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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928034

ABSTRACT

As revealed by the investigation on the name change, biological characteristics, artificial cultivation, and edible history of Polygonatum kingianum var. grandifolium, it was described as a variation pattern of P. kingianum in the Chinese version of Flora of China(1978) and as a variant of P. kingianum in the revised English version of the Flora of China(2000). P. kingianum var. grandifolium, long been consumed as food by local folks, has been widely cultivated in its natural distribution area and circulated as Polygonati Rhizoma in the market. The important biological properties of P. kingianum var. grandifolium make it possess a great potential of being consumed as both medicine and food. The shoots of P. kingianum var. grandifolium sprout immediately out of the ground after seed germination and a new seedling will be formed at the same year, implying that its seedling cultivation period is at least two years shorter than that of P. cyrtonema. It can sprout more than twice a year, and the adult plants always remain evergreen, thereby obtaining higher biomass. Its rhizome biomass can be more than one time higher than that of P. cyrtonema. With reference to the diploid P. cyrtonema, flow cytometry revealed the polyploid and aneuploid forms in natural populations, which were tall and light-adapted with large underground rhizome. It can grow normally under the forest canopy and in the open field. Furthermore, P. kingianum var. grandifolium has important theoretical values for the study of ploidy variation, bud dormancy mechanism, etc.


Subject(s)
China , Medicine , Polygonatum , Rhizome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921745

ABSTRACT

The medicinal and edible Polygonatum cyrtonema is one of the original species of Polygonati Rhizoma. In this study,HPLC fingerprints for 25 batches of P. cyrtonema from 6 provinces were established. A total of 14 common peaks were identified and the similarities of the fingerprints were in the range of 0. 939-0. 999. In additon, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis(PLSDA) demonstrated that the samples had low discriminability except for JX-1 and most components of them had no significant correlation with environmental factors such as longitude, latitude, and altitude. Thus, chemical composition specificity of P. cyrtonema in natural distribution areas had no obvious regularity and their variation might be induced by the local environment. This conclusion explained the lack of records about Dao-di area of Polygonati Rhizoma. However, JX-1 boasted significantly higher content of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) and 4',5,7-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethylhomoisoflavone( HIF), thick and long inflorescence and rhizome, and extremely high yield. Therefore, excellent variety of P. cyrtonema might have great potential to improve the quality and yield of Polygonati Rhizoma. Moreover, three components of HMF, polygonalline A(PA), and HIF were identified in the fingerprint. Among them, HMF has the activities of blood rheology improvement, antioxidation, and anti-myocardial ischemia and PA is an indolizine alkaloid with potential anti-inflammatory activity. HIF, the characteristic homoisoflavone in Polygonatum, has the pharmacological activities of regulating blood glucose and anti-tumor. A quantitative analysis method can provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of the quality evaluation of Polygonati Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Polygonatum , Rhizome
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921744

ABSTRACT

Rhizome rot disease is one of the main disease of planted Polygonatum kingianum. In this study, six strains of pathogenic fungus was isolated from P. kingianum samples with rhizome rot disease collected from six counties in Yunnan province. Its pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation to healthy P. kingianum rhizome according to Koch's postulates. The colonies of the isolated fungi on potato dextrose agar(PDA) were orange with abundant crescentic conidia which were eseptate with a mean size of 19. 3-24. 9 μm×5. 2-5. 9 μm and a L/W ratio of 3. 4-4. 5. There was an oil ball in the center of the conidium. It's easy to see setae on PDA colony.The phylogenetic tree based on ITS, GAPDH, CHS-1, HIS3, ACT, and TUB2 sequences by maximum likelihood(ML) method indicated that the pathogenic fungus for P. kingianum rhizome rot disease was clustered into the clade of Colletotrichum spaethianum species complex, and was close to C. spaethianum. However, there were some differences in morphological and genetic characteristics between the pathogenic fungus and C. spaethianum. Therefore, the pathogenic fungus for rhizome rot disease of P. kingianum was identified as a new Colletotrichum species named C. kingianum. The disease spreads primarily due to the plantation of infected seedlings of P. kingianum. It is necessary to choose healthy seedlings and take rigorous disinfection measures for the disease prevention.


Subject(s)
China , Colletotrichum/genetics , Phylogeny , Polygonatum , Rhizome
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888048

ABSTRACT

The flower of Polygonatum cyrtonema has good edible and medicinal values. In this study, four samples of P. cyrtonema flowers from different regions were selected as test materials. The contents, composition and antioxidant activities of lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components were determined under different light and temperature conditions, which help to reveal the discoloration reason and the composition variation patterns during storage. The results showed that light and temperature had different effects on the lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components in the dried flowers during storage. After storage for 4 weeks, the contents of total chlorophyll, carotenoids, phenols and saponins in the samples exposed to light respectively decreased by 62.62%, 66.4%, 68.7% and 43.4% compared with those in the dark. The decreases in the contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, lutein, β-carotene and zeaxanthin were 64.64%, 56.74%, 59.2%, 77.7% and 45.4%, respectively. The contents of pigments and components in the samples stored at-20 ℃ were significantly higher than those at room temperature and 4 ℃, indicating that low temperature was conductive to the stability of lipid-soluble pigments and alcohol-soluble components. The samples stored at low temperature and in the dark had the strongest free radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that P. cyrtonema dried flowers should be stored in low temperature environment without light, which can slow down the degradation of internal components. The study provides a theoretical basis for the production, processing and storage of P. cyrtonema flowers.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Carotenoids , Chlorophyll A , Flowers , Polygonatum
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879007

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to investigate the reproductive biology characteristics of Polygonatum cyrtonema, especially including phenology, flower bud differentiation, flowering timing, floral traits, pollen vigor and stigma receptivity. The results showed that P. cyrtonema forms inflorescence before the leaves spread. In the wild, P. cyrtonema is mainly pollinated by insects such as bumblebees, with a seed setting rate of 65.12%. The seed setting rate of indoor single plant isolation or self-pollination enclosed by parchment paper bag is 0, indicating that it is self-incompatible. In Lin'an city, seedlings begin to emerge from mid-March to early April(the temperature is higher than 7.5 ℃), buds begin to emerge from the end of March to mid-April, and then undergo the full bloom stage from mid-to-late April, and the final flowering stage from the end of April to mid-May. The whole flowering period lasts 36 to 45 days. There are obvious differences in the phenology of different provenances. The flowers come into bloom from the base to the top along the aboveground main axis, which usually contain 4-22 inflorescences with(2-) 4-10(-21) flowers per inflorescence. The flowering pe-riod for a single plant is 26-38 days. The single flower lasts about 20-25 days from budding to opening and withers 2 days after pollination, and then the ovary will gradually expand. If unpollinated, it will continue to bloom for 3-5 days and then wither. Flower development period is significantly related to pollen vigor and stigma remittance. The pollen viability is the highest when the flower is fully opened with anthers gathering on the stigma, and the receptivity is the strongest when the stigma protrudes out of the perianth and secretes mucus. The fruits and seeds ripen in October, and proper shading can ensure the smooth development and maturity of the seeds. This study provides a basis for the hybrid breeding and seed production of P. cyrtonema.


Subject(s)
Flowers , Plant Breeding , Pollination , Polygonatum , Reproduction
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878970

ABSTRACT

Polygonatum cyrtonema is a famous bulk medicinal material which is the medicinal and edible homologous. With the implementation of the traditional Chinese medicine industry to promote precise poverty alleviation, the planting area of P. cyrtonema in Jinzhai is becoming larger and larger in recent years. Jinzhai is located in the Dabie Mountainous area, which is the largest mountain area and county in Anhui Province. The cultivation of P. cyrtonema is scattered, and the traditional Chinese medicine resources investigation is not only inefficient and accurate. In this study,the "Resource 3"(ZY-3) remote sensing image was used as the best observation phase,and the method of support vector machine classification was used. The method of parallelepiped, minimum distance, mahalanob is distance, maximum likelihood classification and neural net were used to classify and recognize the P. cyrtonema in the whole region. In order to determine the accuracy and reliability of classification results, the accuracy of six supervised classification results was evaluated by confusion matrix method, and the advantages and disadvantages of six supervised classification methods for extracting P. cyrtonema field planting area were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the method of support vector machine classification was more appropriate than that using other classification methods. It provides a scientific basis for monitoring the planting area of P. cyrtonemain field.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Polygonatum , Reproducibility of Results , Research Design , Support Vector Machine
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828075

ABSTRACT

Steroidal saponins, which are the characteristic and main active constituents of Polygonatum, exhibit a broad range of pharmacological functions, such as regulating blood sugar, preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and anti-tumor. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing(RNA-Seq) analysis for the flowers, leaves, roots, and rhizomes of Polygonatum cyrtonema using the BGISEQ-500 platform to understand the biosynthesis pathway of steroidal saponins and study their key enzyme genes. The assembly of transcripts for four tissues generated 129 989 unigenes, of which 88 958 were mapped to several public databases for functional annotation, 22 813 unigenes were assigned to 53 subcategories and 64 877 unigenes were annotated to 136 pathways in KEGG database. Furthermore, 502 unigenes involved in the biosynthesis pathway of steroidal saponins were identified, of which 97 unigenes encoding 12 key enzymes. Cycloartenol synthase, the first key enzyme in the pathway of phytosterol biosynthesis, showed conserved catalytic domain and substrate binding domain based on sequence analysis and homology modeling. Differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were identified in rhizomes as compared to other tissues(flowers, leaves or roots).The 2 437 unigenes annotated by KEGG showed rhizome-specific expression, of which 35 unigenes involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins. Our results greatly extend the public transcriptome dataset of Polygonatum and provide valuable information for the identification of candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins and other important secondary metabolites.


Subject(s)
Biosynthetic Pathways , Gene Expression Profiling , Polygonatum , Saponins , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828014

ABSTRACT

Using the 260 geographical distribution records of Polygonatum cyrtonema in China, combined with 53 environmental factors, the maximum entropy modeling(MaxEnt) was used to study the ecological factors affecting the suitability distribution of P. cyrtonema. The ArcGIS software was used to predict the potential distribution of the population of P. cyrtonema. The dominant factors were chosen by using the Jackknife test and the Receiver Operating Characteristic(ROC) curve was used to evaluate the simulation. The results showed that high value of area under curve(AUC) denoted good results, which significantly differed from random predictions. Based on the evaluation criterion, the accuracies of the predictions of P. cyrtonema potential distribution in the current periods were excellent. The main environmental factors affecting the suitable growth of P. cyrtonema were the monthly precipitation, the wettest monthly precipitation, the annual average temperature range and the precipitation of November, March, February, April, May and October. There are 9 environmental factors in soil type. The potential fitness of P. cyrtonema in China is high, mainly concentra-ted in Hunan, western Hubei, Guangdong, northeastern Guangxi, southeastern Guizhou, Jiangxi, southwestern Anhui, Fujian, Zhejiang, Shaanxi, southwestern Henan and Chongqing. The growth distribution of the potential distribution area of P. cyrtonema was divided, and the zoning map of the growth suitability of P. cyrtonema was formed. Through the comparative analysis of the potential distribution range based on MaxEnt and the distribution range of literature records, the understanding of the distribution range of P. cyrtonema was expanded.


Subject(s)
China , Ecology , Entropy , Polygonatum , Research Design , Soil
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878858

ABSTRACT

In order to analyze the expression of genes involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis pathway in Polygonatum cyrtonema tubers, it is very important to select internal reference genes that are stably expressed at different development stages and in response to abiotic stress. According to the previously established P. cyrtonema transcriptome database and reported internal reference genes in plant, this study systematically analyzed eight candidate internal reference genes including histone H2 A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, ACTIN, β-tubulin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-E2-10, elongation factor 1-alpha isoform, 18 S rRNA and α-tubulin 4 for expression stability in P. cyrtonema tubers at different development stages and in response to methyl jasmonate(MeJA) stress by using Real time fluorescence quantitative PCR(qPCR). Based on the statistical analysis of qPCR results by using GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper softwares, the expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-E2-10 and elongation factor 1-alpha isoform are the most stable in P. cyrtonema tubes at different development stages and in response to MeJA stress. The two internal reference genes were further validated by analyzing the expression of 4 genes involved in steroidal saponin biosynthesis pathways. In conclusion, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-E2-10 and elongation factor 1-alpha isoform can be used as the most appropriate internal reference genes for qPCR analysis in P. cyrtonema. This study also provide a foundation for future investigate the molecular mechanism of steroidal saponin biosynthesis pathways in P. cyrtonema.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Polygonatum , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Stress, Physiological , Transcriptome
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878827

ABSTRACT

Unmanned aerial vehicle(UAV) remote sensing and vegetation index have great potential in the field of Chinese herbal medicine planting. In this study, the visible light image of Polygonatum odoratum planting area in Changyi district of Jilin province were acquired by UAV, and the real-time monitoring of P. odoratum planting area was realized. The green leaf index(GLI) was established, and GLI values of P. odoratum were collected used the spatial sampling points. To compare the GLI values in different periods, it was found that the GLI values of P. odoratum have three stages changing rule of rising-gentle-falling related to the germination, vigorous growth and withered of P. odoratum growth. Meanwhile, the GLI values were compared with four biomass data of P. odoratum, including plant height, leaf area, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b content in leaves, and it was found that the GLI value was related to the growth potential of P. odoratum. The GLI value with a rapid increase in rising stage or at a high level in the gentle stage means the P. odoratum was in a better growth potential. GLI value has a same change trend with plant height, and has certain correlation with plant height and leaf area. However, there is no obvious relationship between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents in leaves and GLI value. The study clarified the change rule of GLI value of P. odoratum, explained the reason for the change of GLI value, and expanded the application range of GLI. The research shows that UAV and vegetation index can be applied to monitoring the Chinese herbal medicines planting, and provides a new idea for exploring more effective information extraction methods of Chinese herbal medicines.


Subject(s)
Chlorophyll A , Plant Leaves , Polygonatum , Remote Sensing Technology
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777443

ABSTRACT

To reveal the variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extractives of rhizomes Polygonatum cyrtonema from different producing areas,growing years,and harvesting seasons,25 wild samples from the main producing areas( provenances) of China and 6 artificial cultivated samples were collected and detected. The 6-year-old rhizomes of the artificial cultivation were gathered from Qingyuan,Zhejiang every 2 months during 2016 to 2017. Anthrone-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method were used to determine the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extractives respectively. The results showed that provenances,age sections and harvesting seasons affected the quality of Polygonati Rhizoma significantly. The content of polysaccharides from different provenances varied from 6. 96% to 20. 09%,and the content of extractives varied from 32. 08% to 78. 99%. The polysaccharides and extractives' content were the highest at 2-year-age sections,active constituents accumulation peaked in the third year,then decreased significantly with age increasing. The contents of polysaccharides and extractives accumulated were highest when aerial parts,up to 15. 39% and 78. 99% respectively. In summary,the activity and consistency fluctuated with producing areas. while such phenomenon indicated a huge potential of breeding. Additionally,the results showed that collecting Polygonati Rhizoma in February or August as herbal textual recorded were unreasonable,neither in spring or autumn according to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition). Because these collecting periods didn't have the highest contents of polysaccharides and extractives. Therefore,based on phenological options,the rhizomes of P. cyrtonema should be harvested when the aboveground parts had just withered.


Subject(s)
China , Ethanol , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Polygonatum , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Seasons , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771517

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of different shading conditions on the growth,physiological characteristics and biomass allocation of Polygonatum cyrtonema,which offered a theoretical basis for its cultivation.Different light environments(100%,80%,60% and 35% light transmittance) were simulated with shading treatments.Growth and photosynthetic indexes of P.cyrtonema were measured and the variances were analyzed.The results show that shading decreased superoxide anion radical(O-·2)production rate and hydrogen peroxide(H_2O_2) accumulation,kept the activity of SOD,POD and CAT enzyme at a high level.Furthermore,The content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b,net photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Gs),transpiration rate(Tr),maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ(Fv/Fm),photochemical quenching index(q P) and effective quantum yield of photosystem II(ΦPSⅡ) of P.cyrtonema were increased while the intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci),Foand NPQ were decreased by shading.Shading is beneficial to P.cyrtonema growth,can increase the total biomass P.cyrtonema.The allocation proportion of biomass on the aerial portion of P.cyrtonema increased but underground parts decreased with increasing shading conditions.In this study,P.cyrtonema can grow well in shading conditions,shading is beneficial to the formation of the yield and quality of the rhizomes of P.cyrtonema,especially in 65% light transmittance.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Chlorophyll , Chlorophyll A , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Plant Stomata , Plant Transpiration , Polygonatum , Physiology , Sunlight
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773137

ABSTRACT

Polygonatum plants are perennial plants of Liliaceae. There are about 60 species reported at home and abroad,32 species in China,mainly distributed in the north temperate zone. Their main chemical components are steroidal saponins,polysaccharides,flavonoids,alkaloids,etc. They have anti-aging,anti-tumor,immunomodulation,antibacterial,antiviral,hypoglycemic and blood lipid effects. With the development of health industry,Polygonati Rhizome used as medicine and food has attracted great attention in recent years,and has become a research hotspot. However,the material basis of its efficacy is unclear and the product quality is uneven,which seriously limited the rapid upgrading of the industry. This review summarizes Polygonatum plants system classification,the chemical composition and pharmacological activity to provide theoretical basis for the development and utilization of Polygonatum plants.


Subject(s)
China , Phytochemicals , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polygonatum , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773132

ABSTRACT

In order to accelerate the breeding of the excellent seedlings of Polygonatum cyrtonema,tissue culture system of P. cyrtonema was established through the comprehensive regulation of key factors( leaf age,leaf location,basic media and plant growth regulators) and cytological basis of callus formation and differentiation was analyzed through paraffin section. The results showed that the 30-day-old leaf base explanton medium MS+6-BA 1. 50 mg·L~(-1)+2,4-D 0. 20 mg·L~(-1) had the highest induction rate( 80. 00%). The callus was initiated from cells on leaf base epidermis and near cortex,formed by the differentiation of middle vascular bundle cells. The optimal medium for adventitious bud differentiation was MS+ 6-BA 4. 00 mg·L~(-1)+ 2,4-D 0. 20 mg·L~(-1) with the differentiation rate of90. 33%,and the average number of buds was 5. 16. The adventitious buds had two origin types: exogenous and endogenous origin,formed by callus proximal cells and callus internal meristemoid. The adventitious bud proliferation medium was screened by orthogonal design,which determined the optimum combination was MS+ 6-BA 2. 00 mg·L~(-1)+NAA 0. 10 mg·L~(-1) and MS+ 6-BA 2. 00 mg·L~(-1)+NAA 0. 20 mg·L~(-1). The tubers with three leaves were cut and inoculated in the medium 1/2 MS+IBA 2. 00 mg·L~(-1),showing the highest rooting rate of 94. 00%. The rooting seedlings transplanted into the peat-vermiculite( 1 ∶ 1) matrix grew healthy and the survival rate was over 85. 00%. This research provided a novel solution for large-scale cultivation of P. cyrtonema seedling.


Subject(s)
Culture Media , Plant Growth Regulators , Plant Leaves , Cell Biology , Polygonatum , Regeneration , Seedlings , Tissue Culture Techniques
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(10): 868-878, Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973468

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the protective effects of Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide (PSP) on acute heart failure (AHF) in rats. Methods: Sixty rats were randomly divided into control, model, and low-, middle- and high-dose PSP groups, 12 rats in each group. The low-, medium- and high-dose PSP groups were intragastrically administrated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg PSP for 5 days, respectively. On the sixth day, the AHF model was established by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin. After 24h, the cardiac function, serum biochemical indexes, myocardial ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase levels and apoptosis related protein expressions were determined. Results: Compared with model group, in high-dose PSP group the heart rate, left ventricular systolic pressure, ±dp/dtmax, serum superoxide dismutase level, myocardial Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase levels and myocardial Bcl-2 and Caspase-3 protein expression levels were significantly increased (P<0.05), the left ventricular end diastolic pressure, serum cTnI, CK-MB, TNF-α, IL-6, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and myocardial Bax and cleaved Caspase-3 protein expression levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusions: Polysaccharide can prevent the acute heart failure induced by adriamycin. The mechanism may be related to its anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation and inhibition of cardiac myocyte apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Polygonatum/chemistry , Heart Failure/prevention & control , Acute Disease , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/drug effects , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 273-282, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691070

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. (Ruscaceae), one of the Ashtawarga plants, is widely used for treatment of various ailments. The present study was undertaken to determine the phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of several extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) from the rhizomes of the plant.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Coarsely powdered dry rhizome was successively extracted with different solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethanol and water). The phenolic compositions, in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total condensed tannin content (TTC), were evaluated with the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, aluminum chloride colorimetric assay and vanillin spectrophotometric assay, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays were used to assess the antioxidant potential of each extract. A protein denaturation model and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay were used to evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was carried out to demonstrate various phytoconstituents in each extract. Correlation studies were also performed between phenolic composition (TPC, TFC and TTC) and different biological activities.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Ethanol extract showed maximum TPC (0.126 mg/g, gallic acid equivalent in dry sample), TFC (0.094 mg/g, rutin equivalent in dry sample) and TTC (29.32 mg/g, catechin equivalent in dry sample), as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Chloroform extract exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity against the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 90 different phytoconstituents among the extracts. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities had a positive correlation with TPC, TFC and TTC. However, the anticancer activity showed a negative correlation with TPC, TFC and TTC.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>From the present study, it can be concluded that P. verticillatum possessed remarkable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, which could be due to different secondary metabolites of the plant. Phenolic compounds are likely responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, flavonoids and other compounds might contribute to the anticancer potential of the plant.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Phenols , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Polygonatum , Chemistry
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771690

ABSTRACT

To clarify the change and development of the original plants, medicinal organs, traditional functions, resource distribution of "Huangjing"(Polygonati Rhizome), a traditional Chinese medicine, we investigated Polygonatum species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts. The name of "Nüwei" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Its effects included two aspects: one was similar to "Weirui"(Polygonati Odorati Rhizome, "Yuzhu"), that was tonifying, nourishing one's vitality, removing wind and dampness, settling five organs, making body lightness, keeping longevity and not being hungry; the second was alike to "Huangjing" recorded in the book of Ming Yi Bie Lu(Appendant Records of Famous Physicians). Specifically, "Weirui" possesses the therapeutic effect of "Nüwei", while "Huangjing" possesses the tonic effect of " Nüwei". Thereafter, the following ancient Chinese herbal texts kept those two names and function records. Accordingly, we hold the point of view that "Huangjing" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic in the synonym of "Nüwei". "Yuzhu" included the "Huangjing" in ancient herbal text before Qing Dynasty, that was further confirmed by the research on change and development of the original plants. The identification between "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" was based on the shape of rhizome and size before early Tang Dynasty. The shape was a key character and used up to now, but size was not reasonable. The opposite phyllotaxy was an important character of authentic "Huangjing" from Tang to Qing Dynasty. The seedling of Polygonatum sibiricum and P. kingianum, the adult plant of P. cyrtonema with alternate leaves were misused as "Yuzhu"("Nüwei" and "Weirui") at that time. Therefore, both "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" should be used as key words during the search of ancient prescriptions and development of new drugs and health foods. The leaves, flowers, fruits and seedlings could be used as food or medicine other than the rhizomes in ancient China, but they haven't been developed in modern times. The culture of "Huangjing" had a long history starting with Tang Dynasty, which was recorded in Tang poetry. Then in Ming Dynasty, the culture method was described in Compendium of Materia Medica, that was cutting the rhizomes into 2 feet, planting sparsely(they would be grown densely in the next year), or sowing the seeds. The harvesting and processing were first recorded in Ming Yi Bie Lu: "harvest the roots in February, dry in the shade". Then the processing method was changed to "steaming and drying in the sun, repeatedly for nine times" in Shi Liao Ben Cao(Dietetic Materia Medica) and "harvesting in August as well" in Ben Cao Tu Jing(Commentaries on the Illustrations). No breakthrough has been taken in the breeding of cultivars and key cultivation technologies yet. As to the geo-authentic habitats, Mount Songshan and Maoshan were firstly recorded as the best producing areas of "Huangjing" in Ben Cao Tu Jing. But Maoshan, Jiangsu province and Mount Songshan, Henan province, are not main producing areas in modern China. Consequently, the plantation plan of Polygonati Rhizome needs further study.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Herbals as Topic , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Polygonatum , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-305347

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the five strains of Polygonatum odoratum were used as the experimental materials to test the supercooling point, freezing point, the degree of supercooling, the transition stage time, cooling time and water composition of the plant tissue. The cold resistance of P. odoratum was analyzed with the Gray Correlation Method. The results showed that the cold resistances of the five strains of P. odoratum were different, and the water content of plant tissue had some relevance with freezing point and supercooling point, whereas, it could not be measured when the moisture content was too low. The order of cold resistance of the five strains of P. odoratum was ZJCY, DYYZ, XYYZ, CYYZ and JZ I.


Subject(s)
Cold Temperature , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Physiology , Polygonatum , Chemistry , Classification , Physiology , Water
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327902

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of Polygonatum sibiricum on Yin deficiency model rats induced by long-term overload swimming.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Except for the normal group, all of the remaining rats performed the long-term overload swimming for eight weeks, with five days every week and once every day, to establish the Yin deficiency model. The daily swimming time increased from 10 min to 180 min at the end of the 7th week, with the water depth of 60 cm and the water temperature at 30 degrees C. After the success of the modeling, the rats were orally administered with different doses of aqueous extracts from P. sibiricum (2.5, 10 g x kg(-1)) for eight weeks. After the final administration, their blood were collected from orbits to measure immunoglobulin A, G and M (IgA, IgG, IgM), interleukin 2 and 6 (IL-2, IL-6) and cAMP, cGMP contents in plasma General behavioral indicators (weight, facial temperature, pain threshold and holding power) of rats were observed during the drug administration.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Compared with the model control group, aqueous extracts from P. sibiricum was given for eight weeks to significantly increase the rat weight and holding power of Yin deficiency model rats, decrease the facial temperature and the sensitivity of pain threshold, and increase IgA, IgG, IgM and IL-6 content and IgG content in serum, but without statistical difference. Aqueous extracts from P. sibiricum (10 g x kg(-1)) could also increase IL-2 content in serum, and decrease cAMP content and cAMP/cGMP ratio.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>P. sibiricum could improve the general behavioral indicators (weight, holding power, pain threshold and facial temperature), immunologic functions (IgA, IgG, IgM) and cyclic nucleotide (cAMP, cAMP/cGMP), so as to ameliorate such Yin deficiency symptoms as dysphoria in chestpalms-soles, weight loss, soreness and weakness of waist and knees, immunologic dysfunction and cyclic nucleotide system disorders.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Humans , Male , Polygonatum , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Swimming , Yin Deficiency , Drug Therapy
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346441

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The microscopic structure and histochemical localization of the Polygonatum sibiricum, P. cytonema, P. filipes, P. zanlanscianense and P. odoratum was studied.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and digital biological microscope (DBM) were applied in the research.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Venation bundle showed in three types included collateral, amphivasal and incomplete amphivasal bundles. Morphological differences of venation bundles could be seen under the fluorescence microscope. Calcium oxalate existed in the mucilage cells looked similar to columnar crystals under SEM. In rhizome of Polygonatum, polysaccharides presented in mucilage cells, saponins and volatile oil were found in ground tissue.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Microstructure difference of rhizomes would be used for identification of the Polygonatum plants. Polysaccharides and saponins are distributed in different cells of Polygonatum plants.</p>


Subject(s)
Calcium Oxalate , Histocytochemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Oils, Volatile , Polygonatum , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Rhizome , Chemistry , Saponins
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