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J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(6): 651-657, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350982


Abstract Objectives: The authors aim to evaluate the ''point-of-care'' transfontanellar ultrasound (TU) as an extension to pediatric physical examination and suggest a TU teaching protocol. Methods: The students were randomly divided into two groups, group A (12 participants) and group B (15 participants). The first group only received theoretical training, while the second group received theoretical and practical training. A third group, group C, included 15 pediatricians and interns who also received theoretical and practical training. All the participants underwent multiple-choice testing before and after a four-hour short course on TU. Six months later, another evaluation was performed to analyze the retained knowledge. Furthermore, a questionnaire based on the Likert scale was administered to evaluate satisfaction. Results: The cognitive evaluation (maximum score = 10 points) before and after training increased in group A from 4,0 ± 1,04 to 7,5 ± 1,2 (p < 0.001) and, 6 months later, to 6,5 ± 1,16 (p < 0.003); in group B from 3,8 ± 1,24 to 8,8 ± 1,01 (p < 0.001) and, 6 months later, to 8,46 ± 0,91 (p < 0.001); and in group C from 6,0 ± 0,75 to 9,0 ± 0,75 (p < 0.001) and, 6 months later, to 8,8 ± 0,77 (p < 0.001). The average satisfaction estimated by the Likert scale was over 80% for all questions. Conclusion: Cognitive assessment before and after classes and training reveals progress in learning, with knowledge retention in 6 months. Theoretical-practical courses are well accepted.

Humans , Child , Students, Medical , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Point-of-Care Systems , Curriculum , Educational Measurement , Pediatricians
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(1): 13-21, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154730


Abstract Objectives: To review, analyze, and present the available evidence on the usefulness of point-of-care pulmonary ultrasound in the diagnosis and monitoring of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), aiming to facilitate its potential inclusion into pediatric clinical reference guidelines. Source of data: A non-systematic research was carried out in the MEDLINE (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO databases, from January 1985 to September 2019. The articles that were considered the most relevant were selected. Synthesis of data: CAP is a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatrics and its clinical management remains a major challenge. The systematic use of chest X-ray for its diagnosis is controversial because it exposes the child to ionizing radiation and there are interobserver differences in its interpretation. Recently, the use of point-of-care pulmonary ultrasound by the pediatrician has been presented as an alternative for the diagnosis and monitoring of CAP. A great deal of evidence has disclosed its high sensitivity and diagnostic specificity, with the advantages of no ionizing radiation, relatively low cost, immediate results, portability, and the possibility of repetition according to the requirements of disease evolution. Moreover, its use can help rule out possible bacterial etiology and thus prevent inappropriate antibiotic treatments that favor bacterial resistance. Conclusions: Point-of-care ultrasonography represents an opportunity to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of CAP. However, as an operator-dependent technique, training is required for adequate image acquisition, correct interpretation, and integration with clinical data for correct decision-making.

Humans , Child , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnostic imaging , Follow-Up Studies , Ultrasonography , Point-of-Care Systems , Pediatricians
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(12): 1750-1756, Dec. 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143664


SUMMARY Cardiovascular diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Diastolic dysfunction (DD) may progress with the clinical manifestation of heart failure, known as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, a condition that precedes systolic dysfunction. The early identification of DD by echocardiography at the point-of-care before the appearance of symptoms and signs of pulmonary congestion and the implementation of appropriate treatment can improve the prognosis of CKD. This review article briefly addresses DD in kidney disease and presents a practical approach to the echocardiographic diagnosis of DD at the point of care.

SUMÁRIO As doenças cardiovasculares são causa importante de morbidade e mortalidade no curso da doença renal crônica (DRC). A disfunção diastólica (DD) pode evoluir com insuficiência cardíaca manifesta clinicamente, denominada insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção preservada, e precede a disfunção sistólica. A identificação precoce da DD pela ecocardiografia "point of care", antes do aparecimento dos sintomas e sinais de congestão pulmonar, e a implementação de tratamento adequado podem melhorar o prognóstico da DRC. Este artigo de revisão aborda brevemente a DD na doença renal e apresenta uma abordagem prática para o diagnóstico ecocardiográfico da DD à beira do leito

Humans , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure/therapy , Heart Failure/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume , Point-of-Care Systems , Diastole , Nephrologists
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(5): 523-530, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144246


Resumen Introducción: Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) presentan una elevada prevalencia en el ámbito comunitario. Un rápido diagnóstico microbiológico es esencial para asegurar una terapia adecuada y efectiva. Objetivo: Evaluar un kit de antibiograma rápido (KAR®) en formato point-of-care para la detección rápida de ITU y sensibilidad antimicrobiana. Material y Métodos: El dispositivo KAR® se diseñó y desarrolló en colaboración con ingenieros técnicos y microbiólogos clínicos. Su evaluación se realizó a través de un estudio multicéntrico en el que participaron tres hospitales españoles. Para ello, se realizaron distintos ensayos in vivo con el fin de determinar la correlación del dispositivo con las técnicas microbiológicas de referencia. Resultados: Se ensayó un total de 400 muestras de orinas procedentes de pacientes con sospecha de ITU. El dispositivo KAR® proporcionó rápidos resultados (tiempo medio de positividad de 7,8 ± 1,5 h) con 97% de sensibilidad, 89% de especificidad y 87% de concordancia para la detección de bacteriuria significativa. Los porcentajes de especificidad para los antimicrobianos testados fueron: ciprofloxacina (97%), fosfomicina (94%), cotrimoxazol (84%), ampicilina (80%) y amoxicilina/ácido clavulánico (55%). Conclusión: El dispositivo KAR® puede ser una herramienta útil para el diagnóstico de ITU en pacientes ambulatorios, especialmente en áreas de bajo nivel socio-económico.

Abstract Background: Urinary tract infections (UTI) presents a high prevalence in the community setting. Rapid and accurate microbiological diagnosis is essential to ensure adequate and effective therapy. Aim: To evaluate a rapid antibiogram kit (KAR®) in point-of-care format for rapid detection of UTI and antibiotic susceptibility. Methods: The KAR® device has been designed and developed in collaboration with technical engineers and clinical microbiologists. Its evaluation has been carried out through a multicenter study in which three Spanish hospitals have participated. Thus, different in vivo tests have been implemented in order to determine device correlation with the reference microbiological techniques. Results: During the study period, a total of 400 urine samples from patients with suspected ITU were tested. The KAR® device provided fast results (mean positivity time of 7,8 ± 1,5 hours) with 97% sensitivity, 89% specificity and 87% agreement for the detection of significant bacteriuria. The percentages of specificity for the antibiotics tested were: ciprofloxacin (97%), fosfomycin (94%),cotrimoxazole (84%), ampicillin (80%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (55%). Conclusion: The KAR® device could be a useful tool for diagnosing UTI in outpatients, especially in areas of low socio-economic level.

Humans , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Point-of-Care Systems , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 30-33, Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089321


ABSTRACT A new point-of-care HIV viral load, mPIMA HIV-1/2 VL, Abbott, USA, has been recently developed. This point-of-care viral load requires no skilled person to run and uses a small plasma volume (50 µL). However, obtaining 50 µL of plasma can be a challenge in limited resource settings. We validated a simple and easy method to obtain enough amount of plasma to run a point-of-care viral load. The study utilized 149 specimens from patients failing antiretroviral therapy. At least 250 µL of whole blood was collected in a microtube/EDTA from fingerstick (fs-plasma) and immediately centrifuged. Parallel collection of venous blood to obtain plasma (vp-plasma) was used to compare performance in a point-of-care viral load assay and in methodology used in centralized laboratories Abbott M2000, Abbott, USA. The procedure for plasma collection takes less than 10 min and in 94% of the cases only one fingerstick was sufficient to collect at least 250 µL of blood. The Pearson correlation coefficient value for vp-plasma versus fs-plasma ran on mPIMA was 0.990. The Bland-Altman mean difference (md) for this comparison were virtually zero (md = −0.001) with limits of agreement between −0.225 and 0.223. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient value for fs-plasma in mPIMA versus vp-plasma in Abbott M2000 was 0.948 for values above the mPIMA limit of quantification (LoQ; from 800 to 1,000,000 copies/mL). These results validate this simple plasma isolation method capable to be implemented in low resource countries where point-of-care decentralization is deeply needed.

Humans , Plasma/virology , HIV/isolation & purification , Point-of-Care Systems , Viral Load/methods , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/virology , Linear Models , Feasibility Studies , Reproducibility of Results
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828191


According to users and places, blood glucose monitoring systems(BGMSs) can be divided into self-monitoring blood glucose test systems(SMBGs) and Point-of-Care Blood Glucose monitoring systems(POC-BGMSs). The Food and Drug Administration(FDA) believes that standards for SMBGs and POC-BGMSs should be different because of different operators, different use environments, different intendance uses and different applicable populations. Now the international standards for evaluating BGMSs include ISO 15197:2013 issued by International Organization for Standardization(ISO), two guidelines on blood glucose monitoring systems issued by FDA, and POCT12-A3 guidelines issued by the American Association for Clinical and Laboratory Standardization(CLSI), ISO standard and FDA guideline-OTC are applicable in SMBGs, CLSI guideline and FDA guideline-POCTI2-A3 are suitable for POC-BGMSs. By analyzing the accuracy evaluation processes of BGMSs based on four standard documents, it is found that the accuracy evaluation of medical BGMSs is more stringent. It is proposed that SMBGs and POC-BGMSs should be supervised separately.

Blood Glucose , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , Point-of-Care Systems , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810957


Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a useful tool that is widely used in the emergency and intensive care areas. In Korea, insurance coverage of ultrasound examination has been gradually expanding in accordance with measures to enhance Korean National Insurance Coverage since 2017 to 2021, and which will continue until 2021. Full coverage of health insurance for POCUS in the emergency and critical care areas was implemented in July 2019. The National Health Insurance Act classified POCUS as a single or multiple-targeted ultrasound examination (STU vs. MTU). STU scans are conducted of one organ at a time, while MTU includes scanning of multiple organs simultaneously to determine each clinical situation. POCUS can be performed even if a diagnostic ultrasound examination is conducted, based on the physician's decision. However, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service plans to monitor the prescription status of whether the POCUS and diagnostic ultrasound examinations are prescribed simultaneously and repeatedly. Additionally, MTU is allowed only in cases of trauma, cardiac arrest, shock, chest pain, and dyspnea and should be performed by a qualified physician. Although physicians should scan all parts of the chest, heart, and abdomen when they prescribe MTU, they are not required to record all findings in the medical record. Therefore, appropriate prescription, application, and recording of POCUS are needed to enhance the quality of patient care and avoid unnecessary cut of medical budget spending. The present article provides background and clinical guidance for POCUS based on the implementation of full health insurance coverage for POCUS that began in July 2019 in Korea.

Abdomen , Budgets , Chest Pain , Critical Care , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Heart , Heart Arrest , Insurance Coverage , Insurance , Insurance, Health , Korea , Medical Records , National Health Programs , Patient Care , Point-of-Care Systems , Prescriptions , Shock , Thorax , Ultrasonography
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(11): 4297-4305, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039507


Abstract The use of new technologies can improve screening in communities with difficult access to health. This article aims to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and agreement of a point of care test in comparison to laboratory methods for the determination of glucose (GLI), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations. This prospective study used data from the remaining adult population of quilombolas in Brazil. Laboratory tests using conventional methods for the analysis of venipuncture samples were used as a standard method to measure the concentrations of GLI (mg/dL), TG (mg/dL), and TC (mg/dL) and compared to the metered dose from the collection of fingertip capillary blood (point of care). Contingency tables (2x2) were used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the methods. Lin and Bland & Altman coefficients were used to statistically assess agreement, the level of significance was 5%. There was substantial agreement between the methods for measuring TG and poor agreement for of TC and GLI. Analysis of the Bland & Altman coefficients revealed that the fingertip method did not produce good measures. The point of care method did not offer a good ability to measure compared to that of the reference laboratory method.

Resumo O uso de novas tecnologias pode melhorar o screening em comunidades de difícil acesso à saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade e concordância do teste de point of care em comparação com método laboratorial para dosagem de Glicose (GLI), Triglicerídeo (TG) e Colesterol total (CT). Estudo prospectivo com dados de população de adultos remanescentes de quilombolas no Brasil. Exames laboratoriais convencionais para análise foram obtidos por venopunção, utilizados como método padrão para mensuração das concentrações de GLI (mg/dL), TG (mg/dL) e CT (mg/dL) e comparados a mensuração por meio de técnica de ponta de dedo (point of care). Tabelas de contingência (2x2) foram utilizadas para estimar sensibilidade e especificidade dos métodos e o coeficiente de Lin e análises de Bland & Altman foram métodos de concordância com nível de significância de 5%. Houve concordância substancial entre os métodos para mensuração de TG e fraca concordância para mensuração de CT e GLI. Os coeficientes de Bland & Altman indicam que o método de ponta de dedo não apresentou boa mensuração. O método point of care não apresentou boa capacidade de mensuração de Glicose, Triglicerídeo e Colesterol total tendo como referência o método laboratorial.

Humans , Adult , Aged , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Blood Specimen Collection/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Triglycerides/blood , Blood Glucose/analysis , Brazil , Cholesterol/blood , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Health Services Accessibility , Middle Aged
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(10): 1273-1282, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058594


Background: INR is used to monitor the treatment with vitamin K antagonists. A strategy to reduce waiting times for sampling is to measure INR in a capillary sample using a portable point of care (POC) type coagulometer. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of CoaguChek Pro II™, Xprecia™ and microINR™ with venous INR measured at the clinical laboratory and their ease of use. Materials and Methods: Patients provided capillary and venous blood samples for parallel tests comparing Xprecia™ Stride with CoaguChek Pro II™ and with venous INR, microINR™ with CoaguChek Pro IITM and with venous INR. The devices' ease of use was assessed surveying the sampling staff. Results: The three tested devices had good correlation coefficients with venous INR: CoaguChek Pro IITM 0.953 and 0.962; Xprecia™ of 0.912 and microINR™ of 0.932. The correlation coefficient of Xprecia™ with CoaguChek Pro IITM was 0.937 and microINR™ with CoaguChek Pro IITM was 0.976. Conclusions: CoaguChek Pro IITM, Xprecia™ and microINR™ results had a good correlation coefficient with INR measured at the laboratory. Our results indicate that, in the hands of trained users, POC-type coagulometers are reliable and acceptable for routine use in anticoagulant treatment control.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , International Normalized Ratio/instrumentation , Reference Standards , Capillaries , Thromboplastin/therapeutic use , Chile , Reproducibility of Results , Drug Monitoring/instrumentation , Drug Monitoring/standards , International Normalized Ratio/standards , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 204-207, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003396


Abstract Objective: The aim of this report is to represent the role of the use of bedside ultrasound by the anesthesiologist, offering an individualized approach to the specific condition of the patient, without unnecessary postponement of femur fracture surgical repair in the elderly. Case report: Female patient, 86 years old, hypertensive, victim of trochanteric fracture of the femur, taken to the operating room after being released by cardiology service. A bedside ultrasound exam allowed the identification of aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, carotid stenosis, and signs of hypovolemia. From these findings, it was decided to use an ultrasound-guided block of the nerves femoral and lateral cutaneous of the thigh as an anesthetic technique. Conclusions: The use of ultrasound guidance by the anesthesiologist can provide relevant information for individualizing the anesthetic technique, without postponing the surgical intervention, which usually occurs when the patient is referred for complete examination by the specialist.

Resumo Objetivo: Exemplificar o papel do emprego da ultrassonografia à beira do leito pelo anestesiologista e oferecer uma abordagem individualizada para a condição específica do paciente, sem que haja postergação desnecessária de correções cirúrgicas de fraturas de fêmur em idosos. Relato do caso: Paciente feminina, 86 anos, hipertensa, vítima de fratura trocantérica de fêmur, levada ao bloco cirúrgico após liberação cardiológica. O exame ultrassonográfico à beira do leito possibilitou a identificação de estenose aórtica, hipertrofia ventricular esquerda, estenose de carótida e indícios de hipovolemia. A partir desses achados, decidiu-se pelo bloqueio nos nervos femoral e cutâneo lateral da coxa guiado pela ultrassonografia como técnica anestésica. Conclusão: O uso da ultrassonografia direcionada à beira do leito pelo anestesiologista pode fornecer informações relevantes para a individualização da técnica anestésica, sem que haja postergação da intervenção cirúrgica, a qual comumente ocorre quando o paciente é referenciado para exame completo pelo especialista.

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Ultrasonography/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Femoral Fractures/surgery , Preoperative Care/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Nerve Block/methods
HU rev ; 45(1): 98-103, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048672


Introdução: O termo ultrassonografia a beira do leito ou point of care (POCUS) tem sido utilizado para descrever o uso de ultrassons portáteis pelo médico quando do atendimento ao paciente. A POCUS está cada vez mais sendo integrada a prática médica como extensão do exame físico tradicional. Objetivo: Apresentar a experiência da implementação do ensino da POCUS no currículo de graduação da Faculdade de Medicina da UFJF. Relato de experiência: São descritos o processo e as condições de implementação da disciplina Ecografia Clínica (EC) I com os alunos do quarto período do curso de medicina da UFJF. Resultados: Na avaliação cognitiva (AC) com opções de múltipla escolha, 88% dos estudantes obtiveram notas iguais ou superiores 80 pontos. Na AC de associação de imagens, o resultado foi ainda melhor, com 96% dos discentes obtendo notas iguais ou superiores a 80 pontos (nenhum aluno obteve nota inferior a 60 pontos). No OSCE, o aproveitamento igual ou superior a 80 pontos foi alcançado por 92% dos alunos. A avaliação de satisfação com a disciplina EC I (escala do tipo Likert) pelos estudantes revelou que a maioria absoluta deles considera que a ultrassonografia melhorou a sua educação médica, melhorou a qualidade do seu exame físico e deveria ser mais inserida no currículo médico. Conclusão: A inserção da ultrassonografia no ensino de graduação em medicina é pedagogicamente adequada e aprovada pelos estudantes.

Introduction: The term bedside ultrasound (POCUS) has been used to describe the use of portable ultrasounds by the physician when providing patient care. POCUS is increasingly being integrated in medical practice as an extension of the traditional physical examination. Objective: To report the experience of the implementation of the teaching POCUS in the undergraduate curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine of UFJF. Experience report: The process and the conditions for the implementation of the discipline Clinical Ultrasound I with the students of the fourth period of the UFJF medical course are described. Results and discussion: In the cognitive assessment (CA) with multiple choice options, 88% of students scored 80 points or higher. In the CA using image association, the result was even better, reaching 96% of students with grades equal to or greater than 80 points (no student scored below 60 points). In the OSCE, achievement equal to or greater than 80 points was achieved by 92% of the students. Satisfaction assessment with the discipline clinical ultrasound I (Likert scale) by medical students revealed that the absolute majority of them consider that ultrasound has improved their medical education, improved the quality of their physical examination and should be more inserted in the medical curriculum doctor. Conclusion: The insertion of the ultrasonography in the teaching of graduation in medicine is pedagogically adequate and approved by the students.

Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Ultrasonography , Point-of-Care Systems , Research Report , Point-of-Care Testing , Academic Performance
Medwave ; 19(9): e7709, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1023871


En los últimos años, la ecografía clínica ha revolucionado el cuidado de los enfermos críticos y puede considerarse hoy en día una herramienta de trabajo imprescindible para los profesionales. Si bien su uso atraviesa una etapa in crescendo en los países en desarrollo de Latinoamérica, aún es infrautilizada, por diversos motivos. Describimos en este artículo el estado actual de la ecografía en el enfermo crítico en varios países en vías de desarrollo de Latinoamérica, los problemas y barreras que atentan contra su implementación, y proponemos algunas estrategias para la diseminación del método.

In recent years, point-of-care ultrasound has revolutionized the care of critically ill patients, and currently, it is considered an essential work tool for practitioners. Although its use is growing in developing countries of Latin America, for many reasons it is still underutilized. In this article, we describe the current status of point-of-care ultrasound in critical care in several developing countries of Latin America and address the problems and barriers that prevent its implementation. Finally, we propose strategies that would help to expand the adoption of this tool.

Humans , Ultrasonography/methods , Critical Illness , Point-of-Care Systems , Developing Countries , Latin America
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 375-380, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742545


PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate ichroma™ IGRA-TB, a novel point-of-care platform for assaying IFN-γ release, and to compare it with QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 60 healthy subjects, and blood samples were obtained in QFT-GIT blood collection tubes. The blood collection tubes were incubated at 37℃, and culture supernatant was harvested after 18–24 hours. IFN-γ responses were assessed by the ichroma™ IGRA-TB cartridge and the QFT-GIT IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three active TB patients were recruited as a positive control for M. tb infection. RESULTS: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the ichroma™ IGRA-TB test for differentiating between infected and non-infected individuals was 0.9706 (p < 0.001). Inconsistent positivity between the two tests was found in three participants who showed weak positive IFN-γ responses ( < 1.0 IU/mL) with QFT-GIT. However, the two tests had excellent agreement (95.2%, κ=0.91, p < 0.001), and a very strong positive correlation was observed between the IFN-γ values of both tests (r=0.91, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy demonstrated in this study indicates that the ichroma™ IGRA-TB test could be used as a rapid diagnostic method for detecting latent TB infection. It may be particularly beneficial in resource-limited places that require cost-effective laboratory diagnostics.

Diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Feasibility Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Korea , Latent Tuberculosis , Methods , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Point-of-Care Systems , ROC Curve , Tuberculosis
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765085


BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase protein whose level increases in response to tissue injury, infection, or other inflammation. It is used in clinical and forensic settings. Point-of-care (POC) testing has recently become available, and it is considered to be useful during postmortem examinations. However, laboratory testing of postmortem blood samples is difficult due to hemolysis and postmortem clotting. METHODS: The utility of POC testing for CRP during postmortem examination was evaluated using cardiac blood from the inferior vena cava. The whole blood sample was immediately tested using the POC instrument. Subsequently, the same sample was processed to obtain the serum, which was tested using common laboratory instruments. RESULTS: The postmortem POC test had a high positive predictive value and specificity, and the results strongly correlated with the laboratory test results. CONCLUSION: POC CRP testing is valid in postmortem examination and can be used in forensic medicine (postmortem inspection and autopsy).

Acute-Phase Proteins , Autopsy , C-Reactive Protein , Forensic Medicine , Forensic Sciences , Hemolysis , Inflammation , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vena Cava, Inferior
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759554


Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) is a point-of-care viscoelastic method and enables to assess viscoelastic profiles of whole blood in various clinical settings. ROTEM-guided bleeding management has become an essential part of patient blood management (PBM) which is an important concept in improving patient safety. Here, ROTEM testing and hemostatic interventions should be linked by evidence-based, setting-specific algorithms adapted to the specific patient population of the hospitals and the local availability of hemostatic interventions. Accordingly, ROTEM-guided algorithms implement the concept of personalized or precision medicine in perioperative bleeding management (‘theranostic’ approach). ROTEM-guided PBM has been shown to be effective in reducing bleeding, transfusion requirements, complication rates, and health care costs. Accordingly, several randomized-controlled trials, meta-analyses, and health technology assessments provided evidence that using ROTEM-guided algorithms in bleeding patients resulted in improved patient's safety and outcomes including perioperative morbidity and mortality. However, the implementation of ROTEM in the PBM concept requires adequate technical and interpretation training, education and logistics, as well as interdisciplinary communication and collaboration.

Cooperative Behavior , Education , Health Care Costs , Hemorrhage , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , Methods , Mortality , Organization and Administration , Patient Safety , Point-of-Care Systems , Precision Medicine , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Thrombelastography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761741


A rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kit was developed to detect non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of yellow fever virus (YFV) using monoclonal antibody. NS1 protein was purified from the cultured YFV and used to immunize mice. Monoclonal antibody to NS1 was selected and conjugated with colloidal gold to produce the YFV NS1 RDT kit. The YFV RDTs were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity using positive and negative samples of monkeys from Brazil and negative human blood samples from Korea. Among monoclonal antibodies, clones 3A11 and 3B7 proved most sensitive, and used for YFV RDT kit. Diagnostic accuracy of YFV RDT was fairly high; Sensitivity was 0.0% and specificity was 100% against Dengue viruses type 2 and 3, Zika, Chikungunya and Mayaro viruses. This YFV RDT kit could be employed as a test of choice for point-of-care diagnosis and large scale surveys of YFV infection under clinical or field conditions in endemic areas and on the globe.

Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Brazil , Clone Cells , Dengue Virus , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gold Colloid , Haplorhini , Humans , Korea , Mice , Point-of-Care Systems , Sensitivity and Specificity , Yellow fever virus , Yellow Fever
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760898


PURPOSE: Early detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae is important for appropriate antimicrobial therapy in children with pneumonia. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of a rapid antigen test kit in detecting M. pneumoniae from respiratory specimens in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: A total of 215 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were selected from a pool of NPAs that had been obtained from children admitted for LRTI from August 2010 to August 2018. The specimens had been tested for M. pneumoniae by culture and stored at −70°C until use. Tests with Ribotest Mycoplasma® were performed and interpreted independently by two investigators who were blinded to the culture results. RESULTS: Among the 215 NPAs, 119 were culture positive for M. pneumoniae and 96 were culture negative. Of the culture-positive specimens, 74 (62.2%) were positive for M. pneumoniae by Ribotest Mycoplasma®, and 92 of the 96 (95.8%) culture-negative specimens were negative for M. pneumoniae by Ribotest Mycoplasma®. When culture was used as the standard test, the sensitivity and specificity of Ribotest Mycoplasma® were 62.2% and 95.8%, respectively. Additionally, the positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall agreement rates with Ribotest Mycoplasma® were 94.9%, 67.2%, and 77.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A positive test result of Ribotest Mycoplasma® suggests a high likelihood of culture-positive M. pneumoniae infection. However, a negative test result should be interpreted with caution because nearly one-third of negative test results reveal culture-positive M. pneumoniae infections.

Child , Diagnosis , Humans , Chromatography, Affinity , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Point-of-Care Systems , Research Personnel , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sensitivity and Specificity
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785613


OBJECTIVE: The point-of-care ultrasound of the airway (POCUS-A) is a useful examination method but there are currently no educational programs for medical students regarding it. We designed a POCUS-A training curriculum for medical students to improve three cognitive and psychomotor learning domains: knowledge of POCUS-A, image acquisition, and image interpretation.METHODS: Two hours of training were provided to 52 medical students in their emergency medicine (EM) rotation. Students were evaluated for cognitive and psychomotor skills before and immediately after the training. The validity measures were established with the help of six specialists and eight EM residents. A survey was administered following the curriculum.RESULTS: Cognitive skill significantly improved after the training (38.7±12.4 vs. 91.2±7.7) and there was no significant difference between medical students and EM residents in posttest scores (91.2±7.7 vs. 90.8±4.6). The success rate of overall POCUS-A performance was 95.8%. The students were confident to perform POCUS-A on an actual patient and strongly agreed to incorporate POCUS-A training in their medical school curriculum.CONCLUSION: Cognitive and psychomotor skills of POCUS-A among medical students can be improved via a limited curriculum on EM rotation.

Airway Management , Curriculum , Education , Education, Medical , Emergency Medicine , Humans , Learning , Methods , Pilot Projects , Point-of-Care Systems , Schools, Medical , Specialization , Students, Medical , Ultrasonography