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1.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 68(2): 165-169, Feb. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365335

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: In this study, we evaluated the clinical characteristics and seasonal distribution of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax and examined the relationships between meteorological factors and pneumothorax development overall and in terms of first episode and recurrence. METHODS: The hospital records of 168 pneumothorax patients treated in our clinic between January 2016 and December 2020 were reviewed retrospectively. A cluster was defined as two or more patients with pneumothorax presenting within three consecutive days. Meteorological factors were compared between days with and without pneumothorax patients. This comparison was based on meteorological data from the day of symptom onset (D), the day before symptom onset (D1), and the difference between those days (D-D1). Meteorological data from the index day (D) were also compared between patients with first episode and recurrence of pneumothorax. RESULTS: The study included 149 (88.7%) men and 19 (11.3%) women. The mean age was 25.02±6.97 (range, 17-35; median, 26) years. Of note, 73 (43.4%) patients underwent surgery. The highest number of patients presented in November (n=19, 11.3%). In terms of season, most presentations occurred in autumn. Humidity was significantly lower on recurrence days compared with first episode (p=0.041). CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that meteorological factors (i.e., atmospheric pressure, humidity, wind speed, temperature, and precipitation) were not associated with pneumothorax development. By comparing the patients with first episode and recurrence, the humidity was significantly lower in the recurrence group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Recurrence , Atmospheric Pressure , Weather , Retrospective Studies , Meteorological Concepts
2.
S. Afr. med. j ; 112(2): 81-85, 2022.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1358373

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in an HIV-negative 21-year-old man recovering from abdominal and thoracic trauma. Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs collected at 12 time points over a 95-day span all tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Genotyping revealed canonical beta-variant E484K and N501Y mutations at earlier time points. Human rhinovirus, coronavirus NL63 and respiratory syncytial virus B were detected at different time points by RT-PCR. Full blood analysis at time point 9 (day 82) showed leukopenia with lymphocytosis. The patient's NP swab tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR 101 days after the first positive test. The prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in the context of trauma presented here is unique and has important implications for COVID-19 diagnosis, management and policy guidelines


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pneumothorax , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
3.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 318-323, 20220316. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362982

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Por ser un procedimiento de mínima invasión, la colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE) es el procedimiento más utilizado para el manejo de la patología litiásica biliar. Sin embargo, puede presentar complicaciones que comprometen la vida del paciente. Caso clínico. Paciente masculino de 63 años es llevado a CPRE por una coledocolitiasis recidivante gigante. Durante el procedimiento presentó una disección aérea masiva con neumotórax bilateral a tensión, secundarios a una perforación duodenal, que derivó en una fístula bilio-retroperitoneal. Se trató de forma conservadora con una adecuada evolución. Discusión. Se han descrito pocos casos de neumotórax como complicación de la CPRE. Se considera que este es el primer caso publicado de neumotórax a tensión manejado exitosamente de forma conservadora. Conclusión. El diagnóstico temprano de las disecciones aéreas es el único predictor independiente que podría cambiar el curso clínico de esta patología y su manejo dependerá de la experticia del cirujano y del estado clínico del paciente.


Introduction. Because it is a minimally invasive procedure, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the most widely used procedure for the management of biliary lithiasic pathology. However, it can present complications that compromise the life of the patient. Clinical case. A 63-year-old male patient is taken to ERCP for a giant recurrent choledocholithiasis. During the procedure presented a massive air dissection with bilateral tension pneumothorax, secondary to a duodenal perforation, which led to a bilio-retroperitoneal fistula. It was treated conservatively with adequate evolution.Discussion. Few cases of pneumothorax have been described as a complication of ERCP. This is considered to be the first published case of tension pneumothorax successfully managed conservatively. Conclusion. Early diagnosis of air dissections is the only independent predictor that could change the clinical course of this pathology, and its management will depend on the expertise of the surgeon and the clinical status of the patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biliary Fistula , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Pneumothorax , Prostheses and Implants , General Surgery
4.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1414, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357300

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El neumotórax espontáneo es la causa más frecuente de ingreso urgente en los servicios de cirugía torácica. Objetivo: Caracterizar a pacientes ingresados con diagnóstico de neumotórax espontáneo. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de 93 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico y radiológico de neumotórax espontáneo, se establecieron las variables del estudio y se utilizaron frecuencias absolutas y porcentajes. Para la asociación de las variables se empleó el estadígrafo ji cuadrado con un nivel de confiabilidad del 95 por ciento. Resultados: Predominó el neumotórax espontáneo primario (65,5 por ciento), el sexo masculino fue el más afectado (80,6 por ciento), con mayor frecuencia en el hemitórax derecho (72,2 por ciento) y el tabaquismo como antecedente (83,9 por ciento). La pleurostomía mínima fue el tratamiento definitivo en el 72 por ciento de los pacientes. La complicación más frecuente después de la pleurostomía, fue la fuga persistente de aire. El tratamiento quirúrgico con pleurodesis mecánica, ofreció un 100 por ciento de efectividad. La mortalidad quirúrgica fue nula. Conclusiones: El neumotórax espontáneo predomina en el sexo masculino en una proporción de 4,2:1, en pacientes menores de 40 años de edad. El antecedente patológico personal que más se asocia es la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. El síntoma predominante es el dolor torácico. El neumotórax espontáneo primario fue más frecuente y el hemitórax derecho el más afectado. El tabaquismo está presente como antecedente en ambos tipos de neumotórax espontáneo. La modalidad de tratamiento más utilizada es la pleurostomía mínima(AU)


Introduction: Spontaneous pneumothorax is the most frequent cause of urgent admission to thoracic surgery services. Objective: To characterize patients admitted with a diagnosis of spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: A descriptive study of 93 patients with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of spontaneous pneumothorax was carried out, the study variables were established and absolute frequencies and percentages were used. For the association of the variables, the chi square statistic was used with a confidence level of 95 percent. Results: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax predominated (65.5 percent), the male sex was the most affected (80.6 percent), with greater frequency in the right hemithorax (72.2 percent) and smoking as the antecedent (83.9 percent). Minimal pleurostomy was the definitive treatment in 72 percent of the patients. The most frequent complication after pleurostomy was persistent air leak. Surgical treatment with mechanical pleurodesis offered 100 percent effectiveness. There was not surgical mortality. Conclusions: Spontaneous pneumothorax predominated in males in a ratio of 4.2: 1, in patients under 40 years of age. The most associated personal pathological history was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The predominant symptom was chest pain. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax was more frequent and the right hemithorax the most affected. Smoking was present as a history in both types of spontaneous pneumothorax. The most widely used treatment modality was minimal pleurostomy(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Tobacco Use Disorder , Smoking , Clinical Diagnosis , Pleurodesis/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Pneumothorax/therapy , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Thoracentesis/methods
5.
Medisan ; 25(4)2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1340211

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El trauma torácico se encuentra entre las primeras causas de muerte, fundamentalmente en personas jóvenes. Objetivos: Caracterizar a una población operada por traumatismos torácicos según variables clinicoepidemiológicas y describir los hallazgos tomográficos posquirúrgicos. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional y descriptivo de 48 pacientes atendidos en el Servicio de Radiología del Provincial Clínico-Quirúrgico Docente Saturnino Lora de Santiago de Cuba, de enero del 2016 a diciembre del 2018, a los cuales se les realizó tomografía computarizada multidetector. Resultados: Los traumas torácicos predominaron en personas jóvenes del sexo masculino, asociadas fundamentalmente a acciones violentas que provocaron traumas abiertos. La contusión pulmonar resultó ser el hallazgo tomográfico inicial más frecuente, en tanto, el neumotórax persistente y el hemotórax coagulado constituyeron los hallazgos tomográficos más influyentes en la decisión de una reintervención quirúrgica. Conclusiones: La tomografía es un medio diagnóstico que permite una descripción detallada del estado posoperatorio de los órganos afectados, con un alto valor orientativo para decidir procedimientos quirúrgicos posteriores.


Introduction: The thoracic trauma is among the first causes of death, fundamentally in young people. Objectives: To characterize a population operated due to thoracic trauma according to clinical epidemiological variables and describe the postsurgical tomographic findings. Methods: An observational and descriptive study of 48 patients assisted in the Radiology Service of Saturnino Lora Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2016 to December, 2018, to whom a multidetector computed tomography was carried out. Results: The thoracic traumas prevailed in young male people, fundamentally associated with violent actions that caused open traumas. The lung contusion was the most frequent initial tomographic finding, as long as, the persistent pneumothorax and the coagulated hemothorax constituted the most influential tomographic findings in the decision of a surgical reintervention. Conclusions: Tomography is a diagnostic means that allows a detailed description of the postoperative state in the affected organs, with a high orientative value to decide later surgical procedures.


Subject(s)
Thoracic Injuries/surgery , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Multidetector Computed Tomography , Pneumothorax/surgery , Thoracic Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Hemothorax/surgery
6.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 20(3): e3539, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280435

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las neumonías constituyen un grave problema de salud al ser causa frecuente de morbilidad y mortalidad infantil en el mundo. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento de las neumonías graves en un grupo de pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica (UTIP) del Hospital Pediátrico Docente Borrás-Marfán. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo, en 223 pacientes que ingresaron en el servicio de terapia intensiva mencionado, entre agosto de 2015 y diciembre de 2019, con diagnóstico de neumonía grave. Se caracterizó la muestra según variables demográficas, complicaciones, procederes invasivos realizados, aislamiento microbiológico, antibióticos utilizados y estadía en el servicio. Para el análisis de los resultados se empleó la estadística descriptiva. Resultados: El grupo de edades más representativo fue el de 1-4 años, con un ligero predominio de varones. Las complicaciones más frecuentes fueron el derrame pleural, el neumatocele y el neumotórax. Requirieron toracocentesis el 40,81 por ciento de los casos y pleurotomía el 33,18 por ciento. El principal germen aislado fue el Streptococcus Pneumoniae y la mayoría de los pacientes necesitaron dos antibióticos para el tratamiento. Conclusiones: En el período estudiado, la principal complicación de la neumonía fue el derrame pleural y se realizó toracocentesis y pleurotomía en aproximadamente la mitad de los casos con buenos resultados. El uso de dos antibióticos en la mayoría de los pacientes según los protocolos establecidos resultó efectivo(AU)


Introduction: Pneumonia is a serious health problem because it is a frequent cause of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objective: To describe the behavior of severe pneumonia in a group of patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Borrás-Marfán Pediatric Hospital. Material and Methods: An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in 223 patients with the diagnosis of severe pneumonia admitted to the aforementioned intensive care service from August 2015 to December 2019. The sample was characterized according to demographic variables, complications, invasive procedures performed, microbiological isolation, type of antibiotics used, and the number of days spent in the hospital. Descriptive statistics was used for the analysis of results. Results: The most representative age group was 1-4 years, with a slight predominance of males. The most frequent complications were pleural effusion, pneumatocele and pneumothorax. In this group, 40.81 percentof the cases required thoracentesis and 33.18 percent underwent pleurotomy. The main isolated germ was the Streptococcus Pneumoniae and most of the patients needed treatment with two antibiotics. Conclusions: During the period studied, the principal complication of pneumonia was the pleural effusion. Approximately half of the cases underwent thoracentesis and pleurotomy and good results were achieved. The use of two antibiotics according to established protocols were effective, too(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Pleural Effusion , Pneumothorax , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Critical Care , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Retrospective Studies
7.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 36(1): 155-160, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1150543

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo de este artículo fue reportar el caso de un paciente con antecedente de enfisema bulloso bilateral que le ocasionó un neumotórax persistente de difícil tratamiento. Caso clínico. Se trata de un paciente de 50 años de edad con diagnóstico de neumotórax asociado con un enfisema bulloso bilateral, en quien estaba contraindicado el tratamiento quirúrgico. El cuadro clínico comenzó con dolor en el hemitórax derecho y disnea, que se fue intensificando hasta el punto de no tolerar el decúbito. En la radiografía de tórax se observó colapso del pulmón derecho con múltiples bulas en ambos pulmones, por lo que se practicó una pleurotomía mínima alta derecha. La evolución del paciente no fue favorable por persistir el neumotórax, lo cual llevó al uso de un tratamiento alternativo. Discusión. En los pacientes con neumotórax persistente por enfisema bulloso bilateral sin indicación quirúrgica, el talco es una alternativa menos invasiva para lograr una sínfisis pleural con buenos resultados, método cuya utilidad se demuestra


Introduction. The aim of this report was to present the case of a patient with a history of bilateral bullous emphysema that causes a persistent pneumothorax that was difficult to treat. Clinical case. This is a 50-year-old patient diagnosed with pneumothorax associated with bilateral bullous emphysema, in whom surgical treatment being contraindicated. The clinical picture began with pain in the right hemithorax and dyspnea, which intensified to the point of not tolerating decubitus. In the chest X-ray, collapse of the right lung was observed with multiple bullae in both lungs, therefore a right upper minimum pleurotomy was performed. The patient's evolution was not favorable due to persisting pneumothorax, which led to the use of an alternative treatment. Discussion. In patients with persistent pneumothorax due to bilateral bullous emphysema without surgical indication, talc is a less invasive alternative to achieve a pleural symphysis with good results, a method whose utility is demonstrated


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumothorax , Diagnostic Imaging , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Lung Diseases
8.
Clinics ; 76: e2242, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pneumothorax is a catastrophic event associated with high morbidity and mortality, and it is relatively common in neonates. This study aimed to investigate the association between ventilatory parameters and the risk of developing pneumothorax in extremely low birth weight neonates. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study analyzed 257 extremely low birth weight neonates admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit between January 2012 and December 2017. A comparison was carried out to evaluate the highest value of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), and driving pressure (DP) in the first 7 days of life between neonates who developed pneumothorax and those who did not. The primary outcome was pneumothorax with chest drainage necessity in the first 7 days of life. A matched control group was created in order to adjust for cofounders associated with pneumothorax (CRIB II score, birth weight, and gestational age). RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in PEEP, PIP, and DP values in the first 7 days of life between extremely low birth weight neonates who had pneumothorax with chest drainage necessity and those who did not have pneumothorax, even after adjusting for potential cofounders. CONCLUSIONS: Pressure-related ventilatory settings in mechanically ventilated extremely low birth weight neonates are not associated with a higher risk of pneumothorax in the first 7 days of life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Gestational Age , Infant, Extremely Premature
9.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(4): 147-151, 20201200. fig
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146911

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Revisões de exames de imagem de tórax durante a pandemia pela COVID-19 relatam que pneumotórax é evento raro, quando não associado à ventilação mecânica. Relatamos um caso de paciente com COVID-19 que apresentou pneumotórax e discutimos sua fisiopatologia, com descrição inédita de alteração anatômica promovida pela COVID-19. Descrição do caso: Paciente de 46 anos, em fase de recuperação de síndrome respiratória aguda pela COVID-19, com exame RT-PCR (transcrição reversa - reação em cadeia da polimerase) para COVID-19 positivo que desenvolveu quadro agudo de dor, falta de ar, hemoptoico e dispneia de início abrupto devido a hidropneumotórax moderado, sem ter sido submetido a ventilação com pressão positiva. O pneumotórax foi prontamente drenado, evoluindo com alta hospitalar após seis dias, com reexpansão pulmonar, mas ainda apresentando lesões em vidro fosco pulmonares típicas da COVID-19 e pequena lesão cística, visível desde a primeira tomografia, feita na fase aguda e com remissão completa na fase de convalescência. Discussão: Apresentamos uma manifestação rara da síndrome respiratória aguda pela COVID-19, ainda não relatada no Brasil, e que associamos com a formação de cistos pulmonares e piora da complacência pulmonar. Conclusão: Pneumotórax deve ser lembrado como hipótese diagnóstica em pacientes que apresentam quadro súbito de dor torácica, dispneia e hipoxemia e sugerimos rever seus exames de imagens em busca de lesões que justifiquem a ruptura pleural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Pneumothorax , Case Reports , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus
10.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(4): e401, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144319

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has increased exponentially in recent years and has shown to be effective in treating adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to HiNi-related pneumonia. However, evidence remains controversial. This study describes a case series of ECMO in ARDS secondary to viral pneumonia. Methods A search was conducted in the ECMO database of Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia for the 20132017 period. A case series report was written of patients diagnosed with ARDS secondary to confirmed or suspected viral pneumonia. Results Nineteen patients with ECMO support and ARDS due to viral pneumonia were included in the study. The survival rate upon discharge was 11 patients (58%) and weaning from ECMO support was successful in 13 patients (68%). Hemorrhagic complications were the most frequent: gastrointestinal bleeding, 10 patients (53%); intracranial bleeding, 2 (10%); alveolar hemorrhage, 2 (10%);' hemothorax requiring thoracostomy with chest tube drainage, 2 (10%); cannulation site bleeding, 9 patients (47%); and surgical site bleeding in 3 patients (25%) who required tracheostomy. Other complications were: pneumothorax, 1 patient (5%); sepsis, 6 patients (32%); and growth of microorganisms in bronchial lavage, 6 patients (32%). Conclusions This study supports the use of veno-venous ECMO to achieve a higher survival rate than expected in patients with severe ARDS and refractory hypoxemia secondary to viral pneumonia. Early initiation of the therapy should improve overall results.


Resumen Introducción El uso de la oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea (ECMO) ha tenido un incremento exponencial en los últimos años y ha demostrado ser efectivo en el manejo del síndrome de dificultad respiratoria del adulto (SDRA) secundario a neumonía por H1N1, si bien la evidencia sigue siendo controvertida. En este estudio describimos una serie de casos de ECMO por SDRA secundario a neumonía viral. Métodos Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de datos de ECMO de la Fundación Cardiovascular desde el año 20132017. Reportamos una serie de casos donde se incluyeron pacientes diagnosticados con SDRA secundario a neumonía viral sospechosa o confirmada. Resultados Se incluyeron en el estudio 19 pacientes con soporte de ECMO y SDRA por neumonía viral. La sobrevida al alta fue 11 pacientes (58%) y el destete del ECMO fue exitoso en 13 pacientes (68%). Las complicaciones hemorrágicas presentadas fueron: sangrado digestivo, 10 pacientes (53%), sangrado cerebral, 2 (10%), hemorragia alveolar, 2 (10%), hemotórax con requerimiento de toracostomía a drenaje cerrado, 2 (10%), sangrado activo por sitio de canulación, 9 pacientes (53%), y 3 pacientes traqueostomizados (25%) que sangraron por el sitio quirúrgico. Otras complicaciones presentadas fueron: neumotórax, 1 paciente (5%), septicemia, 6 (32%) y crecimiento de microorganismos en lavados bronquiales 6 (32%). Conclusion El presente estudio permite indicar que el uso de la ECMO VV viabiliza una sobrevida mayor a la esperada en pacientes con SDRA severo e hipoxemia refractaria secundario a neumonía viral. Su inicio tempranamente debe mejorar los resultados globales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral , Poisons , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Chest Tubes , Hemothorax , Pneumothorax , Thoracostomy , Tracheostomy , Catheterization , Survival Rate , Sepsis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
11.
Rev. cuba. med ; 59(4): e1435, oct.-dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144511

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La linfangioleiomiomatosis pulmonar constituye un desafío, tanto en su manejo diagnóstico como en la atención de sus complicaciones. Es una enfermedad rara que se caracteriza por la proliferación del músculo liso alrededor de las estructuras bronco-vasculares, linfáticos y en el intersticio pulmonar, unido a la dilatación quística de los espacios aéreos terminales. Objetivo: Describir la evolución clínica y el tratamiento de un paciente con linfangioleiomiomatosis pulmonar. Presentación de caso: Se presenta un caso de linfangioleiomiomatosis pulmonar que desde el punto de vista clínico se manifestó por neumotórax a repetición. Se llegó a diagnóstico definitivo mediante la realización de una biopsia de pulmón. Desarrollo: La linfangioleiomiomatosis es una entidad rara que afecta fundamentalmente a mujeres en edad fértil y que se caracteriza por la presencia de un patrón quístico difuso. Su prevalencia e incidencia es desconocida. Conclusiones: Se puede concluir que la presencia de neumotórax espontáneo o recidivante en una mujer en edad fértil, o embarazada, debe sospecharse linfangioleiomiomatosis(AU)


Introduction: Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis constitutes a challenge, both in its diagnostic management and in the care of complications. It is a rare disease characterized by the proliferation of smooth muscle around the bronchovascular and lymphatic structures and in the pulmonary interstitium, together with cystic dilation of the terminal air spaces. Objective: To describe a diagnosed case of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Case report: A case of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis is reported, which was clinically showed as recurrent pneumothorax. A definitive diagnosis was reached by performing a lung biopsy. Discussion: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a rare entity that mainly affects women of childbearing age and is characterized by the presence of a diffuse cystic pattern. Its prevalence and incidence is unknown. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the presence of spontaneous or recurrent pneumothorax in a woman of childbearing age, or pregnant, should be suspected lymphangioleiomyomatosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pneumothorax/complications , Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/diagnosis , Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/mortality , Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/pathology
12.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(3): e698, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144439

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El neumotórax es una de las enfermedades pleurales más frecuentes en la práctica médica, siendo excepcional su asociación con el embarazo, existiendo pocos casos reportados en la literatura mundial. La linfangioleiomiomatosis es una enfermedad multisistémica poco frecuente, que afecta predominante al sexo femenino en edad fértil y puede verse exacerbada por el embarazo. Objetivo: Realizar el reporte de un caso y la revisión del tema que permitan un diagnóstico precoz y una conducta de forma temprana. Caso clínico: Paciente gestante de 15 semanas, de 36 años de edad, con antecedentes de salud anterior, que debuta súbitamente con disnea a los medianos esfuerzos, tos, dolor torácico y neumotórax derecho espontáneo, recurrente en su evolución y posteriormente bilateral. Su curso fue tórpido requiriendo tratamiento en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos por fallo respiratorio agudo, falleciendo luego de 3 meses del inicio del cuadro. Se le realizó, Radiografía de tórax: patrón reticular de tipo panal de abejas, tomografía de tórax: imágenes quísticas múltiples en todo parénquima pulmonar de predominio basal. Biopsia pulmonar compatible con linfangioleiomiomatosis. Conclusiones: La aparición de disnea súbita, dolor pleurítico y neumotórax en una gestante, deben ser siempre suficientes para tener en cuenta la presencia de una linfangioleiomiomatosis. Su inespecificidad sintomática inicial se traduce en un diagnóstico tardío, lo que empobrece su pronóstico(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Pneumothorax is one of the pleural diseases most frequent in medical practice. Its association with pregnancy is essential. Few cases are reported in worldwide medical literature. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a rare multisystem disease that predominantly affects individuals of the female sex and at fertile age; it can be aggravated by pregnancy. Objective: To present a case report and a topic review that allow early diagnosis and early management. Clinical case: A 15-week-pregnant patient aged 36 years and with a previous health history suddenly presented dyspnea for average efforts, cough, chest pain, and spontaneous right pneumothorax, recurrent in its evolution and, later, bilateral. Its evolution was slow, a reason why it required intensive care for acute respiratory failure. The patient died three months after the onset of symptoms. The patient was performed chest x-ray, which showed honeycomb-type reticular pattern; and chest tomography, which showed multiple cystic images throughout pulmonary parenchyma, predominantly at baseline. Lung biopsy consistent with lymphangioleiomyomatosis was performed. Conclusions: Onset of sudden dyspnea, pleuritic pain and pneumothorax in a pregnant woman should always be sufficiently indicative of lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Its initial symptomatic non-specificity is determined by late diagnosis, which impoverishes prognosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pneumothorax/etiology , Lymphangioleiomyomatosis/diagnostic imaging , Early Diagnosis , Intensive Care Units
13.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(3): 269-272, July-Sept. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134998

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The Coronavirus belongs to a family of RNA viruses that can cause respiratory infection, with the possibility of gastrointestinal manifestations in approximately 5-50% of the cases. Objective: To report a surgical case with a diagnosis of COVID-19 that developed acute perforated abdomen and pneumothorax. Case report: This was an 80-year-old female patient with respiratory symptoms, with dry cough and fever and diffuse abdominal pain with signs of peritonitis. She had leukocytosis, kidney dysfunction and an increase in D-dimer with positive PCR for COVID. Computed tomography of the chest and abdomen showed pneumothorax on the right and extensive pneumoperitoneum. Conclusion: The presentation of COVID-19 with severe pulmonary and abdominal complications requires specialized and emergency treatments, but it has high mortality rates.


Resumo Introdução: O coronavírus pertence a uma família de vírus RNA que pode causar infecção respiratória com possibilidade de manifestações gastrintestinais em torno de 5% a 50% dos casos. Objetivo: Relatar caso operado com diagnóstico de COVID-19 e evolução com abdome agudo perfurativo e pneumotórax. Relato do caso: Paciente do sexo feminino de 80 anos com sintomas respiratórios com tosse seca e febre e dor abdominal difusa com sinais de peritonite. Apresentava leucocitose, disfunção renal e aumento de D-dímero com PCR positivo para COVID. Tomografia computadorizada de tórax e abdome demonstrando pneumotórax à direita e extenso pneumoperitônio. Conclusão: A apresentação do COVID-19 com sérias complicações pulmonar e abdominal requer tratamentos especializados e em regime de emergência, entretanto com altas taxas de mortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , Abdomen, Acute , Pneumoperitoneum , Pneumothorax , Colostomy
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 473-478, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287200

ABSTRACT

Resumen La deficiencia de alfa-1 antitripsina (AAT) es uno de los trastornos hereditarios más frecuentes y con mayor incidencia en pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC). Se desconoce su prevalencia en aquellos con neumotórax espontáneo. El objetivo fue estimar la prevalencia de deficiencia de AAT en sujetos con neumotórax espontáneo. El estudio fue prospectivo y de corte transversal en pacientes con neumotórax espontáneo primario. Se excluyeron aquellos con neumotórax secundario. Se realizó cuantificación de AAT en suero por nefelometría y posterior genotipificación rápida (PCR en tiempo real) para detectar los alelos de deficiencia más prevalentes (Z y S) en aquellos con concentraciones séricas ≤ 120 mg/dl. Se incluyeron 58 pacientes con neumotórax espontáneo primario. La edad promedio fue de 34 ± 13 años con predominio de sexo masculino (72%) y alta prevalencia de tabaquismo actual y pasado (60%). Del total, el 26% (IC95%: 15-39) presentó concentraciones de AAT ≤ 120mg/dl. Encontramos 7 formas deficitarias (12%; IC 95%: 5-23%). Un paciente presentó una forma grave Pi*ZZ (1.7%), 3 fueron heterocigotos Z (5.2%) y 3 heterocigotos S (5.2%). La prevalencia de variantes deficitarias de AAT fue alta en este grupo con neumotórax espontáneo.


Abstract Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is one of the most common inherited disorders with a higher incidence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its prevalence in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax is unknown. The objective was to estimate the prevalence of AAT deficiency in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. This was a prospective cross-sectional study, in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax, where those with secondary pneumothorax were excluded. Quantification of serum AAT by nephelometry and subsequent rapid genotyping (real time PCR) was performed, in order to detect the most prevalent deficiency alleles (Z and S) in those subjects with serum AAT concentrations ≤ 120 mg/dl. Fifty-eight patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax were included. The average age was 34 ± 13 years with male predominance (72%) and high prevalence of current and past smoking (60%). Twenty six percent of them (95% CI: 15-39) presented AAT serum concentrations ≤ 120mg/dl. We found 7 deficiency variants (12%; IC 95%: 5-23%). One patient presented a severe Pi*ZZ form (1.7%), 3 were heterozygotes Z (5.2%) and 3 heterozygotes S (5.2%). The prevalence of AAT deficient variants was high in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/complications , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/genetics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
15.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 35(1): 75-83, 2020. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1095476

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El trauma de tórax tiene alta incidencia y el neumotórax es el hallazgo más frecuente. La literatura es escasa sobre qué hacer con los pacientes asintomáticos y con neumotórax por trauma de tórax penetrante. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar cuáles son los hallazgos de la radiografía de control de los pacientes con trauma de tórax penetrante que no son llevados inicialmente a cirugía, y su utilidad para determinar la necesidad de un tratamiento adicional. Métodos. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de cohorte, incluyendo pacientes mayores de 15 años que ingresaron por trauma de tórax penetrante entre enero de 2015 y diciembre de 2017 y que no requirieron manejo quirúrgico inicial. Se analizaron los resultados de la radiografía de tórax, el tiempo de su toma y la conducta decidida según los hallazgos en los pacientes dejados inicialmente bajo observación. Resultados. Se incluyeron 1.554 pacientes, cuya edad promedio fue de 30 años, 92,5 % del sexo masculino y 97% con herida por arma cortopunzante. Se dejaron 361 pacientes bajo observación con radiografía de control, de los cuales 186 (51,5 %) no presentaban alteraciones en su radiografía inicial, 142 tenían neumotórax menor del 30 % y 33 tenían neumotórax mayor del 30 %, hemoneumotórax o hemotórax. Se requirió toracostomía cerrada como conducta final en 78 casos, esternotomía o toracotomía en 2 casos y 281 se dieron de alta. Conclusión. En pacientes asintomáticos con neumotórax pequeño o moderado y sin otras lesiones significativas, podrían ser innecesarios los largos tiempos de observación, las radiografías y la toracostomía cerrada


Introduction: Chest trauma has a high incidence, and pneumothorax is the most frequent finding. The literature is limited about what to do with asymptomatic patients with pneumothorax due to penetrating chest trauma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the findings of control follow-up chest x-ray in patients with penetrating chest trauma who are not initially taken to surgery and its usefulness in determining the need for additional management.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted, including patients older than 15 years who were admitted for penetrating chest trauma between January 2015 and December 2017 and who did not require initial surgical management. The results of the chest x-ray, the timing of it and the management according to the findings in the patients initially left under observation were analyzed.Results: 1,554 patients were included; whose average age was 30 years, 92.5% were males and 97% sustained a gunshot wound; 361 patients were left under observation with control x-ray, of which 186 (51,5%) had no findings on their initial radiograph, 142 had pneumothorax less than 30% and 33 had pneumothorax greater than 30%, hemoneumotorax or hemothorax. Closed thoracostomy was required as final management in 78 cases, sternotomy or thoracotomy in 2 cases and discharge in 281.Conclusion: In asymptomatic patients with small or moderate pneumothorax and without other significant injuries, longer observation times, x-rays and closed thoracostomy may be unnecessary


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Injuries , Pneumothorax , Diagnostic Imaging , Radiography, Thoracic
16.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 35(3): 404-413, 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1123170

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 principalmente se da por gotas y contacto cercano con las per-sonas infectadas, pero los aerosoles parecen ser también una fuente de infección. El neumotórax espontáneo o secundario puede presentarse en pacientes con COVID-19, ayudado por patologías de base como la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica. Es necesario garantizar procedimientos seguros para los pacientes y buscar todas las medidas posibles para la protección del personal de la salud, por eso el drenaje de neumotórax con catéter pleural en lugar de sonda de toracostomía puede ser una de ellas.El objetivo de este estudio es presentar a los cirujanos una alternativa a la toracostomía tradicional, mediante la utilización de catéteres de menor diámetro, para la resolución de la ocupación pleural.Aspectos Técnicos. Se presenta el protocolo para inserción segura de un catéter pleural para el drenaje de neumotórax, mediante un sistema completamente cerrado, y se dan recomendaciones sobre el uso de filtros virales y solución viricida en el sistema de drenaje pleural conectado al catéter. Conclusión. El estado de pandemia por COVID-19 y el riesgo que representa para los profesionales de la salud la exposición a fuentes de transmisión durante procedimientos generadores de aerosoles, hace que se deban extremar las medidas para evitar el contagio.


Introduction. The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 mainly occurs by drops and close contact with infected people, but aerosols also seem to be a source of infection. Spontaneous or secondary pneumothorax can occur in patients with COVID-19, helped by underlying pathologies such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is necessary to guarantee safe procedures for patients and to seek all possible measures for the protection of health personnel, so drainage of pneumothorax with a pleural catheter instead of a thoracostomy tube may be one of those. The objective of this study is to present surgeons with an alternative to traditional thoracostomy, using smaller diameter catheters, to resolve pleural occupancy.Technical aspects. The protocol for the safe insertion of a pleural catheter for pneumothorax drainage is presented, using a completely closed system, and recommendations are given on the use of viral filters and viricidal solution in the pleural drainage system connected to the catheter.Conclusions. The state of the COVID-19 pandemic and the risk that exposure to sources of transmission sources during aerosol-generating procedures represents for health professionals means that extreme measures must be taken to avoid contagion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Betacoronavirus , Pneumothorax , Thoracostomy , Coronavirus Infections
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(8): e9469, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132537

ABSTRACT

This is a retrospective, single-center observational study to explore the predictors of chest drainage for neonatal pneumothorax. A total of 183 neonates (age ≤28 days) who presented to the Children's Hospital of Soochow University between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2018 for pneumothorax or developed pneumothorax during a hospital stay were included. Demographic data, clinical presentation, and imaging characteristics of neonatal pneumothorax were collected and analyzed. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine significant predictors of chest drainage of pneumothorax in neonates. Pneumothorax occurred within 24 h after birth in 131 (71.6%) cases, between 24 and 48 h after birth in 41 (22.4%) cases, and 48 h after birth in 11 (6.0%) cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that lung collapse ≥1/3 on initial chest X-ray (OR 4.99, 95%CI 2.25-11.07), chest retractions (OR 8.12, 95%CI 2.88-22.89), cyanosis (OR 2.25, 95%CI 1.08-4.66), and frothing from mouth (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.12-5.49) (P<0.05 for all) were significant predictors of the need for chest drainage due to pneumothorax. In conclusion, the thorough evaluation of the above predictive factors can guide treatment and improve patient outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pneumothorax , Meconium Aspiration Syndrome , Retrospective Studies , Dyspnea , Length of Stay
19.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 125-138, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827837

ABSTRACT

Physical traumas are tragic and multifaceted injuries that suddenly threaten life. Although it is the third most common cause of death in all age groups, one out of four trauma patients die due to thoracic injury or its complications. Blunt injuries constitute the majority of chest trauma. This indicates the importance of chest trauma among all traumas. Blunt chest trauma is usually caused by motor vehicle accident, falling from height, blunt instrument injury and physical assault. As a result of chest trauma, many injuries may occur, such as pulmonary injuries, and these require urgent intervention. Chest wall and pulmonary injuries range from rib fractures to flail chest, pneumothorax to hemothorax and pulmonary contusion to tracheobronchial injuries. Following these injuries, patients may present with a simple dyspnea or even respiratory arrest. For such patient, it is important to understand the treatment logic and to take a multidisciplinary approach to treat the pulmonary and chest wall injuries. This is because only 10% of thoracic trauma patients require surgical operation and the remaining 90% can be treated with simple methods such as appropriate airway, oxygen support, maneuvers, volume support and tube thoracostomy. Adequate pain control in chest trauma is sometimes the most basic and best treatment. With definite diagnosis, the morbidity and mortality can be significantly reduced by simple treatment methods.


Subject(s)
Flail Chest , Therapeutics , Hemothorax , Therapeutics , Humans , Lung Injury , Therapeutics , Pain Management , Pneumothorax , Therapeutics , Rib Fractures , Therapeutics , Thoracic Injuries , Therapeutics , Thoracic Wall , Wounds and Injuries , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Therapeutics
20.
CorSalud ; 11(3): 211-218, jul.-set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089739

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La disección de la arteria torácica interna es uno de los procedimientos más definitorios de la cirugía de revascularización miocárdica, pues se ha demostrado que la calidad de vida y la evolución a corto y largo plazo de los pacientes dependerán de las características morfológicas del injerto. Hace más de 25 años se propuso la utilización de un separador pulmonar maleable para facilitar la disección de la arteria torácica interna, especialmente su segmento proximal, pero nunca se ha fabricado ese dispositivo. Se presenta un separador pulmonar manufacturado a partir de dispositivos en desuso, empleados en cirugía coronaria. Se comentan y discuten las principales ventajas demostradas durante más de tres años en cerca de un centenar de pacientes.


ABSTRACT Internal thoracic artery dissection is one of the most defining procedures of coronary artery bypass grafting, as it has been demonstrated that the quality of life and short-long term outcome of patients will depend on the morphological characteristics of the graft. More than 25 years ago, the use of a malleable lung spreader was proposed to facilitate the internal thoracic artery dissection especially its proximal segment, but that device has never been manufactured. A lung spreader, assembled from disused devices, used in coronary artery revascularization is presented. The main advantages confirmed over more than three years in nearly a hundred patients are discussed and commented upon.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Revascularization , Pneumothorax , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Pleural Cavity , Mammary Arteries
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