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2.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 15-20, Ene-Jun 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147873

ABSTRACT

Se desarrollan los principales elementos históricos en el estudio y la lucha contra la poliomielitis, su aislamiento por Karl Landsteiner en 1909, la primera vacuna con virus muerto (Jonas Salk, 1955), la segunda vacuna con virus vivo atenuado (Albert Sabin, 1961) y la reducción paulatina de la polio en todo el mundo, hasta llegar a menos de 200 casos al año (virus salvaje)(AU)


The main historical events in the study and fight against polio are shown, its isolation by Karl Landsteiner in 1909, the development of the first vaccine with dead virus (Jonas Salk, 1955), the second vaccine with live attenuated virus (Albert Sabin, 1961) and the gradual reduction of polio worldwide, reaching less than 200 cases a year (wild virus)(AU)


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis/mortality , Poliomyelitis/virology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , Poliovirus , Spinal Cord/virology , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922722

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched by the World Health Assembly in 1988, significant progress has been made in global polio prevention and control. But the occurrence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis cases and vaccine-derived poliovirus related cases have become a major challenge during the post-polio era. While coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has brought serious disease burden and economic burden to all countries in the world, prevention and control of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases such as polio should not be neglected under the background of the global common fight against COVID-19. Taking the type Ⅲ VDPV cycle event in Shanghai as an example, the paper discussed how to do a good job of routine inoculation under the prevention and control of COVID-19 to strictly prevent the outbreak of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , China , Humans , Poliovirus , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019354, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155477

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus (PV1, PV2, and PV3) in blood samples of healthcare professionals aged 20 to 50 years. Methods: Health professionals who serve children at Darcy Vargas Children's Hospital and the Department of Pediatrics of Irmandade da Santa Casa de São Paulo. The sample size was calculated at 323 participants. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square was used to verify differences between groups. The neutralization reaction detected human poliovirus antibodies. For susceptible individuals, vaccination with the inactivated+triple acellular polio vaccine was performed, and neutralizing antibodies were re-dosed after one week. Results: 333 professionals were studied - 92.8% were immune to poliovirus 1, 86.5% to poliovirus 2, and 63.3% to poliovirus 3; 37% had titers less than 1:8 for any serotype, 5;1% had titers below 1:8 for all three. Vaccination with inactivated polio vaccine was performed for susceptible participants, and neutralizing antibodies were dosed after one week, showing increased titers for all polioviruses. Conclusions: Despite the detection of a significant percentage of individuals with low poliovirus antibody titer, the challenge with vaccination demonstrated immune response compatible with poliovirus immunity.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever a prevalência de anticorpos neutralizantes contra poliovírus (tipos 1, 2 e 3) em amostra de sangue de profissionais de saúde com idade de 20 a 50 anos. Métodos: Profissionais de saúde que atendem crianças do Hospital Infantil Darcy Vargas e do Departamento de Pediatria da Irmandade da Santa Casa de São Paulo. O tamanho da amostra foi de 323 participantes. Os anticorpos contra poliovírus humanos foram detectados pela reação de neutralização. Para os indivíduos suscetíveis, foram administradas vacina para poliomielite inativada+tríplice e nova dosagem de anticorpos neutralizantes após uma semana. Utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado de Mantel-Haenszel para verificar as diferenças entre os grupos. Resultados: Foram estudados 333 profissionais - 92,8% eram imunes ao poliovírus 1; 86,5%, ao poliovírus 2; 63,57%, ao poliovírus 3; 37% apresentaram títulos inferiores a 1:8 para qualquer sorotipo; 5,1% tinham títulos abaixo de 1:8 para os três. Após a vacinação dos suscetíveis, houve elevação dos títulos para todos os poliovírus. Conclusões: Apesar da detecção de percentual significativo de indivíduos com baixo título de anticorpos para poliovírus, o desafio da vacinação demonstrou resposta imune robusta compatível.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Poliovirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated/therapeutic use , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Pediatric/standards , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: 1-9, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1147458

ABSTRACT

A poliomielite é uma doença endêmica no Afeganistão e no Paquistão, apesar dos esforços para ser erradicada, representando uma ameaça para outros países principalmente devido às viagens internacionais. A Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) tem como objetivo erradicar a poliomielite causada pelo poliovírus selvagem no mundo. O requisito essencial para a erradicação da poliomielite é a eliminação da cepa do poliovírus selvagem, que é empregada no teste padrão-ouro. Com o intuito de auxiliar na erradicação do poliovírus selvagem, o objetivo deste estudo foi modificar o teste padrão-ouro usando o poliovírus derivado da vacina oral atenuada. Foram testados 63 soros pelo ensaio de neutralização utilizando-se antígenos vacinais. A concordância do sorotipo 1 (k=0,74) foi considerada substancial, enquanto o sorotipo 2 (k=1,00) e sorotipo 3 (k= 0,95) foram consideradas quase perfeitas. A sensibilidade dos testes de soroneutralização utilizando os sorotipos 1, 2 e 3 foi de 94,83%, 100,00% e 100,00%, respectivamente. Em conclusão, o ensaio com antígenos vacinais pode ser usado como procedimento laboratorial seguro, especialmente em estudos de vigilância em larga escala. (AU)


Poliomyelitis is an endemic disease in Afghanistan and Pakistan in despite of the efforts to eradicate it, and it represents a threat to other countries mainly due to the international trips. The World Health Organization (WHO) aims at eradicating the polio disease worldwide. An essential requirement for eradicating the poliomyelitis is the elimination of the wild poliovirus strain, which is employed in the gold standard test. As a support for the eradication of wild poliovirus, the present study aimed at modifying the gold standard test by using poliovirus derived from the oral attenuated vaccine. Sixty-three sera samples were tested by neutralization assay using vaccine antigens. The degree of agreement of the serotype 1 (k=0.74) was considered substantial, while the serotype 2 (k=1.00) and 3 (k= 0.95) showed almost perfect agreement. The sensitivity of serotypes 1, 2 and 3 was 94.83%, 100.00% and 100.00%, respectively. In conclusion, the assay with the vaccine antigens can be used as a safe application, especially for large-scale surveillance studies. (AU)


Subject(s)
Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated , Poliovirus , Antibodies, Viral
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773410

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the mechanisms underlying ozone-induced inactivation of poliovirus type 1 (PV1).@*METHODS@#We used cell culture, long-overlapping RT-PCR, and spot hybridization assays to verify and accurately locate the sites of action of ozone that cause PV1 inactivation. We also employed recombinant viral genome RNA infection models to confirm our observations.@*RESULTS@#Our results indicated that ozone inactivated PV1 primarily by disrupting the 5'-non-coding region (5'-NCR) of the PV1 genome. Further study revealed that ozone specifically damaged the 80-124 nucleotide (nt) region in the 5'-NCR. Recombinant viral genome RNA infection models confirmed that PV1 lacking this region was non-infectious.@*CONCLUSION@#In this study, we not only elucidated the mechanisms by which ozone induces PV1 inactivation but also determined that the 80-124 nt region in the 5'-NCR is targeted by ozone to achieve this inactivation.


Subject(s)
5' Untranslated Regions , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genome, Viral , Oxidants, Photochemical , Pharmacology , Ozone , Pharmacology , Poliovirus , Vero Cells , Virus Inactivation
7.
Ghana Med. J. (Online) ; 53(2): 170-180, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1262301

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Ghana was declared polio-free in 2015 after the last polio case in 2008. We determined the poliovirus neutralizing antibody levels among individuals to identify possible immunity gaps. Methods: A cross-sectional, hospital-based study was undertaken in Northern, Ashanti and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. Individuals referred for haematology at the teaching hospitals' laboratories were invited to participate in our study. Neutralizing-antibody titers to poliovirus serotypes 1,2 & 3 were assayed by WHO-standards. Antibody titers of ≥8 were considered protective. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on subject characteristics to assess potential factors for failure to seroconvert. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Poliovirus (PV) neutralizing-antibody serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were detected in 86.0% (264/307), 84% (258/307) and 75% (230/307) of samples respectively. 60.1% (185/307) were seropositive for the three poliovirus serotypes. Neutralizing poliovirus antibodies for PV1 and PV2 were higher than for PV3. Seroprevalence of poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies among males (PV1=51.9%, PV2= 51.6% and PV3= 52.6%) were higher than in females. Seroprevalence rates of poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies (PV1, PV2, and PV3) were highest in the Northern region (90%, 81%, and 77%). Poliovirus neutralizing-antibodies (PV1and PV2) decreased with age [p< 0.001]. Low seroprevalence of poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies was significantly associated with low school attendance of mothers (p<0.001). Conclusion: Our study population has some protection from polio. However, immunity appears to be lower with a higher age or low Mother's education. This may suggest the need for young-adult booster-dose to minimize the risk of wild poliovirus infection


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus/immunology
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760348

ABSTRACT

This study examined the disinfection conditions (exposure time, 0–30 min; exposure temperature, 4℃–65℃) of hypochlorous acid water (HOCl) in automobile disinfection equipment. The study tested poliovirus type 1 (PV1), low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV, H9N2), and foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, O type). As a result, the PV1 and FMD viruses were inactivated easily (virus titer 4 log value) by HOCl (> 100 ppm) but the AIV required higher exposure temperatures (> 55℃). In conclusion, the exposure temperature and time are important factors in deactivating AIV and FMDV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Automobiles , Disinfection , Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus , Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Hypochlorous Acid , Influenza in Birds , Poliovirus , Water
9.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20170500. 15 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-987035

ABSTRACT

La directiva sanitaria contiene: la finalidad, objetivos, base legal, ámbito de aplicación, consideraciones generales y específicas y las responsabilidades para la eliminación de muestras biológicas, residuos infecciosos y potencialmente infecciosos con poliovirus.


Subject(s)
Guidelines as Topic , Medical Waste Disposal , Poliovirus
11.
PJMR-Pakistan Journal of Medical Research. 2016; 55 (1): 1-2
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-179075
12.
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2016; 22 (9): 645-646
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-184197
13.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2016; 09 (44): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-187384

ABSTRACT

As the world celebrates the world polio day, the battle continues to end polio transmission in two of the last endemic countries in the world which happen to be both in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of WHO


Subject(s)
Humans , Poliovirus/drug effects , Poliomyelitis/drug therapy , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral/therapeutic use , Disease Eradication
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-38020

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vaccine evaluation studies were initiated from 2000 by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety to produce proper data about the safety and immunogenicity of vaccines. The purpose of this study was to review studies and reports on evaluation of vaccine such as immunogenicity, efficacy, effectiveness, safety and other related topics in order to find and analyze the data on the usefulness of each vaccine. METHODS: From 2000 to 2014, the project "The vaccine evaluation" had been performed by several researchers, and studies and reports of vaccine evaluation. We reviewed the results and outcomes of studies regarding the evaluation of vaccine's usefulness and analyzed the possibilities of applying these data for establishing vaccine policies. For each vaccine, data analysis and organization were done according to evaluation fields. RESULTS: A total of 83 studies were performed on vaccines from 2000 to 2014. For each vaccine, 8 studies were performed on BCG, 14 on DTaP/Td, 1 on poliovirus, 5 on Hib, 3 on pneumococcus, 11 on influenza, 3 on hepatitis A, 11 on MMR, 11 on varicella, and 16 on Japanese encephalitis. All studies were analyzed by the following evaluation area, such as safety, immunogenicity, seroprevalence, persistence of immunity, efficacy, effectiveness, vaccine evaluation methods, quality control product for vaccine, and others. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine evaluation studies performed in Korea may be useful as references for establishing vaccination strategy and policy and could be used as baseline data for future studies on vaccine evaluation, vaccine policy establishment, and public/expert vaccine education in Korea.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Education , Encephalitis, Japanese , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Hepatitis A , Influenza, Human , Korea , Mycobacterium bovis , Poliovirus , Quality Control , Republic of Korea , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Statistics as Topic , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vaccination , Vaccines
15.
Brasilia; s.n; dez. 2015. 71 p. tab, ilus.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-788842

ABSTRACT

Segundo a resolução WHA41.28,da Assembleia Mundial da Saúde realizada em 1988, iniciou-se o programa global de erradicação da poliomielite. Vários progressos têm sido alcançados como a inexistência de casos pelo poliovírus selvagem tipo 2 desde 1999 e pelo poliovírus selvagem tipo3 desde 11 de novembro de 20121. Outro momento marcante para a erradicação global da poliomielite foi 68ª Assembleia Mundial da Saúde realizada no período de 18 a 26 de maio de 2015 em Genebra, que reuniu autoridades sanitárias de 194 países. Neste evento, foi definida a Resolução WHA68.3, na qual constam novos acordos sobre a erradicação global da poliomielite, reforçando que a erradicação só poderá ser alcançada por meio do compromisso global, que foi endossado pelos países membros2. Os acordos definidos na Resolução WHA68.3são frutos das conclusões da reunião do Grupo Consultor Estratégico de Especialistas (SAGE) da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), realizada no período 21 a 23 de outubro de 2014. Destacaram que os preparativos para a retirada do componente tipo 2 da vacina poliomielite 1, 2 e 3 (atenuada), chamada de Vacina trivalente atenuada contra poliomielite soro tipos 1,2,3 (VOPt), encontram-se em processo e devem ser concluídos até abril de 2016. A partir desse período, todos os países deverão empreender esforços para a substituição da vacina trivalente pela vacina poliomielite 1 e 3 (atenuada), conhecida como Vacina atenuada bivalente soro tipo 1 e 3 contra poliomielite (VOPb), que continuará a proteger contra o poliovírus tipo 1 e 3. A partir dessa retirada, os fabricantes deixarão de fornecer a vacina trivalente e os países não poderão de utilizá-la em seus programas de imunização. Os paísesmembros incluindo o Brasil, na 68ª Assembleia Mundial de Saúde,endossaram o compromisso internacional de...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Intersectoral Collaboration , Disease Eradication , National Health Strategies , Public Health Surveillance , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus/pathogenicity , Brazil , Immunization Programs/standards , Poliovirus Vaccines/therapeutic use
16.
Afr. health monit. (Online) ; (19): 42-43, 2015.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1256300

ABSTRACT

Poliovirus surveillance is one of three key strategies adopted by the WHO Global Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI). The detection and investigation of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases is the gold standard for the detection of polioviruses but can be supplemented by poliovirus detection in close contacts of AFP cases and in environmental samples. Detection of wild poliovirus (WPV) from environmental samples can point to silent transmission and aid in targeting immunization responses to interrupt further spread.1 This article reports the experience of environmental surveillance in Nairobi; Kenya


Subject(s)
Immunization , Poliovirus
17.
Afr. health monit. (Online) ; (19): 44-45, 2015.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1256301

ABSTRACT

Community-based surveillance complements the existing surveillance systems in the mission to control and eradicate polioviruses. It is a cost effective method and has a number of benefits. It was introduced in Ethiopia in 2003 and in the South Sudan CORE Group Polio Project areas in 2010. As well as the results obtained from this initiative; the report looks at the challenges; lessons learned and suggests some ways to strengthen the programme


Subject(s)
Community Participation , Disease Eradication , Poliovirus , Sentinel Surveillance , World Health Organization
18.
Afr. health monit. (Online) ; (19): 51-52, 2015.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1256303

ABSTRACT

Community-based surveillance complements the existing surveillance systems in the mission to control and eradicate polioviruses. It is a cost effective method and has a number of benefits. It was introduced in Ethiopia in 2003 and in the South Sudan CORE Group Polio Project areas in 2010. As well as the results obtained from this initiative; the report looks at the challenges; lessons learned and suggests some ways to strengthen the programme


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Sentinel Surveillance
19.
Afr. health monit. (Online) ; (19): 53-54, 2015.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1256304

ABSTRACT

In 2012 Uganda established a pool of national STOP (Stop Transmission of Polio) volunteers who assist subnational staff in strengthening surveillance - detection and reporting. In addition to surveillance activities; the volunteers have built capacity of operational health workers in basic skills for routine immunization. This article gives a brief overview of the initiative and the impressive achievements it is making


Subject(s)
National Health Programs , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Sentinel Surveillance
20.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 542-547, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296250

ABSTRACT

To analyze the genetic characteristics of a polio-I highly variant vaccine recombinant virus in Shandong Province (China) in 2011 and to identify isolates from healthy contacts, two stool specimens from one patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and 40 stool specimens from his contacts were collected for virus isolation. The complete genome of poliovirus and VP1 coding region of the non-polio enterovirus were sequenced. Homologous comparison and phylogenetic analyses based on VP1 sequences were undertaken among coxsackievirus (CV) B1, CV-B3 isolates, and those in GenBank. One poliovirus (P1/11186), CV-A4 and CV-A8 were isolated from the AFP patient; one CV-A2, Echovirus 3 (E-3), E-12 and E-14, ten CV-B1, and five CV-B3 strains were isolated from his contacts. These results led us to believe that there may be a human enterovirus epidemic in this area, and that surveillance must be enhanced. P1/11186 was a type-1 vaccine-related poliovirus; it combined with type-2 and type-3 polioviruses in 2A and 3A regions, respectively. There were 25 nucleotide mutations with 9 amino-acid alterations in the entire genome. There were 8 nucleotide mutations with 5 amino-acid alterations in the VP1 region compared with the corresponding Sabin strains. Homology analyses suggested that the ten CV-B1 isolates had 97.0%-100% nucleotide and 98.9%-100% amino-acid identities with each other, as well as 92.6%-100% nucleotide and 99.2%-100% amino-acid identities among the five CV-B3 isolates. Phylogenetic analyses on the complete sequences of VP1 among CV-B1 and CV-B3 isolates showed that Shandong strains, together with strains from other provinces in China, had a close relationship and belonged to the same group.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Capsid Proteins , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Child, Preschool , China , Humans , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Poliomyelitis , Virology , Poliovirus , Classification , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Poliovirus Vaccines , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
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