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1.
Acta amaz ; 49(4): 324-329, out. - dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118965

ABSTRACT

We describe and illustrate a new species of Coccoloba (Polygonaceae), named Coccoloba gigantifolia, from the Brazilian Amazon. It resembles Coccoloba mollis Casar, but differs from the latter species by its much larger leaves in the fertile branches. The species has only been recorded in the Madeira River basin, in the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, in the central and southwestern Brazilian Amazon. The description was based on herbarium material, cultivated plants, and individual trees in their natural habitat. We provide illustrations, photographs, and an identification key with morphological characteristics that distinguish the new taxon from the other two related taxa of the Coccoloba sect. Paniculatae, as well as comments on the geographic distribution and conservation status of the species. (AU)


Subject(s)
Botany/classification , Classification , Amazonian Ecosystem , Polygonaceae , Plant Dispersal
2.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 222-227, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760569

ABSTRACT

Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established method adopted by international pharmacopoeia for quantitative and purity analyses. Emodin is a type of anthraquinone, well known as the main active component of Fabaceae, Polygonaceae and Rhamnaceae. Purity analysis of emodin is usually performed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. However, it cannot detect impurities such as salts, volatile matter, and trace elements. Using the qNMR method, it is possible to determine the compound content as well as the nature of the impurities. Several experimental parameters were optimized for the quantification, such as relaxation delay, spectral width, number of scans, temperature, pulse width, and acquisition time. The method was validated, and the results of the qNMR method were compared with those obtained by the HPLC and mass balance analysis methods. The qNMR method is specific, rapid, simple, and therefore, a valuable and reliable method for the purity analysis of emodin.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Emodin , Fabaceae , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Polygonaceae , Relaxation , Rhamnaceae , Salts , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements
3.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(2): 243-249, abr.- jun. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846870

ABSTRACT

Germination of diaspores and the seedling structure of Ruprechtia laxiflora Meissn. (Polygonaceae) which is a secondary species frequent in forest remnants are described. Seedlings were embedded in hydroxymethacrylate and sectioned in a rotary microtome according to usual techniques in plant anatomy. For bioassays of germination, the experimental design was completely randomized in a 3x2 bifactorial arrangement, corresponding to three temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C) and two light conditions (photoperiod and continuous darkness) for the diaspores newly harvested and in a 4x2 bifactorial arrangement, corresponding to four temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30°C) and two light conditions (photoperiod and continuous darkness) for diaspores analyzed after storage. There was no interaction between the factors light condition and temperature for germination parameters analyzed. However, the temperature affected the germination and diaspores maintained at 25°C showed a shorter mean time and higher germination speed index. Seedlings are phanerocotylar and epigeal with tetrarch root, intermediate-low type of root-stem transition and trilacunar cotyledonary node.


Foram descritas a germinação de diásporos e a estrutura de plântulas de Ruprechtia laxiflora Meissn. (Polygonaceae), espécie secundária frequente em remanescentes florestais. As plântulas foram emblocadas em historresina e secionadas em micrótomo de rotação, de acordo com técnicas usuais em anatomia vegetal. Para os bioensaios de germinação, o delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado em um esquema fatorial 3x2, correspondendo a três temperaturas (20, 25 e 30°C) e duas condições de luz (fotoperíodo e escuro contínuo) para os diásporos recém coletados e em esquema fatorial 4x2, correspondendo a quatro temperaturas (15, 20, 25 e 30°C) e duas condições de luz (fotoperíodo e escuro contínuo) para os diásporos analisados após armazenamento. Não houve interação entre os fatores condição de luz e temperatura para os parâmetros de germinação analisados. No entanto, o fator temperatura afetou a germinação e os diásporos mantidos sob 25°C apresentaram menor tempo médio e maior índice de velocidade de germinação. As plântulas são fanerocotiledonares e epigeias, com raiz tetrarca, tipo intermediário-baixo de zona de transição raiz-caule e nó cotiledonar trilacunar.


Subject(s)
Germination , Polygonaceae , Seedlings
4.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 38(3): 341-346, jul.-set. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827244

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of flooding in Triplaris gardneriana Wedd, cultivated in drained soil (control) and in flooded condition. The experiment was developed in a greenhouse, using plants with 90 days after the emergency. The response to treatment was evaluated at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days. Growth measurements were made, such as biomass allocation, relative growth rate (RGR). Adventitious roots were not measured only observed, as well as the development of hypertrophied lenticels. The RGR was continuously reduced along the 90 days in flooding conditions for the roots, stem and leaves, compared to control. The flooding of the substrate caused alterations such as: increasing of the cortex width and diameter of the central cylinder of root and increasing the diameter of the vessel element of the root and stem. Results show that T. gardneriana remains under stress when submitted to flooding. Therefore, the production of structures as lenticels, aerenchyma and adventitious roots, structures related to the avoidance of this type of stress, were key factors for the maintenance and survival of T. gardneriana.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito do alagamento em Triplaris gardneriana Wedd, cultivadas em condições de solo drenado (controle) e solo alagado. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se plantas com 90 dias após a emergência. As respostas ao tratamento foram avaliadas para os períodos de 0, 30, 60 e 90 dias. Foram feitas medidas de crescimento, como alocação de biomassa, taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR). Raízes adventícias não foram medidas, apenas observadas, assim como o desenvolvimento de lenticelas hipertrofiadas. A TCR foi continuamente reduzida durante os 90 dias em condições de inundação para as raízes, o caule e as folhas em relação ao controle. O alagamento do substrato provocou alterações anatômicas como aumento da largura do córtex e do diâmetro do cilindro central da raiz e aumento do diâmetro dos elementos de vaso do caule e da raiz. Nossos resultados indicam que T. gardneriana permanece em estresse quando submetida a inundações. No entanto, a produção de estruturas relacionadas à evitação deste tipo de estresse foi chave para a manutenção e sobrevivência de T. gardneriana.


Subject(s)
Growth , Hypoxia , Polygonaceae , Wetlands
5.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 116-121, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320007

ABSTRACT

Decoction is one of the most commonly used dosage forms of traditional Chinese medicine. The stability of chemical constituents in decoction is closely related to the clinical efficacy and safety. There were few reports about the influence of metal ions in the stability of chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no evidence that metal ions in decoction water need to be controlled. In this study, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxy stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), one of the main constituents in Polygoni Multiflori Radix was studied. Ordinary tap water, deionized water, and water containing different metal ions were used to investigate and compare the influence on THSG. The results showed that after storage in a dark place at the room temperature for 10 days, the degradation of THSG was 7% in deionized water, while undetectable in tap water. The content of THSG could be decreased by different kinds of metal ions, and the effect was concentration-dependent. Moreover, Fe3+ and Fe2+ showed the greatest influence at the same concentration; and our study has shown that THSG decreased more than 98% in Fe and Fe2+ solutions at 500 ppm concentration. In the same time we found out p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (molecular weight: 122.036 7) and 2,3,5-trihydroxybenzaldehyde-2-O-glycoside (molecular weight: 316.079 4) were the main degradation products of THSG in tap water and water containing Cu2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Mg2+ and Al3+. The product of THSG dimer with a water molecule was found in water containing Fe3+ and Fe2+. The above results showed that the metal ions in water could significantly influence the stability of THSG in water, indicating that the clinical efficacy and safety of decoction would be affected if the metal ions in water were not under control. It's suggested that deionized water should be used in the preparation of decoction containing Polygoni Multiflori Radix in the clinic to avoid degradation of THSG. Meanwhile, decoction prepared by tap water should be taken by patients in a short time. Our investigation provides important information and reference about the influence of metal ions on the stability of decoctions in other traditional Chinese medicine that have unstable groups such as hydroxyls and unsaturated bonds, etc.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Glucosides , Chemistry , Ions , Chemistry , Metals , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Polygonaceae , Chemistry , Stilbenes , Chemistry
6.
Mycobiology ; : 93-98, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729447

ABSTRACT

A new leaf spot disease was observed on leaves of Rheum palmatum (Chinese rhubarb) in Northwest China (Gansu Province) starting in 2005. A Septoria-like fungus was isolated and completion of Koch's postulates confirmed that the fungus was the casual agent of the leaf spot disease. Morphology and molecular methods were combined to identify the pathogen. The fungus produced conidiomata pycnidia and the conidia were 2~5 septate, 61.2~134.1 µm in length and 3.53~5.3 µm in width, which is much larger than the known Spetoria species that infects Polygonaceae species. Phylogenic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region confirmed that this Spetoria-like fungus is within the Spetoria genus but distinct from known Spetoria species. Together, these morphological and phylogenetic data support that the R. palmatum infecting Spetoria strain is a newly-described plant pathogenic species.


Subject(s)
China , Classification , Fungi , Plants , Polygonaceae , Rheum , Spores, Fungal
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351216

ABSTRACT

Qumazi is a commonly used Tibetan medicine. With a long history, it can be found in the Four Medical Tantras written by gYu-thog rNying-ma Yon-tan mGon-po since the 8th century AD. Qumazi grows in mudflats and fields, including species growing in highlands, lowlands, mountains and farmlands. According to records in Crystal Beads Materia Medica, it features green sword-shaped leaves, thin stems with red veins, inserted panicles, white chicken-like flowers and copper needle row-like roots. However, there are many inconsistent morphological descriptions for Qumazi plants in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books. In this article, after studying ancient and modern Tibetan medicine books, consulting experts and conducting surveys, the authors confirmed that Qumazi belongs to Rheum of Polygonaceae, including Rheum nobile Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. globulosum Gage, R. alexandrae Hook. f. et. Thoms, R. pumilum Maxim and R. delavayi Franch. In some regions, Qumazi is substituted by R. spiciforme Royle and R. przewalskyi Losinsk. After the Chinese version of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Drug Illustrations was published in 1972, Qumazi has been miswritten as P. sibiricum Laxm in many Chinese versions of Tibetan medicine books, perhaps because P. sibiricum Laxm has many similar features with Qumazi as described in Crystal Beads Materia Medica and then is mistranslated from Tibetan to Chinese versions. According to records, Qumazi can reduce edema and is mainly applied to treat the minamata disease in clinic.


Subject(s)
China , History, Ancient , Medicine, Tibetan Traditional , History , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polygonaceae , Chemistry , Reference Books, Medical
8.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(5): 498-505, sept.2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-786497

ABSTRACT

Ethanol extracts obtained from aerial parts of 64 native plants from Central Argentina were tested for their insect antifeedant activity against Epilachna paenulata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) by choice test. Extracts derived from Achyrocline satureioides (Asteraceae), Baccharis coridifolia (Asteraceae), Baccharis flabellata (Asteraceae), Ruprechtia apetala (Polygonaceae) and Vernonanthura nudiflora (Asteraceae), showed more than 97 percent inhibition of the feeding of E. paenulata at 100 micrograms/cm2. These active extracts were further evaluated for their effectiveness against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). All these extracts except for that derived from A. satureioides, negatively influenced the feeding behavior of S. frugiperda at 100 microrams/cm2...


Se evaluaron los extractos etanólicos obtenidos de las partes aéreas de 64 plantas de la región Central de Argentina, como antialimentarios de insectos mediante ensayos de elección, contra Epilachna paenulata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Los extractos derivados de Achyrocline satureioides (Asteraceae), Baccharis coridifolia (Asteraceae), Baccharis flabellata (Asteraceae), Ruprechtia apetala (Polygonaceae) y Vernonanthura nudiflora (Asteraceae) mostraron mas de 97 por ciento de inhibición de la alimentación de E. paenulata a 100 microgramos/cm2. Estos extractos fueron posteriormente evaluados en su efectividad contra Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Todos ellos, con excepción del extracto de A. satureioides, afectaron negativamente el comportamiento alimentario de S. frugiperda a 100 microgramos/cm2...


Subject(s)
Humans , Asteraceae/chemistry , Feeding Behavior , Coleoptera , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polygonaceae/chemistry , Argentina , Spodoptera
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812182

ABSTRACT

To synthesize and characterize a novel metal complex of Mn (II) with emodin, and evaluate its anti-cancer activity. The elemental analyses, IR, UV-vis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, TG-DSC, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR data were used to characterize the structure of the complex. The cytotoxicity of the complex against the human cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa, MCF-7, B16, and MDA-MB-231 was tested by the MTT assay and flow cytometry. Emodin was coordinated with Mn(II) through the 9-C=O and 1-OH, and the general formula of the complex was Mn(II) (emodin)2·2H2O. In studies of the cytotoxicity, the complex exhibited significant activity, and the IC50 values of the complex against five cancer cell lines improved approximately three-fold compared with those of emodin. The complex could induce cell morphological changes, decrease the percentage of viability, and induce G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. The coordination of emodin with Mn(II) can improve its anticancer activity, and the complex Mn(II) (emodin)2·2H2O could be studied further as a promising anticancer drug.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Emodin , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , HeLa Cells , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Manganese , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Melanoma, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Molecular Structure , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Polygonaceae , Chemistry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341835

ABSTRACT

The prescriptions including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis that built by Pro. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. The method of association rules with apriori algorithm was used to achieve frequency of single medicine, frequency of drug combinations, association rules between drugs and core drug combinations. The datamining results indicated that in the prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, the highest frequency used drugs were parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Ostreae Concha, Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Paeoniae Rubra Radix, and so on. The most frequent drug combinations were "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", "Ostreae Concha-Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia". The drug association rules of confidence coefficient 1 were "Ostreae Concha-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "Poria-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Paeoniae Alba Radix-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The core drug combinations in the treatment of insomnia were Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ostreae Concha, Polygalae Radix, Margaritifera Concha, Poria, and parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. And the core drug combinations in the treatment of obstruction of Qi in chest were Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Trichosanthis Fructus, Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and Paeoniae Rubra Radix.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Methods , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Polygonaceae , Chemistry , Prescriptions
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319690

ABSTRACT

To achieve sustainable resources use of Polygonum multiflorum, adventitious roots were efficiently induced and cultured by suspension culture. In order to obtain optimal medium for induction adventitious roots from the young stems of P. multiflorum, MS medium was optimized by supplementing with different concentrations of sucrose and plant growth substances. The optimal medium for suspension culture of adventitious roots was determined by orthogonal design. The adventitious roots with suspension culture were subcultured, and the growth curve was also determined. Furthermore, the effective compound in adventitious roots was detected. The result indicated that the optimal medium for efficient induction of adventitious roots was MS medium containing 4% w/v sucrose, supplemented with 2.0 mg x L(-1) NAA, and 0.2 mg x L(-1) 6-BA. The optimal medium for suspension culture of adventitious roots was MS medium containing 3% sucrose, supplemented with 2.0 mg x L(-1) NAA, and 0.2 mg x L(-1) ABT-7.2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxyl-diphenyl-ethylene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside was detected in adventitious roots, which was effective compound in medicinal material of P. multiflorum. In conclusion, the experiment achieved efficient induction and suspension culture of adventitious roots of P. multiflorum, and laid a foundation for the research on the sustainable use of traditional Chinese medicine resources.


Subject(s)
Culture Media , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Growth Regulators , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Polygonaceae , Metabolism , Sucrose , Metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , Methods
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319666

ABSTRACT

Recently the safety of Heshouwu become a focus, but the reasons of its hepotoxicity are confused. On the basis of literature research, some findings on species and usage custom maybe supply some clues to explain the reasons of its hepotoxicity. Heshouwu had red Heshouwu (male) and white Heshouwu (female) in ancient literature, and traditional usage was use of the male and female together. The Latin name of red Heshouwu is Fallopia multiflora, and that of the white one is F. multiflora var. multiflora.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Germ Cells, Plant , History, 15th Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , Polygonaceae , Chemistry , Classification , Reference Books, Medical
13.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(3): 1097-1108, Sept. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659572

ABSTRACT

The arid Western Rajasthan, where the Thar Desert of India is immersed, is mostly covered by sand dunes, a common landscape. The region has confronted with fragilities of natural resources, low, erratic and ill-distributed rainfall, and is covered up with many perennial hardy shrubs. Calligonum polygonoides, the most common perennial shrub, is widely present in some localities of this Thar Desert. In this study, we evaluated the diversity present among 54 wild Calligonum polygonoides plants, sampled from eight different locations within the Thar Desert. Our methods included chemical/nutritional characteristics and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Both chemical and molecular methods produced wider range of diversity, however, RAPD detected comparatively more diversity. A total of 163 band positions were produced by ten RAPD primers, of which 147 were found polymorphic with 90.18% polymorphism. RAPD-based Jaccard’s similarity coefficients ranged from 0.43-0.89. The analysis of various chemical and mineral constituents revealed that phog is an excellent source of calcium, potassium and phosphorous while relatively poor in zinc. Among minerals, average potassium content was found maximum (2 430mg/100g) with 0.14 CV. Zinc was observed comparably less in quantity while highest variable with CV 0.73. The chemical-based Manhattan dissimilarity coefficient values ranged from 0.01-0.22 with an average of 0.12. The comparison of the clusters obtained based on the chemical and mineral parameters with those of the RAPD data showed that the groups formed in both cases showed different patterns of relationships among the samples. Broader range of diversity might be due to the out breeding behavior of C. polygonoides and indicates the good adaptability of the plants in the region studied. However, low diversity observed in the Bikaner province is alarming and suggests that anthropogenic activities leading to heavy population disturbances can affect the genetic composition of the species in a considerable way.


El árido Rajastán occidental, en donde está inmerso el desierto de Thar en la India, está cubierto principalmente por dunas de arena, un paisaje común. La región ha enfrentado la fragilidad de los recursos naturales, las lluvias escasas, irregulares y mala distribución, y está cubierta con muchos arbustos resistentes perennes. Calligonum polygonoides, el arbusto perenne más común, se encuentra ampliamente en algunas localidades del desierto de Thar. En este estudio, se evaluó la diversidad presente entre 54 plantas silvestres de Calligonum polygonoides, de ocho localidades diferentes del desierto de Thar. Nuestros métodos incluyen características químicas/nutricionales y ADN polimórfico amplificado (RAPD) al azar. Ambos métodos químicos y moleculares producen un amplio rango de la diversidad, sin embargo, RAPD detectó comparativamente mayor diversidad. Un total de 163 posiciones de la banda fueron producidos por diez cebadores RAPD, de los cuales 147 se encontraron polimórficos con un 90.18% de polimorfismo. El coeficiente de RAPD basado en la similitud de Jaccard varió desde 0.43 hasta 0.89. El análisis de varios constituyentes químicos y minerales reveló que Calligonum polygonoides es una excelente fuente de calcio, potasio y fósforo mientras que es relativamente pobre en zinc. Entre los minerales, el contenido de potasio promedio se encontró como máximo (2 430mg/100g), con 0.14 CV. El zinc se observó comparativamente menor en cantidad, pero presentó la mayor variabilidad con CV 0.73. El valor del coefficente de disimilitud de Manhattan varió en un rango de 0.01 hasta 0.22 con un promedio de 0.12. La comparación de los grupos obtenidos según los parámetros químicos y minerales con las de los datos de RAPD mostró que los grupos formados en ambos casos mostraron patrones diferentes de relaciones entre las muestras. Una gama más amplia de la diversidad podría ser debido al comportamiento reproductivo C polygonoides e indica la buena adaptabilidad ...


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation/genetics , Polygonaceae/chemistry , Polygonaceae/genetics , Desert Climate , India , Microsatellite Repeats , Polygonaceae/classification , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
14.
Cusco; s.n; 2011. 128 p. tab, graf, ilus.
Thesis in Spanish | MTYCI, LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-880355

ABSTRACT

Las antocianinas están presentes en muchos frutos (bayas) y flores, estos son colorantes naturales, pertenecientes al grupo de los flavonoides, a las que se les atribuye actividad antioxidante por su capacidad para neutralizar los efectos de los radicales libres sobre enfermedades crónico-degenerativas. En la presente investigación se utilizan extractos antociánicos de los frutos de Muehlenbleckia volcanica (Mullak'a), Monnina salicifolia (Aceitunilla) y Prunus serotina (Capuli), con el objetivo de evaluar su actividad antioxidante a diferentes concentraciones y caracterizar sus antocianidinas. Para determinar y comparar la actividad antioxidante in vitro se realizaron ensayos que corresponden a un estudio cuasiexperimental para lo cual se utilizó dos técnicas: la captura de radicales libres DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracilo) y el método químico ABTS (Acido 2,2-Azinobis-(-3-Etilbenzotiazolin-6-Sulfonico)), los resultados fueron expresados en porcentaje de captación de radicales libres y IC50. Las antocianidinas fueron identificadas mediante el análisis por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC). Todos los extractos antociánicos presentaron actividad antioxidante sobre ambos radicales, a diferentes concentraciones, de los cuales el extracto antociánico de Muehlenbleckia volcanica (Mullak'a) presentó mayor actividad antioxidante, con un IC50= 2.2247, 4.077 µg/ml frente a los radicales DPPH y ABTS respectivamente, seguido de Monnina salicifolia (Aceitunilla) y el extracto de Prunus serotina (Capuli) De la comparación con el antioxidante patrón, ácido ascórbico (vitamina C), los tres extractos antociánicos resultaron tener menor actividad antioxidante en ambos métodos. El presente estudio muestra que los extractos antociánicos evaluados poseen buena capacidad antioxidante, destacando Muehlenbleckia volcanica (Mullak'a) y Monnina salicifolia (Aceitunilla), además se identificó en ellos la presencia de dos antocianidinas (cianidina y delfmidina) de la seis más comunes. Por lo tanto, además de las características colorantes, los extractos antociánicos poseen potente propiedad antioxidante que podría ser aplicado en el campo de la industria alimentaria, cosmética y farmacéutica, muchos mecanismos antioxidantes podrían explicar el efecto de las antocianinas, como la donación de hidrogeno y quelación de metales.


Subject(s)
Anthocyanins , Antioxidants , Polygonaceae , Prunus avium , Chromatography, Liquid , In Vitro Techniques
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-354125

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the chemical constituents from aerial parts of Fallopia dumetosum.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The 80% ethanol extract was separated by means of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The compounds isolated from the plant were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic evidence.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Ten compounds were obtained and identified as emodin (1), physcion (2), quercetin (3), luteolin (4), 5"- methoxy-hydnocarpin (5), ethylparaben (6), protocatechuic acid (7), (2S,3S, 4R) -sphinganine-(2'R) -delta5'6' (E) -2'-hydroxyl tetracosanoylamino (8), beta-sitosterol (9), and daucosterol (10).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Anthraquinones and flavones were the major constituents of this plant. All compounds were isolated firstly from this plant, and compounds 5, 7, and 8 were isolated from the genus Fallopia for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Anthraquinones , Chemistry , Flavones , Chemistry , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polygonaceae , Chemistry
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(2): 717-732, jun. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-638036

ABSTRACT

Seed germination and key to seedling identification for six native tree species of wetlands from Southeast Mexico. Wetland tree species are of importance for economic and restoration purposes. We describe the germination process and seedling morphology of six arboreal native species typical of Southeastern Mexico: Annona glabra, Ceiba pentandra, Pachira aquatica, Haematoxylum campechianum, Coccoloba barbadensis and Crataeva tapia. A total of 300 seeds per species were planted in a mixture of sand, cocoa plant husk and black soil (1: 1: 1), and maintained in a tree nursery with 30% artificial shade, from February to November of 2007. We carried out the morphological characterization, and elaborated a key to seedlings based on: 1) germination type 2) seedling axis and 3) leaf elements. P. aquatica has cryptocotylar hypogeal germination, the others have phanerocotylar epigeal germination. Germination rates were high (>86%), except for C. barbadensis (69%). Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2): 717-732. Epub 2010 June 02.


Especies arbóreas de humedales son de importancia económica y para fines de restauración. Nosotros describimos el proceso de germinación y morfología de plántulas de seis especies arbóreas nativas típicas del sureste de México: Annona glabra, Ceiba pentandra, Pachira aquatica, Haematoxylum campechianum, Coccoloba barbadensis y Crataeva tapia. Un total de 300 semillas por especie fueron sembradas en una mezcla de arena, cascarilla de cacao y tierra negra (1: 1: 1), y mantenidas en invernadero a 30% de sombra artificial, de febrero a noviembre de 2007. Se realizó la caracterización morfológica, y elaboró una clave de plántulas con base en: 1) tipo de germinación 2) eje de la plántula y 3) elementos foliares. P. aquatica presenta germinación criptocotilar hipogea, las otras tienen germinación fanerocotilar epigea. Las tasas de germinación fueron altas (>86%), a excepción de C. barbadensis (69%).


Subject(s)
Magnoliopsida/physiology , Germination/physiology , Seedlings/physiology , Magnoliopsida/classification , Annonaceae/physiology , Bombacaceae/physiology , Capparaceae/physiology , Fabaceae/physiology , Mexico , Polygonaceae/physiology , Seeds/growth & development , Seeds/physiology , Wetlands
17.
Genet. mol. biol ; 33(3): 542-548, 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-555819

ABSTRACT

The common everyday use of medicinal plants is an ancient, and still very widespread practice, whereby the need for studies on their possible toxicity and mutagenic properties. The species Coccoloba mollis has been much used in phytotherapy, mainly in cases involving loss of memory and stress. In order to investigate its genotoxic and mutagenic potential, ethanolic extracts from the leaves and roots underwent Salmonella/microsome assaying (TA98 and TA100 strains, with and without exogenous metabolism - S9), besides comet and micronucleus tests in vivo.There was no significant increase in the number of revertants/plate of Salmonella strains in any of the analyzed root-extract concentrations, although the extract itself was extremely toxic to the Salmonella TA98 strain in the tests carried out with S9 (doses varying from 0.005 to 0.5 µg/plate). On the other hand, the leaf-extract induced mutations in the TA98 strain in the absence of S9 in the highest concentration evaluated, although at very low mutagenic potency (0.004 rev/µg). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant increase in the number of comets and micronuclei, in treatments involving Swiss mice. It was obvious that extracts of Coccoloba mollis, under the described experimental conditions, are not mutagenic.


Subject(s)
Animals , Microsomes , Plants, Medicinal , Salmonella , Comet Assay , Micronucleus Tests , Mutagenicity Tests , Polygonaceae
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-260730

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the chemical constituents in the herbs of Fallopia convolvulus.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Its 80% ethanol extract was separated by means of silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to give twelve compounds, whose structures were identified by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic evidence.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Twelve compounds were isolated and identified as: quercetin (1), luteolin (2), chrysoeriol (3), apigenin (4), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (6), N-trans-coumaroyl tyramine (7), loliolide (8), ethylparaben (9), beta-sitosterol (10), daucosterol (11), n-hexadecanoic acid (12).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>All these compounds were isolated firstly from this plant, compounds 6-9 were obtained from this genus for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Chromatography , Plant Components, Aerial , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Polygonaceae , Chemistry
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 756-760, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-354537

ABSTRACT

Ginsenosides in the decoction of Radix Ginseng, Radix Ginseng with Flos Lonicerae, Radix Polygoni Multiflori or Radix Astragali have been investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method (ESI-MS). Change of the content of ginsenosides was nonlinear in diverse combinative proportion of Radix Ginseng with Flos Lonicerae, while the stripping of ginsenosides was promoted by a small amount of Radix Polygoni Multiflori. In the combinative decoction of Radix Ginseng with Radix Astragali, ginsenosides contents were increased compared to single decoction of Radix Ginseng. Besides, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method was developed for determination of the total antioxidative activity of n-butanol and water-soluble extracts from the decoction. The experimental results showed that antioxidative activity was better in the combinative decoction than that in single decoction, and the FRAP values of n-butanol extract were also greater compared with that of water extract.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chemistry , Astragalus Plant , Chemistry , Caprifoliaceae , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Flowers , Chemistry , Ginsenosides , Oxidation-Reduction , Panax , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polygonaceae , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(6): 727-729, Dec. 2009. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-539526

ABSTRACT

The authors report a massive attack by Pseudomyrmex ants on a human who touched a Triplaria - novice tree (Triplaris spp). The ants naturally live in these trees and their stings cause intense pain and discrete to moderate local inflammation. The problem is common in some Brazilian regions and can be prevented by identifying the trees.


É descrito um ataque maciço de formigas do gênero Pseudomyrmex a um humano que tocou uma árvore-de-novato (Triplaris spp). As formigas vivem naturalmente nestas árvores e as picadas causam dor intensa e inflamação local. O problema é comum em certas regiões do Brasil e pode ser prevenido pela identificação das árvores.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ants/physiology , Insect Bites and Stings , Polygonaceae/parasitology , Symbiosis/physiology , Ants/classification
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