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1.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180241, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055391

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many different types of honey are available in the Brazilian market. They vary in color, flavor, smell, thereby increasing interest in honey characterization relating to botanical origin. A total of 155 honey samples belonging to Brazilian flora were examined on the pollen analysis; sampling is made in a span of one year. The preparation followed melisso palynological analysis based on the specific botanical variety. The pollen spectra revealed 60 pollen types belonging to 27 plant families and Myrtaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae were the dominant plant families. Few pollen types were found in most samples of honey. The families that showed major richness of pollen types were Fabaceae and Asteraceae. Only six floral sources of pollen plants and three floral sources of nectar plants appeared in the category of predominant pollen. The unifloral honeys were slightly more frequent than polyfloral, and wild floral species dominated most of the honey samples. These floral sources, even in minor parts in the honeys samples, are also part of the biological feature of theses honeys. The honeys from natural fields cannot be completely accounted by the term unifloral honeys.


Subject(s)
Plants , Pollen/chemistry , Conservation of Natural Resources , Trophic Levels , Honey/analysis
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(5): 426-440, sept. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-915675

ABSTRACT

A research was conducted in scientific databases using keywords related to the composition, biological activity and toxicity of bee pollen from 2007 to July 2017. It was verified that this product is rich in carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, as well as various minerals and phenolic compounds. Its functional biological properties can be attributed mainly to the high content of flavonoids and polyphenols and a considerable antioxidant capacity has been reported, also highlighting antimicrobial activity and against cancer. However, current research still lacks deeper experimental evidence to justify the use of bee pollen for these purposes. The potential risks of their consumption can be attributed to contamination by pesticides, heavy metals and due to their allergenicity. A search of patents executed in technological databases with respect to the main properties of bee pollen has demonstrated a high interest in the development of technological products based on its many applications. The number of articles and patents found with this theme highlights the importance of this natural product in the scientific-technological advance, focusing on the development of natural supplements.


Há sido realizada una investigación en bases de datos científicas utilizando palabras clave relacionadas a la composición, actividad biológica y toxicidad del polen apícola en el período de 2007 a julio de 2017. Se ha verificado que este producto es rico en carbohidratos, proteínas y lípidos, además de diversos minerales y compuestos fenólicos. Sus propiedades biológicas funcionales pueden ser atribuidas principalmente al alto contenido de flavonoides y polifenoles y se ha reportado una considerable capacidad antioxidante, con destaque también para la actividad antimicrobiana y contra el cáncer. Sin embargo, las investigaciones actuales todavía carecen de evidencias experimentales más profundas para justificar el uso del polen apícola para estos propositos. Los riesgos potenciales de su consumo pueden ser atribuidos en gran parte a la contaminación por pesticidas, metales pesados y debido a su alergenicidad. Una búsqueda de patentes realizada en bases de datos tecnológicas con relación a las principales propiedades del polen apícola ha revelado un alto interés en el desarrollo de productos tecnológicos con base en sus diversas aplicaciones. La cantidad de artículos y patentes encontrados con ese tema evidencia la importancia de ese producto natural en el avance científico y tecnológico, con enfoque para el desarrollo de suplementos naturales.


Subject(s)
Pollen/adverse effects , Pollen/chemistry , Bees , Patents as Topic
3.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 325-332, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886914

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09%) and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1) levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams) and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26%) and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%). Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons. Our results highlight the importance of understanding not only the botanical origin and the chemical composition of bee pollen, but also the harvesting frequency of this product by bees, so that it becomes possible to supplement the colonies in times of natural food resources shortage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pollen/physiology , Pollen/chemistry , Seasons , Bees/physiology , Magnoliopsida/physiology , Pollen/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Reference Values , Flavonoids/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Amino Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 24-32, nov. 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021325

ABSTRACT

Background: Prosopis, or mesquite (Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.), was introduced in Saudi Arabia several decades ago and is heavily used in street, roadside, and park plantations. It shows great adaptation to the prevailing climatic conditions such as high temperature, severe drought, and salinity and spreads naturally in many parts of the Kingdom. This research was conducted to isolate allergen proteins and biogenic amines from the pollen grains of P. juliflora genotypes in Saudi Arabia from two regions, namely Al-Qassim and Eastern regions. Results: The results showed that 18 different allergen proteins were detected in P. juliflora genotypes, with molecular weight ranging from 14 to 97 kDa. Moreover, P. juliflora genotypes from the two studied regions contained eight biogenic amines, namely histamine, tyramine, tryptamine, ß-phenylethylamine, butricine, codapherine, spermidine, and spermine. All genotypes from the Al-Qassim region were found to contain all eight amines, while in the Eastern region, histamine was absent in three genotypes, spermine was absent in six genotypes, and spermidine was absent in three genotypes. Genotypes B23, E20, and E21 had the lowest biogenic amine quantity. Conclusions: All identified proteins from mesquite trees from both regions (Eastern and Al-Qassim) cause allergies in patients who are sensitive to pollen grains. Bioamines, except histamine and tyramine, were recorded at varying concentrations in different genotypes.


Subject(s)
Pollen/chemistry , Biogenic Amines/isolation & purification , Allergens/isolation & purification , Prosopis , Plant Proteins/isolation & purification , Histamine/isolation & purification , Tyramine/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Genotype , Molecular Weight
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 76(3): 796-803, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785049

ABSTRACT

Abstract Larvae and adults of certain species of predator lady beetles feed on pollen, guaranteeing their survival, and at times, reproduction in the absence of preferred prey. Palynology, therefore, may contribute in the investigation of botanical families visited by these predators in order to obtain this floral resource. There are records of the visitation of Apiaceae flowers by Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), but not the ingestion of their pollen grains by this lady beetle. The external morphology of pollen grains of three Apiaceae aromatic species (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) was characterized, and it was evaluated the ingestion of these pollens by fourth instar larvae and adults of C. maculata upon confinement along with flowers of these Apiaceae for 24 and 48 hours. The pollen grains of those species presented similar external morphology. In the two times of exposure, the larvae ingested the same amount of pollen from the three Apiaceae species, and the amount of C. sativum pollen ingested was the same between larvae and adults. The amount of A. graveolens pollen grains ingested by the adults was significantly greater than the pollens of C. sativum and F. vulgare, in 24 hours, with the opposite occurring in 48 hours. In the first 24 hours, the adults ingested more A. graveolens pollen than the larvae, with the opposite occurring with F. vulgare. There was no significant difference in the amount of Apiaceae pollen ingested between larvae and adults in 48 hours. The results suggest that the pollen-eating habits of certain aphidophagous lady beetles may be crucial in their preservation within agro-ecosystems.


Resumo Larvas e adultos de certas espécies de joaninhas predadoras podem se alimentar de pólen, garantindo a sua sobrevivência, e, às vezes, a reprodução na ausência da presa preferencial. Palinologia, portanto, pode contribuir na investigação de famílias botânicas visitadas por estes predadores a fim de obter esse recurso floral. Há registros da visitação de flores de Apiaceae por Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), mas não da ingestão de seus grãos de pólen por essa joaninha. A morfologia externa de grãos de pólen de três espécies aromáticas de Apiaceae (Anethum graveolens L., Coriandrum sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) foi caracterizada e avaliou-se a ingestão desses polens por larvas de quarto instar e adultos de C. maculata em confinamento com flores dessas Apiaceae por 24 e 48 horas. Os grãos de pólen dessas espécies apresentaram morfologia externa semelhante. Nos dois tempos de exposição, as larvas ingeriram a mesma quantidade de pólen das três espécies de Apiaceae, e a quantidade de pólen de C. sativum ingerida foi semelhante entre as larvas e adultos. A quantidade de grãos de pólen de A. graveolens ingerida pelos adultos foi significativamente maior do que a dos polens de C. sativum e F. vulgare, em 24 horas, com o oposto ocorrendo em 48 horas. Nas primeiras 24 horas, os adultos ingeriram mais pólen de A. graveolens do que as larvas, ocorrendo o oposto com F. vulgare. Não houve diferença significativa na quantidade de pólen de Apiaceae ingerida entre as larvas e adultos em 48 horas. Os resultados sugerem que o hábito de alimentar de pólen de certas joaninhas afidófagas pode ser crucial para a sua preservação dentro dos agroecossistemas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pollen/metabolism , Coleoptera/physiology , Apiaceae/metabolism , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Pollen/chemistry , Apiaceae/chemistry , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Larva
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 399-406, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21016

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Japanese hop (Humulus spp.) and mugwort (Artemisia spp.) are notable causes of autumn pollinosis in East Asia. However, Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts, which are widely used for the diagnosis, have not been standardized. This study was performed to standardize Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Allergen extracts were prepared in a standardized way using locally collected Humulus japonicus and purchased Artemisia vulgaris pollens. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivities of prepared extracts were compared with commercial extracts via IgE immunoblotting and inhibition analyses. Intradermal skin tests were performed to determine the bioequivalent allergy unit (BAU). RESULTS: The IgE reactive components of the extracts via IgE immunoblotting were similar to those of commercial extracts. A 11-kDa allergen showed the strongest IgE reactivity in Japanese hop, as did a 28-kDa allergen in mugwort pollen extracts. Allergenic potencies of the investigatory Japanese hop and mugwort extracts were essentially indistinguishable from the commercial ones. Sums of erythema of 50 mm by the intradermal skin test (SigmaED50) were calculated to be 14.4th and 13.6th three-fold dilutions for Japanese hop and mugwort extracts, respectively. Therefore, the allergenic activity of the prepared extracts was 90827.4 BAU/mg for Japanese hop and 34412 BAU/mg for mugwort. CONCLUSION: We produced Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts using a standardized method. Standardized Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts will facilitate the production of improved diagnostic and immunotherapeutic reagents.


Subject(s)
Allergens/analysis , Antibody Specificity , Artemisia , Bronchial Hyperreactivity/blood , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Pollen/chemistry , Reference Standards , Republic of Korea , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal
7.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; nov. 2015. 341 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-834082

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi levantar informações a respeito do processo de produção, determinar características físico-químicas, qualidade microbiológica, propriedades biológicas e origem botânica do pólen apícola desidratado, além de avaliar a influência de duas condições de desidratação sobre estes mesmos parâmetros. Para esta pesquisa foram adquiridas 69 amostras produzidas e beneficiadas em nove Estados brasileiros. Foram levantados dados referentes à coleta e processamento dos produtos e realizada a análise polínica para determinar a origem botânica das amostras. Foram determinados os teores de umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, cinzas, minerais, fenólicos totais e flavonoides totais por espectrofotometria, compostos fenólicos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e cromatografia líquida acoplada a espectrometria de massas, capacidade antioxidante [método DPPH (a partir de três extratos) e método ORAC], capacidade antimicrobiana e parâmetros instrumentais de cor, além de um diagnóstico da qualidade microbiológica das amostras. A análise multivariada foi utilizada para estudar a estrutura de dados e procurar por padrões e, ainda, classificar as amostras em grupos. Foram observadas não conformidades em relação à temperatura de desidratação e em 91% das amostras o teor de umidade estava acima do limite de 4% estabelecido na legislação brasileira. Foram identificados 39 tipos polínicos. O teor de proteínas variou de 7,9 a 33,9 g/100 g, lipídeos de 3,1 a 13,5 g/100 g e cinzas de 1,9 a 3,8 g/100 g. A análise de minerais indicou que o potássio foi o composto em maior quantidade e que algumas amostras poderiam ser consideradas fontes ou com alto conteúdo de ferro, manganês, zinco e cobre. O teor de fenólicos totais variou de 5,6 a 29,7 mg EAG/g e flavonoides totais de 0,3 a 19,0 mg EQ/g. A capacidade antioxidante (CA), pelo método DPPH, variou de 9,4 a 199,3 µmol ET/g, com influência do procedimento de extração sobre o resultado. Pelo método ORAC, a CA das amostras variou de 133,1 a 563,0 µmol ET/g. Quanto à capacidade antimicrobiana, observou-se que todas as amostras apresentaram alguma ação, estando a concentração mínima inibitória relacionada com o micro-organismo em teste. A qualidade microbiológica das amostras estava de acordo com dados encontrados na literatura e bactérias potencialmente patogênicas não foram observadas. A análise instrumental de cor indicou variação nos parâmetros L* (42,75 a 72,35), a* (1,03 a 12,98), b* (31,51 a 63,18) e Chroma (31,53 a 64,26) e correlação entre estes parâmetros e a composição química e as propriedades biológicas. A identificação e quantificação dos compostos fenólicos indicou predominância de flavonoides nas amostras, principalmente de compostos glicosilados. Por fim, as amostras desidratadas por liofilização apresentaram maior valor nutricional e potencial biológico em relação às amostras desidratadas em estufa com aquecimento e circulação forçada de ar. Em conclusão, torna-se necessário que os produtores façam ajustes no processo de beneficiamento do pólen apícola para que não haja empecilhos à sua comercialização. A composição do pólen das flores forrageadas pelas abelhas influenciou na composição do pólen apícola desidratado, portanto, pode-se pensar no direcionamento dos apiários para fontes botânicas que resultem em um produto com maior valor nutricional ou biológico


The aim of this study was to obtain information about the production process, to determine physicochemical characteristics, microbiological quality, biological properties and botanical origin of dehydrated bee-pollen, and also to evaluate the influence of two dehydration conditions on these parameters. Sixty-nine samples were acquired from nine Brazilian states. Data were collected regarding the collection and processing of the products and the pollen analysis was performed to determine the botanical origin of the samples. Moisture, proteins, lipids, ashes, minerals, total phenolic compounds and flavonoids by spectrophotometry, phenolic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, antioxidant capacity [DPPH method (from three extracts) and ORAC method], antimicrobial capacity and instrumental color parameters were determined, in addition to a diagnosis of the microbiological quality of the samples. Multivariate analysis was used to study the structure of data and to look for patterns and also to classify the samples into groups. Non-conformities were observed in relation to dehydration temperature and in 91% of samples the moisture content was above the 4% limit established by Brazilian legislation. Thirty-nine pollen types were identified. The protein content varied from 7.9 to 33.9 g/100 g, the lipid content from 3.1 to 13.5 g/100 g and the ash content varied from 1.9 to 3.8 g/100 g. The mineral analysis indicated that potassium was the compound with a higher content in the samples, and that some samples could be considered "source" or "high content" of iron, manganese, zinc and copper. The total phenolic content varied from 5.6 to 29.7 mg GAE/ g and total flavonoids from 0.3 to 19.0 mg QE/g. The antioxidant capacity (AC) by DPPH method ranged from 9.4 to 199.3 µmol TE/g and the extraction procedure influenced the results. The AC by ORAC method ranged from 133.1 to 563.0 µmol TE/g. All samples showed some antimicrobial capacity; however, the minimal inhibitory concentration was related to the microorganism. The microbiological quality of the samples was consistent with results found in the literature and potentially pathogenic bacteria were not detected. The instrumental color analysis indicated variation in the parameters L* (42.75 to 72.35), a* (1.03 to 12.98), b* (31.51 to 63.18) and Chroma (31.53 to 64.26), and correlation between these parameters and the chemical and biological properties. The identification and quantification of the phenolic compounds showed flavonoids predominantly in samples, particularly glycosylated compounds. Finally, the samples dehydrated by lyophilization showed higher nutritional and biological value compared to samples dehydrated in an electric oven with forced air circulation. In conclusion, it is necessary that producers make adjustments to the dehydrated bee-pollen processing to prevent impediments to the marketing. The composition of the pollen collected by bees influenced the composition of dehydrated bee-pollen; therefore, it would be possible to direct the apiaries to botanical sources that result in a product with higher nutritional or biological value


Subject(s)
Chemistry , Food, Preserved/analysis , Microbiological Techniques , Pollen/chemistry , Nutritive Value/ethnology
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 75(4): 821-829, Nov. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768213

ABSTRACT

Abstract Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.


Resumo Plantações de Eucalyptus são, frequentemente, utilizadas como locais de instalação para colmeias. Este estudo foi realizado na Fazenda Brejão, localizada no noroeste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Esta fazenda é coberta por Cerrado nativo (savana brasileira) e por plantações de eucaliptos. Este trabalho indica a origem botânica de bolotas e mel coletados em colmeias de Apis mellifera por um período de 13 meses (Janeiro/2004 a janeiro/2005). Os tipos polínicos mais frequentes nas amostras de pólen durante a estação chuvosa foram Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Poaceae, Asteraceae não identificada 2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) e Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); na estação seca, os tipos polínicos mais frequentes foram Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) e Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). As espécies Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) e Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) estiveram presentes durante todo o período amostrado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/physiology , Environment , Honey/analysis , Pollen/chemistry , Brazil , Eucalyptus/growth & development , Forestry , Grassland , Seasons
9.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(1): 125-136, 01/2015.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-733138

ABSTRACT

O conceito de recovery tem sido descrito em artigos como um estado de recuperação ou restabelecimento de funções psíquicas, físicas e sociais no funcionamento cotidiano. O objetivo do artigo é analisar concepções terminológicas em diferentes metodologias investigativas e a evolução paradigmática da noção de recovery. Pesquisa bibliográfica sistemática na base Pubmed com as palavras "recovery + schizophrenia", limitada a dois anos retrospectivos e a artigos completos gratuitos. Dezenove artigos foram analisados. A maioria destes busca associações entre dada característica e recovery, poucos são aqueles que discutem a sua concepção de forma que se distinga de termos comuns como "cura" e "reabilitação". Recovery como um estado em que o portador de transtorno mental grave possa sentir-se criador de seus caminhos tende a estar presente em estudos com metodologia qualitativa e em revisões bibliográficas, em que a medida de recovery deixa de relacionar-se à ausência de sintomas e passa a priorizar o quão participativa pode ser a vida de um indivíduo apesar da doença. Alguns estudos quantitativos vislumbram essa diferença conceitual. Em pesquisas qualitativas ocorre expansão na concepção de recovery e nas formas de promovê-lo.


The concept of recovery has been described in papers as a state of psychic, physical and social recuperation of day-to-day functions. The scope of this article is to analyze the concepts of the term in different research methodologies and the paradigmatic evolution of the recovery concept. Systematic bibliographical research was conducted in the Pubmed database using the words "recovery + schizophrenia" limited to freely available full papers published in the previous two years. Nineteen papers were analyzed. The majority of the papers sought associations between characteristic data and recovery; few papers discussed the concept in a way to distinguish it from other words like cure or rehabilitation. Recovery as a state in which people with severe mental illness can feel like the creators of their own itinerary tend to be found in qualitative studies and in bibliographic reviews in which the meaning of recovery is not related to the lack of symptoms and tends to prioritize how participative the life of an individual can be despite the disease. Some quantitative studies detect this conceptual difference. In qualitative research there is an increase in the concept of recovery and in ways of promoting it.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arsenicals/pharmacology , Heteroptera/drug effects , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Toxicity Tests/methods , Heteroptera/growth & development , Heteroptera/physiology , Leucine/toxicity , Plants, Genetically Modified , Pollen/chemistry , Time Factors
10.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-11, 2015. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Honey is a natural product obtained from the nectar that is collected from flowers by bees. It has several properties, including those of being food and supplementary diet, and it can be used in cosmetic products. Honey imparts pharmaceutical properties since it has antibacterial and antioxidant activities. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Thai honey were investigated in this study. RESULTS: The honey from longan flower (source No. 1) gave the highest activity on MRSA when compared to the other types of honey, with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5% (v/v) and minimum bactericidal concentration of 25% (v/v). Moreover, it was found that MRSA isolate 49 and S. aureus were completely inhibited by the 50% (v/v) longan honey (source No. 1) at 8 and 20 hours of treatment, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the honey from coffee pollen (source No. 4) showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid compounds by 734.76 mg gallic/kg of honey and 178.31 mg quercetin/kg of honey, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the honey obtained from coffee pollen was also found to be the highest, when investigated using FRAP and DPPH assay, with 1781.77 mg FeSO4•7H2O/kg of honey and 86.20 mg gallic/kg of honey, respectively. Additionally, inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme was found that honey from coffee flower showed highest inhibition by 63.46%. CONCLUSIONS: Honey demonstrates tremendous potential as a useful source that provides anti-free radicals, anti-tyrosinase and anti-bacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria causing skin diseases.


Subject(s)
Apitherapy , Flavonoids/analysis , Honey/analysis , Monophenol Monooxygenase , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Phenols/analysis , Pollen/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Biphenyl Compounds , Coffee/chemistry , Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching , Flowers/chemistry , Free Radicals/analysis , Honey/classification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Monophenol Monooxygenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Monophenol Monooxygenase/drug effects , Picrates , Pollen/classification , Skin Diseases/microbiology , Skin Diseases/therapy , Skin Lightening Preparations/pharmacology , Thailand , Time Factors , Viscosity
11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 40(1): 71-78, mar. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-679035

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar las características polínicas y la composición química del polen apícola, colectado en El Cafetal, Cayaltí (Lambayeque, Perú), un área rural del bosque estacionalmente seco. El polen apícola se colectó directamente de las colmenas y se clasificó en cuatro grupos de colores: amarillo, anaranjado, crema y gris. El análisis polínico reveló la presencia de polen de las especies: Acacia macracantha Humboldt & Bonpland, Encelia canescens Lamarck, Momordica charantia L. y Prosopis pallida (Humboldt & Bonpland ex Willdenow) H.B.K. El polen de P. pallida predominó en el polen apícola gris (98,1%) y amarillo (87,7%) en tanto que el polen de E. canescens predominó en el polen apícola anaranjado (72,7%) y crema (50,0%). Se observó una gran diversidad en las características morfológicas del polen, en la forma (poliada, oblado esferoidal y prolado esferoidal), elementos esculturales (liso, espinado y reticulado) y aberturas (tricolporado y estefanocolpado). Se determinó los contenidos de humedad (8,8 - 13,8%), cenizas (2,1 - 3,2%), calcio (6,4 - 12,4%), vitamina C (208 - 504 mg), azúcares totales y reductores (35 - 49,7 y 22,4 - 26%, respectivamente), grasas (0,15 - 0,18%) y proteínas (13,7 - 17,3%), observándose significativas variaciones en función del color del polen apícola. El valor nutritivo fue mayor en el polen apícola gris alcanzando el valor 3,51; en este color de polen apícola predominó P. pallida.


The aim of this study was to determine the pollen and chemical composition offour types ofbee pollen, collected in The Cafetal, Cayaltí (Lambayeque, Perú), a rural area of Perú seasonally dry forest. Bee pollen was collected directly from the hives and classified into four groups ofcolors: yellow, orange, cream and gray. Pollen analysis revealed the presence ofpollen in species: Acacia macracantha Humboldt & Bonpland, Encelia canescens Lamarck, Momordica charantia L. and Prosopis pallida (Humboldt & Bon-pland ex Willdenow) H.B.K. The pollen of P. pallida was predominant in the gray (98,1%) and yellow (87,7%) bee pollen; while pollen of E. canecens was predominant in the orange (72,7%) and cream (50,0%) bee pollen, respectively. A great diversity in the pollen morphology (polyad, oblate spheroidal and prolate spheroidal), scultural elements (psilate, echinate and reticulate) and openings (tricolporate and stephanocolpate) was observed. The moisture (8,8 - 13,8%), ash content (2,1 - 3,2%), calcium (6,4 - 12,4%), vitamin C (208 - 504 mg), total and reducing sugars (35 - 49,7y 22,4 - 26%, respectively), fat (0,15 - 0,18%) and proteins (13,7 - 17,3%) was determined, showing significant variations depending on the color of bee pollen. The nutritive value was higher in the gray bee pollen reaching the value 3.51; in this color was predominant P. pallida pollen.


Subject(s)
Pollen/chemistry , Forests , Nutritive Value , Peru , Chemical Phenomena
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(4): 376-380, dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-714892

ABSTRACT

Bee pollen has been reported to show antioxidant and radical scavenging activities; contributing to anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties. Venezuelan honeybee pollen has been little studied, but is consumed because its properties are known from other countries reports. On the basis of these reports, water, ethanol and methanol soluble fractions were prepared from dried bee-pollen commercially available and produced by La Montaña farm (Mérida, Venezuela). These fractions were evaluated for their functional properties, specifically, polyphenol content and total antioxidant activity. Pollen samples were separated by color in four fractions: yellow, brown, orange and ochre. Polyphenol content ranged between 396.7 to 1286.7 gallic acid equivalents GAE/100 g pollen; it was highest in pollen homogenates obtained with ethanol, followed by those obtained with methanol and water. The antioxidant activity ranged from 0.50 to 1.84 μmoles Trolox equivalents TEAC/100 g for water and ethanol homogenates respectively. The results presented in this work suggest that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent antioxidant activity, comparable to human plasma, probably due to total polyphenol content of bee pollen. This is important because the bee pollen would be beneficial not only as a dietary supplement but also as a functional food.


Actividad antioxidante de polen apícola de Mérida, Venezuela, fraccionado en cuatro colores. Se ha reportado que el polen de las abejas tiene actividad antioxidante y secuestra radicales libres; relacionada con sus propiedades antiinflamatorias y gastroprotectivas. El polen apícola de Venezuela ha sido poco estudiado, pero se consume gracias a las propiedades conocidas por reportes provenientes de otros países. Tomando como base estos reportes, se prepararon fracciones solubles en agua, etanol y metanol del polen apícola seco comercialmente disponible y producido por la Granja La Montaña (Mérida, Venezuela). Estas fracciones fueron evaluadas en cuanto a sus propiedades funcionales, específicamente, contenido de polifenoles y la actividad antioxidante total. Las muestras de polen fueron separadas en cuatro fracciones de acuerdo al color: amarillo, marrón, naranja y ocre. El contenido de polifenoles se encontraba entre 396,7 a 1286,7 equivalentes de ácido gálico EAG/100 g de polen, y fue mayor en los homogenatos obtenidos con etanol, seguido por aquellos obtenidos con metanol y agua. La actividad antioxidante varió entre 0.50 a 1.84 μmoles equivalentes de Trolox TEAC/100 g par los homogenatos de agua y etanol respectivamente. Los resultados presentados en este trabajo sugieren los extractos de etanol de polen de abejas presentan una potente actividad antioxidante, comparable al plasma humano, probablemente debida a su contenido total de polifenoles. Esto es importante ya que el polen de abejas podría servir no solo como un suplemento alimenticio sino como una alimento funcional.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/analysis , Bees , Pollen/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Antioxidants/metabolism , Pollen/enzymology , Spectrophotometry , Venezuela
13.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 83(3): 1077-1090, Sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595523

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to analyze and compare 17 honey samples, 11 organic and six non-organic Apis mellifera honey. The samples were analyzed concerning moisture, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase index, water activity, color, total sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, ash, viscosity, electrical conductivity, pH, acidity, and formol index. With the exception of acidity, reducing sugar and diastase index, the averages of other parameters were different between the two groups. All samples of organic honey presented moisture values between 23.50 and 24.40 percent. Among the nonorganic honey samples, two presented apparent sucrose amount upper the maximum limit established by the Brazilian Legislation. According to the quantitative analysis of pollen sediments in the honey samples and frequency of pollen types in 17 honey samples, 41.20 percent were classified as unifioral, and the remainder as polifioral.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e comparar 17 amostras de Apis mellifera mel, sendo 11 orgânicos e seis não orgânicos. As amostras foram analisadas quanto à umidade, hidroximetilfurfural, índice de diastase, atividade de água, cor, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, sacarose, cinzas, viscosidade, condutividade elétrica, pH, acidez e índice de formol. Com exceção da acidez, açúcar redutor e índice de diastase as médias dos demais parâmetros analisados diferiram entre os dois grupos. Todas as amostras de mel orgânico analisadas apresentaram valores de umidade entre 23,50 to 24,40 por cento. Das amostras de mel não orgânico analisadas, duas apresentaram quantidades de sacarose aparente acima do limite máximo estabelecido pela legislação brasileira. De acordo com as análises quantitativas dos sedimentos polínicos e a frequência dos tipos polínicos observados nas 17 amostras de mel analisadas, 41,20 por cento foram classificadas como monofloral e o restante como polifloral.


Subject(s)
Animals , Honey/analysis , Pollen/chemistry , Chemical Phenomena , Electric Conductivity , Formaldehyde/analysis , Humidity , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Sucrose/analysis
14.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 42(4): 279-283, oct.-dic. 2010. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-634667

ABSTRACT

Las abejas melíferas son afectadas por gran cantidad de enfermedades infecciosas principalmente producidas por bacterias, hongos, virus y parásitos eucariotas. Dentro de las ocasionadas por procariotas, la loque americana es una enfermedad extremadamente grave que afecta a larvas y pupas de abejas; su agente causal es la bacteria esporulada Paenibacillus larvae. La administración de antibióticos es la principal alternativa para el control de esta enfermedad en colmenares con altos niveles de infección. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar, mediante un método biológico, la unión de los antibióticos tilosina, tilmicosina y oxitetraciclina a las proteínas presentes en abejas adultas, larvas menores de 72 horas, larvas mayores de 72 horas, jalea de obreras, miel y polen, con la finalidad de diseñar un modelo de ruta cinética de los antibióticos. Los límites de sensibilidad de la técnica de valoración de estos antibióticos fueron 0,05 μg/ml para tilosina y tilmicosina, y 0,01 μg/ml para oxitetraciclina. Los coeficientes de correlación fueron superiores a 0,90 y los coeficientes de variación intra e inter-ensayo inferiores al 5%. Tanto tilosina como oxitetraciclina presentaron un porcentaje de unión a proteínas de un 15% en promedio en tejidos y subproductos de la colmena, lo cual resultó inferior a lo observado con tilmicosina (29% en promedio). En conclusión, por sus características químicas, su actividad antimicrobiana y su baja tasa de unión a las abejas, larvas y subproductos de la colmena, la tilosina presenta propiedades farmacocinéticas que podrían representar una ventaja terapéutica para el tratamiento de la loque americana en colmenas.


American Foulbrood (AFB) caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the most serious disease of bacterial origin affecting larvae and pupae of honeybees. Antibiotics are used in many countries for the control of AFB in high incidence areas, but their misuse may lead to antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains and honey contamination. The objective of the present work was to determine, through a biological method, the protein binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to worker jelly; honey; pollen; adult bees and larvae in order to propose their kinetic routes. The sensitivity limit of the technique used was 0.05 μg/ml for tylosin and tilmicosin and 0.01 μg/ml for oxytetracycline, respectively. The method had intra and inter-assay correlation coefficients over 0.90, respectively and a coefficient variation of intra-and inter-assay for all antibiotics and processed samples under 5%. Tylosin and oxytetracycline presented lower percentages of protein binding in tissues and hive products (average 15%) in relation to those observed for tilmicosin (29%). In conclusion, tylosin is useful for AFB control in honey bee colonies due to its chemical characteristics, antimicrobial activity and levels of protein binding in bees, larvae, and beehive products.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Bees/metabolism , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Oxytetracycline/metabolism , Tylosin/analogs & derivatives , Tylosin/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bees/growth & development , Fatty Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Honey/analysis , Larva/metabolism , Oxytetracycline/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , Pollen/chemistry , Pollen/metabolism , Tylosin/pharmacokinetics
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 82(4): 893-902, Dec. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567799

ABSTRACT

High quality of bee pollen for commercial purpose is required. In order to attend the consumer with the best identification of the botanical and floral origin of the product, 25 bee pollen batches were investigated using two techniques of pollen grain preparation. The first started to identify pollen loads of different colors in two grams of each well mixed batch, and the second to identify pollen grains in a pool made of all the pollen loads comprised in two grams. The best result was obtained by this last technique, when a pollen grain suspension was dropped on a microscope slide and circa 500 pollen grains were counted per sample. This analysis resulted in the recognition of monofloral and bifloral pollen batches, while the use of the first technique resulted in all samples receiving a heterofloral diagnosis.


É exigida alta qualidade para a comercialização de pólen apícola. A fim de atender o consumidor com a melhor identificação da origem botânica e floral do produto, 25 partidas de pólen apícola feram investigadas usande duas diferentes técnicas na preparação dos grãos de pólen. A primeira partiu da identificação das cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada partida bem misturada segundo suas cores. A segunda visava identificar os grãos de pólen de um agrupamento ("pool") de todas as cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada amostra. O melhor resultado foi obtido pela última técnica, quando uma suspensão de grãos de pólen era gotejada sobre uma lâmina de microscopia e cerca de 500 grãos de pólen eram centades por amostra. Esta análise resultou no reconhecimento de partidas monoflorais e biflorais de pólen apícola, enquanto que usando a primeira técnica, todas as amostras receberam a diagnose heterefloral.


Subject(s)
Animals , Pollen/chemistry , Quality Control , Bees
16.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 81(2): 173-178, June 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-514651

ABSTRACT

Stingless bees in Brazil are indigenous and found all over the country. Bee pollen is used for its nutritional value in the human diet. It is made up of natural flower pollen mixed with nectar and bee secretions. In order to evaluate the chemical composition, free radical scavenging activity, and botanical origin, sample of pollen loads from stingless bee, Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu amarela) was studied. The EtOAc extract of pollen of Melipona rufiventris yielded the following compounds: p-hydroxycinnamic acid, dihydroquercetin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin3-O-(6"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin, and quercetin. This is the first report of the isolation of isorhamnetin3-O-(6"O-E-p-coumaroyl)β-D-glucopyranoside from pollen. The free radicalscavenging activities of different solvent extracts of pollen were determined using DPPH assay. This activity decreases in the order: EtOAc>EtOH>Hexane extract. It appears that the EtOAc extract of the pollen is a good scavenger of active oxygen species. The botanical evaluation of pollen loads showed the composition by two pollen types, with the dominant type (97.3 percent) being Scopariadulcis (L.) (Scrophulariaceae) and the minor one Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae). This suggests a specific foraging behavior in Melipona rufiventris bees, even in an environment with such a rich botanical diversity as the Northeastern Brazil.


As abelhas sem ferrão são espécies indígenas encontradas em todo o Brasil. Seu pólen é utilizado devido ao seu valor nutricional na dieta humana. É produzido a partir de pólen floral misturado com néctar e líquidos secretados pelas abelhas. Visando avaliar a composição química, a atividade sequestradora de radicais livres e a origem botânica foi estudado o pólencoletado pela abelha sem ferrão Melipona rufiventris (Uruçu-amarela). Do extrato acetato de etila foram isolados os compostos: ácido phidroxicinâmico, dihidroquercetina, isoramnetina, 3O(6"OEpcoumaroil)βDglicopiranosideoisoramnetina, luteolina e quercetina. Esta é a primeira vez que a 3O(6"OEpcoumaroil)βDglicopiranosideoisoramnetina é isolada de pólen apícola. A atividade sequestradora de radicais livres de vários extratos com solventes diferentes foi determinada pelo teste com DPPH (difenilpicrilhidrazida). A atividade mostrou a ordem decrescente para os extratos AcOEt>EtOH>Hexano. O extrato AcOEt apresenta melhor atividade sequestradora de radicais. A avaliação botânica palinológicamostrou que o pólen era composto de dois tipos, um majoritário(97.3 por cento) proveniente de Scoparia dulcis (L.) (Scrophulariaceae) e outro minoritário proveniente de Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin& Barneby (Fabaceae). Estes resultados sugerem o comportamento de forragem bastante específico exibido pela abelha Melipona rufiventris, mesmo em um ambiente tão rico em diversidade vegetal como o Nordeste do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees/physiology , Pollen/chemistry , Scoparia , Senna Plant , Free Radical Scavengers/analysis
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 81(2): 281-285, June 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-514661

ABSTRACT

Pollen load samples from 10 hives of Apis mellifera (L.) were analyzed based on their physicochemical composition and botanical source, considering color as a parameter for quality control. In seven samples it was possible to establish the occurrence of more than 80 percent of a single pollen type, characterizing them as unifloral but with protein content variation. One of the samples was exclusively composed of saprophytic fungi (Cladosporium sp.). Comparing the mean results of the fungi loads with those of the nutritional components of pollen load, the former presented higher protein, mineral matter and dry matter and lower organic matter, ethereal extract and total carbohydrate values. The monochromatic samples met the physicochemical specifications regulating pollen load quality. The results showed that homogeneous coloration of the pollen load was not found to be a good indication of unifloral pollen, confirming the importance of physicochemical analysis and melissopalynological analysis for characterization of the quality of commercial pollen load.


Amostras de cargas de pólen de 10 colméias de Apis mellifera (L.) foram analisadas quanto a sua composição físico-química e origem botânica, tomando-se a coloração como parâmetro para o controle de qualidade. Em sete amostras foi possível estabelecer a ocorrência de mais de 80 por cento de um único tipo polínico, caracterizando-as como monoflorais, porém com variações nos valores protéicos. Uma das amostras era composta exclusivamente por fungos saprofíticos (Cladosporium sp.). Comparando-se as bolotas de fungos com os resultados médios dos componentes nutricionais das bolotas de pólen, as primeiras apresentaram maior valor protéico, matéria mineral e matéria seca e menores valores de matéria orgânica, extrato etéreo ecarboidratos totais. As amostras monocromáticas estiveram de acordo com as especificações físico-químicas reguladoras da qualidade de pólen apícola. Os resultados demonstram que a coloração homogênea das cargas de pólen não se apresentou como um bom indicativo de pólen monofloral e confirma a importância das análises físico-químicas e melissopalinológicas para a caracterização da qualidade do pólen apícola a ser comercializado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Color , Pollen/chemistry , Bees , Nutritive Value , Pigmentation , Quality Control
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 58(4): 411-415, dic. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-588711

ABSTRACT

El polen apícola venezolano no ha sido caracterizado, y su comercialización no está normalizada. El polen es consumido con fines de apiterapia por sus propiedades nutricionales y medicinales. Este producto de la colmena es el más popular después de la miel de abejas; por eso es necesario caracterizarlo y valorizarlo para iniciar una base de datos que sustente la propuesta de una norma para el control de calidad del polen apícola. Se caracterizaron muestras de polen recolectado por abejas en el páramo de Misintá del estado Mérida, según la composición química (humedad, cenizas, extracto etéreo, pH, proteínas) de cuatro fracciones de color (amarillo, anaranjado, ocre, verde). La fracción más frecuente fue el polen amarillo, con 2,18 g cenizas/100g, 5,37 g extracto etéreo/100 g, 14,88 g humedad/100 g y 37,32 g proteínas/100 g.


Venezuelan bee pollen has not been characterized, and marketing is not regulated. Pollen is consumed for apitherapeutical purposes for its nutritional and medicinal properties. This product of the hive is the most popular after honey; therefore it is necessary to characterize and to value it to initiate a database to support the proposal of a norm for bee pollen quality control. Samples of bee pollen collected by bees in the Misintá páramo of Mérida state were characterized accoridng to the chemical composition (moisture, ash, fat, pH, proteins) of four color fractions (yellow, orange, ochre, green). Yellow pollen was the most frequent fraction, with 2,18 g ash/100g, 5,37 g ether extract/100 g, 14,88 g moisture/100 g, and 37,32 g proteins/100 g.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed , Food Composition , Chemical Phenomena , Pollen/chemistry
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 78(1): 45-57, Mar. 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-422260

ABSTRACT

Investigamos a morfologia floral, as características do néctar e a visita de beija-flores a Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae), uma espécie ornitófila arbustiva comumente encontrada no sub-bosque da vegetação ripária na planície de inundação do Alto Rio Paraná, Brasil. As flores são distílicas, sendo o dimorfismo estilete-estames acompanhado por outras variações morfológicas no comprimento da corola, altura das anteras, comprimento das anteras e comprimento e forma das papilas estigmáticas. Não foi observada reciprocidade estrita na posição dos estigmas e anteras entre flores longistilas e brevistilas. A floração da espécie ocorreu durante a estação chuvosa, de outubro a dezembro. A disponibilidade de néctar foi relativamente constante ao longo do dia, o que aparentemente possibilitou aos beija-flores visitar a planta o dia todo. O conteúdo energético de néctar por flor (66,5J) e a demanda diária de energia dos beija-flores visitantes(superior a 30kJ) os obrigaria a visitar diariamente centenas de flores da espécie, o que pode aumentar o fluxo de pólen. Três espécies de beija-flores foram observadas: beija-flor-dourado (Hylocharis chrysura), beija-flor-de-colete-preto ( Anthracothorax nigricollis) e esmeralda-de-bico-vermelho ( Chlorostilbon aureoventris). A freqüência de visita dos beija-flores, as características do néctar e a baixa disponibilidade de outras flores visitadas por beija-flores na área de estudo indicam que P. crocea é uma fonte de néctar importante para beija-flores de bico-curto no local.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds/physiology , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Flowers/anatomy & histology , Pollen/physiology , Rubiaceae/anatomy & histology , Brazil , Flowers/physiology , Pollen/chemistry , Rivers , Rubiaceae/physiology , Seasons
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110324

ABSTRACT

Occupational asthma is induced by many agents, including herbal materials, that are exposed in working places. Although there are a few case reports for occupational allergy induced by herbal materials, there is none for that induced by Wonji (Polygala tenuifolia). This study was conducted to evaluate clinical characteristics and immunologic mechanism of Wonji-induced asthma in a exposed-worker. A patient who complained of asthma and rhinitis symptoms, and who had worked in a herbal manufacturing factory for 8 yr, underwent a skin prick test with crude extract of Wonji under the impression of occupational asthma induced by the agent. The patient had a strong positive response to the extract on the skin prick test. Allergen bronchial challenge to the extract demonstrated a typical dual response. Serum specific IgE level to the extract was higher in the patient than in healthy controls, and ELISA inhibition test revealed complete inhibition of IgE binding with the extract, but no inhibition with Der p 2 or mugwort extracts. Six IgE binding components to the extract (10, 25, 28, 36, 50, and 90 kDa) were detected using SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis. These findings suggest that Polygala tenuifolia, a herbal material, can induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Asthma/chemically induced , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoblotting , Immunoglobulin E/chemistry , Male , Herbal Medicine , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure , Pollen/chemistry , Polygala/metabolism , Protein Binding , Rhinitis/chemically induced , Time Factors
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