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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879961

ABSTRACT

To establish a rabbit model of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type9 () point mutation with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique. According to the PubMed gene protein data, the PCSK9 protein functional regions of human and rabbit were analyzed by Blast. The 386S (Ser) amino acid functional region of human gene was homologous to the 485S of rabbit gene. Three small guide RNAs and one single-stranded donor oligonucleotide were designed according to the 485S base substitution position and sequence analysis of rabbit gene. The synthetic small guide RNAs, Cas9 mRNA and single-stranded donor oligonucleotide were co-injected into the cytoplasm of rabbit fertilized eggs and the embryos were transferred into the pregnant rabbits. PCR, TA cloning and off-target analysis were performed on the F0 rabbits to identify whether the PCSK9 mutation was successful. Fifteen F0 rabbits were obtained. The sequencing results showed that one of them was PCSK9 point mutation homozygote and two of them were PCSK9 point mutation heterozygotes, and the mutation could be stably inherited. The rabbit model of PCSK9 point mutation was successfully constructed by CRISPR/Cas9 technique, which provides an animal model for exploring the molecular mechanism of impaired PCSK9 function and developing reliable and effective diagnosis and treatment measures.


Subject(s)
Animals , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Mutation , Point Mutation , Proprotein Convertase 9/metabolism , Rabbits
2.
REVISA (Online) ; 10(2): 347-357, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224443

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar as implicações, impactos e o desenvolvimento de um indivíduo diagnosticado com TEA e portador da mutação de novo no gene DEAF1, a partir das várias perspectivas de intervenções realizadas. Método: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo com histórico dos tratamentos, resultados laboratoriais e genéticos mais recentes do paciente. Resultados: Sintomas notados aos 2 anos e diagnóstico específico aos 5. Aos 8 anos teve a primeira crise convulsiva tônico-clônica e o Eletroencefalograma alterado. Após obteve o diagnóstico molecular confirmado. Possuía epilepsia refratária de difícil controle, que houve piora com uma tentativa do uso de derivados canabinoides em conjunto com estimulação elétrica transcraniana. No momento, com os tratamentos, atendimentos multidisciplinares, dieta de exclusão de alérgenos e medicações de controle individual, diminuíram a intensidade das crises epiléticas e houve melhor controle do seu estado geral. Conclusão: Este estudo descreve como a mutação de novo no gene DEAF1 está relacionada com o TEA e com o comprometimento do desenvolvimento neurocognitivo. As terapias e métodos devem respeitar cada paciente na sua individualidade.


Objective: To analyze the implications, impacts and development of an individual diagnosed with ASD and carrying a de novo mutation in the DEAF1 gene, from the various perspectives of interventions performed. Method: This is a descriptive study, with the patient's history of treatments, and most recent laboratory and genetic results.Results: Symptoms were noticed at 2 years old and specific diagnosis at 5. At 8 years old he had his first tonic-clonic seizure and the electroencephalogram was altered. After, it was obtained the confirmed molecular diagnosis. He had refractory epilepsy that was difficult to control and aggravated with an attempt to use cannabinoid derivatives in conjunction with transcranial electrical stimulation. At the moment, treatments, multidisciplinary care, allergen exclusion diet and individual control medications, reduced the intensity of epileptic seizures and there was better control of his general condition. Conclusion: This study describes how the de novo mutation in the DEAF1 gene is related to ASD and neurocognitive development impairment. Therapies and methods must respect each patient in their individuality.


Objetivo: Analizar las implicaciones, impactos y desarrollo de un individuo diagnosticado de TEA y portador de una mutación de novo en el gen DEAF1, desde las distintas perspectivas de las intervenciones realizadas. Método: Este es un estudio descriptivo, con el historico de tratamientos del paciente y los resultados genéticos y de laboratorio más recientes. Resultados: Los síntomas se notaron a los 2 años y el diagnóstico específico a los 5. A los 8 años tuvo su primera crisis tónico-clónica y se alteró el electroencefalograma. Posteriormente se obtuvo el diagnóstico molecular confirmado. Tenía epilepsia refractaria que era difícil de controlar y se agravaba con un intento de utilizar derivados cannabinoides junto con estimulación eléctrica transcraneal. En el momento, los tratamientos, la atención multidisciplinar, la dieta de exclusión de alérgenos y los medicamentos de control individual, redujeron la intensidad de las crisis epilépticas y hubo un mejor control de su estado general. Conclusión: Este estudio describe cómo la mutación de novo en el gen DEAF1 se relaciona con el TEA y el deterioro del desarrollo neurocognitivo. Las terapias y los métodos deben respetar a cada paciente en su individualidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromosomes, Human , Point Mutation , Autism Spectrum Disorder
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 34-38, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brain tumors are one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths around the world. Angiogenesis is critical in high-grade malignant gliomas, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Objective: The aim of this study is to comparatively analyze the angiogenesis-related genes, namely VEGFA, VEGFB, KDR, CXCL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2 in LGG vs. GBM to identify molecular distinctions using datasets available on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Methods: DNA sequencing and mRNA expression data for 514 brain lower grade glioma (LGG) and 592 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients were acquired from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the genetic alterations and expression levels of the selected genes were analyzed. Results: We identified six distinct KDR mutations in the LGG patients and 18 distinct KDR mutations in the GBM patients, including missense and nonsense mutations, frame shift deletion and altered splice region. Furthermore, VEGFA and CXCL8 were significantly overexpressed within GBM patients. Conclusions: VEGFA and CXCL8 are important factors for angiogenesis, which are suggested to have significant roles during tumorigenesis. Our results provide further evidence that VEGFA and CXCL8 could induce angiogenesis and promote LGG to progress into GBM. These findings could be useful in developing novel targeted therapeutics approaches in the future.


Resumo Os tumores cerebrais são uma das causas mais comuns de mortes relacionadas ao câncer em todo o mundo. A angiogênese tem caráter crítico em gliomas malignos de alto grau, como o glioblastoma multiforme. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar comparativamente os genes relacionados à angiogênese, VEGFA, VEGFB, KDR, CXCL8, CXCR1 e CXCR2 em GBG vs. GBM para identificar distinções moleculares usando conjuntos de dados disponíveis no The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Métodos: Os dados de sequenciamento de DNA e expressão de mRNA para 514 pacientes com glioma cerebral de baixo grau (GBG) e 592 pacientes com glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) foram adquiridos do TCGA e as alterações genéticas e os níveis de expressão dos genes selecionados foram analisados. Resultados: Identificamos seis mutações KDR distintas nos pacientes GBG e 18 mutações KDR distintas nos pacientes GBM, incluindo mutações missense e nonsense, exclusão de mudança de quadro e região de emenda alterada. Além disso, VEGFA e CXCL8 foram significativamente super-expressos nos pacientes com GBM. Conclusões: VEGFA e CXCL8 são fatores importantes para a angiogênese, os quais parecem ter um papel significativo durante a tumorigênese. Nossos resultados fornecem evidências adicionais de que o VEGFA e o CXCL8 podem induzir a angiogênese e promover o GBG a progredir no GBM. Esses achados podem ser úteis no desenvolvimento de novas abordagens terapêuticas direcionadas no futuro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Neoplasms/genetics , Glioblastoma/genetics , Carcinogenesis/genetics , Glioma/genetics , Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics , Reference Values , Gene Expression , Interleukin-8/analysis , Point Mutation/genetics , Glioblastoma/pathology , Receptors, Interleukin-8A/analysis , Receptors, Interleukin-8B/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor B/analysis , Glioma/pathology
4.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 475-482, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286546

ABSTRACT

The superoxide dismutase type 1 (SOD1) gene is the first responsible gene mapped in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1 (ALS1), and it codes for the enzyme SOD1, the function of which is to protect against damage mediated by free radicals deriving from oxygen. Its pathophysiological mechanism in ALS1 is related to ischemia. Several molecular studies of the SOD1 gene show that point mutations are the most frequent. The most common mutations in familial cases are p.A4V, p.I113Y, p.G37R, p.D90A and p.E100G, which account for more than 80% of cases, although intronic mutations have also been described as responsible for ALS1. Sporadic cases are explained by mutations in other genes such as SETX and C9orf72. ALS1 is a complex disease with genetic heterogeneity. On the other hand, familial and sporadic cases have a different etiology, which is explained by molecular heterogeneity and multiple pathogenic mechanisms that lead to ALS1; oxidative stress and ischemia are not the only cause. In Mexico, ALS molecular genetics studies are scarce. Clinical studies show an increase in cytokines such as adipsin in cerebrospinal fluid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Superoxide Dismutase-1/genetics , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Point Mutation , Age of Onset , Oxidative Stress , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/enzymology , Ischemia/complications , Mexico
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypoallergenic recombinant Der p 2 has been produced by various genetic manipulations, but mutation of a naturally polymorphic amino acid residue known to affect IgE binding has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the effect of a point mutation (S47W) of residue 47 of Der p 2 on its structure and immunoglobulin (Ig) E binding. Its ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses and to induce blocking IgG antibody was also determined. METHODS: S47 of recombinant Der p 2.0110, one of the predominant variants in Bangkok, was mutated to W (S47W). S47W secreted from Pichia pastoris was examined for secondary structure and for the formation of a hydrophobic cavity by 8-Anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) staining. Monoclonal and human IgE-antibody binding was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Allergen-induced degranulation by human epsilon receptor expressed-rat basophil was determined. Stimulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 release from human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells and inhibition of IgE binding to the wild type allergen by S47W-induced IgG were determined. RESULTS: S47W reduced secondary structure and failed to bind the hydrophobic ANS ligand as well as a monoclonal antibody known to be dependent on the nature of the side chain of residue 114 in an adjacent loop. It could also not stimulate IL-8 release from BEAS2B cells. IgE from house dust mite (HDM)-allergic Thais bound S47W with 100-fold weaker avidity, whereas IgE of HDM-allergic Australians did not. S47W still induced basophil degranulation, although requiring higher concentrations for some subjects. Anti-S47W antiserum-immunized mice blocked the binding of human IgE to wild type Der p 2. CONCLUSIONS: The mutant S47W had altered structure and reduced ability to stimulate pro-inflammatory responses and to bind IgE, but retained its ability to induce blocking antibodies. It thus represents a hypoallergen produced by a single mutation of a non-solvent-accessible amino acid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Blocking , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Basophils , Dust , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Mice , Pichia , Point Mutation , Pyroglyphidae
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719428

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, profiling a wide range of genomic alterations has become a possibility resulting in improved implementation of targeted cancer therapy. In Asian populations, the prevalence and spectrum of clinically actionable genetic alterations has not yet been determined because of a lack of studies examining high-throughput cancer genomic data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To address this issue, 1,071 tumor samples were collected from five major cancer institutes in Korea and analyzed using targeted NGS at a centralized laboratory. Samples were either fresh frozen or formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) and the quality and yield of extracted genomic DNA was assessed. In order to estimate the effect of sample condition on the quality of sequencing results, tissue preparation method, specimen type (resected or biopsied) and tissue storage time were compared. RESULTS: We detected 7,360 non-synonymous point mutations, 1,164 small insertions and deletions, 3,173 copy number alterations, and 462 structural variants. Fifty-four percent of tumors had one or more clinically relevant genetic mutation. The distribution of actionable variants was variable among different genes. Fresh frozen tissues, surgically resected specimens, and recently obtained specimens generated superior sequencing results over FFPE tissues, biopsied specimens, and tissues with long storage duration. CONCLUSION: In order to overcome, challenges involved in bringing NGS testing into routine clinical use, a centralized laboratory model was designed that could improve the NGS workflows, provide appropriate turnaround times and control costs with goal of enabling precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , DNA , Humans , Korea , Methods , Paraffin , Point Mutation , Precision Medicine , Prevalence
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760199

ABSTRACT

Alport syndrome (ATS) is an inherited glomerular disease caused by mutations in one of the type IV collagen novel chains (α3, α4, and α5). ATS is characterized by persistent microscopic hematuria that starts during infancy, eventually leading to either progressive nephritis or end-stage renal disease. There are 3 known genetic forms of ATS, namely X-linked ATS, autosomal recessive ATS, and autosomal dominant ATS. About 80% of patients with ATS have X-linked ATS, which is caused by mutations in the type IV collagen α5 chain gene, COL4A5. Although an 80% mutation detection rate is observed in men with X-linked ATS, some difficulties do exist in the genetic diagnosis of ATS. Most mutations are point mutations without hotspots in the COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes. Further, there are insufficient data on the detection of COL4A3 and COL4A4 mutations for their comparison between patients with autosomal recessive or dominant ATS. Therefore, diagnosis of ATS in female patients with no apparent family history can be challenging. Therefore, in this study, we used whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify mutations in type IV collagen in 2 girls with glomerular basement membrane structural changes suspected to be associated with ATS; these patients had no relevant family history. Our results revealed de novo c.4688G>A (p.Arg1563Gln) and c.2714G>A (p.Gly905Asp) mutations in COL4A5. Therefore, we suggest that WES is an effective approach to obtain genetic information in ATS, particularly in female patients without a relevant family history, to detect unexpected DNA variations.


Subject(s)
Child , Collagen Type IV , Diagnosis , DNA , Exome , Female , Glomerular Basement Membrane , Hematuria , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Korea , Male , Nephritis , Nephritis, Hereditary , Point Mutation
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764093

ABSTRACT

Thyroid nodules are the most common endocrine tumor. Ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) are currently accurate diagnostic tools for evaluating thyroid nodules. However, 10–30% of FNA specimens are cytologically indeterminate. Making an accurate diagnosis between benign and malignant nodules is important so that patients with malignant nodule receive proper treatment and patients with benign nodule can avoid unnecessary treatment. Several genetic changes such as point mutations of the BRAF or RAS and rearrangements of the RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3, PAX8/PPARY are used to adjust to indeterminate FNA. Such a mutational analysis has an excellent positive predictive value (PPV), but there is a weakness in the low negative predictive value (NPV). Gene-expression classifier (GEC) has been found helpful in identify nodules that are benign rather than malignant. GEC has an excellent NPV, but there is a weakness of low PPV. Multiplatform mutational and miRNA test (MPT) and next-generation sequencing assay (NGS) are being studied to compensate for these weaknesses. Molecular tests appear to be a good solution for improving the accuracy of indeterminate FNA cytology specimens and support the clinical management decisions in patients with indeterminate cytologic nodules, but further prospective multicenter trials are required for validation of reported findings and need evaluation of cost-effectiveness. This paper will review recently available molecular diagnostic tools of thyroid nodule.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , Humans , MicroRNAs , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pathology, Molecular , Point Mutation , Prospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761887

ABSTRACT

Androgen receptor (AR) is a steroid receptor transcriptional factor for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone consisting of four main domains, the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, hinge region, and ligand-binding domain. AR plays pivotal roles in prostate cancer, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Androgen deprivation therapy can suppress hormone-naïve prostate cancer, but prostate cancer changes AR and adapts to survive under castration levels of androgen. These mechanisms include AR point mutations, AR overexpression, changes of androgen biosynthesis, constitutively active AR splice variants without ligand binding, and changes of androgen cofactors. Studies of AR in CRPC revealed that AR was still active in CRPC, and it remains as a potential target to treat CRPC. Enzalutamide is a second-generation antiandrogen effective in patients with CRPC before and after taxane-based chemotherapy. However, CRPC is still incurable and can develop drug resistance. Understanding the mechanisms of this resistance can enable new-generation therapies for CRPC. Several promising new AR-targeted therapies have been developed. Apalutamide is a new Food and Drug Administration-approved androgen agonist binding to the ligand-binding domain, and clinical trials of other new AR-targeted agents binding to the ligand-binding domain or N-terminal domain are underway. This review focuses on the functions of AR in prostate cancer and the development of CRPC and promising new agents against CRPC.


Subject(s)
Androgen Antagonists , Castration , Dihydrotestosterone , Drug Resistance , Drug Therapy , Humans , Point Mutation , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Receptors, Androgen , Receptors, Steroid , Testosterone
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the serological and genotypic characteristics of a pedigree with B(A).06 subtype.@*METHODS@#Serological methods was used to identify the ABO phenotypes. Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene and flanking regions were subjected to direct sequencing and TA clonal sequencing in order to determine the genotype of individuals with inconsistent results for forward and reverse serological typing.@*RESULTS@#Among 12 individuals from 4 generations, 5 were identified with a AwB phenotype, along with a c.803C>G mutation in exon 7 of the B allele, which was named as B(A).06. The B(A).06/O.01.01 phenotype may be easily missed due to its weak anti-A antibody in the serum upon initial serological test.@*CONCLUSION@#A B(A).06 subtype family was identified. The serological phenotype of individuals carrying the B(A).06 allele may be affected by the opposite DNA strand.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Genetics , Alleles , Genotype , Humans , Pedigree , Phenotype , Point Mutation
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786626

ABSTRACT

Addressing the increasing antibiotic resistance, including clarithromycin resistance, which affects Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy, is a challenge for clinicians. Antibiotic resistance is the main reason for H. pylori eradication failure and the resistance rate for clarithromycin may drastically increase, up to 38.5%, due to 23S ribosomal RNA point mutations. Therefore, the standard triple regimen is no longer suitable as the first-line treatment in most regions. However, there is a growing interest in personalized care for patients. Increased eradication rates of tailored therapy based on antibiotic susceptibility have been reported using nucleic acid-based techniques for clarithromycin resistance with a focus on the first-line eradication therapy of H. pylori infection. Herein, we discuss the eradication therapy for H. pylori, with a diagnostic test and appropriate treatment for clarithromycin resistance.


Subject(s)
Clarithromycin , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Point Mutation , RNA, Ribosomal, 23S
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766007

ABSTRACT

Although papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)–type nuclear changes are the most reliable morphological feature in the diagnosis of PTC, the nuclear assessment used to identify these changes is highly subjective. Here, we report a noninvasive encapsulated thyroid tumor with a papillary growth pattern measuring 23 mm at its largest diameter with a nuclear score of 2 in a 26-year-old man. After undergoing left lobectomy, the patient was diagnosed with an encapsulated PTC. However, a second opinion consultation suggested an alternative diagnosis of follicular adenoma with papillary hyperplasia. When providing a third opinion, we identified a low MIB-1 labeling index and a heterozygous point mutation in the KRAS gene but not the BRAF gene. We speculated that this case is an example of a novel borderline tumor with a papillary structure. Introduction of the new terminology “noninvasive encapsulated papillary RAS-like thyroid tumor (NEPRAS)” without the word “cancer” might relieve the psychological burden of patients in a way similar to the phrase “noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP).”


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Adult , Diagnosis , Humans , Hyperplasia , Observer Variation , Point Mutation , Referral and Consultation , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715205

ABSTRACT

Point mutations in the human cardiac homeobox gene NKX2.5 are associated with familial atrial septal defect (ASD), atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbance, as well as sudden cardiac death. To date, more than 60 NKX2.5 mutations have been documented, but there are no reports in Korea. We are reporting the first Korean family with ASD and AV block associated with a novel mutation in the NKX2.5 coding region. A 9-year-old boy presented with a slow and irregular pulse, and was diagnosed with secundum ASD and first degree AV block. The boy's father, who had a history of ASD correction surgery, presented with second degree AV block and atrial fibrillation. The boy's brother was also found to have secundum ASD and first degree AV block. There were two sudden deaths in the family. Genetic testing revealed a novel mutation of NKX2.5 in all affected members of the family.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Atrioventricular Block , Child , Clinical Coding , Death, Sudden , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Fathers , Genes, Homeobox , Genetic Testing , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial , Humans , Korea , Male , Point Mutation , Siblings
14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 357-361, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721804

ABSTRACT

While carbapenems are the drug of choice to treat extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains, some alternative carbapenem-sparing regimens are suggested for antibiotic stewardship. We experienced a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure for acute pyelonephritis caused by an apparently susceptible Escherichia coli. A 71-year-old woman presented the emergency department with fever for 7 days and bilateral flank pain for 2 days. The laboratory results and abdominopelvic computed tomography finding were compatible with acute pyelonephritis. During 3-day ciprofloxacin therapy, the patient remained febrile with persistent bacteremia. After the change in antibiotics to ertapenem, the patient’s clinical course started to improve. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were identified in all three consecutive blood samples. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, serotypes, and sequence types showed the three isolates were derived from the identical strain. The isolates produced CTX-M-14 type ESBL belonging to the ST69 clonal group. Despite in vitro susceptibility, the failure was attributed to a gyrA point mutation encoding Ser83Leu within quinolone resistance-determining regions. This case suggests that ciprofloxacin should be used cautiously in the treatment of serious infections caused by ciprofloxacin-susceptible, ESBL-producing E. coli, even in acute pyelonephritis because in-vitro susceptibility tests could fail to detect certain genetic mutations.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Carbapenems , Ciprofloxacin , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Female , Fever , Flank Pain , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Point Mutation , Pyelonephritis , Serogroup , Treatment Failure
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689603

ABSTRACT

Three boys aged 7-13 months visited the hospital due to unusual facies (prominent forehead, hypertelorism, or long mandible), motor developmental delay, and mental retardation. As for body length and head circumference, only one patient had a head circumference of >2 SD. Two patients had an advanced bone age, one had electroencephalographic abnormalities, and 3 had enlarged ventricles on head CT. The whole-genome microarray analysis showed the deletion of a copy with a size of 1.75 Mb in the chromosomal region 5q35.2 in one patient, which contained the NSD1 gene. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed for the validation of the region with copy number variation, and the results showed that the copy number of the NSD1 gene in this patient was reduced by half. High-throughput sequencing identified two heterozygous mutations, c.1157T>G and c.1177G>T, in the NSD1 gene in two patients. c.1157T>G mutations had not been reported before, but the bioinformatics analysis showed that this mutation had pathogenicity. All three boys were diagnosed with Sotos syndrome. Sotos syndrome is a congenital overgrowth syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance; 70%-90% of patients have NSD1 gene mutations, and about 10% of patients have depletion in the 5q35 region (containing the NSD1 gene).


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , DNA Copy Number Variations , Humans , Infant , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Genetics , Male , Nuclear Proteins , Genetics , Phenotype , Point Mutation , Sequence Deletion , Sotos Syndrome , Genetics
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 641-647, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori eradication rates are decreasing because of increases in clarithromycin resistance. Thus, finding an easy and accurate method of detecting clarithromycin resistance is important. METHODS: We evaluated 70 H. pylori isolates from Korean patients. Dual-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were designed to detect resistance associated with point mutations in 23S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene domain V (A2142G, A2143G, and T2182C). Data were analyzed by probe-based fluorescence melting curve analysis based on probe-target dissociation temperatures and compared with Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Among 70 H. pylori isolates, 0, 16, and 58 isolates contained A2142G, A2143G, and T2182C mutations, respectively. PNA probe-based analysis exhibited 100.0% positive predictive values for A2142G and A2143G and a 98.3% positive predictive value for T2182C. PNA probe-based analysis results correlated with 98.6% of Sanger sequencing results (κ-value=0.990; standard error, 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori clarithromycin resistance can be easily and accurately assessed by dual-labeled PNA probe-based melting curve analysis if probes are used based on the appropriate resistance-related mutations. This method is fast, simple, accurate, and adaptable for clinical samples. It may help clinicians choose a precise eradication regimen.


Subject(s)
Clarithromycin , Fluorescence , Freezing , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Methods , Peptide Nucleic Acids , Point Mutation , RNA
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1294-1303, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717739

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship among the clinical characteristics and the frequency of T790M mutation in advanced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–mutant lung adenocarcinoma patients with acquired resistance after firstline EGFR–tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled EGFR-mutant stage IIIB-IV lung adenocarcinoma patients, who had progressed to prior EGFR-TKI therapy, and evaluated their rebiopsy EGFR mutation status. RESULTS: A total of 205 patients were enrolled for analysis. The overall T790M mutation rate of rebiopsy was 46.3%. The T790M mutation rates among patients with exon 19 deletion mutation, exon 21 L858R point mutation, and other mutations were 55.0%, 37.3%, and 27.3%, respectively. Baseline exon 19 deletion was associated with a significantly higher frequency of T790M mutation (adjusted odds ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 3.83; p=0.010). In the exon 19 deletion subgroup, there was a greater prevalence of T790M mutation than other exon 19 deletion subtypes in patients with the Del E746-A750 mutation (61.6% vs. 40.6%; odds ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.01 to 5.49; p=0.049). The progression-free survival (PFS) of first-line TKI treatment > 11 months was also associated with a higher T790M mutation rate (54.1% vs. 39.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.02 to 3.25; p=0.044). Patients who underwent rebiopsy at metastatic sites had more chance to harbor T790M mutation (52.6% vs. 33.8%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.67; p=0.032). CONCLUSION: PFS of first-line EGFR-TKI, rebiopsy site, EGFR exon 19 deletion and its subtype Del E746-A750 mutation are associated with the frequency of T790M mutation.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Disease-Free Survival , Epidermal Growth Factor , Exons , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Mutation Rate , Odds Ratio , Phosphotransferases , Point Mutation , Prevalence , ErbB Receptors , Sequence Deletion
18.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1452-1457, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717509

ABSTRACT

Microcystic stromal tumor (MCST) is a rare subtype of sex cord-stromal neoplasm. Tumors from all 31 previously reported cases were located in the ovary. Herein, we present a unique case of a right-side testicular tumor in a 33-year-old Chinese male. The tumor is composed of predominantly lobulated cellular nodules separated by hyalinized fibrous stroma and they expressed CD10, β-catenin (nuclear), and cyclin D1. Molecular analysis identified a point mutation (c.110C>G) in exon 3 of CTNNB1. The histopathological features, immunohistochemistry profiles, and molecular analysis of this tumor were consistent with MCST of the ovary. Therefore, a diagnosis of MCST of the right testicle was determined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of MCST occurring in the testicles. The study may provide new insights to the tumor biology of MCST and a better understanding of this rare entity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biology , Cyclin D1 , Diagnosis , Exons , Female , Humans , Hyalin , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Ovary , Point Mutation , Testis
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the characteristics of PAH gene variants among 113 phenylketonuria patients from Henan Province.@*METHODS@#The 13 exons of the PAH gene were subjected to PCR amplification and direct sequencing. Large fragment deletion and duplication of the PAH gene were detected with a multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay.@*RESULTS@#In total 195 point variants and 3 large fragment deletions were detected among the 226 alleles, with the detection rates being 86.28% and 1.33%, respectively. Variants of p.Arg243Gln (18.14%), p.Arg111X (6.19%), p.Arg53His (5.31%), EX6-96A>G (5.31%), p.Tyr356X (4.87%) and p.Val399Val (4.42%) were relatively common. Most of the variants were located in exons 7, 11, 3 and 6. Missense variations were most common. Four novel variations were detected, which included c.1016C>A (p.Ser339Tyr), c.1000T>C (p.Cys334Arg), c.1110G>T (p.Glu370Asp), and IVS6+1G>T.@*CONCLUSION@#The PAH gene variations in Henan Province have featured extensive allelic heterogeneity and variety.


Subject(s)
China , Exons , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase , Genetics , Phenylketonurias , Genetics , Point Mutation , Sequence Deletion
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