise multivariada mediante o modelo de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta para avaliar os fatores associados com mortalidade intra-hospitalar. Resultados: Foram incluídos 304 pacientes. Aproximadamente 70% dos pacientes foram classificados como graves de acordo com os critérios de gravidade utilizados. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 15,5% e a de necessidade de internação em UTI foi de 29,3%. Após a análise multivariada, os fatores associados à mortalidade intra-hospitalar foram necessidade de ventilação mecânica (OR = 3,60; IC95%: 1,85-7,47); Charlson Comorbidity Index > 3 (OR = 1,30; IC95%: 1,18-1,43); e mental Confusion, Urea, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, and age > 65 years (CURB-65) > 2 (OR = 1,46; IC95%: 1,09-1,98). A média do tempo entre a chegada do paciente na emergência e o início da antibioticoterapia foi de 10 h. Conclusões: A taxa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar de 15,5% e a necessidade de internação em UTI em quase um terço dos pacientes demonstram o grande impacto da PAC nos pacientes e no sistema de saúde. Indivíduos com maior carga de comorbidades prévias, CURB-65 elevado e necessidade de ventilação mecânica apresentaram pior prognóstico. Ações para reduzir o tempo até o início da antibioticoterapia podem resultar em melhores desfechos nesse grupo de pacientes.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Hospitals, Public , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 34(4): 236-248, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-990842


Resumen La neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) es una enfermedad infecciosa común y potencialmente grave que ocasiona elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. La terapia con corticosteroides (CS) sistémicos se ha propuesto para el manejo de pacientes adultos hospitalizados por neumonía adquirida en la comunidad. Objetivos: Evaluar la eficacia y seguridad del tratamiento con corticosteroides sistémicos en pacientes con NAC grave. Métodos: Se buscó la información actualizada en cinco bases de datos: PubMed, Scielo, Epistemonikos, Lilacs y Cochrane Library. Se evaluaron los ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados que examinaron la eficacia y seguridad de los corticosteroides en adultos hospitalizados con NAC grave. Resultados: Se incluyeron diez revisiones sistemáticas y quince estudios primarios que reclutaron pacientes hospitalizados con NAC grave. La terapia con corticosteroides redujo significativamente la mortalidad por todas las causas (cociente de riesgo [RR]: 0,58; IC95%: 0,40 a 0,84), fracaso clínico precoz (RR: 0,32; IC95%: 0,15 a 0,7), riesgo de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria del adulto (RR: 0,23; IC95%: 0,07 a 0,80), necesidad de ventilación mecánica (RR: 0,40; IC95%: 0,20 a 0,77) y se acortó la estancia hospitalaria (diferencia media: −2.91 días; IC95%: − 4,92 a −0,89). La terapia esteroidal aumentó el riesgo de hiperglicemia (RR: 1,72; IC95%: 1,38 a 2,14) pero no la frecuencia de hemorragia gastrointestinal (RR: 0,91; IC95%: 0,40 a 2,05). Conclusión: La terapia con corticosteroides sistémicos disminuye significativamente la mortalidad, riesgo de complicaciones y acorta la estancia hospitalaria en pacientes con NAC grave. Estos resultados deben ser confirmados por estudios controlados aleatorizados de mayor potencia.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and serious infectious disease accompanied with high morbidity and mortality. Corticosteroids (CS) therapy has been proposed for community-acquired pneumonia hospitalized adult patients. However, the effectiveness of adjunctive corticosteroids on relevant clinical outcomes of CAP remains inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed the efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids therapy in severe CAP patients. Methods: Five databases: PubMed, Scielo, Epistemonikos, Lilacs and Cochrane Library were searched for related studies published up to June, 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids in hospitalized adults with severe CAP were included. Results: We assessed ten systematic reviews and fifteen primary studies enrolling severe CAP hospitalized patients. Corticosteroids therapy significantly reduced all-cause mortality (risk ratio (RR): 0.58; 95%CI: 0.40 to 0.84), early clinical failure (RR: 0.32; 95%CI: 0.15 to 0.7), risk of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (RR: 0.23; 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.80), need for mechanical ventilation (RR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.20 to 0.77) and decreased hospital length of stay (mean difference: −2.91 days; 95%CI: −4.92 to −0.89). Corticosteroids therapy increased hyperglycemia risk (RR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.38 to 2.14) but not gastrointestinal hemorrhage frequency (RR: 0.91; 95%CI: 0.40 to 2.05). Conclusions: Adjuvant therapy with systemic corticosteroids decreases mortality, risk of hospital complications and shortens hospital length of stay in patients with severe CAP. These results should be confirmed by adequately powered studies in the future.

Humans , Adult , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia/mortality , Prognosis , Clinical Evolution , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Length of Stay
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(2): eRC4030, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-953153


ABSTRACT Immunotherapy-induced pneumonitis is a rare complication with incidence estimated around 3%. This disease is difficult to diagnose and has great morbidity. For this reason, it became a challenge for oncologists and emergencists. We reviewed the case of five patients who used anti-PD1 (program cell death receptor antagonist 1) for antineoplastic treatment and developed treatment-induced pneumonitis. All patients had respiratory problems because of immunotherapy and presence of ground-glass radiologic change. Among all patients, only one had grade 5 pneumonitis, and delaying to begin corticosteroid therapy and worsening in clinical picture led to patient death. Other four patients with symptomatic grade 2 pneumonitis underwent corticosteroid therapy and had improvement in clinical and radiologic picture. Two patients were treated after an episode of pneumonitis, and no new pulmonary complications were observed until the end of this study. Immunotherapy-induced pneumonitis, although uncommon, can be potentially fatal. Medical team has the responsibility to pay attention for most common symptoms of the disease such as cough and dyspnea and conduct an early diagnosis and effective early treatment with corticosteroids.

RESUMO A pneumonite secundária à imunoterapia é uma complicação rara, com incidência estimada em cerca de 3%. No entanto, trata-se de uma intercorrência de difícil diagnóstico e com grande morbidade, que tem se tornado um desafio para oncologistas e emergencistas. Foram revisados os casos de cinco pacientes que fizeram uso de anti-PD1 (program cell death receptor antagonist 1) para tratamento antineoplásico e que evoluíram com quadro de pneumonite induzida pelo tratamento. Todos os pacientes apresentaram sintomas respiratórios em vigência de tratamento, com imunoterapia e presença de alteração radiológica em vidro fosco. Dentre estes pacientes, apenas um apresentou pneumonite grau 5, com atraso na introdução de corticoidoterapia, indo a óbito em decorrência do quadro. Os outros quatro pacientes apresentaram pneumonite grau 2, sintomática, sendo tratados com corticoidoterapia e evoluindo com melhora clínica e radiológica. Dois pacientes mantiveram o tratamento após o episódio de pneumonite, sem novas complicações pulmonares posteriores, até o momento. A pneumonite induzida por imunoterapia, apesar de ser um evento pouco frequente, pode acarretar grande morbidade, além de ser potencialmente fatal, cabendo à equipe médica ter atenção aos sintomas mais comuns, como tosse e dispneia, para diagnóstico precoce e tratamento efetivo, com uso precoce de corticoide.

Humans , Male , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Carcinoma/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Fatal Outcome , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Nivolumab , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da condutas da emergência do InCor: cardiopneumologia / IInCor Emergency Conduct Manual: Cardiopneumology. São Paulo, Manole, 2ª revisada e atualizada; 2017. p.809-820.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848523
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 88(1): 158-163, 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844592


El síndrome de sensibilidad a fármacos con eosinofilia y síntomas sistémicos es una enfermedad potencialmente mortal, caracterizada por exantema, fiebre, adenopatías, alteraciones hematológicas y compromiso de órganos internos. Objetivo: Presentar una afección poco frecuente en pediatría para facilitar la sospecha diagnóstica y el rápido reconocimiento por parte de los médicos. Caso clínico: Lactante de 9 meses hospitalizada por un cuadro de neumonía viral grave con ventilación mecánica no invasiva, tratada con ceftriaxona entre otros medicamentos. Al quinto día de suspendido el antibiótico presentó un exantema maculopapular violáceo, confluente de predominio en el tronco, la cara y las extremidades superiores, asociado a fiebre, eosinofilia y elevación de transaminasas. Se manejó con prednisona oral más corticoides tópicos por 6 semanas, con buena evolución a los 3 meses de seguimiento. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de síndrome de sensibilidad a fármacos con eosinofilia y síntomas sistémicos se realiza por clínica y exámenes de laboratorio, además de biopsia cutánea en caso de duda diagnóstica. Si bien su causa más frecuente son los anticonvulsivantes se han descrito casos con un sinnúmero de fármacos. El manejo consiste en la suspensión del fármaco sospechoso asociado a medidas de soporte y tratamiento corticosteroide por tiempos prolongados.

Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a rare, potentially life-threatening, drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction that includes skin eruption, haematological abnormalities, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ involvement. Objective: Presenting a rare condition in children, to facilitate a rapid diagnostic suspicion and recognition by doctors. Case report: An 9 months old infant admitted due to a severe viral pneumonia, managed with non-invasive ventilation and ceftriaxone. Five days after stopping antibiotics, a confluent maculopapular rash appeared, which was predominantly in the trunk, face and upper extremities, combined with a fever, eosinophilia, and elevated serum levels of transaminase. She received treatment with oral prednisone and topical corticosteroids for 6 weeks, with a good outcome after 3 months. Conclusions: The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome is made using clinical criteria, laboratory values, and histopathology, if there is any query. Although it is classically caused by anticonvulsants and sulphonamides, many other drugs have been implicated. The offending drug should be immediately discontinued and the patient given supportive treatment, and systemic corticosteroids for long periods of treatment.

Humans , Female , Infant , Ceftriaxone/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56703


BACKGROUND: We estimated the prevalence and clinical impact of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA). The concordance between macromethod and glycopeptide resistance detection (GRD) E tests was determined. In addition, predictors of clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) or pneumonia (SAP) were evaluated. METHODS: We obtained 229 consecutive S. aureus isolates from all hospitalized patients at two university hospitals located in Busan and Yangsan, Korea. Standard, macromethod, and GRD E tests were performed. Additionally, we reviewed the medical records of all patients. Among the 229 patients, predictors of clinical outcomes were analyzed for 107 patients with SAB and 39 with SAP. RESULTS: Among the 229 isolates, 34.5% of S. aureus isolates and 50.7% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates exhibited the hVISA phenotype based on the macromethod E test. hVISA was nearly associated with treatment failure in patients with SAB (P=0.054) and was significantly associated with treatment failure in patients with SAP (P=0.014). However, hVISA was not associated with 30-day mortality in patients with SAB or SAP. The concordance between the macromethod and GRD E tests was 84.2%. CONCLUSIONS: hVISA is quite common in the southeastern part of Korea. hVISA is associated with treatment failure in patients with SAP.

Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Vancomycin/pharmacology
Bol. Asoc. Argent. Odontol. Niños ; 44(2): 8-12, sept.-dic. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-786704


La infección por el HIV-1 cursa con enfermedades oportunistas asociadas. En referencia a los virus herpes, la asociación más conocida es con el HVS-2. La coinfección HIV-1, HVS-1 y P. jiroveci constituye un cuadro clínico de alta morbilidad y baja frecuencia. Caso clínico: una paciente de 17 años de edad fue derivada a la consulta con sintomatología compatible con gingivoestomatitis herpética recurrente resistente a la terapia con aciclovir p.o. 200 mg cada 5 hs y tratada con amoxicilina-clavulánico p.o. (875 mg-125 mg) cada 12 hs por 20 días. Al ingreso presentaba adenitis cervical, odinofagia, disnea, fiebre (38.2ºC), pulso: 120/min, presión arterial: 120/75 mm Hg, frecuencia respiratoria: 24/min y deterioro generalizado. Se solicitó hacer la serología para el HIV y estudio RX de tórax. La serología para HIV-1 resultó positiva y los valores de CD4+ y carga viral fueron 320/mm3 y 25.000 copias/ml, respetivamente. El estudio RX de tórax reveló neumonía por P. jiroveci que se confirmó posteriormente por fibrobroncoscopía. Se realizó el tratamiento farmacológico de la infección herpética con foscarnet (i.v) 60mg /kg cada 12 hs. durante 3 días, mientras que la neumonía se trató con trimetropima 160 mg y sulfametoxazol p.o. 800 mg cada 6 horas durante 14 días. La remisión de la sintomatología bucal se oservó a los 15 días postratamiento. Conclusión: la población femenina adolescente evidencia una mayor vulnerabilidad biológica y social en relación a la transmisión del HIV. El odontólogo responsable deberá calibrarse en el reconocimiento y diagnóstico precoz de las manifestaciones bucales de dicha infección viral. Ante la presencia de cepas de HVS-1 aresistentes deberá contemplarse la posibilidad de otras infecciones oportunistas simultáneas

Humans , Adolescent , Female , Stomatitis, Herpetic/pathology , HIV-1 , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/pathology , Pneumocystis carinii/pathogenicity , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Oral Manifestations , Recurrence
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 27(1): 44-50, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-744690


Objetivo: Valorar tasa de adherencia y causas de no adherencia a las guías terapéuticas internacionales para la prescripción antibiótica empírica en la neumonía grave en Latinoamérica. Métodos: Encuesta clínica realizada a 36 médicos de Latinoamérica donde se pedía indicar el tratamiento empírico en 2 casos clínicos ficticios de pacientes con infección respiratoria grave: neumonía adquirida en la comunidad y neumonía nosocomial. Resultados: En el caso de la neumonía comunitaria el tratamiento fue adecuado en el 30,6% de las prescripciones. Las causas de no adherencia fueron monoterapia (16,0%), cobertura no indicada para multirresistentes (4,0%) y empleo de antibióticos con espectro inadecuado (44,0%). En el caso de la neumonía nosocomial el cumplimiento de las guías terapéuticas Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society fue del 2,8%. Las causas de falta de adherencia fueron monoterapia (14,3%) y la falta de doble tratamiento antibiótico frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85,7%). En caso de considerar correcta la monoterapia con actividad frente a P. aeruginosa, el tratamiento sería adecuado en el 100% de los casos. Conclusión: En la neumonía comunitaria la adherencia a las guías terapéuticas Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society fue del 30,6%; la causa más frecuente de incumplimiento fue el uso de monoterapia. La adherencia en el caso de la neumonía nosocomial fue del 2,8% y la causa más importante de incumplimiento fue la falta de doble tratamiento frente a P. aeruginosa, considerando adecuada monoterapia con actividad frente a P. aeruginosa la adherencia sería del 100%. .

Objective: To assess the adherence to Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines and the causes of lack of adherence during empirical antibiotic prescription in severe pneumonia in Latin America. Methods: A clinical questionnaire was submitted to 36 physicians from Latin America; they were asked to indicate the empirical treatment in two fictitious cases of severe respiratory infection: community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia. Results: In the case of communityacquired pneumonia, 11 prescriptions of 36 (30.6%) were compliant with international guidelines. The causes for non-compliant treatment were monotherapy (16.0%), the unnecessary prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics (40.0%) and the use of non-recommended antibiotics (44.0%). In the case of nosocomial pneumonia, the rate of adherence to the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines was 2.8% (1 patient of 36). The reasons for lack of compliance were monotherapy (14.3%) and a lack of dual antibiotic coverage against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85.7%). If monotherapy with an antipseudomonal antibiotic was considered adequate, the antibiotic treatment would be adequate in 100% of the total prescriptions. Conclusion: The compliance rate with the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines in the community-acquired pneumonia scenario was 30.6%; the most frequent cause of lack of compliance was the indication of monotherapy. In the case of nosocomial pneumonia, the compliance rate with the guidelines was 2.8%, and the most important cause of non-adherence was lack of combined antipseudomonal therapy. If the use of monotherapy with an antipseudomonal antibiotic was considered the correct option, the treatment would be adequate in 100% of the prescriptions. .

Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Guideline Adherence , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Latin America , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Colomb. med ; 46(1): 47-50, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753535


Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are traditionally considered childhood diseases; however, adults account for 35% of all patients with PID. Antibody deficiencies, especially Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID), which have their peak incidence in adulthood, require a high suspicion index. Even though the estimated frequency of CVID is not high (1:25,000), high rates of under diagnosis and under reporting are very likely. The delay in diagnosis increases the morbidity and mortality; therefore, adult physicians should be able to suspect, identify and initiate management of individuals with PID. Here we report the case of a 37 year-old man presenting to the emergency room with dyspnea, fever and cough; he developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. He complained of recurring pneumonia associated with widespread bronchiectasis since he was 18 years old. Serum immunoglobulins quantification showed severe hypogammaglobulinemia (total IgG <140 mg/dL; total IgA, 2.9 mg/dL; and total IgM <5 mg/dL). Treatment with Human Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) 10% was started, and with antibiotic treatment for severe pneumonia (during 14 days) was also prescribed. His clinical evolution has been favorable after one year follow-up. Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) diagnosis was made.

Las inmunodeficiencias primarias (IDP) son patologías que tradicionalmente se consideran de la niñez sin embargo los adultos representan el 35% del total de pacientes con IDP. Las deficiencias de anticuerpos, en especial la Inmunodeficiencia Común Variable (IDCV) tienen su pico de incidencia en la edad adulta, requiere un alto índice de sospecha y si bien su frecuencia estimada no es alta (1:25,000), es muy posible que el subregistro y subdiagnóstico si lo sean. El retraso en el diagnóstico aumenta la morbi-mortalidad razón por la cual los médicos de adultos deben estar en capacidad de sospechar, identificar e iniciar el manejo de las personas con IPD. Presentamos el caso de un hombre de 37 años de edad atendido en la sala de urgencias con disnea, fiebre y tos, desarrolla falla respiratoria requiriendo ventilación mecánica. Refería neumonías a repetición desde los 18 años de edad asociadas con bronquiectasias generalizadas. La cuantificación de inmunoglobulinas séricas evidenció hipogammaglobulinemia severa (IgG total <140 mg/dL, IgA total 2.9 mg/dL, IgM total <5 mg/dL), se inició inmunoglobulina humana endovenosa (IGIV) al 10%, y recibió tratamiento antibiótico por 14 dias para neumonía severa, su evolución clínica ha sido favorable hasta ahora (un año de seguimiento), se estableció el diagnostico de Inmunodeficiencia Común Variable (IDCV).

Adult , Humans , Male , Agammaglobulinemia/etiology , Bronchiectasis/diagnosis , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/diagnosis , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Agammaglobulinemia/diagnosis , Bronchiectasis/drug therapy , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Fever/etiology , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/etiology , Recurrence
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83616


A 50-year-old male visited the outpatient clinic and complained of fever, poor oral intake, and weight loss. A chest X-ray demonstrated streaky and fibrotic lesions in both lungs, and chest CT revealed multifocal peribronchial patchy ground-glass opacities with septated cystic lesions in both lungs. Cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lymphocyte-dominant leukocytosis, and further analysis of lymphocyte subsets showed a predominance of cytotoxic T cells and few T helper cells. Video-assisted wedge resection of the left upper lobe was performed, and the histologic examination was indicative of a Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was orally administered for 3 weeks; however, the patient complained of cough, and the pneumonia was aggravated in the follow-up chest X-ray and chest CT. Molecular studies demonstrated mutations at codons 55 and 57 of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene, which is associated with the resistance to TMP-SMX. Clindamycin-primaquine was subsequently administered for 3 weeks replacing the TMP-SMX. A follow-up chest X-ray showed that the pneumonia was resolving, and the cough was also alleviated. A positive result of HIV immunoassay and elevated titer of HCV RNA indicated HIV infection as an underlying condition. This case highlights the importance of careful monitoring of patients with P. jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) during the course of treatment, and the molecular study of DHPS mutations. Additionally, altering the anti-PCP drug utilized as treatment must be considered when infection with drug-resistant P. jirovecii is suspected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of TMP-SMX-resistant PCP described in Korea.

Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Lung/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumocystis carinii/drug effects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Sulfamethoxazole/administration & dosage , Trimethoprim/administration & dosage