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Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210050, 2021. tab, graf, mapas
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1346609


The structure of freshwater assemblages may be driven directly by urbanization or indirectly by a reduction in environmental heterogeneity (EH). Disentangling the effects of urbanization and EH requires uncorrelated proxies of each of these factors. We assessed the effects of the degree of urbanization and EH on the structure of fish assemblages. We sampled fish in 45 streams located in the urban area of Cuiabá. We assessed the effects of urbanization and EH on rarefied fish species richness (Srarefied), the local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD), and composition with linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis. Our indexes of urbanization and EH were not correlated. We found that both Srarefied and the LCBD decreased with an increasing degree of urbanization, but were not associated with EH. We also noted that few native fish species abundances were associated with the EH. Serrapinnus microdon, S. calliurus, Hemigrammus tridens, and Astyanax lacustris were abundant in streams with a lower degree of urbanization. The non-native Poecilia reticulata was more abundant in streams with a higher degree of urbanization. Our results highlight that urbanization leads in negative impacts on fish assemblages, such as decreases in diversity and the dominance of non-native species.(AU)

A estrutura de assembleias de água doce pode ser influenciada diretamente pela urbanização ou indiretamente por reduções em heterogeneidade ambiental (HA). Para separar os efeitos da urbanização dos da HA, variáveis substitutas a esses processos precisam ser não-correlacionadas. Avaliamos os efeitos do grau de urbanização e HA na estrutura das assembleias de peixes. Amostramos peixes em 45 riachos localizados na área urbana de Cuiabá. Avaliamos os efeitos da urbanização e HA na riqueza rarefeita de espécies de peixes (Srarefeita), contribuição local para a diversidade beta (LCBD) e composição de espécies utilizando modelos lineares e análise de redundância baseada em distância. Nossos índices de urbanização e HA não foram correlacionados. Observamos que tanto a Srarefeita e a LCBD diminuíram com aumentos no grau de urbanização, mas não foram correlacionadas com a HA. Também observamos que as abundâncias de poucas espécies de peixes nativos correlacionaram-se com HA. Serrapinnus microdon, S. calliurus, Hemigrammus tridens e Astyanax lacustris foram mais abundantes em riachos com menor grau de urbanização. A não-nativa Poecilia reticulata foi mais abundante em riachos com maior grau de urbanização. Nossos resultados destacam que a urbanização resulta em impactos negativos nas assembleias de peixes, tais como reduções da diversidade e a dominância de espécies não-nativas.(AU)

Animals , Urbanization , Poecilia/growth & development , Biodiversity , Fishes/growth & development , Population Groups , Fresh Water
Rev. biol. trop ; 65(1): 267-277, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897540


Abstract:Predators can influence a variety of prey traits, including behavior. Traits such as boldness, activity rate, and tendency to explore can all be shaped by predation risk. Our study examines the effects of predation on these behaviors by considering a natural system in which two sister species of livebearing fishes, Brachyrhaphis roseni and B. terrabensis, experience divergent predation environments. In February of 2013, we collected fish in the Río Chiriquí Nuevo drainage, Chiriquí, Panama, and conducted behavioral assays. Using open-field behavioral assays, we evaluated both juveniles and adults, and males and females, to determine if there were differences in behavior between ontogenetic stages or between sexes. We assessed boldness as 'time to emerge' from a shelter into a novel environment, and subsequently measured activity and exploration within that novel environment. We predicted that B. roseni (a species that co-occurs with predators) would be more bold, more active, and more prone to explore, than B. terrabensis (a species that does not co-occur with predators). In total, we tested 17 juveniles, 21 adult males, and 20 adult females of B. roseni, and 19 juveniles, 19 adult males, and 18 adult females of B. terrabensis. We collected all animals from streams in Chiriquí, Panama in February 2013, and tested them following a short acclimation period to laboratory conditions. As predicted, we found that predation environment was associated with several differences in behavior. Both adult and juvenile B. roseni were more active and more prone to explore than B. terrabensis. However, we found no differences in boldness in either adults or juveniles. We also found a significant interaction between 'sex' and 'species' as predictors of boldness and exploration, indicating that predation environment can affect behaviors of males and females differently in each species. Our work demonstrates the importance of considering sex and life history stage when evaluating the evolution of behavior. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65 (1): 267-277. Epub 2017 March 01.

ResumenLos depredadores pueden influenciar una variedad de rasgos de la presa, incluyendo el comportamiento. Los rasgos tales como la audacia, nivel de actividad, y la tendencia a explorar; pueden ser moldeados por el riesgo de depredación. Nuestro estudio examina los efectos de la depredación en el comportamiento al considerar un sistema natural en el que dos especies hermanas de peces vivíparos, Brachyrhaphis roseni y B. terrabensis, se presentan en ambientes de depredación divergente. En febrero 2013, recolectamos peces en el drenaje del Río Chiriquí Nuevo, Chiriquí, Panamá y llevamos a cabo ensayos de comportamiento. Al usar ensayos de comportamiento en campo abierto, se evaluó el comportamiento en juveniles y adultos, machos y hembras, para determinar si los patrones de divergencia diferían entre las etapas ontogenéticas o entre sexos. Se evaluó la audacia como "tiempo en salir" de un refugio a un ambiente nuevo, y posteriormente se midió la actividad y la exploración dentro de ese nuevo ambiente. Nosotros predijimos que B. roseni (una especie que se presenta con los depredadores) sería más audaz, activa y propensa a explorar que B. terrabensis (una especie que no se presenta con los depredadores). En total, probamos 17 jóvenes, 21 machos adultos, y 20 hembras adultas de B. roseni, y 19 jóvenes, 19 machos adultos, y 18 hembras adultas de B. terrabensis. Recogimos todos los animales en Chiriquí, Panamá en Febrero 2013, y los probamos después de un corto período de aclimatación a las condiciones de laboratorio. Como se predijo, se encontró que la depredación ambiental se asoció con varias diferencias en el comportamiento. Tanto adultos y jóvenes de B. roseni eran más activos y más propensos a explorar que B. terrabensis. Sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias en la audacia en adultos o menores. También se encontró una interacción significativa entre "sexo" y "especie" como predictores de la audacia y la exploración, lo que indica que la depredación puede afectar el comportamiento de los machos y hembras de manera diferente en cada especie. Nuestro estudio demuestra la importancia de considerar el sexo y la etapa del ciclo de vida al evaluar la evolución del comportamiento.

Animals , Male , Female , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Poecilia/physiology , Ecosystem , Reference Values , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Sex Factors , Analysis of Variance , Age Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69359


The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32–34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.

Carps , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Goldfish , Metacercariae , Parasites , Poecilia , Prevalence , Spine , Thailand , Zebrafish
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(4): e170046, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895115


Poeciliids comprise around 300 species inhabiting the fresh and brackish waters of the Americas and Africa. Poecilia reticulata is native to Northeastern South America and Trinidad and Tobago. In this paper, introduced specimens of P. reticulata collected in the lower Paraguay River in Argentina, were characterized by means of molecular and taxonomic approaches. We further explore, by means of DNA Barcoding, the singularity of the genetic identity of these specimens. Ocurrence of P. reticulata in the lower Paraguay River represents the first record of this species in Argentina. Thirteen individuals of P. reticulata were collected. DNA barcoding showed that all five specimens sampled belong to a single mitochondrial lineage, which was also present in 11 countries from five continents. The distance-based tree clearly grouped separetely four different clusters of P. reticulata when including public data. Genetic distance between the most divergent P. reticulata almost paralleled distance between this species and Poecilia mexicana and P. vivipara. Established populations from Paraguay could be one of the plausible sources for the introduced populations recorded in the lower Paraguay River. The presence of P. reticulata in an open waterway with known drainage to a natural stream is of major concern.(AU)

Poecilídeos compreendem cerca de 300 espécies que habitam águas doces e salobras das Américas e África. Poecilia reticulata é nativa do nordeste da América do Sul e Trinidad e Tobago. Neste trabalho, espécimes introduzidos de P. reticulata coletados no baixo rio Paraguai na Argentina, foram caracterizados por meio de abordagens moleculares e taxonômicas. Exploramos ainda, por meio de DNA Barcoding, a singularidade da identidade genética destes espécimes. A ocorrência de P. reticulata no baixo rio Paraguai representa o primeiro registro dessa especie na Argentina. Treze indivíduos de P. reticulata foram coletados. O Barcoding mostrou que todos os espécimes pertencem a uma única linhagem mitocondrial, a qual está presente em 11 países dos cinco continentes. A árvore de distâncias agrupou separadamente quatro clusters diferentes de P. reticulata quando incluindo dados públicos. A distância genética entre os agrupamentos mais divergentes de P. reticulata quase igualou a distância entre esta espécie e Poecilia mexicana e P. vivipara. As populações estabelecidas no Paraguai poderiam ser uma das fontes plausíveis para as populações introduzidas registradas no baixo rio Paraguai. A presença de P. reticulata em um canal aberto com drenagem conhecida para um córrego natural é de grande preocupação.(AU)

Animals , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic/veterinary , Poecilia/classification , Poecilia/genetics
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 14(1)2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794412


Aunque la temperatura tiene grandes repercusiones en la biología de los peces, se desconocen los rangos de tolerancia térmica de la mayoría de los peces dulceacuícolas. Esta falta de información impide pronosticar respuestas al cambio climático y limita los análisis comparativos que podrían enriquecer estudios evolutivos y biogeográficos. Utilizamos la metodología del crítico térmico para cuantificar la capacidad de aclimatación y la tolerancia térmica en la especie neotropical dulceacuícola Poecilia caucana. Para peces aclimatados a 20C, 25ºC y 28ºC, los críticos térmicos mínimos (CTmin) fueron 12,52 ± 0,62ºC, 13,41 ± 0,56ºC y 14,24 ± 0,43ºC, respectivamente, y los críticos térmicos máximos (CTmax) fueron 38,43 ± 0,64ºC, 40,28 ± 0,92ºC y 41,57 ± 0,27ºC, respectivamente. Tanto el CTmin como el CTmax cambiaron significativamente con las temperaturas de aclimatación, indicando que P. caucana es efectivamente aclimatable. Comparada con otras especies de peces dulceacuícolas, la capacidad de aclimatación de P. cuacana fue baja para CTmin y promedio para CTmax. Estos resultados, en conjunto con los datos de otras especies, pueden ser utilizados para responder preguntas ecológicas y evolutivas más generales.

Although temperature has far-reaching effects on fish biology, the thermal tolerance ranges of most freshwater fish species are unknown. This lack of information precludes forecasting responses to climatic change and does not allow for comparative analyses that may inform evolutionary and biogeographic studies. We used the critical thermal methodology to quantify acclimation capacity and thermal tolerance in the Neotropical freshwater species Poecilia caucana . For fish acclimated to 20C, 25ºC, and 28ºC, critical thermal minima (CTmin) were 12.52 ± 0.62ºC, 13.41 ± 0.56ºC and 14.24 ± 0.43ºC respectively, and critical thermal maxima (CTmax) were 38.43 ± 0.64ºC, 40.28 ± 0.92ºC and 41.57 ± 0.27ºC, respectively. Both CTmin and CTmax changed with acclimation temperatures, indicating that P. caucana was effectively acclimatable. Relative to values reported for other freshwater fish species, the acclimation capacity of P. caucana for CTmin was low, but it was average for CTmax. The data, together with similar work in other species, can be used in analyses focusing on broad ecological and evolutionary questions.

Animals , Acclimatization , Poecilia/anatomy & histology , Thermosensing
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 13(1): 87-92, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744513


Recently discovered male specimens of Phallotorynus pankalos are described and diagnosed from males of congener species on the basis of gonopodial morphology, color pattern and number of dorsal and anal-fin rays. The phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among Phallotorynus species is reappraised with the inclusion of P. pankalos. Phallotorynus pankalos is hypothesized as sister to P. jucundus, a clade sister to P. victoriae or to a clade composed of P. dispilos and P. psittakos. Biogeography of Phallotorynus species is discussed, and it is suggested: (1) an early basal split between the rio Paraíba do Sul drainage and the Paraná-Paraguay system, separating P. fasciolatus from the ancestor of the remaining Phallotorynus species followed by a dispersal to rio Paraíba do Sul; (2) that the formation of the Sete Quedas falls may have isolated the ancestors of P. psittakos and P. dispilos. However, the sequence of events associated with the evolutionary history of Phallotorynus remains unclear and unsatisfactory.

Recentemente descobertos espécimes machos de Phallotorynus pankalos são descritos e diagnosticados dos machos de espécies congêneres com base na morfologia gonopodial, padrão de colorido e número de raios das nadadeiras dorsal e anal. A hipótese de relações filogenéticas entre as espécies de Phallotorynus foi reavaliada com a inclusão de P. pankalos. Phallotorynus pankalos é hipotetizado como irmão de P. jucundus, um clado irmão de P. victoriae ou a um clado composto por P. dispilos e P. psittakos. Biogeografia das espécies de Phallotorynus é discutida, e é sugerido: (1) uma separação basal entre as drenagens do rio Paraíba do Sul e o sistema Paraná-Paraguai, separando P. fasciolatus do ancestral dos demais Phallotorynus, seguida de uma dispersão para o rio Paraíba do Sul; (2) que a formação dos saltos das Sete Quedas podem ter isolado os ancestrais de P. psittakos e P. dispilos. No entanto, a sequência de eventos associados a história evolutiva de Phallotorynus continua obscura e insatisfatória.

Animals , Fishes/classification , Poecilia/anatomy & histology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(6): 523-528, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716342


The 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, usually named 2,4-D is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Acute toxicity of 2,4-D herbicide was investigated through its effects on guppies (Poecilia vivipara Bloch et Schneider 1801). Fish were exposed to the herbicide at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40µl per liter of water for 24 hours to determine its effects on gills and liver epithelia. The estimated LC50 was 34.64µl of 2,4-D per liter of water. Histochemical analyses and Feulgen's reaction were conducted to detect glycoconjugates and DNA, respectively, in gills and liver epithelia. Histochemistry revealed qualitative variations of glycoconjugates present on mucous cells and granules. The four types of mucous cells contained neutral granules, acids, or both. Increasing amounts of syalomucins were observed from the control group to the group exposed to the highest concentration of 2,4-D, suggesting increased mucous viscosity and the formation of plaques that could inhibit gas exchange and osmoregulation. Lamellar fusion observed in the group exposed to 40µl of 2,4-D suggests a defense mechanism. Hepatocytes showed vacuolization in the 10 and 20µl/L groups. The 40 µl/L group showed normal hepatocytes as well as changed ones, many Ito cells, micronuclei, and nuclear swelling. These effects may be associated with toxicity or adaptative processes to cellular stress. The data from this study indicates the importance of assessing similar risks to aquatic species and suggests that Poecilia vivipara is an adequate biological model for analysis of environmental contamination.

A toxicidade aguda do herbicida 2,4-D foi investigada através dos efeitos no peixe Poecilia vivípara (Bloch et Schneider, 1801). Grupos de peixes foram expostos ao herbicida nas concentrações de 10, 20 e 40µl por litro de água, durante 24 horas. As brânquias e o fígado foram estudados. A concentração letal média (CL50) do herbicida para a espécie em questão foi de 34,64µl/l. Foram realizadas colorações histoquímicas e coloração de Feulgen para identificar glicoconjugados e DNA, respectivamente, nos tecidos acima citados. Os métodos histoquímicos revelaram os tipos de glicoconjugados presentes nas células mucosas e nos grânulos. Os quatro tipos de células mucosas apresentaram glicoconjugados neutros, ácidos, ou ambos em um mesmo tipo celular. Observou-se a presença crescente de sialomucinas do grupo controle até o grupo exposto a maior concentração de 2,4-D, sugerindo aumento da viscosidade do muco e, consequentemente, formação de placas que impedem as trocas gasosas e a osmorregulação. A fusão lamelar observada no grupo exposto a 40µl de 2,4-D sugere ser um mecanismo de defesa. Os hepatócitos apresentaram processo de vacuolização nos grupos 10 e 20µl/l. No grupo de 40µl/l, observou-se a presença de células de Ito, micronúcleos e hepatócitos normais e outros com edema nuclear. Este estudo indica a importância da avaliação de riscos semelhantes a espécies aquáticas e sugere a espécie Poecilia vivipara como modelo biológico adequado para análises de contaminação ambiental.

Animals , /administration & dosage , /adverse effects , /toxicity , Gills , Poisoning/diagnosis , Poisoning/veterinary , Liver , Poecilia , Environmental Pollution , Herbicides/adverse effects
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Mar; 52(3): 232-236
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150353


Norethindrone(NE) was evaluated for its efficacy on alteration of sex ratio of P. reticulata. Either the young fry or the brooders and the resultant fry were fed a commercial diet incorporated with NE at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg-1 diet (ppm) for 30-40 d in rectangular glass aquaria; this was followed by 40-60 d rearing on NE-free diet in out-door concrete tanks. In general, the androgen treatment altered sex ratio, leading to the production of a dose dependent increase in the percentage of males. The oral administration of the steroid at 75 ppm for 40 d or 100 ppmfor 30 or 40 d to first feeding fry, yielded 100% males. On the other hand, NE administration to brooders before parturition and the resultant fry also produced an all-male population of guppy. The sex ratio of the untreated control was almost 1:1. The survival of fish in all the trials was high, ranging between 67 and 100%. Mating masculinized males (“XX” male) with normal female resulted in an all-female progeny, while crossing normal male (XY) from treatment groups with normal female sired normal sex ratio (1:1), elucidating XX-XY sex determination system in the guppy.

Animals , Female , Male , Norethindrone/pharmacology , Poecilia/genetics , Poecilia/growth & development , Reproduction/genetics , Sex Determination Processes/drug effects , Sex Ratio
Acta toxicol. argent ; 21(2): 93-101, dic. 2013. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-708419


Abstract. A 96 h acute silver toxicity test was performed in order to determine silver toxicity (LC50) to a local fish species (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus) in a river with extreme water-quality characteristics (Pilcomayo River, South America) and evaluate a cross-fish-species extrapolation of the Biotic Ligand Model. The dissolved silver concentrations tested were 0.095, 0.148, 0.175 and 0.285 mg Ag L−1. The 96 h Ag LC50 calculated for C. decemmaculatus was 0.14 mg L−1 (0.18 - 0.10) and the value predicted by BLM for Pimephales promelas was 0.051 mg Ag L−1. Test water elevated hardness may have exerted some protective effect. High mean water pH may have exerted a major protective effect by reducing silver free ion form and causing silver precipitation. The mortality pattern observed in this toxicity test may lend some support to a relationship between gill silver accumulation and mortality. A cross-fish-species extrapolation of Ag BLM for P. promelas was not valid in Pilcomayo River water and experimental conditions of this toxicity test.

Con el objeto de determinar la toxicidad de la plata en un pez nativo (Cnesterodon decemmaculatus), se llevó a cabo un ensayo estático de toxicidad aguda a 96 horas en un agua natural con características de calidad de agua, extremas (río Pilcomayo, Sudamérica). Asimismo, se evaluó una posible extrapolación inter-especie del Modelo del Ligando Biótico en el agua experimental. La concentración inicial de plata en solución en los distintos tratamientos fue de 0,095; 0,148; 0,175 y 0,285 mg Ag L −1 . La CL50 a las 96 horas calculada para C. decemmaculatus fue de 0,14 (0.18 - 0.10) mg Ag L−1 y el valor predicho por el BLM para Pimephales promelas fue de 0,051 mg Ag L−1. La elevada dureza del agua experimental pudo haber tenido algún efecto protector frente a la toxicidad de la plata. El valor medio de pH del ensayo fue elevado y posiblemente tuvo un gran efecto protector por reducción de la forma iónica libre y precipitación del metal. El patrón de mortalidad observado en este ensayo de toxicidad apoyaría la relación causa-efecto entre acumulación de plata en las branquias y mortalidad. La extrapolación inter-especie del BLM para P. promelas no resultó válida en el agua del río Pilcomayo y en las condiciones experimentales de este ensayo.

Animals , Poecilia , Silver Nitrate/toxicity , Silver/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods , Argentina , River Pollution/analysis
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(3): 1289-1300, sep. 2013. graf, mapas, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688476


Exotic fish species has caused several impacts on aquatic biodiversity. The Lago de Pátzcuaro has some well-studied exotic species, except the Lerma livebearer Poeciliopsis infans. This fish species was introduced into the Lago de Pátzcuaro before 1997 and the aspects of its biology are still unknown. In this study we assessed aspects of the trophic ecology of this exotic fish, P. infans, using gut content and stable isotope analysis to understand its capacity to tolerate anthropogenic environmental degradation in the Lago de Pátzcuaro. We also determined its trophic guild position (TP) using the TrophLab Program and stable isotope. Niche breadth was calculated by standardized Levins’ Index (Bi). Fish was captured with a seine during wet and dry seasons at six environmentally different sites and gut contents were obtained. We analyzed a total of 239 gut contents of P. infans. The contribution of each food item in the diet was quantified using frequency of occurrence and area percentage. The importance of each prey item was determined according to the index of relative importance (IRI), and the omnivory index (OI) was used to assess the feeding behavior. Fish were categorized by size and the diet was compared between fish sizes and sites. Dorsal muscle tissue and water hyacinth tissue was obtained for nitrogen isotope signature (δ15N) analysis. Additionally, we measured water and habitat quality to evaluate environmental conditions at each site. We concluded that P. infans is an omnivore (OI=0.28) that consumes mainly detritus (44%), epiphytic diatoms (37%), and secondary on terrestrial insects (6%) and zooplankton (10%). The fish can behave as a specialist (Bi=0.39) or generalist (Bi=0.68) and as a primary consumer (TROPH=2.2; TP=2.3) with a feeding strategy that was the same at different sizes, seasons and sites. None of the evaluated sites showed good environmental quality. We argue that P. infans can tolerate changes in water quality and feeding items availability, because it can exploit resources in multiple trophic webs. However, this species could be dependent on habitat complexity, especially in the aquatic vegetation cover.

Las especies de peces exóticas han causado numerosos impactos sobre la biodiversidad acuática. El Lago de Pátzcuaro tiene especies exóticas bien estudiadas, excepto el Guatapote del Lerma, Poeciliopsis infans. Esta especie fue introducida en el Lago de Pátzcuaro antes de 1997 y los aspectos de su biología son aún desconocidos. Se estudiaron aspectos de la ecología trófica de este pez exótico, P. infans, mediante el uso de análisis de contenidos del tracto digestivo para entender su capacidad para tolerar la degradación ambiental antrópica en el Lago de Pátzcuaro. Lo que involucró la determinación del gremio y posición trófica (TP) con el programa TrophLab e isotopos estables. La amplitud de dieta fue calculada con el índice estandarizado de Levin (Bi). Un total de 239 tractos digestivos de P.infans fueron analizados. Los peces fueron capturados con una red tipo chinchorro durante la temporada de lluvias y estiaje en seis sitios ambientalmente distintos. La contribución de cada componente de la dieta fue cuantificada con la frecuencia de ocurrencia y el porcentaje de área. La importancia relativa de cada artículo alimentario fue determinada de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IIR) y el índice de omnivoría (OI) fue usado para estimar la conducta en la forma de alimentarse. La dieta fue comparada entre tallas y entre sitios de estudio. El tejido de músculo dorsal y el tejido de lirio fueron obtenidos para determinar valores de δ15N. De manera adicional, la calidad del agua y del hábitat fue medida para evaluar la condición ambiental en cada sitio. P. infans es un omnívoro (OI=0.28) que consume principalmente detritus (44%), diatomeas epifíticas (37%) y de forma secundaria insectos terrestres (6%) y zooplancton (10%); puede comportarse como especialista (Bi=0.39) o generalista (Bi=0.68) y consumidor primario (TROPH=2.2; TP=2.3). La estrategia alimenticia fue similar entre tallas, temporadas y sitios. Ningún sitio mostró buena calidad ambiental. Los resultados del presente estudio permiten argumentar que P. infans puede tolerar cambios en la calidad del agua y en la disponibilidad de artículos alimenticios, porque puede usar recursos provenientes de múltiples redes tróficas. Sin embargo, esta especie podría ser dependiente de la complejidad del hábitat, especialmente de la cobertura de la vegetación acuática.

Animals , Ecosystem , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Poecilia/physiology , Gastrointestinal Contents , Lakes , Mexico , Poecilia/anatomy & histology , Poecilia/classification , Seasons
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(5): 669-673, maio 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-678349


A morfologia, os parâmetros citomorfométricos e os glicoconjugados presentes na pseudobrânquia de guaru, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), foram investigados por microscopia de luz acoplada ao sistema de captura e análise de imagens, juntamente por histoquímica com lectinas. A anatomia microscópica indicou que P. reticulata possui pseudobrânquia glandular formada por dois lóbulos, a qual se localiza abaixo do epitélio faringiano. O órgão é constituído por parênquima vascularizado e rico em células pseudobranquiais. Esse tipo celular exibe estado citofisiológico ativo, com abundante sistema de biomembranas e ausência de óstio na superfície apical,que por sua vez é encontrado nas células ricas em mitocôndrias das holobrânquias. Assim, indica-se que as células da pseudobrânquia se distinguem das células das holobrânquias em relação à morfologia, histoquímica e fisiologia. Em decorrência dessas características intrínsecas, a pseudobrânquia de alevinos do guaru pode desempenhar funções não respiratórias nas fases iniciais do desenvolvimento. Além disso, a caracterização da pseudobrânquia do guaru possibilitará estudos futuros sobre o efeito de poluentes aquáticos em espécies biomonitoras, como P. reticulata.

The morphology, cytomorphometric parameters, and glycoconjugates present in the pseudo-gill of guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peter, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), were investigated by light microscopy coupled to image capture and analysis system, and also by lectin histochemistry. The microscopic anatomy indicates that P. reticulata has a glandular pseudo-gill formed by two lobes, located underneath the pharynx epithelium. The organ is formed by vascularized parenchyma rich in pseudo-gill cells. This cell type exhibits active cytophysiological state with an abundant system of biomembranes and lacking of ostium in apical surface, which in turn is found in the mitochondria-rich cells of the holobranch. This indicates that the pseudo-gill cells distinguishe from the holobranch cells in their morphology, histochemistry and physiology. Due to these intrinsic characteristics, the pseudo-gill of guppy fingerlings may have non-respiratory function in the initial phase of their development. The characterization of guppy's pseudo-gill could facilitate further studies about the effect of water pollutants on biomonitor species, such as P. reticulata.

Animals , Gills/anatomy & histology , Cell Physiological Phenomena , Poecilia/anatomy & histology , Microscopy, Polarization
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312431


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To describe the occurrence of various spinal deformations in a captive-bred wild line of Poecilia wingei (P. wingei).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Fish belonging to a wild line of P. wingei caught from Laguna de Los Patos, Venezuela, were bred in an aquarium home-breeding system during a period of three years (2006-2009). The spinal curvature was observed to study spinal deformities in P. wingei.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Out of a total of 600 fish, 22 showed different types of deformities (scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis), with a higher incidence in females. Growth, swimming and breeding of deformed fish were generally normal.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Possible causes for spinal curvature in fish are discussed on the basis of the current literature. While it is not possible to determine the exact cause(s) of spinal deformities observed in the present study, traumatic injuries, nutritional imbalances, genetic defects or a combination of these factors can be supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of such lesions.</p>

Animals , Female , Incidence , Kyphosis , Epidemiology , Lordosis , Epidemiology , Male , Poecilia , Congenital Abnormalities , Physiology , Reproduction , Scoliosis , Epidemiology , Swimming
Medisan ; 16(11): 1731-1735, nov. 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-660125


El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar niveles de proteínas totales y el factor de bioconcentración por exposición a metales en la Gambusia punctata. La especie fue muestreada en el ecosistema Filé y luego trasladada hacia condiciones de laboratorio, donde fueron diseñados 3 tratamientos a 2 réplicas con 25 ejemplares. Se determinó la concentración letal media (CL-50) como parámetro de toxicidad durante 48 horas de bioensayo. Los metales analizados fueron plomo y cadmio, cuantificados por espectroscopia de plasma inductivamente acoplados con vista axial. Transcurrido el experimento, la CL-50 correspondió a 0,1, ensayándose las concentraciones 0,06 y 5,78 mg/L, además del control negativo. Posteriormente se cuantificó el nivel de proteínas totales y los metales en agua, tejido y su relación mediante el factor de bioconcentración. El menor valor de proteínas fue ante la exposición al cadmio, con 43,9 por ciento de inhibición (p< 0,05) en comparación con el control; en el caso del plomo se determinó 2,5 por ciento de estimulación. Las mayores concentraciones en agua y tejido correspondieron a este último, no así para el factor de bioconcentración. Se concluyó que los resultados mostraron sensibilidad en la respuesta del contenido de proteínas totales y alta capacidad bioacumulativa para ambos metales.

The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of total proteins and the bioconcentration factor by metal exposure in Gambusia punctata. The species was sampled in the ecosystem Filé and then transferred to the laboratory, where 3 treatments in 2 replications with 25 copies were designed. Mean lethal concentration (CL-50) was determined as a toxicity parameter for 48 hours of bioassay. The analyzed metals were lead and cadmium, quantified by plasma spectroscopy inductively coupled with axial view. After the experiment, the CL-50 corresponded to 0.1 and concentrations of 0.06 and 5.78 mg/L and the negative control were tested. Then the level of total proteins and metals in water, tissue and its relationship by means of the bioconcentration factor were quantified. The lower value of proteins was by exposure to cadmium with 43.9 percent of inhibition (p <0.05) compared with the control; for lead 2.5 percent of stimulation was determined. The highest concentrations in water and tissue corresponded to the latter, but not for the bioconcentration factor. It was concluded that the results showed sensitivity in the response of total protein content and a high bioaccumulative capacity for both metals.

Animals , Bioaccumulation , Cyprinodontiformes , Cadmium/analysis , Environmental Exposure , Ictalurivirus/pathogenicity , Metalloproteins , Poecilia , Lead/analysis , River Pollution
Acta toxicol. argent ; 20(1): 5-13, jul. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657454


En nuestro país existe una gran extensión de hectáreas cultivadas con soja transgénica, la misma ha sido modificada genéticamente para soportar la acción de un herbicida denominado glifosato. Debido a la gran cantidad de formulaciones comerciales que incluyen glifosato es de importancia analizar el impacto ambiental producido por éstas. La evaluacion de la toxicidad aguda de dos herbicidas comerciales formulados con glifosato y de una solución del mismo; frente a peces de la especie Poecilia reticulata "lebistes" acusa que una de las soluciones produce mortalidad del 100 % de los especimenes a 100 μl/l (equivalente a 48 mg/l de principio activo); la otra a 50 μl/l (equivalente a 24 mg/l de principio activo) y la solución formulada con glifosato puro no produce mortalidad aún a concentraciones de 400 mg/l. Utilizando dosis sub letales en función de los datos obtenidos en el ensayo de toxicidad aguda se determinó que a largo plazo especimenes de Cyprinus carpio haematopterus "carpa koi", manifestaron severas alteraciones hematológicas principalmente frente a una de las formulaciones evaluadas.

Nowadays, transgenic soya, modified in order to withstand the impact of the herbicide glyphosate, in one of the main crops grown in Argentina. Due to the large number of commercial formulations that include this drug, is important to analyze both, the acute and chronic environmental impact that they cause. Here the acute toxicity of two commercial herbicides glyphosatebased toward the fish Poecilia reticulate "guppy" was evaluated and compared with pure glyphosate solutions. Interestingly, while commercial herbicides formulations induce a 100% of mortality at concentration ranged between 50 and 100 μl/l, the pure glyphosathe does not present mortality even at doses higher than 400 mg/l. When some long term effects toward Cyprinus carpio haematopterus "koi" were determined by using the sub-lethal doses already calculated it was demonstrated that one of the commercial herbicides induces severe haematological alterations.

Animals , Organophosphorus Compounds/toxicity , Agrochemicals/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods , Toxicity Tests, Chronic/methods , Herbicides/toxicity , Poecilia , Carps , Agrochemicals/adverse effects , Herbicides/analysis
Pesticidas ; 21: 1-12, jan.-out. 2011. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671111


Parasitoses in fi sh farming are treated by the application of pesticides formulations commonly used in agriculture or veterinary medicine. For the control of ectoparasites, that cause economic losses to the fi sh production Difl ubenzuron is utilized by direct application into water at a 2 mg.L-1 concentration. However, this practice can intoxicate nontarget species. This research aimed at determining the acute toxicity of difl ubenzuron to Daphnia magna, Poecilia reticulata and Lemna minor; evaluating its environmental risk and defi ning the role of the sediment in the bioavailability of this insecticide in the water. Results of the study implicate difl ubenzuron as being extremely toxic to D. magna. However, no signifi cant toxicity was observed in P. reticulata and L. minor. Bioavailability of this insecticide was signifi cantly reduced by the presence of sediment in the water.

Daphnia , Ecotoxicology , Ectoparasitic Infestations , Fishes , Insecticides , Lemna minor , Poecilia
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 20(2): 161-164, Apr.-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604699


Studies on fish parasites in Pampulha dam, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, found specimens of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 harboring natural infection by larval stages of tapeworms. A total of 250 specimens of P. reticulata were collected and analyzed between February and August 2010, of which 23 were found infected (prevalence 9.2 percent) with one metacestode each (mean intensity 1, mean abundance 0.09). The analyses of the parasites, particularly the morphology of rostellar hooks, made it possible to identify Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). This is the first report of G. auritus metacestode in South America and P. reticulata is a newly known host for this parasite.

Em estudo da helmintofauna de peixes oriundos da represa da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, exemplares de Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 foram encontrados naturalmente infectados por larvas de cestóides. De 250 espécimes de P. reticulata coletados e analisados entre fevereiro e agosto de 2010, 23 (prevalência de infecção 9,2 por cento) apresentavam-se infectados por um metacestóides cada (intensidade média 1, abundância média 0,09). A análise dos parasitos, em especial a morfologia dos acúleos rostelares, permitiram a identificação de Glossocercus auritus (Rudolphi, 1818). Este é o primeiro registro de metacestóide de G. auritus para a América do Sul, sendo P. reticulata um novo hospedeiro conhecido para o parasito.

Animals , Cestoda/physiology , Poecilia/parasitology , Brazil , Larva
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2011; 8 (4): 367-374
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-124820


Considering the high pollution potential that the synthetic Bulk Drug industry Wastewater [BDW] possesses due to the presence of variety of refractory organics, toxicity evaluation is of prime importance in assessing the efficiency of the applied wastewater treatment system and in establishing the discharge standards. Therefore, in this study the toxic effects of high strength bulk drug industry wastewater before and after electrochemical treatment on common fish Lebistes reticulatus-[peter] were studied under laboratory conditions. Results indicated that wastewater being very strong in terms of color, COD and BOD is found to be very toxic to the studied fish. The LC[50] values for raw wastewater and after electrochemical treatment with carbon and aluminium electrodes for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between, 2.5-3.6%, 6.8-8.0%, 5.0-5.8% respectively. Carbon electrode showed marginally better removals for toxicity than aluminium electrode. It was evident from the studies that electrochemical treatment reduces toxicity in proportion to the removal efficiency shown by both the electrodes. The reduction in toxicity after treatment indicates the intermediates generated are not toxic than the parent compounds. Furthermore, as the electrochemical treatment did not result in achieving disposal standards it could be used only as a pre-treatment and the wastewater needs further secondary treatment before final disposal

Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Drug Industry , Electrochemical Techniques , Poecilia , Evaluation Studies as Topic
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 31(1): 87-93, 2011.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-587966


Os aspectos morfofuncionais da oogênese do Poecilia vivipara foram estudados nesse trabalho. Esse estudo contribuiu para o aprimoramento das informações sobre a biologia reprodutiva e do desenvolvimento de espécies com fecundação interna, em especial aquelas pertencentes à família Poecilidae. Para tanto, caracterizou-se os estágios de maturação gonadal e desenvolvimento folicular através de análises mesoscópicas, histológicas, histoquímicas e citoquímicas com lectinas. O estudo mesoscópico permitiu a classificação do desenvolvimento ovariano em seis estágios: imaturo, em maturação I, em maturação II, maturo I, maturo II e pós-desova. O exame microscópico dos ovários permitiu a identificação dos oócitos pré-vitelogênicos (OPVt) e vitelogênicos (OVt). Na fase pré-vitelogênese, verificou-se os oócitos tipo I (OI) e tipo II (OII), e na fase vitelogênese, foram encontrados oócitos tipo III (OIII), tipo IV (OIV) e os pós-fertilização (OV). Com o avanço da oogênese, o citosol dos oócitos aumentaram em volume, com crescente acúmulo de grânulos citoplasmáticos, caracterizando a vitelogênese. Além disso, a zona radiata (ZR) aumentou de espessura e alterou suas características histocitoquímicas, e o epitélio folicular (EF), inicialmente delgado e constituído por células pavimentosas, nos FOs na fase III tornaram-se cúbico simples. As análises histoquímicas e citoquímicas permitiram diagnosticar alterações na composição molecular das estruturas que formam os FOs ao longo do desenvolvimento gonadal. O presente estudo indica diferenças no sistema reprodutor feminino entre espécies de peixes com fecundação interna e aquelas com fecundação externa e sugere que o P. vivipara pode ser usado como modelo experimental em testes de toxicidade ambiental.

The morphofunctional aspects of oogenesis of Poecilia vivipara were studied aiming to understand the reproductive biology and development of species with internal fertilization, particularly those belonging to the family Poeciliidae. The stages of gonadal maturation and follicular development were characterized using mesoscopic, histological, histochemical, and lectin cytochemical analyses. Through mesoscopic evaluation the ovarian development was classified in six phases of development: immature, in maturation I, in maturation II, mature I, mature II, and post-spawn. Based on microscopic examination of the ovaries, we identified the presence of oocytes types I and II during the previtellogenic phase and types III, IV, and V during the vitellogenic phase. As oogenesis proceeded the oocyte cytosol increased in volume and presented increased cytoplasmic granule accumulation, characterizing vitellogenesis. The zona radiata (ZR) increased in thickness and complexity, and the follicular epithelium, which was initially thin and consisting of pavimentous cells, in type III oocytes exhibited cubic simple cells. The histochemical and cytochemical analyses revealed alterations in the composition of the molecular structures that form the ovarian follicle throughout the gonadal development. Our study demonstrated differences in the female reproductive system among fish species with internal and external fertilization and we suggest P. vivipara can be used as experimental model to test environmental toxicity.

Animals , Glycoproteins/analysis , Poecilia/classification , Fertilization/physiology , Reproduction/physiology
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 48(1): 5-13, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-591488


The south-american euryhaline fish Poecilia vivipara (BLOCH; SNEIDER, 1801), the guppy, is found both in estuary and river waters, which suggests high adaptability to environments of different salinity. In this work we studied the adaptation of the interlamellar, bars and rakers epithelia of the gills of estuary fish to freshwater conditions. The results reveal that the gill epithelia of Poecilia vivipara can adjust itself to freshwater by decreasing the VP of mucous cells of the interlamellar epithelium and increase the volumetric proportion (VP) of chloride cells. However, there was no evidence of similar morphological alteration in the rakers region. The epithelia of the rakers appears to be part of a different compartment that is less sensitive to variation of salinity.

O peixe eurihalino sul-americano Poecilia vivipara (BLOCH; SNEIDER, 1801), o guppy, é encontrado tanto em estuários quanto em águas de rios, o que sugere uma alta adaptabilidade aos diferentes ambientes de salinidade. Neste trabalho, estudamos a adaptação do epitélio interlamelar, do arco e do rastelo das brânquias dos peixes de estuário de água doce. Os resultados revelam que o epitélio branquial de Poecilia vivipara pode ajustar-se à água doce, diminuindo a proporção volumétrica (PV) de células mucosas do epitélio interlamelar e aumentando a PV de células clorídricas. No entanto, não houve nenhuma evidência de alteração morfológica semelhante na região do rastelo branquial. O epitélio do rastelo branquial parece ser parte de um compartimento diferente que é menos sensível a variações de salinidade.

Animals , Poecilia/anatomy & histology
Int. j. morphol ; 28(3): 951-956, Sept. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-577211


The aim of the present study was to analyze the ultrastructural aspects of spermatogenesis in Phalloceros caudimaculatus, during cell proliferation. The parenchyma is organized morphologically as lobular restricted spermatogonial testis. Spermiogenesis in this species is characterized by four morphological stages of development (spermatids S1 through S4). The mature spermatids and spermatozoa heads are situated at the periphery of the cyst surrounded by the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells. The germ cell's ultrastructure and spermatogenesis in P. caudimaculatus are very similar to that of other poeciliids.

El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los aspectos ultraestructurales de la espermatogénesis en Phalloceros caudimaculatus, durante el periodo de proliferación celular. El parénquima testicular está morfológicamente organizado como lobular espermatogonial restricto. La espermiogénesis en esta especie se caracteriza por cuatro etapas morfológicas de desarrollo (espermátidas S1 hasta S4). Las cabezas de las espermátidas maduras y espermatozoides están situadas en la periferia de los cistos, rodeados por el citoplasma de las células de Sertoli. La ultraestructura de las células germinativas y la espermatogénesis en P. caudimaculatus son muy similares a las de otros poecílideos.

Animals , Spermatids/ultrastructure , Poecilia/anatomy & histology , Spermatogenesis , Microscopy, Electron , Fishes/anatomy & histology