Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 163
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1081-1094, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153437

ABSTRACT

Abstract Contamination of Lekki lagoon by petrogenic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) has been widely reported. The study was aimed at investigating the bioaccumulation of PAH and BTEX in Malapterurus electricus collected from Lekki lagoon in Lagos, Nigeria. BTEX was analyzed in the intestine, water, and sediment samples using 8260B Agilent 7890B gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). While PAHs were tested in the same media using a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Histopathological analysis of the fish intestine was conducted using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains. Parasite intensity, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activities were investigated in the fish. The parasitic infection detected in Malapterurus electricus was Electrotaenia malopteruri. The parasite showed weak and no depurative capacities for BTEX and PAH respectively. The decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in conjunction with an increase in Malondialdehyde (MDA) characterized relatively higher susceptibility among the male fish. Varieties of tissue injuries increased with the standard length of the fish groups. Results suggest that lengthier and uninfected M. electricus were more susceptible to PAH in Lekki lagoon than the shorter and infected ones. The study demonstrated a promising tendency of the enteric parasite, E. malopteruri to depurate chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m+p-xylene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene from the intestine of its host fish, M. electricus, while PAHs were poorly mediated by the parasite.


Resumo A contaminação da lagoa Lekki por produtos químicos petrogênicos, como hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAP) e benzeno, tolueno, etilbenzeno e xileno (BTEX), foi amplamente relatada. O estudo teve como objetivo investigar a bioacumulação de HAP e BTEX em Malapterurus electricus, coletados na lagoa Lekki, em Lagos, Nigéria. O BTEX foi analisado no intestino, na água e nas amostras de sedimento usando o cromatógrafo de gás Agilent 7890B 8260B acoplado a um espectrômetro de massa (GC-MS). Já os HAP foram testados no mesmo meio utilizando cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de ionização de chama (GC-FID). A análise histopatológica do intestino do peixe foi conduzida usando colorações de hematoxilina e eosina (H&E). Intensidade de parasitas, enzimas antioxidantes e atividades de peroxidação lipídica foram investigadas nos peixes. A infecção parasitária detectada em Malapterurus electricus foi Electrotaenia malopteruri. O parasita mostrou fraca e nenhuma capacidade depurativa para BTEX e HAP, respectivamente. A diminuição da superóxido dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e glutationa reduzida (GSH), em conjunto com o aumento do Malondialdeído (MDA), caracterizou a suscetibilidade relativamente maior entre os peixes machos. Variedades de lesões nos tecidos aumentaram com o comprimento padrão dos grupos de peixes. Os resultados sugerem que os M. electricus maiores e não infectados foram mais suscetíveis aos HAP na lagoa Lekki do que os menores e infectados. O estudo demonstrou uma tendência promissora do parasita entérico E. malopteruri de depurar clorobenzeno, etilbenzeno, o-xileno, m + p-xileno e 1,4-diclorobenzeno do intestino de seu peixe hospedeiro, M. electricus, enquanto os HAP foram mal mediados pelo parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Parasites , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Catfishes , Toluene , Xylenes , Benzene/analysis , Benzene Derivatives , Bioaccumulation , Nigeria
2.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 660-675, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355741

ABSTRACT

Resumen | Introducción. Los conflictos armados afectan los territorios ricos en recursos y biodiversidad; el daño ambiental causado por las acciones violentas puede afectar la salud de las poblaciones. Objetivos. Evaluar los riesgos para la salud humana debidos a la degradación ambiental asociada con tres acciones violentas en el marco del conflicto armado colombiano: la voladura de oleoductos, la minería informal con mercurio y la aspersión de cultivos ilícitos con glifosato. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una evaluación cuantitativa de los riesgos para la salud individual asociados con actividades del conflicto armado, usando metodologías que tienen en cuenta la ruta de dispersión de los contaminantes, su concentración en el ambiente, la exposición de los individuos y los riesgos de efectos cancerígenos y no cancerígenos. Resultados. La evaluación de los riesgos asociados con las acciones en el marco del conflicto armado analizadas, evidenció un riesgo cancerígeno intolerable y uno no cancerígeno inaceptable debidos al consumo de agua y peces contaminados por hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos, mercurio y glifosato. Conclusiones. El estudio reafirmó las conexiones inextricables que existen entre ambiente, sociedad y salud, y las implicaciones de la violencia ambiental para la salud pública de los grupos poblacionales vulnerables y, en general, para el bienestar de todos los seres vivos afectados por el conflicto armado.


Abstract | Introduction: Armed conflicts affect territories rich in resources and biodiversity. As a result of the environmental damage caused by violent actions, the health of populations can be affected. Objectives: To assess the risks to human health due to environmental degradation associated with three violent actions in the context of the Colombian armed conflict: Pipeline bombing, informal mining with mercury, and spraying of illicit crops with glyphosate. Materials and methods: We conducted a quantitative evaluation of the risks to individual health associated with armed conflict activities using methodologies focused on the routes of pollutants dispersion, their concentrations in the environment, the exposure of the individuals, and the risks of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects. Results: The risk assessment of the armed conflict-related actions under study evidenced intolerable carcinogenic risk and unacceptable non-carcinogenic risk due to the consumption of water and fish contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mercury, and glyphosate. Conclusions: The study reiterates the inextricable connections existing among the environment, society, and health, as well as the implications of environmental violence for the public health of vulnerable population groups and, in general, for the well-being of all living beings affected by the armed conflict.


Subject(s)
Environmental Health , Armed Conflicts , Environmental Pollution , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Risk Assessment , Mercury , Mining
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3696-3707, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921458

ABSTRACT

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of common environmental pollutants that pose threats to human health. In this study, a mesophilic bacterial strain CFP312 (grown at 15-37 °C, optimal at 30 °C) was isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil samples. It was identified as Moraxella sp. by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical test, and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny analysis. This is the first reported PAHs degrading strains in Moraxella. Degradation analysis showed that 84% and 90% of the loaded phenanthrene (400 mg/L) were degraded within 48 h and 60 h, and the degradation rates reached 1.21 and 1.29 mg/(L·h), respectively. During the degradation of phenanthrene, phenanthrene-3,4-dihydrodiol was detected as an intermediate. Based on this, it was proposed that double oxygenation at the positions 3 and 4 of phenanthrene was the first step of biodegradation. Adaptability of strain CFP312 to different enhanced phenanthrene-degradation systems was tested in aqueous-organic system, micellar aqueous system, and cloud point system. Strain CFP312 showed good adaptability to different systems. In addition, the bacterium can rapidly degrade the phenanthrene in contaminated soil in slurry-aqueous system, indicating great potential in environmental remediation.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Humans , Phenanthrenes , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3535-3548, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921446

ABSTRACT

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistent pollutants that are widely distributed in the environment. Due to their stable structure and poor degradability, PAHs exhibit carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic toxicity to the ecological environment and organisms, thus increasing attentions have been paid to their removals and remediation. Green, safe and economical technologies are widely used in the bioremediation of PAHs-contaminated soil. This article summarizes the present status of PAHs pollution in soil of China from the aspects of origin, migration, fate, and pollution level. Meanwhile, the types of microorganisms and plants capable of degrading PAHs, as well as the underlying mechanisms, are summarized. The features of three major bioremediation technologies, i.e., microbial remediation, phytoremediation, and joint remediation, are compared. Analysis of the interaction mechanisms between plants and microorganisms, selection and cultivation of stress-resistant strains and plants, as well as safety and efficacy evaluation of practical applications, are expected to become future directions in this field.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/toxicity , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3439-3458, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921440

ABSTRACT

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants, which have received widespread attentions due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic toxicity. The microbial degradation of PAHs are usually started from the hydroxylation, followed by dehydrogenation, ring cleavage and step-by-step removal of branched chains, and finally mineralized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Rieske type non-heme iron aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases (RHOs) or cytochrome P450 oxidases are responsible for the conversion of hydrophobic PAHs into hydrophilic derivatives by the ring hydroxylation. The ring hydroxylation is the first step of PAHs degradation and also one of the rate-limiting steps. Here, we review the distribution, substrate specificity, and substrate recognition mechanisms of RHOs, along with some techniques and methods used for the research of RHOs and PAHs.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/metabolism , Biodegradation, Environmental , Dioxygenases/metabolism , Iron , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Substrate Specificity
6.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1342407

ABSTRACT

The ingestion of smoked foods has been linked to the development of cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been recognized as carcinogenic compounds which contaminate smoked foods; their ingestion has been linked to the development of cancers such as breast cancer. Breast cancer may be evaluated using the nuclear bone scan as an imaging modality. This study reviewed bone scan results of patients with a positive history of consumption of smoked foods who presented at a Nuclear Medicine facility in South-West Nigeria. Our results show a significant association between a positive history of consumption of smoked foods and the presence of advanced breast cancer on the bone scan ((χ2 = 11.190, p = 0.001, df = 2; Crude Odds Ratio (95% CI) = 1.692 (1.242-2.304). Thus, those patients with a history of eating smoked foods have between 50-100% increase in the risk of having abnormal scan findings. In a logistic regression, this association was retained (AOR=0.591 (0.434-0.805). Recommendations are made to address the significance of these findings


Subject(s)
Humans , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Nuclear Medicine , Breast Neoplasms , Radionuclide Imaging , Food
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2657-2673, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878519

ABSTRACT

To investigate the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the changes of rhizosphere microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil of Leymus chinensis during the remediation of PAHs contaminated soil by Comamonas testosteroni (C.t)-assisted Leymus chinensis, we evaluated the removal of PAHs in the rhizosphere of Leymus chinensis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analyzed the bacterial community and the diversity in Leymus chinensis rhizosphere soil by high-throughput sequencing technology, characterized the correlation among PAHs degradation and bacterial community components performing redundancy analysis (RDA) and network analysis, and predicted PAHs degradation potential via PICRUSt software in this paper. The degradation of PAHs in the rhizosphere of Leymus chinensis was promoted, the abundance and diversity of bacteria and the correlation among bacteria and PAHs were changed, and the degradation potential of PAHs in Leymus chinensis rhizosphere soil was enhanced in the later stage of phytoremediation (60-120 d) due to the incorporation of C.t. The accelerated degradation of three PAHs (Nap, Phe, BaP) was accompanied by the differ abundance and correlation of Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas, MND1, Nordella), Actinomycetes (Rubrobacter, Gaiella), Acidobacteria (RB41) and Bacteroides (Flavobacterium) affected by C.t. The results provide new insight into the microorganism choices for microbial assisted plant remediation of soil PAHs and the mechanisms of enhanced PAHs degradation via the combination of Comamonas testosteroni engineering bacteria and plants.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Comamonas testosteroni/genetics , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/analysis , Rhizosphere , Soil , Soil Microbiology , Soil Pollutants
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 102 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146695

ABSTRACT

Introdução - Os hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs) são compostos que apresentam ação potencialmente carcinogênica e mutogênica, que geram risco à saúde humana. Esses contaminantes são formados a partir da combustão incompleta de matéria orgânica, podendo ocorrer a formação durante o processamento dos alimentos em âmbito industrial (secagem, torra, pré-cozimento) e doméstico (fritar, assar e grelhar) pelo emprego de altas temperaturas. Para a produção do chocolate e outros produtos derivados do cacau, etapas como a secagem, torra e conchagem, são processos que utilizam altas temperaturas e essenciais para a produção de chocolates. Não existem estudos avaliando a presença e a exposição dietética por HPAs em chocolates no Brasil. Objetivo - Otimizar e validar a metodologia de extração e quantificação de 4 HPAs (benzo[a]antraceno (BaA), criseno (Cri), benzo[b]fluoranteno (BbF) e benzo[a]pireno (BaP)) em chocolates, quantificar sua presença em amostras de chocolates comerciais e estimar a exposição dietética aos HPAs a partir do consumo de chocolate. Métodos - As amostras de chocolate (ao leite, branco e amargo com porcentagens de cacau de 40%, 53%, 55%, 60% e 70%) foram obtidas no comércio da cidade de São Paulo. Foi realizada a otimização e validação da metodologia pelos parâmetros de linearidade, seletividade, limite de detecção, limite de quantificação, recuperação e repetibilidade. As amostras foram submetidas a extração líquido-líquido, extração em fase sólida e quantificadas por cromatógrafo líquido de alta eficiência com detector de fluorescência. A estimativa de exposição dietética (DEs) para benzo[a]pireno foi avaliada para três categorias: 1) Sexo (feminino e masculino); 2) Grupos etários: adolescentes (14 a 18 anos), adultos (19 a 59 anos) e idosos (>= 60 anos); 3) Local de residência (urbana e rural). Resultados - O método obteve faixa de linearidade entre 0,50 e 5,00 µg.kg-1 para os quatro HPAs. Com relação à seletividade, houve interferência da matriz apenas para o BaP. O método também mostrou acurácia, com recuperações médias variando entre 95,25 a 108,27% e repetibilidade mostrando valores entre 0,14 e 7,25%. Benzo[a]pireno foi encontrado em todos os chocolates, variando entre 1,58 a 4,34 µg.kg-1 de gordura. As amostras de chocolate com 53-60% cacau e chocolate 70% cacau apresentaram as maiores taxas de contaminação para BaP; já as amostras de chocolate 40% cacau e chocolate ao leite apresentaram menor contaminação. Quanto a exposição dietética, as mulheres (por gênero) e os adolescentes (por idade) apresentaram maiores DEs para BaP pelo consumo de chocolate, principalmente para o chocolate 70% cacau. Os resultados apresentaram baixa contaminação por HPAs nos chocolates analisados, no entanto, o consumo aumentado por diferentes faixas etárias pode contribuir para a DEs ao BaP. Conclusões - A metodologia padronizada foi considerada seletiva e sensível, garantindo a eficiência do ensaio. As amostras analisadas apresentaram resultados abaixo dos limites estabelecidos pelo Regulamento da Comunidade Européia No. 835/2011 para o BaP e para a soma dos 4 HPAs. Frente aos grupos analisados (sexo, idade e local de residência), os chocolates 70% cacau contribuíram para a maior exposição dietética à BaP. A presença dos quatro HPAs prioritários nos chocolates analisados demonstrou a importância de programas de monitoramento da cadeia produtiva em produtos de cacau (massa de cacau, manteiga de cacau e cacau em pó) e ingredientes adicionados (açúcar e leite em pó).


Introduction - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that have a potentially carcinogenic and mutogenic action, which generate risk to human health. These contaminants are formed from the incomplete combustion of organic matter, which can occur during industrial (drying, roasting, pre-cooking) and domestic (frying, roasting and grilling) processing of food by the use of high temperatures. For the production of chocolate and other products derived from cocoa, steps such as drying, roasting and conching are processes that use high temperatures and are essential for the production of chocolates. There are no studies evaluating the presence and dietary exposure to PAHs in chocolates in Brazil. Objective - To optimize and validate the methodology for the extraction and quantification of 4 PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)) in chocolates, quantify the presence in commercial chocolate samples and estimate dietary exposure to PAHs from the consumption of chocolate. Methods - Chocolate samples (milk, white and dark with cocoa percentages of 40%, 53%, 55%, 60% and 70%) were obtained from commercial stores in the city of São Paulo. The methodology was optimized and validated by the parameters of linearity, selectivity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery and repeatability. The samples were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction and quantified by a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph with fluorescence detector. The dietary exposure estimate (DEs) for benzo[a]pyrene was assessed for three categories: 1) Gender (female and male); 2) Age groups: adolescents (14 to 18 years), adults (19 to 59 years) and elderly (>= 60 years); 3) Place of residence (urban and rural). Results - The method obtained a linearity range between 0.50 and 5.00 µg.kg-1 for the four PAHs. Regarding selectivity, there was interference from the matrix only for BaP. The method also showed accuracy, with average recoveries ranging from 95.25 to 108.27% and repeatability showing values between 0.14 and 7.25%. Benzo[a]pyrene was found in all chocolates, ranging from 1.58 to 4.34 µg.kg-1 of fat. Chocolate samples with 53-60% cocoa and chocolate 70% cocoa showed the high contamination for BaP; the 40% cocoa and milk chocolate samples showed low contamination. As for dietary exposure, women (by gender) and adolescents (by age) had higher DEs for BaP due to chocolate consumption, especially for 70% cocoa chocolate. The results showed low contamination by PAHs in the analyzed chocolates, however, the increased consumption by different age groups can contribute to DEs to BaP. Conclusions - The standardized methodology was considered selective and sensitive, ensuring the efficiency of the test. The analyzed samples showed results below the limits established by the European Community Regulation No. 835/2011 for the BaP and for the sum of the 4 PAHs. In view of the groups analyzed (gender, age and place of residence), chocolates 70% cocoa contributed to the greater dietary exposure to BaP. The presence of the four priority PAHs in the analyzed chocolates demonstrated the importance of programs to monitor the production chain in cocoa products (cocoa mass, cocoa butter and cocoa powder) and ingredients used in chocolate formulation (sugar and powdered milk).


Subject(s)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Benzo(a)pyrene , Cacao , Eating , Chocolate
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774076

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-related behaviors in toddlers.@*METHODS@#A total of 348 toddlers who had accepted the measurement of PAH-DNA adduct in umbilical cord blood and evaluation of behavior problems at the age of 36 months were enrolled in this birth cohort study. Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) were used to evaluate behavior problems at the age of 36 months. The correlation of the concentration of PAH-DNA adduct in umbilical cord blood with CBCL and ABC scores at the age of 36 months were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The detection rate of PAH-DNA adduct in umbilical cord blood was 52.3%, and the median concentration was 0.68 ng/mL. The median total scores of CBCL and ABC scales were 23 and 8 respectively. In children aged 36 months, the concentration of PAH-DNA adduct was positively correlated with the score of social withdrawal in the CBCL scale (r=0.205, P<0.05), the total score of the ABC scale (r=0.412, P<0.05), and the self-care score of the ABC scale (r=0.355, P<0.05). The concentration of PAH-DNA adduct was closely associated with the total score of the ABC scale in children aged 36 months (β=0.122, P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#PAH exposure during pregnancy may be a risk factor for ASD-related behaviors in toddlers. Effective reduction of PAH exposure during pregnancy and detection of PAH-DNA adduct in neonatal umbilical cord blood are of vital importance for early prevention, screening and intervention of ASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Child Behavior , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Blood , Humans , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Pregnancy , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to find the exposure level of environmental harmful substances related to the secondhand smoke (SHS) using a nationally representative data of the general population in Korea. METHODS: Total 3,533 people were included in this study. We compared the proportion exceeding 95 percentile of the concentrations of harmful substances by sex according to SHS exposure. 16 kinds of substances related to tobacco smoke were analyzed including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, and environmental phenol. For 16 kinds of substances, the odds ratios (ORs) for exceeding 95 percentile of each harmful substance were calculated by multiple logistic regression according to SHS exposure. Age, education level, marital status, body mass index, drinking, and exercise were adjusted as covariates. Cotinine level was additionally adjusted to increase reliability of our results. RESULTS: SHS was associated with high exposure of mercury, methylhippuric acid, fluorene, and cotinine. In women, SHS was associated with mercury, methylhippuric acid, fluorene, and cotinine, while in men, it was associated with cotinine. After adjusting covariates, ORs of blood mercury, methylhippuric acid and hydroxyfluorene in the exposed gruop were greater than that in the non-exposed group. Especially in female, methylhippuric acid and hydroxyfluorene showed consistent result. CONCLUSIONS: Our finding demonstrates that SHS is related to several harmful substances. Therefore, to reduce the health effects of SHS, it is necessary to educate and publicize the risk of SHS. Future studies are necessary to more accurately analyze factors such as exposure frequency, time, and pathway of SHS.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Cotinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drinking , Education , Environmental Health , Female , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Marital Status , Metals, Heavy , Odds Ratio , Phenol , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Smoke , Tobacco , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Volatile Organic Compounds
12.
Blood Research ; : 253-261, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fluoranthene (FR) is a common environmental pollutant that exists in a complex mixture with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We identified biomarkers for monitoring FR exposure and investigated the rescue effect of FR-induced cellular toxicity via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist activity in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs).METHODS: Morphological changes, viability, and rescue effects of an AHR antagonist (CH223191) were examined in BM-MSCs after exposure to FR. Cytotoxic effects were assayed using the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. Apoptosis was measured by annexin V and propidium iodide dye-based flowcytometry assay, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, and nuclear DNA fragmentation assay. Molecular signaling pathways of apoptosis and autophagy were investigated using immunoblotting. Proteomics were performed in order to reveal the spectra of cellular damage and identify biomarkers for FR exposure.RESULTS: Exposing BM-MSCs to FR (IC₅₀=50 µM) induced cell death and morphological changes, while the AHR antagonist showed rescue effects. Autophagy was activated and mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. Proteomic analysis identified 48 deregulated proteins (26 upregulated and 22 downregulated). Among them, annexin A6, pyruvate kinase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, and phospholipase A2 could be potential biomarkers for FR exposure.CONCLUSION: The exposure of BM-MSCs to FR induced remarkable alterations in cellular biology and the proteome, allowing for identification of novel biomarkers for FR exposure. Furthermore, AHR antagonists might be able to prevent cellular damage due to FR exposure.


Subject(s)
Annexin A5 , Annexin A6 , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Biomarkers , Bone Marrow , Cell Death , DNA Fragmentation , Immunoblotting , Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Oxidoreductases , Phospholipases A2 , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Propidium , Proteome , Proteomics , Pyruvate Kinase , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 749-756, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974295

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) recalcitrant to microbial attack. Although studies related to the microbial degradation of PAHs have been carried out in the last decades, little is known about degradation of these environmental pollutants by fungi from marine origin. Therefore, this study aimed to select one PAHs degrader among three marine-derived basidiomycete fungi and to study its pyrene detoxification/degradation. Marasmiellus sp. CBMAI 1062 showed higher levels of pyrene and BaP degradation and was subjected to studies related to pyrene degradation optimization using experimental design, acute toxicity, organic carbon removal (TOC), and metabolite evaluation. The experimental design resulted in an efficient pyrene degradation, reducing the experiment time while the PAH concentration applied in the assays was increased. The selected fungus was able to degrade almost 100% of pyrene (0.08 mg mL-1) after 48 h of incubation under saline condition, without generating toxic compounds and with a TOC reduction of 17%. Intermediate metabolites of pyrene degradation were identified, suggesting that the fungus degraded the compound via the cytochrome P450 system and epoxide hydrolases. These results highlight the relevance of marine-derived fungi in the field of PAH bioremediation, adding value to the blue biotechnology.


Subject(s)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/metabolism , Seawater/microbiology , Basidiomycota/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons/chemistry , Pyrenes/metabolism , Pyrenes/chemistry , Basidiomycota/isolation & purification , Basidiomycota/classification , Basidiomycota/genetics , Benzo(a)pyrene/metabolism , Benzo(a)pyrene/chemistry , Biodegradation, Environmental , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism
14.
Univ. sci ; 23(2): 171-189, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-979544

ABSTRACT

Abstract Due to the health risks for both humans and living beings caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the monitoring of these compounds in environmental matrices is mandatory. This work proposes an analytical method for analyzing anthracene (AN) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), two of the most representative PAHs, at ultra-trace concentrations in water, employing direct injection of large volumes of samples coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. For this purpose, principal component analysis was used to examine the behavior of AN and BaP within the chromatographic system. Results showed that AN and BaP chromatographic behavior can be described by three models representing their identification, the quantification of AN and that of BaP, respectively. The factors affecting the obtained models, such as the injection volume, column temperature, flow rate, strength of the mobile phase, and the excitation and emission wavelengths, were examined and optimized by means of design of experiments. Finally, the analytical method was validated, obtaining promising limits of detection and quantification. The developed analytical method was demonstrated to be useful for a sensitive analysis of the target analytes in relatively clean natural water matrices.


Resumen Los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs) causan problemas en la salud de los seres humanos y seres vivos, por lo que se requiere un monitoreo de estos compuestos en matrices ambientales. Este trabajo propone un método analítico para analizar el antraceno (AN) y el benzopireno (BAP), los hidrocarburos más representativos en concentraciones de ultra trazas en el agua, empleando inyección directa en grandes volúmenes en muestras acopladas a la fase inversa con cromatografía líquida de alto rendimiento. Por tal razón, se utilizó el análisis de componentes principales para examinar el comportamiento de AN y BAP en el sistema cromatográfico. Los resultados mostraron que el comportamiento cromatográfico de AN y BAP podría describirse por medio de tres modelos que representan su identificación, la cuantificación de AN y de BAP, respectivamente. Se examinaron los factores que afectan a los modelos obtenidos, como el volumen de inyección, la temperatura de la columna, la tasa de flujo, la fuerza de la fase móvil, y las longitudes de las ondas de excitación y emisión, y se optimizaron mediante el diseño de experimentos. Finalmente, se validó el método analítico, obteniendo límites de detección y cuantificación. Se demostró que el método analítico desarrollado fue útil para el análisis sensible de los analitos en matrices de agua natural relativamente limpia.


Resumo Devido aos riscos para a saúde tanto para humanos como para os seres vivos em geral causados pelos hidrocarbonos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs), o monitoramento de estes compostos em matrizes ambientais é prioritário. Este trabalho propõem um método analítico para analisar antraceno (AN) e benzo[a]pireno (BaP), dois dos hidrocarbonos mais representativos, em concentrações de ultra traços em água, empregando injeções diretas de grandes volumes de amostra acoplada a cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em fase reversa. Usando Análises por Componentes Principais e desenho experimental, foram avaliados os efeitos de diversos fatores que afetam o sistema cromatográfico, tais como o volume de injeção, a temperatura da coluna, fluxo, forca da fase móvel e comprimentos de onda de excitação e emissão. Os resultados demonstraram que o comportamento cromatográfico de AN e BaP pode ser descrito por meio de três que representam sua identificação, quantificação de AN e de BaP, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que o comportamento cromatográfico de NA e BAP poderia ser descrito por meio de três modelos que representam sua identificação, a quantificação de NA e de BAP, respectivamente. Examinaram-se os fatores que afetam aos modelos obtidos, como o volume de injeção, a temperatura da coluna, a taxa de fluxo, a forca da fase móvel, e as longitudes das ondas de excitação e emissão, e se otimizaram mediante o desenho experimental. Finalmente, se validou o m todo analítico, obtendo os limites de detecção e quantificação. O método analítico desenvolvido demonstrou ser útil para uma análise sensível para os compostos de interesse em matrizes de água natural relativamente limpas.


Subject(s)
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Environmental Pollution , Anthracenes
15.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 416-420, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) has been widely used as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in occupationally exposed workers. The objective of this study is to investigate the concentration of urinary 1-OHP among charcoal workers as subjects and non-charcoal workers as controls. METHODS: Early morning urine samples were collected from 68 persons (25 charcoal workers in Igbo-Ora, 20 charcoal workers in Alabata, and 23 non-charcoal workers) who volunteered to participate in this study. 1-OHP determination in urine samples was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography after hydrolysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The mean urinary 1-OHP concentration (μmol/mol creatinine) among charcoal workers at Igbo-Ora and Alabata and non-charcoal workers were 2.22 ± 1.27, 1.32 ± 0.65, and 0.32 ± 0.26 (p < 0.01). There existed a relationship between respondent type and 1-OHP concentration. Charcoal workers were 3.14 times more at risk of having 1-OHP concentrations that exceed the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists guideline of 0.49 μmol/mol creatinine than non-charcoal workers (relative risk = 3.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.7–5.8, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Charcoal workers are exposed to PAHs during charcoal production and are at risk of experiencing deleterious effects of PAH exposure. Routine air quality assessment should be carried out in communities where charcoal production takes place. Assessment of urinary 1-OHP concentration and use of personal protective equipment should also be encouraged among charcoal workers.


Subject(s)
Charcoal , Chromatography, Liquid , Creatinine , Humans , Hydrolysis , Nigeria , Occupations , Personal Protective Equipment , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Statistics as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762536

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive consideration is necessary for setting guidelines to evaluate evidence of occupational cancer in painters due to work-related exposure to carcinogens in paint (a phenomenon termed herein as “work-relatedness”). The aim of the present research is to perform a comprehensive review and to suggest criteria for the provision of compensation for occupational neoplasm among painters in Korea. In order to perform a comprehensive review, this study assessed and evaluated scientific reports of carcinogenicities from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council (IIAC), as well as reviewed the existing literature about occupational exposure among painters in Korea and the epidemiologic investigations of claimed cases of cancer among painters in Korea. The IARC declares that occupational exposures in commercial painting are classified as Group 1 carcinogens for lung cancer and bladder cancer among painters. The epidemiologic studies show consistent causal relationships between occupational exposure in painters and cancers such as lung cancer [meta relative risk: 1.34 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.23-1.41)] and bladder cancer [meta relative risk: 1.24 (95% CIs: 1.16-1.33)]. In reviewing occupational cancer risks for commercial painters, the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council (IIAC) confirms occupational cancer risks for lung and bladder cancer among commercial painters. According to the IIAC, however, the elevated cancer risks reported in existing literature are not doubled in either lung or bladder cancer in commercial painters relative to the risks of these cancers in the general population. Based on our review of existing Korean articles on the topic, painters are exposed to potential carcinogens including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, hexavalent chrome, crystalized silica, asbestos, and other agents, and relative levels are estimated within commercial painting processes. However, the cancer risks of occupational exposure to Group 1 carcinogens for lung and bladder cancer in painters per se are not fully assessed in existing Korean articles. Total work duration, potential carcinogens in paint, mixed exposure to paints across various industries such as construction and shipbuilding, exposure periods, latent periods, and other factors should be considered on an individual basis in investigating the work-relatedness of certain types of cancer in commercial painters.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Benzene , Carcinogens , Compensation and Redress , Epidemiologic Studies , International Agencies , Korea , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Occupational Exposure , Occupations , Paint , Paintings , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Silicon Dioxide , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by incomplete combustion have negative effects on human health due to their carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Indoor sources of PAHs include tobacco smoke, heating sources, and cooking. This study evaluated the relationship between human PAH exposure and residence characteristics. METHOD: This study was based on the second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012–2014). Non-smoking housewives were included in the analyses (n = 1269). The concentrations of urinary PAH metabolites (2-naphthol, 2-hydroxyfluorene, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 1-hydroxypyrene) were adjusted by urine creatinine level. The geometric mean concentrations of urinary PAH metabolites by residential factors were examined. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between residential variables and PAH exposures. RESULTS: The adjusted geometric mean concentrations of urinary 2-hydroxyfluorene and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene were significantly higher in the group residing within 100 m of a major road (p  100 m from a major road. In logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio (OR) for exceeding the third quartile of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration was significantly higher in the group using coal or wood fuel for residential heating than in the group using gas (OR = 2.745, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.295–5.819). The detached house group had a significantly higher OR for 1-hydroxyphenanthrene compared with the apartment group (OR = 1.515, 95% CI = 1.023–2.243). CONCLUSION: Our study shows the evidence of associations between some urinary PAH metabolite levels (1-hydroxyphenanthrene and 1-hydroxypyrene) and residence characteristics. Additional studies are needed to clarify these associations.


Subject(s)
Coal , Cooking , Creatinine , Environmental Health , Heating , Hot Temperature , Humans , Logistic Models , Methods , Odds Ratio , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Residence Characteristics , Smoke , Tobacco , Wood
18.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2018013-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721089

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of road dust on human health. A PubMed search was used to extract references that included the words “road dust” and “health” or “fugitive dust” and “health” in the title or abstract. A total of 46 references were extracted and selected for review after the primary screening of 949 articles. The respiratory system was found to be the most affected system in the human body. Lead, platinum-group elements (platinum, rhodium, and bohrium), aluminum, zinc, vanadium, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the components of road dust that were most frequently referenced in the articles reviewed. Road dust was found to have harmful effects on the human body, especially on the respiratory system. To determine the complex mechanism of action of various components of road dust on the human body and the results thereof, the authors recommend a further meta-analysis and extensive risk-assessment research into the health impacts of dust exposure.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Dust , Human Body , Humans , Mass Screening , Particulate Matter , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Respiratory System , Review Literature as Topic , Rhodium , Risk Assessment , Vanadium , Zinc
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713223

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress was evaluated for anthracene (Ant) and alkyl-Ants (9-methylanthracene [9-MA] and 9,10-dimethylanthracene [9,10-DMA]) in Caenorhabditis elegans to compare changes in toxicity due to the degree of alkylation. Worms were exposed at 1) the same external exposure concentration and 2) the maximum water-soluble concentration. Formation of reactive oxygen species, superoxide dismutase activity, total glutathione concentration, and lipid peroxidation were determined under constant exposure conditions using passive dosing. The expression of oxidative stress-related genes (daf-2, sir-2.1, daf-16, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3 and cytochrome 35A/C family genes) was also investigated to identify and compare changes in the genetic responses of C. elegans exposed to Ant and alkyl-Ant. At the same external concentration, 9,10-DMA induced the greatest oxidative stress, as evidenced by all indicators, except for lipid peroxidation, followed by 9-MA and Ant. Interestingly, 9,10-DMA led to greater oxidative stress than 9-MA and Ant when worms were exposed to the maximum water-soluble concentration, although the maximum water-soluble concentration of 9,10-DMA is the lowest. Increased oxidative stress by alkyl-Ants would be attributed to higher lipid-water partition coefficient and the π electron density in aromatic rings by alkyl substitution, although this supposition requires further confirmation.


Subject(s)
Alkylation , Ants , Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis , Cytochromes , Gene Expression , Glutathione , Humans , Lipid Peroxidation , Oxidative Stress , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Reactive Oxygen Species , Superoxide Dismutase
20.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018013-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786860

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of road dust on human health. A PubMed search was used to extract references that included the words “road dust” and “health” or “fugitive dust” and “health” in the title or abstract. A total of 46 references were extracted and selected for review after the primary screening of 949 articles. The respiratory system was found to be the most affected system in the human body. Lead, platinum-group elements (platinum, rhodium, and bohrium), aluminum, zinc, vanadium, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the components of road dust that were most frequently referenced in the articles reviewed. Road dust was found to have harmful effects on the human body, especially on the respiratory system. To determine the complex mechanism of action of various components of road dust on the human body and the results thereof, the authors recommend a further meta-analysis and extensive risk-assessment research into the health impacts of dust exposure.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Dust , Human Body , Humans , Mass Screening , Particulate Matter , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Respiratory System , Review Literature as Topic , Rhodium , Risk Assessment , Vanadium , Zinc
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL