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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 292-303, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008096

ABSTRACT

Innovation is an important way to promote economic development and social progress. Recent years have seen rapid development of biological sciences. In response to social demands and the needs for developing an innovative country, fostering innovative talents in the field of biosciences has become a significant initiative supported by national policies and the needs from talent market. Taking the innovative talent training mode implemented by Zhejiang Normal University in the field of biological sciences as an example, this paper comprehensively introduces several key aspects of the mode. This includes establishing a mentorship system as the foundation, carrying out curriculum reform through project competitions and practical platforms, and promoting synergy among industry, academia, and research in talent training. This training mode has achieved positive results in practice, promoting the training of outstanding innovative talents in biological science majors, and may facilitate the reform of talent training in similar majors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Science Disciplines , Industry , Policy , Universities
2.
Psicol. rev ; 32(2): 279-298, 31/12/2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1532799

ABSTRACT

Este artigo visa mostrar como a meritocracia é uma ideologia que se imbrica no sistema capitalista neoliberal e promove a manutenção do status quo. Busca-se desnaturalizar a lógica meritocrática que se apresenta como inerente ao funcionamento social. Ela é mascarada pela aparência de ser a única proposta adequada para categorizar os sujeitos em seus devidos lugares, em uma sociedade de classes. A complexidade desse fenômeno, que se apresenta em um discurso lacunar, permite que sejam analisadas as brechas em que o próprio discurso meritocrático falha. Neste artigo, nos debruçaremos sobre tais lacunas, e verificaremos como essa ideologia, fundamentada pela lógica liberal, promove a legitimação das disparidades sociais. Para fazer essa análise, é necessário se esquivar da lógica individual, e verificar como, coletivamente, são produzidas e se mantidas superestruturas sociais que configuram as dimensões subjetivas da realidade. Não se propõe, portanto, um olhar ingênuo às estruturas sociais como "algo dado", e sim construído pelos agentes sociais que estão atravessados pela ideologia vigente (AU).


This paper aims to show how meritocracy is an ideology that is built-in the neoliberal capitalism and how it maintains the status quo. It seeks to denaturalize the meritocratic logic that presents itself as inherent to social functioning. Meritocracy is masked by the appearance of being the only appropriate proposal to categorize people to their standing in a class society. The complexity of this phenomenon, which is presented in a lacking discourse, allows one to analyze the gaps in which the meritocratic discourse itself fails. We intend to inspect such gaps, and see how this ideology, based on the liberal logic, promotes the legitimation of social disparities. In order to carry out this analysis, it is necessary to avoid the individualistic logic, and also to verify how social superstructures that compose the subjective dimensions of reality are produced and maintained collectively. Therefore, we do not propose a naive portrait of social structures as straightforward, but forged by the social agents who are mingled with the prevailing ideology (AU).


Este artículo tiene como objetivo mostrar cómo la meritocracia es una ideología que se inserta en el sistema capitalista neoliberal y promueve el mantenimiento del status quo. Buscamos desnaturalizar la lógica meritocrática que se presenta como inherente al funcionamiento social. Está enmascarado por la apariencia de ser la única propuesta adecuada para categorizar los asuntos en su lugar apropiado, en una sociedad de clases. La complejidad de este fenómeno, que se presenta en un discurso lacunar, permite analizar los vacíos en los que falla el propio discurso meritocrático. En este artículo examinaremos estas brechas y veremos cómo esta ideología, basada en la lógica liberal, promueve la legitimación de las disparidades sociales. Para realizar este análisis es necesario evitar la lógica individual y verificar cómo las superestructuras sociales que configuran las dimensiones subjetivas de la realidad se producen y mantienen colectivamente. Por tanto, no proponemos una mirada ingenua a las estructuras sociales como determinado, sino construidas por agentes sociales atravesados por la ideología imperante (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychology, Social , Work/psychology , Policy , Social Privilege
3.
São Paulo; s.n; 20231211. 156 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1519329

ABSTRACT

Movimentos históricos pela reforma psiquiátrica configuraram a Saúde Mental enquanto campo de saberes e práticas. Isso possibilitou o enfrentamento ao paradigma psiquiátrico, outrora absoluto, sobre o fenômeno da loucura, e instaurou um processo social complexo de mudanças em conceitos, estruturas de serviços e práticas no contexto da assistência às pessoas em sofrimento psíquico. O cuidado em saúde mental na Atenção Básica está previsto em documentos do Ministério da Saúde. Esta previsibilidade do âmbito político-jurídico, entretanto, parece não encontrar correspondência no âmbito técnico assistencial, onde atuam as trabalhadoras, que por sua vez estão submetidas a exigências de produtividade em meio a aumentos de procura por atendimentos e inseguranças no manejo das demandas por saúde mental. Nesse contexto, nota-se que há um descompasso entre o que a política pública propõe e o que o serviço consegue realizar. Um olhar sobre as perspectivas e entendimentos que emergem no entre desses dois âmbitos pode indicar cenários sobre os quais seja possível a proposição de caminhos alternativos de enfrentamento aos atuais desafios. O presente trabalho é resultado de uma pesquisa realizada no território de MBoi Mirim, Distrito do Jardim Ângela, em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde na região sul do município de São Paulo. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa que objetiva identificar, a partir da perspectiva de trabalhadoras de saúde, cenários que se manifestam nos âmbitos das políticas e práticas no contexto da assistência às demandas por saúde mental na Atenção Básica. O trabalho foi teoricamente orientado pelas contribuições epistêmicas do campo da Saúde Mental, enquanto campo de saber e prática, tem o Grupo Focal como principal instrumento de escuta das trabalhadoras e a Análise de Conteúdo como meio de interpretar. Ofertar atendimento às demandas por saúde mental no contexto da Atenção Básica ainda é um desafio que está para além das complexidades próprias dessas demandas. Este é um terreno repleto de ambiguidades e contradições, atravessado por questões que, por um lado, apontam para concepções e práticas dos trabalhadores que atuam nesse nível de atenção no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) sobre o fenômeno da loucura e, por outro, dizem sobre a natureza de certas políticas públicas de saúde mental, cujos programas são implantados e implementados visando atender a projetos de governos, de viés ideológico, sem entregar, de fato, o que prometem ao usuário dos serviços.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Attention , Women, Working , Health , Mental Health , Deinstitutionalization , Policy
4.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 85-94, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-988876

ABSTRACT

Introduction@#Access to appropriate and timely care underpins the Republic Act 9707 or the Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and Intervention Act of 2009. However, less than 10% of babies born every year have been screened for hearing loss. The Hearing for Life (HeLe) research program aims to increase the rate of newborn hearing screening (NHS) nationwide through the development and deployment of novel digital health or eHealth technologies in government rural primary care health centers (PCHC). The HeLe is also built on the global call for increased and systematic use of eHealth to strengthen health systems. Effectiveness of eHealth innovations requires acknowledgment of the product’s life cycle; one consideration is organizational readiness at this development stage of the HeLe. @*Objective@#This study assessed readiness of the eight PCHC selected to use the HeLe technologies. @*Methods@#This research utilized the Khoja-Durrani-Scott (KDS) eHealth evaluation tool to assess the PCHC’s readiness level prior to the implementation of HeLe. The KDS tool was distributed through a self-administered survey; data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Readiness is measured in terms of seven dimensions or outcomes resulting from the use of the HeLe technologies. @*Results@#The study revealed that the eight PCHC were most to least ready, in decreasing order, in the following areas: Ethical, Health, Technology, Social & Cultural, Readiness & Change Management, as well as Economic, and Policy outcomes. The study affirms the PCHCs’ value for equity in health care, i.e., providing accessible NHS services in the community setting closest to where the families and their newborns are. Likewise, results confirm the PCHC staff’s preparedness for another set of innovations, through agreement with statements on Technology, Social & Cultural as well as Readiness & Change Management parameters. @*Conclusions@#The results informed the training and technical support strategies to be implemented by the HeLe program proponents. However, even in this early development phase of the HeLe technologies, the PCHC are already concerned with how to sustain NHS services after the research. Fully aware that the HeLe ICT tools need to be maintained and upgraded, the PCHC views that economic and policy support should also be in place to ensure continuous delivery of the ICT-enabled NHS services. While results are illustrative, usefulness is limited by the small sample size and character of the study sites. Nevertheless, social dimensions still have to be carefully considered as innovative NHS tools are introduced to primary care health workers nationwide. Researchers have to be deliberate in working with broader health systems and policy advocacy efforts to allow novel NHS technologies to be smoothly introduced at the community level and frontlines of care.


Subject(s)
Telemedicine , Health , Technology , Change Management , Policy , Ethics , Primary Health Care
5.
Philippine Journal of Nursing ; : 66-73, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004949

ABSTRACT

@#Lack of self-care has strongly been associated with stress and burnout among nurse educators. It has long been a silent battle as they struggle with academia, clinical practice, and research. Challenges identified that contribute to lack of self-care are heavy workloads, limited facilities for instruction, lack of support for professional advancement, and limited self-care facilities. In support of the Alma Ata declaration in empowering and assisting individuals to obtain knowledge, skills, and resources to preserve health, this paper advocates the need to foster and establish a self-care culture for nurse educators in the Philippines through the Reflect, Recharge, Revive Program. The program framework of Reflect through self-assessment and self-reflection, Recharge through self-care education and training, and Revive for sustainability are collected from various programs already used by some nursing schools that have been proven effective in their respective organizations. Its integration into the current policies and guidelines, including policy frameworks of nursing institutions, will help address stress and burnout associated with a lack of self-care among nurse educators. As a healthy policy, it is believed to positively affect nursing education, especially in decreasing faculty turnover and increasing job performance and self-fulfillment in teaching.


Subject(s)
Self Care , Schools, Nursing , Burnout, Psychological , Policy
6.
Philippine Journal of Pathology ; (2): 6-11, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003714

ABSTRACT

@#Anatomic pathology is a field that relies on visual examination to provide diagnosis. Photos of specimens and microscopic slides play an important role in pathology education. With the internet, sharing and seeing images from different patient cases has become efficient and accessible. However, ethical concerns may be raised since patient images are used for academic purposes in a public setting. Proper de-identification, informed consent and setting professional guidelines for sharing pathology images are suggested.


Subject(s)
Pathology , Social Media , Ethics , Policy
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1867-1882, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981176

ABSTRACT

At present, the negative impact caused by white pollution has spread to all aspects of human society economy, ecosystem, and health, which causes severe challenges for developing the circular bioeconomy. As the largest plastic production and consumption country in the world, China has shouldered an important responsibility in plastic pollution control. In this context, this paper analyzed the relevant strategies of plastic degradation and recycling in the United States, Europe, Japan and China, measured the literature and patents in this field, analyzed the status quo of technology from the perspective of research and development trends, major countries, major institutions, and discussed the opportunities and challenges faced by the development of plastic degradation and recycling in China. Finally, we put forward future development suggestions which include the integration of policy system, technology path, industry development and public cognition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plastics , Ecosystem , Environmental Pollution , Recycling , Policy
8.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e250670, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1448949

ABSTRACT

Este artigo refere-se à parte de uma pesquisa de doutorado, realizada em hospital de alta complexidade do Sistema Único de Saúde, cujos participantes são os profissionais de saúde. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o potencial da abordagem das narrativas como método de pesquisa e intervenção nos serviços de saúde, traçando aproximações com a teoria psicanalítica. Sua relevância no campo da Saúde Pública está calcada no reconhecimento do papel do sujeito como agente de mudanças. O texto divide-se em duas partes: na primeira, explora as especificidades do trabalho na área da saúde, o paradigma da saúde pública no que concerne à gestão e possíveis contribuições da clínica ampliada para esse modelo. Na segunda parte, analisa o uso das narrativas como método de pesquisa nesse campo e as aproximações conceituais entre a narrativa em Walter Benjamin e a psicanálise em Freud. Busca na literatura referências sobre experiências análogas que fundamentem a proposta ora realizada e conclui pela importância de, no momento atual, apostar na força germinativa das narrativas como fonte criativa de novas formas de cuidar.(AU)


This article derives from a PhD research conducted with health professionals at a high-complexity public hospital from the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). It analyzes the potential of the narrative as a research and intervention method in health services, outlining approximations with psychoanalysis. In the field of Public Health, the narrative approach acknowledges the individual as an agent of change. The text is divided into two parts. The first presents an overview of the peculiarities involved in healthcare, the Public Health paradigm regarding service management and possible contributions from the expanded clinic to this model. The second analyzes the use of narratives as a research method in this field and the conceptual approximations between Benjamin's narrative and Freud's psychoanalysis. It searches the literature for references on similar experiences to support the present proposal and concludes by highlighting the importance of betting on the creative power of narratives as a source for new ways to care.(AU)


Este artículo es parte de una investigación doctoral, realizada con los profesionales de la salud de un hospital de alta complejidad del Sistema Único de Salud de Brasil. Su propósito es analizar el potencial del enfoque en narrativas como método de investigación e intervención en los servicios de salud, esbozando aproximaciones entre las narrativas y la teoría del psicoanálisis. Su relevancia en el campo de la salud pública se basa en el reconocimiento del rol del sujeto como agente de cambio. El texto se divide en dos partes: La primera investiga las especificidades del trabajo en el área de la salud, el paradigma de la salud pública en la gestión de los servicios y las posibles contribuciones de la clínica ampliada a este modelo. En la segunda parte, analiza el uso de narrativas como método de investigación en este campo y las aproximaciones conceptuales entre la narrativa de Walter Benjamin y el psicoanálisis de Freud. Este estudio busca en la literatura referencias sobre experiencias similares que apoyen la propuesta ahora realizada y concluye con la importancia de, en el momento actual, apostar por el poder de las narrativas como fuente creadora de nuevas formas de cuidar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychoanalysis , Health Policy, Planning and Management , Narration , Qualitative Research , Education, Public Health Professional , Policy , Anxiety , Pain , Parapsychology , Personality , Politics , Psychoanalytic Interpretation , Psychology , Psychopathology , Psychotherapy , Public Health Administration , Quality of Health Care , Regional Health Planning , Social Change , Social Conditions , Socioeconomic Factors , Sociology , Superego , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Unconscious, Psychology , Behavior , Behavioral Symptoms , Technical Cooperation , Burnout, Professional , Activities of Daily Living , Mental Health , Disease , Psychological Techniques , Health Strategies , Efficiency, Organizational , Life , Health Equity , Organizational Modernization , Biomedical Technology , Disaster Vulnerability , Culture , Capitalism , Value of Life , Death , Depression , Economics , Ego , Health Sciences, Technology, and Innovation Management , Scientific and Technical Activities , Essential Public Health Functions , Humanization of Assistance , Ethics, Institutional , Information Technology , Narrative Therapy , Social Determinants of Health , Integrality in Health , Ambulatory Care , Psychological Trauma , Emotion-Focused Therapy , Occupational Stress , Fascism , Burnout, Psychological , Interpersonal Psychotherapy , Psychological Distress , Sociodemographic Factors , Social Vulnerability , Health Occupations , Health Services Accessibility , History , Human Rights , Id , Mental Health Services , Morals
9.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (39): e22205, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1523010

ABSTRACT

Resumo Neste artigo tenho como objetivo refletir sobre as singularidades sexuais e de gênero presentes no bolsonarismo. Para isso, analiso o funcionamento discursivo das políticas sexo-gendradas que irrompem, hegemonicamente, do discurso da extrema direita, representado pelo que se convencionou chamar, nessa formação discursiva, de "ideologia de gênero". Utilizo o termo "cis-hétero-bolsonarismo" para descrever essas configurações político-ideológicas que se apresentam desde os movimentos reacionários latino-americanos das últimas décadas. Ao delimitar o fenômeno do cis-hétero-bolsonarismo, busco interpretar o funcionamento dessa discursividade, compreendendo sua rede dispositiva de sentidos pela descrição de seus domínios de memória, a saber: integralismo, militarismo e fascismo. Para abordar tais questões, tenho os estudos da Linguagem, a teoria queer e os estudos da biopolítica como referências teóricas.


Resumen En este artículo mi objetivo es reflexionar sobre las singularidades sexuales y de género presentes en el bolsonarismo. Para eso, analizo el funcionamiento discursivo de las políticas sexo-género que emergen, hegemónicamente, del discurso de la ultraderecha, representado por lo que se ha convenido en llamar, en esta formación discursiva, "ideología de género". Utilizo el término "cis-hétero-bolsonarismo" para describir estas configuraciones político-ideológicas que se presentan desde los movimientos reaccionarios latinoamericanos de las últimas décadas. Al delimitar el fenómeno del cis-hétero-bolsonarismo, busco interpretar el funcionamiento de esta discursividad, comprendiendo su red dispositiva de sentidos mediante la descripción de sus dominios de memoria, a saber: integralismo, militarismo y fascismo. Para abordar estas cuestiones, tengo los estudios del Lenguaje, la teoría queer y los estudios de la biopolítica como referencias teóricas.


Abstract In this article my aim is to reflect on the sexual and gender singularities present in Bolsonarism. To do so, I analyze the discursive functioning of sex-gender policies that emerge, hegemonically, from the discourse of the far-right, represented by what has become known, in this discursive formation, as "gender ideology". I use the term "cis-hetero-bolsonarism" to describe these political-ideological configurations that have emerged from Latin American reactionary movements in recent decades. By delimiting the phenomenon of cishetero-bolsonarism, I seek to interpret the functioning of this discourse, understanding its dispositif network of meanings through the description of its domains of memory, namely: integralism, militarism, and fascism. To address these issues, I have language studies, queer theory, and biopolitical studies as theoretical references.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Policy , Cisgender Persons , Gender Norms , Gender Performativity , Latin America
10.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 43: e256659, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1529213

ABSTRACT

Em 2020, o mundo enfrentou uma grave emergência de saúde pública devido à pandemia de COVID-19, que impactou significativamente a mobilidade humana e a vida cotidiana de milhares de imigrantes ao redor do mundo. Este artigo fez uso de entrevistas online e por telefone com imigrantes que chegaram ao Brasil a partir de 2016, para identificar as estratégias de enfrentamento adotadas durante a pandemia. Foi realizada uma análise transversal das entrevistas com o auxílio do software Atlas.ti 9, usando a técnica sistemática de categorização iterativa. Com base em uma perspectiva sociocultural em psicologia, o artigo introduz os impactos iniciais da pandemia em diferentes esferas da vida cotidiana desses imigrantes e apresenta as estratégias mobilizadas para restaurar continuidades funcionais e relacionais em um momento no qual as rupturas provocadas pela migração e pela pandemia se sobrepõem. Entre outros, podese identificar como os entrevistados ativaram rapidamente as redes sociais locais e transnacionais virtualmente, mobilizando competências e habilidades aprendidas durante a migração.(AU)


In 2020, the world faced a serious public health emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has significantly impacted human mobility and the daily lives of thousands of immigrants around the world. This article uses online and telephone interviews conducted with migrants who arrived in Brazil in 2016, to identify coping strategies employed during the pandemic. A transversal analysis of all interviews was conducted with the aid of the software Atlas.ti 9, using a systematic approach of iterative categorization. From a sociocultural perspective in psychology, the article introduces the initial impacts of the pandemic in different spheres of everyday life of these immigrants. With this everyday context, we present the strategies mobilized by immigrants to restore functional and relational continuities at a moment in which the ruptures caused by migration and the pandemic overlap. In particular, we identify how interviewees rapidly activated local and transnational social networks virtually, mobilizing skills learnt during migration.(AU)


En 2020, el mundo se enfrentó a un grave estado de emergencia en salud pública debido a la pandemia del COVID-19, que impactó significativamente la movilidad humana y la vida cotidiana de miles de inmigrantes en todo el mundo. Este artículo realizó entrevistas en línea y por teléfono con inmigrantes quienes llegaron a Brasil a partir de 2016, con el fin de identificar sus estrategias de afrontamiento adoptadas durante la pandemia. Se realizó un análisis transversal de las entrevistas con la ayuda del software Atlas.ti 9, utilizando la técnica sistemática de categorización iterativa. Desde una perspectiva sociocultural en Psicología, este artículo expone los impactos iniciales de la pandemia en diferentes ámbitos de la vida cotidiana de estos inmigrantes y presenta las estrategias movilizadas para restaurar las continuidades funcionales y relacionales en un momento en que se superponen las rupturas causadas por la migración y la pandemia. Entre otros aspectos, se puede identificar cómo los entrevistados activaron virtualmente las redes sociales locales y transnacionales movilizando habilidades y destrezas aprendidas durante la migración.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adaptation, Psychological , Cultural Characteristics , Emigration and Immigration , COVID-19 , Anxiety , Aptitude , Politics , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Quality of Life , Refugees , Safety , Salaries and Fringe Benefits , Social Change , Social Desirability , Social Isolation , Social Mobility , Social Problems , Social Sciences , Social Work , Socioeconomic Factors , Unemployment , Viruses , Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms , Brazil , Career Mobility , Economic Development , Quarantine , Communicable Disease Control , Family Characteristics , Adjustment Disorders , Hygiene , Mental Health , Disease Outbreaks , Mortality , Immunization , Population Growth , Universal Precautions , Clinical Competence , Workplace , Interview , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Disease Notification , Refugee Camps , Endemic Diseases , Credentialing , Crisis Intervention , Affective Symptoms , Culture , Terrorism , Capitalism , Internationality , Disasters , Economics , Employment , Environment and Public Health , Job Market , Ethics , Products Distribution , Cultural Competency , Resilience, Psychological , Fear , Economic Recession , Policy , Remuneration , Forecasting , Faith-Based Organizations , Expression of Concern , Right to seek Asylum , Respect , Psychological Distress , Transtheoretical Model , Physical Distancing , Food Insecurity , Social Vulnerability , Disaster Operations , Human Development , Human Rights , Income , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Learning , Leisure Activities , Life Change Events , Loneliness
11.
Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto, Online) ; 33: e3303, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1431022

ABSTRACT

Abstract The use of firearms is a complex issue which involves issues related to mental health and public policies. This scoping review aimed to analyze individual and social risk predictors for the use of firearms. Based on the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews - PRISMA-ScR, six databases were consulted and 605 studies, retrieved. After screening, 16 empirical studies were selected for this review. Individual predictors included psychiatric diagnosis, abusive use of alcohol, high anxiety, and use of psychiatric medication; whereas social ones, access to firearms, absence of laws restricting the possession of weapons, and war experiences. We find the need for further research on the subject, especially by Brazilian science, since 87.5% of the studies this review screened came from the United States.


Resumo O uso da arma de fogo pela população é um tema complexo que envolve questões relacionadas à saúde mental e políticas públicas. O objetivo dessa revisão de escopo foi analisar os preditores de riscos, individuais e sociais, para o uso da arma de fogo. Com base nas diretrizes do Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews - PRISMA-ScR, seis bases de dados foram consultadas com a identificação de 605 artigos. Após processo de triagem, 16 estudos empíricos foram selecionados para a revisão. Os preditores individuais identificados foram: diagnóstico de transtornos mentais, uso abusivo de álcool, ansiedade elevada, uso de medicação psiquiátrica. Os classificados como sociais compreenderam: acesso a armas de fogo, ausência de leis restritivas à posse de armas, experiência de guerra. Verificou-se a necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre o tema principalmente pela ciência brasileira, visto que 87,5% dos estudos triados nesta revisão foram provenientes dos Estados Unidos.


Resumen El uso de armas de fuego por parte de la población es un tema complejo que involucra cuestiones relacionadas con la salud mental y las políticas públicas. El objetivo de esta revisión de alcance fue analizar los predictores de riesgo individual y social para el uso de armas de fuego. Con base en los lineamientos de Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR), se consultaron seis bases de datos, lo que generó la identificación de 605 artículos. Después de un proceso de selección, se seleccionaron 16 estudios empíricos para su revisión. Los predictores individuales identificados fueron: diagnóstico de trastornos mentales, abuso de alcohol, ansiedad elevada y uso de medicación psiquiátrica. Los predictores sociales: acceso a armas de fuego, ausencia de leyes que restrinjan la tenencia de armas y experiencia de guerra. Se observó una necesidad de más investigación sobre el tema, principalmente por parte de la ciencia brasileña, ya que el 87,5% de los estudios seleccionados en esta revisión provenían de los Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Risk-Taking , Warfare , Firearms , Mental Health , Armed Conflicts , Policy
12.
Acta odontol. Colomb. (En linea) ; 13(1): 69-78, 20230000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425215

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el proceso de democratización de los servicios de odontología, y de otros campos de la salud, parte del acceso de la población a la atención y, de la libertad de contar con información científca adecuada y sufciente para cuidar la salud. De acuerdo con la constitución mexicana, es compromiso del Estado lograr contar con las condiciones políticas, económicas y sociales para el cumplimiento del mandato constitucional. Objetivo: identifcar la relación de los servicios de salud odontológica en México con el proceso de democratización. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfca en la base de datos BVS, en español y enfocada en la producción científca mexicana, con las siguientes palabras claves: democracia, servicios de salud y salud bucal. Conclusiones: el sistema de salud de México no ha logrado cubrir las necesidades de la población, sobre todo de aquella que es vulnerable, en tanto se requiere buena infraestructura, personal de salud, medicamentos, etc. Le corresponde al Estado impulsar iniciativas para acercar y garantizar el acceso de dicha población, sin importar lo alejada que se encuentre; apoyarse en el uso de tecnologías que faciliten esta labor y cumplir con la obligación constitucional que representa el derecho a la salud, para, con ello, democratizarlo.


Background: The process of democratization in health services in dentistry and in the entire feld of health starts from the access of the population to care, from the freedom to have adequate and sufcient scientifc information for the population to take care of their health. According to the Constitution, the State is committed to providing the political, economic and social conditions for the fulflment of the constitutional mandate. Objective: Identify the relationship between dental health services in Mexico and the democratization process. Method: A bibliographic review was carried out in the VHL database with the keywords "democracy", "health services" "oral health" focused on Mexico and in Spanish language. Conclusions: The health system in Mexico has not been able to meet the needs of the population, especially those who are vulnerable; good infrastructure, health personnel, medicines, etc. are required. It is up to the state to promote initiatives to provide access to this population, no matter how far away they are, and to support the use of technologies that facilitate and allow the constitutional obligation to fulfl the right to health and thus democratize health.


Subject(s)
Democracy , Dental Health Services , Dentistry , Policy , Health Services Needs and Demand
13.
Univ. salud ; 24(3): 218-226, sep.-dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1410289

ABSTRACT

Introduction: To understand the sick leave situation and the causes and effects of a temporary loss of capacity to work allows for the strengthening of policies and management in the provision of health services. Objective: To analyze sick leave in Colombia in the 2016-2018 period. Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional observational study and the relative risk was calculated. Sick leave reports were provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection. 12,410,837 reports from formal workers between the ages of 18-70 years and had at least one temporary disability were processed. Results: The average age of people with sick leave was 37.11 years, 53% corresponding to females. On average, sick leave was 90.6% and 5.6% for dependent and independent workers, respectively. The principal causes of disability were musculoskeletal diseases and were more likely in men and adults according to RR. Men in comparison to females and adults in comparison to youths are less likely to have sick leave due to respiratory disease. Conclusions: In Colombia, females presented more temporary sick leave, even if males had more days of disability, even though the median was three days in both genders. Youth and adults had more sick leave days.


Introducción: Comprender la situación de incapacidad por enfermedad, causas y efectos de una pérdida temporal de la capacidad de trabajo fortalece las políticas y la gestión en la prestación de servicios de salud. Objetivo: Analizar las incapacidades por enfermedad en Colombia en el período 2016-2018. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional transversal retrospectivo, con cálculo del riesgo relativo. Se procesaron 12.410.837 registros de trabajadores formales entre 18 y 70 años de edad y con al menos una incapacidad temporal, según los informes del Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social. Resultados: La edad promedio de las personas fue de 37,11 años, 53% fueron mujeres. En promedio, el 90,6% de las incapacidades fue para trabajadores dependientes y el 5,6% trabajadores independientes. Las principales causas de incapacidad fueron las enfermedades del sistema musculoesquelético más frecuentes en hombres adultos según RR. Los hombres en comparación con las mujeres y los adultos en comparación con los jóvenes tienen menos probabilidades de tener licencia por enfermedad respiratoria. Conclusiones: Las mujeres presentaron más incapacidades temporales por enfermedad, aunque los hombres tuvieron más días de incapacidad, la mediana fue de tres días en ambos géneros. Los jóvenes y los adultos tenían más días de baja por enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Work , Risk , Sick Leave , Policy , Health Services
15.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 39(4): [480-488], oct. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1424350

ABSTRACT

La venta de productos ultraprocesados y el sobrepeso y la obesidad han aumentado en América Latina en los últimos años. En el Perú, se aprobó la Ley N° 30021 en busca de reducir el sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños y adolescentes, sin embargo, el desarrollo de esta Ley se caracterizó por tener continuas modificaciones en los diversos documentos elaborados. El propósito de este artículo es identificar cambios esenciales en los documentos elaborados por el Gobierno y el Congreso en el marco de la Ley N° 30021, específicamente en los temas de regulación de la publicidad de alimentos y bebidas no alcohólicas, advertencias publicitarias y parámetros técnicos de nutrientes críticos. Los cambios identificados en los diferentes documentos muestran el dinamismo en el desarrollo de esta política donde la falta de evidencia científica oportuna, la oposición de la industria alimentaria y la falta de consenso político fueron los principales motivos.


The sale of ultra-processed products has increased in Latin America in recent years, as well as the prevalence of overweight and obesity. In Peru, Law No. 30021 passed in an attempt to reduce overweight and obesity in children and adolescents; however, the development of this law was characterized by constant modifications to the documents prepared in this regard. This article aims to identify essential modifications in the documents elaborated by the Government and the Congress within the timeframe of Law No. 30021, particularly those regarding the regulation of food and non-alcoholic beverage advertising, advertising warnings and technical parameters of critical nutrients. The lack of timely scientific evidence, the opposition by the food industry and the lack of political consensus were the main reasons for the detected modifications, which shows the dynamism during the development of this policy.


Subject(s)
Products Publicity Control , Food Publicity , Food Labeling , Legislation, Food , Peru , Politics , Food and Beverages , Products Commerce , Policy
16.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 56(5): 632-653, Sept.-Oct. 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407066

ABSTRACT

Resumo O trabalho reconstrói a trajetória do Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), especialmente seu processo de aprendizado orientado à políticas públicas. Inicialmente, o texto contrasta os elementos contidos em Sabatier e Mazmanian (1980), nos quais são encontrados os primeiros esforços para desenvolver um modelo de análise com os argumentos encontrados em Sabatier (1987, 1988 e 1993). Posteriormente, a trajetória histórica de atualizações e versões do modelo é discutida com base nas análises de Sabatier e Jenkins-Smith (1999), Sabatier e Weible (2007) e Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018). Ao longo de mais de 30 anos de pesquisa, foi possível acompanhar as modificações presentes nas quatro versões do modelo, as principais hipóteses construídas, as críticas e seus desdobramentos Uma lacuna identificada nessa trajetória e consequente proposta para uma futura agenda de pesquisa apontam a influência dos atores internacionais e suas implicações nas modificações de políticas públicas, condição não explicitamente abordada pela ACF em suas diversas versões, conforme destacado por Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018).


Resumen El artículo pretende trazar la trayectoria del Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), especialmente su proceso de aprendizaje orientado a políticas públicas. Inicialmente, el texto contrasta los elementos contenidos en Sabatier y Mazmanian (1980), donde se encuentran los primeros esfuerzos por desarrollar un modelo de análisis, con los argumentos encontrados en Sabatier (1987, 1988 y 1993). Posteriormente, se discute la trayectoria histórica de actualizaciones y versiones del modelo a partir de los análisis de Sabatier y Jenkins-Smith (1999), Sabatier y Weible (2007), y Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018). A lo largo de la trayectoria de construcción del ACF, fue posible seguir las modificaciones en las cuatro versiones del modelo, las principales hipótesis construidas, las críticas y sus desdoblamientos. Una laguna identificada en esta trayectoria, y consecuente propuesta de agenda de investigación futura, destaca la influencia de los actores internacionales y sus implicaciones en las modificaciones de las políticas públicas, condición no abordada explícitamente por el ACF en sus variadas versiones, como destacan Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018).


Abstract This paper aims to retrace the trajectory of the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF), especially its policy-oriented learning process. Initially, we contrast the elements in Sabatier and Mazmanian (1980), where the first efforts to develop an analysis model are found, with the arguments found in Sabatier (1987, 1988, and 1993). Subsequently, the historical trajectory of updates and versions of the model is discussed based on the analyses in Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1999), Sabatier and Weible (2007), and Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018). It was possible to follow the modifications in the model, the main hypotheses built, the criticisms, and their unfoldings. As main findings, it was evident throughout the ACF construction trajectory: four versions of the model over almost 30 years and with the decisive participation of six prominent authors who contributed to its main developments since the first version, present in Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1993); and Sabatier and Jenkins-Smith (1999), the model gains greater analytical capacity with the intermediate variables between the external factors and the policy subsystem and analytically refines the categories internal to the subsystem. One gap identified in this trajectory, and consequent proposal for a future research agenda, is the influence of international actors and their implications on policy modifications, a condition not explicitly addressed by the ACF in its varied versions, as highlighted by Jenkins-Smith et al. (2018).


Subject(s)
Public Policy , Policy , Learning
17.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 56(4): 488-507, July-Aug. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407057

ABSTRACT

Abstract Public Defender's Offices (PDOs) are responsible for providing legal assistance to citizens in situations of social and economic vulnerability. These organizations litigate directly against the state to guarantee the provision of public services and prevent government abuses or deviations. Therefore, these organizations require autonomy to fulfill their mission. This work analyzes the relationship between autonomy and performance in Brazilian PDOs. The work tests the perception of the impact between autonomy and performance of Brazilian PDOs. A survey was carried out with bureaucrats from 27 Brazilian PDOs, and the data was analyzed through structural equation modeling. The variables observed include, in addition to performance and autonomy, availability of resources, competencies, and accountability. The results point out a perception that PDOs must be autonomous and free from political influences to perform their mission properly. The bureaucrats' skills and accountability were identified as relevant factors for the organizations' performance. However, there was no significant relationship between resource availability and perceived performance. The contributions of this study include obtaining evidence of empirical validity to measure the constructs "autonomy," "availability of resources," "skills," and "responsibility" and their impact on the performance of PDOs.


Resumen Las defensorías públicas (DP) se encargan de brindar asistencia jurídica a los ciudadanos en situación de vulnerabilidad social y económica. Estas organizaciones litigan directamente contra el Estado para garantizar la prestación de los servicios públicos y prevenir abusos o desviaciones por parte del Gobierno. Por lo tanto, la autonomía es relevante para que estas organizaciones cumplan su misión. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la relación entre autonomía y desempeño en las DP brasileñas. La investigación prueba la percepción del impacto entre autonomía y desempeño de las DP brasileñas. Para ello, se realizó una encuesta con burócratas de 27 DP brasileñas y posteriormente el análisis de datos a través de modelado de ecuaciones estructurales. Las variables observadas incluyen, además del desempeño y la autonomía, la disponibilidad de recursos, las competencias y la rendición de cuentas. Los resultados indican que la percepción en estas organizaciones es estas que deben operar de forma autónoma, alejadas de influencias políticas, para que puedan desempeñar su misión de la mejor manera. Las habilidades de los burócratas también son un factor relevante en el desempeño de estas organizaciones, al igual que accountability. Sin embargo, no hubo una relación significativa entre la disponibilidad de recursos y el desempeño percibido. Las contribuciones de este estudio incluyen la obtención de evidencia de validez empírica para medir los constructos autonomía, disponibilidad de recursos, habilidades y accountability y su impacto en el desempeño de las DP.


Resumo As Defensorias Públicas (DPs) são responsáveis por prover assistência jurídica a cidadãos em situação de vulnerabilidade social e econômica. Essas organizações litigam diretamente contra o Estado para garantir a prestação de serviços públicos e evitar abusos ou desvios por parte do governo. Portanto, autonomia tende a ser relevante para que essas organizações cumpram sua missão. O trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a relação entre autonomia e desempenho nas DPs brasileiras. O trabalho testa a percepção de impacto entre autonomia e desempenho das DPs brasileiras. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa com burocratas de 27 DPs brasileiras e a análise dos dados foi realizada por meio de modelagem de equações estruturais. As variáveis observadas incluem, além de desempenho e autonomia, disponibilidade de recursos, competências e responsabilização. Os resultados indicam que a percepção nessas organizações é de que elas devem operar de forma autônoma, longe de influências políticas, para que possam desempenhar sua missão da melhor forma. As capacidades dos burocratas também são um fator relevante no desempenho dessas organizações, assim como a accountability. No entanto, não houve relação significativa entre a disponibilidade de recursos e o desempenho percebido. As contribuições deste estudo incluem a obtenção de evidências de validade empírica para mensurar os construtos autonomia, disponibilidade de recursos, capacidades e accountability e seu impacto no desempenho das DPs.


Subject(s)
Public Defender Legal Services , Efficiency , Policy
18.
San Salvador; GOES; jun. 00, 2022. 28 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1412571

ABSTRACT

El proceso de formulación de la Política Crecer Juntos fue un esfuerzo multisectorial en el cual participaron más de 25 instituciones del sector público y privado y se basó en dos enfoques: el enfoque de gestión, basada en resultados para el desarrollo (GpRD), y el enfoque participativo. Dicho proceso contó con la asistencia técnica del Banco Mundial, Unión Europea, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo y Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia. Crecer Juntos retoma los compromisos internacionales adquiridos por el Estado salvadoreño, así como el amplio marco normativo nacional que se enfoca en la protección integral de niñas y niños, a fin de garantizar el pleno goce de sus derechos


The process of formulating the Grow up together Policy was a multisectoral effort in which more than 25 public and private sector institutions participated and was based on two approaches: the management approach, based on results for development (MfDR), and the participatory approach. This process had the technical assistance of the World Bank, the European Union, the Inter-American Development Bank and the United Nations Children's Fund. resumes the international commitments acquired by the Salvadoran State, as well as the broad national regulatory framework that focuses on the comprehensive protection of girls and boys, in order to guarantee the full enjoyment of their rights


Subject(s)
Humans , Child Development , Abstracts , Policy , Child Advocacy , El Salvador
19.
San Salvador; A.L; jun.00, 2022. 130 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1412570

ABSTRACT

Estamos marcando un antes y después en la historia del país, con una política de Estado que trascenderá las tradicionales gestiones gubernamentales, poniendo como protagonistas a los miles de niñas y niños, así como las generaciones por venir. Esta política nos asegura un trabajo enfocado en fortalecer el desarrollo de nuestro país para prevenir la pobreza, la violencia, la desigualdad, falta de oportunidades y de innovación. Crecer Juntos busca propiciar que nuestra niñez alcance su máximo potencial de desarrollo, abarcando desde su gestación hasta cumplir los 8 años, con atenciones de calidad en salud, nutrición, educación, aprendizaje, cuidados y protección, a través de estrategias, programas y acciones interinstitucionales e intersectoriales para impactar en los objetivos económicos y sociales a largo plazo, y que todos puedan gozar de oportunidades equitativas y, finalmente, tener una mejor calidad de vida


We are marking a before and after in the history of the country, with a State policy that will transcend traditional government efforts, putting thousands of girls and boys, as well as generations to come, as protagonists. This policy ensures us a work focused on strengthening the development of our country to prevent poverty, violence, inequality, lack of opportunities and innovation. seeks to encourage our children to reach their maximum development potential, ranging from pregnancy to the age of 8, wi grow up together th quality care in health nutrition, education, learning, care and protection, through inter-institutional strategies, programs and actions. and intersectoral to impact long-term economic and social objectives, so that everyone can enjoy equal opportunities and, ultimately, have a better quality of life


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Child Development , Policy , El Salvador
20.
Investig. desar ; 30(1): 313-331, ene.-jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1385969

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Este artículo presenta una reflexión producida tras una serie de intervenciones realizadas en el sector conocido como "El Bronx" en la ciudad de Bogotá, financiadas por el Gobierno nacional y distrital para, por un lado, comprender el papel que algunas dinámicas territoriales tienen para prevenir el crimen y, por otro lado, diseñar e implementar una estrategia en los entornos escolares locales que ayudara a reducir la vulnerabilidad de los jóvenes del sector. Las propuestas de trabajo desarrollan lineamientos de las políticas sociales articulando elementos propios de la geografía humana, la sociología y la psicología alrededor de propuestas como las Zonas de Orientación Escolar. Entre las conclusiones pueden encontrarse indicios sobre la importancia de considerar el efecto que las dinámicas territoriales tienen para la efectividad del diseño e implementación de políticas sociales, así como también la dificultad que representa la definición de indicadores que permitan la comparabilidad con experiencias similares.


ABSTRACT This paper is a reflection produced after a series of interventions carried out at the sector known as "The Bronx", in the city of Bogotá, financed by the national and district governments. The main aim was, on one hand, to understand the role that some dynamics play in order to prevent crime, and, on the other hand, to design and implement a strategy in local schools that will help to reduce the individual vulnerability of young people in the sector. The work proposals develop social policy guidelines articulating elements of human geography, sociology, and psychology, around proposals such as the Zonas de Orientación Escolar (School Guiding Zones, Indications about the importance of considering the effect that territorial dynamics have on the effectiveness of the design and implementation of social policies, as well as the difficulty of defining indicators that allow comparability with similar experiences, can be found among the conclusions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Violence , Crime , Sociology , Policy
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