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1.
Infectio ; 25(3): 197-199, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycetoma is a chronic and slow-developing granulomatous disease characterized by the triad of large painless tumour-like subcutaneous swellings, the formation of sinuses, and discharge that usually contains grains. Phellinus spp. are saprophytic wood-decaying filamentous basidiomycetes. They are an under-recognised cause of invasive fungal infections and are rarely reported worldwide. We report a 59-year-old male patient with mycetoma caused by Phellinus spp. The diagnosis was confirmed with clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, soft tissue and bone biopsy culture, and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycetoma due to Phellinus spp. without chronic granulomatous disease (CGD).


Resumen El micetoma es una enfermedad granulomatosa crónica y de lento desarrollo caracterizada por la tríada de grandes inflamaciones subcutáneas similares a tumores indoloras, la formación de los senos nasales y secreción que generalmente contiene granos. Phellinus spp. son basidiomicetos filamentosos saprofitos que descomponen la madera. Son un poco reconocido causa de infecciones fúngicas invasivas y rara vez se informan en todo el mundo. Presentamos un paciente masculino de 59 años con micetoma causado por Phellinus spp. El diagnostico se confirmó con examen clínico, estudio de resonancia magnética (RM), cultivo de biopsia de tejido blando y óseo y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. A lo mejor que sepamos, este es el primer caso reportado de micetoma debido a Phellinus spp. sin enfermedad granulomatosa crónica (EGC).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Basidiomycota , Phellinus , Mycetoma , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mycoses
2.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1341396

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La leucemia promielocítica es un subtipo de leucemia mieloide aguda que se presenta frecuentemente con una coagulopatía potencialmente mortal, por lo que representa una emergencia médica. En la gran mayoría de los pacientes ocurre la t(15;17)(q24;q21) que genera el gen aberrante PML-RARA. Mediante diferentes técnicas de citogenética y de la biología molecular que detectan dichas aberraciones es posible diagnosticar la entidad de manera inequívoca y estudiar la enfermedad mínima residual. Objetivo: Describir, comparar y analizar las técnicas de citogenética y de la biología molecular que son útiles para el diagnóstico y el seguimiento del paciente con leucemia promielocítica. Así como señalar sus ventajas y limitaciones. Métodos: Se realizó revisión de la bibliografía científica de los últimos cinco años relacionada con el tema a través de PUBMED. Se realizó análisis y resumen de la información. Análisis y síntesis de la información: Se describen dos técnicas de citogenética y tres moleculares basadas en la aplicación de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se comparan y analizan sus ventajas y limitaciones. Conclusiones: Algunas de estas técnicas son útiles únicamente para el diagnóstico, mientras que otras, por su alta sensibilidad, se recomiendan para el seguimiento del paciente con leucemia promielocítica(AU)


Introduction: Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia that frequently presents with a potentially fatal coagulopathy, therefore it represents a medical emergency. In the vast majority of patients, the t (15; 17) (q24; q21) occurs, which generates the aberrant gene PML-RARA. Using different cytogenetic and molecular biology techniques that detect these aberrations, it is possible to unequivocally diagnose the entity and study minimal residual disease. Objective: To describe, compare and analyze cytogenetics and molecular biology techniques that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up of the patient with Promyelocytic leukemia. As well as pointing out its advantages and limitations. Methods: A review of the scientific bibliography of the last five years related to the subject was carried out through PUBMED. An analysis and summary of the information was made. Analysis and synthesis of the information: Two cytogenetic and three molecular techniques are described based on the application of the polymerase chain reaction. Its advantages and limitations are compared and analyzed. Conclusions: Some of these techniques are only useful for diagnosis, while others, due to their high sensitivity, are recommended for monitoring the patient with Promyelocytic leukemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Aftercare , Cytogenetics/methods , Molecular Biology
3.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337804

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM), representa un grave problema por el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos de amplio espectro. En nuestro país, durante el primer cuatrimestre del año, se observó un aumento inusual en el número de aislamiento de gérmenes multirresistentes, sobre todo de bacilos gramnegativos, los cuales fueron remitidos al laboratorio de referencia con el objetivo de caracterizar los genes de resistencia a los carbapenemes. Estudio observacional y prospectivo de corte transversal en 456 aislamientos de bacilos gramnegativos provenientes de 11 centros colaboradores de la Red Nacional de Vigilancia de la RAM, remitidos al Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública entre enero y abril de 2021, para la detección molecular (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa múltiple) de los genes de resistencia enzimática bla OXA-51, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla NDM, bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM. Trescientos sesenta correspondieron a bacilos gramnegativos no fermentadores: 346 Acinetobacter baumannii y 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 96 fueron miembros de Enterobacterales, siendo prevalente Klebsiella pneumoniae (81). Todos los aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii resultaron ser productores de carbapenemasas: OXA-23 (94%), NDM (4%), NMD+OXA-58 (2%); en Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7 de los 14 aislamientos (50%) fueron portadores de metalobetalactamasa del genotipo NDM (100%). Los genotipos NDM (92%) y KPC (8%) fueron confirmados en Enterobacterales. La resistencia plasmídica a carbapenemes es endémica en nuestro país, siendo prevalentes los genotipos OXA-23 en Acinetobacter baumannii y NDM en Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Enterobacterales


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem due to the indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. During the first quarter of the year, an unusual increase in the number of isolation multi-resistant germs, especially gram-negative bacilli was observed, specially of Gram-negative bacilli which were referred to the reference laboratory in order to characterize the carbapenems resistance genes. Observational and prospective cross-sectional study in 456 isolates of Gram-negative bacilli from 11 collaborating centers of the National AMR Surveillance Network, referred to the Central Public Health Laboratory (LCSP) between January and April 2021, for molecular detection (multiple polymerase chain reaction) targeting the enzymatic resistance genes: bla OXA-51, bla OXA-23, bla OXA-24, bla OXA-48, bla OXA-58, bla NDM, bla KPC, bla IMP, bla VIM. Of the 456 isolates studied, 360 corresponded to non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, of which 346 were confirmed as Acinetobacter baumannii and 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa; 96 were Enterobacterales, being Klebsiella pneumoniae (81) the most prevalent. All isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii carried genes encoding carbapenemases, being the OXA-23 (94%) followed by NDM (4%) and NDM +OXA-58 (2%). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 7 of the 14 isolates (50%) were carriers of NDM metallobetalactamase (100%). No carbapenemase gene was detected in the remaining 7. In all Enterobacterales strains, the presence of carbapenemases of the NDM (92%) and KPC (8%) genotypes were confirmed. Plasmid resistance to carbapenems is endemic in our country, being the OXA-23 genotypes prevalent in Acinetobacter baumannii and NDM in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales


Subject(s)
Pseudomonas Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Bacteria , Drug Resistance , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Genotype
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 52: 35-44, July. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alginates are polysaccharides used in a wide range of industrial applications, with their functional properties depending on their molecular weight. In this study, alginate production and the expression of genes involved in polymerization and depolymerization in batch cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii were evaluated under controlled and noncontrolled oxygen transfer rate (OTR) conditions. RESULTS: Using an oxygen transfer rate (OTR) control system, a constant OTR (20.3 ± 1.3 mmol L 1 h 1 ) was maintained during cell growth and stationary phases. In cultures subjected to a controlled OTR, alginate concentrations were higher (5.5 ± 0.2 g L 1 ) than in cultures under noncontrolled OTR. The molecular weight of alginate decreased from 475 to 325 kDa at the beginning of the growth phase and remained constant until the end of the cultivation period. The expression level of alyA1, which encodes an alginate lyase, was more affected by OTR control than those of other genes involved in alginate biosynthesis. The decrease in alginate molecular weight can be explained by a higher relative expression level of alyA1 under the controlled OTR condition. CONCLUSIONS: This report describes the first time that alginate production and alginate lyase (alyA1) expression levels have been evaluated in A. vinelandii cultures subjected to a controlled OTR. The results show that automatic control of OTR may be a suitable strategy for improving alginate production while maintaining a constant molecular weight.


Subject(s)
Polysaccharide-Lyases/metabolism , Oxygen Transfer , Azotobacter vinelandii/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Gene Expression , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Azotobacter vinelandii/genetics , Alginates/metabolism , Fermentation , Molecular Weight
5.
Infectio ; 25(2): 135-137, abr.-jun. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250080

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se presenta el caso de un paciente a quien se le diagnosticó una Infección de Transmisión Sexual (ITS) por la técnica de PCR múltiple y en quién se logró por esta técnica, detectar cuatro agentes diferentes simultáneamente: Neisseria gonorreae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum/parvum y Trichomonas vaginalis, situación esta, que no hubiera sido posible utilizando el procedimiento estándar.


Summary Here we report the case of a patient with a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STI) in whom four different agents were detected by a multiple PCR technique: Neisseria gonorreae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum / parvum and Trichomonas vaginalis. This detection of multiple agents would not have been possible using conventional procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Diagnosis , Molecular Biology , Trichomonas vaginalis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Mycoplasma hominis , Methods
6.
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(1): 1-20, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284396

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la tuberculosis es una enfermedad infecto-contagiosa, causada por diversas especies del Complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, actualmente se estima que un tercio de la población mundial se encuentra afectada por lo que representa una amenaza para la salud pública, principalmente por el surgimiento de cepas Multidrogorresistentes (TB-MDR). En Bolivia se reportaron 7.538 personas enfermas con Tuberculosis, los últimos datos sobre TB-MDR indican un aumento de 0,2% por año, en 2019 se registró un 3,1% de TB-MDR. Actualmente en nuestro país se emplean métodos moleculares para la identificación de este agente infeccioso; no obstante, existen muy pocos o ningún trabajo acerca de la aplicación de métodos moleculares para la detección precisa y efectiva de cepas TB-MDR que otorguen validez a los resultados emitidos. Este trabajo resuelve el cuestionamiento de, si la PCR en tiempo real (RT-qPCR) acoplada a curvas melting es una herramienta de diagnóstico alternativo aplicable, para la identificación de Tuberculosis Multidrogorresistente MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: se trabajó con 74 cepas de Mycobaterium tuberculosis fenotípicamente identificadas por cultivo (método de las proporciones, Canetti Rist) como gold standar. El material genético para las pruebas moleculares se obtuvo por el método de columnas, se utilizaron dos controles primarios para la determinación de resistencia a los fármacos Isoniacida y Rifampicina, tanto los controles como las muestras se procesaron por RT-qPCR acoplada a curvas melting, mediante cambios de temperatura de disociación. RESULTADOS: los parámetros de test diagnóstico de la prueba demostraron sensibilidad: 67.4%, especificidad: 83.3%, Exactitud: 73.97%, VPP: 85.3%, VPN: 64.1% para Isoniacida. Mientras que para Rifampicina: Sensibilidad: 97%, especificidad: 20%, exactitud: 58.9%, VPP: 55.4% y VPN: 87.5%. CONCLUSIÓN: el método evaluado para la determinación de resistencia a Isoniacida presenta un equilibrio entre sensibilidad y especificidad, por lo que representa una alternativa diagnóstica confiable, mientras que para resistencia a Rifampicina presenta una alta sensibilidad que es muy útil para países endémicos como el nuestro.


INTRODUCTION: tuberculosis is an infectious-contagious disease, caused by various species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex, it is estimated that one third of the world population is affected by what represents a threat to public health, mainly by the emergence of multidrugresistant strains (MDR-TB). In Bolivia, 7,538 people are reported sick with Tuberculosis, the latest data on MDR-TB indicate an increase of 0.2% per year, in 2018 there was 3.1% of MDR-TB. Currently in our country molecular methods are used to identify this infectious agent; however, there is very little or no work on the application of molecular methods for the precise and effective detection of MDR-TB strains that give validity to the results issued. This work resolves the question of whether real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) coupled to melting curves is an applicable alternative diagnostic tool for the identification of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis MATERIALS AND METHODS: we worked with 74 strains of Mycobaterium tuberculosis phenotypically identified by culture (method of proportions, Canetti Rist) as a gold standar. The genetic material for molecular methods was obtained by the column assay, two primary controls were used for the determination of resistance to the drugs Isoniazid and Rifampicin, both the controls and the samples were processed by RT-qPCR coupled to melting curves, by means of temperature changes of dissociation. RESULTS: the diagnostic test parameters of the test demonstrated sensitivity: 67.4%, specificity: 83.3%, Accuracy: 73.97%, PPV: 85.3%, NPV: 64.1% for Isoniazid. While for Rifampicin: Sensitivity: 97%, Specificity: 20%, Accuracy: 58.9%, PPV: 55.4% and NPV: 87.5% CONCLUSION: the method evaluated for the determination of resistance to Isoniazid presents a balance between sensitivity and specificity, therefore it represents a reliable diagnostic alternative, while for resistance to Rifampicin it presents a high sensitivity that is very useful for endemic countries such as ours.


Subject(s)
Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampin , Tuberculosis , Public Health , Isoniazid
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 190-195, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181008

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although it is known that the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has affected the whole world, mainly targets the respiratory tract, cases of this disease with a wide clinical spectrum are emerging as information is shared. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a pregnant woman who was diagnosed with venous sinus thrombosis after she developed headache and hemiparesis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity lasted for two weeks after COVID-19 had been diagnosed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with suspected COVID-19, especially in the presence of causes of hypercoagu- lability and presence of atypical features, venous sinus thrombosis needs to be kept in mind in making the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Headache/etiology , Paresis/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , China , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Thrombophilia , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis
8.
Vive (El Alto) ; 4(10): 128-142, abr. 2021. ilus., tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292927

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: la Leucemia Mieloide Aguda es la neoplasia hematológica más común, caracterizada por una proliferación incontrolada de células madre hematopoyéticas. La mutación FLT3/ITD se presenta en aproximadamente el 30% de todos los pacientes con ésta patología, se asocia con mayor riesgo de recaída y menor supervivencia. El FLT3-ITD puede usarse como un factor pronóstico de la gravedad de ésta patología, importante para predecir los resultados clínicos en pacientes con LMA. OBJETIVO: el objetivo de este estudio fue relacionar la mutación FLT3/ITD con variables hematológicas y clínicas en pacientes diagnosticados con Leucemia Mieloide Aguda atendidos en la Sociedad de Lucha contra el Cáncer (SOLCA) de la ciudad de Cuenca, periodo 2013 ­2020. MÉTODOS: se obtuvieron los datos a partir de registros secundarios registrados una base de datos del hospital, el universo de la muestra lo constituyeron 63 pacientes, diagnosticados con LMA, se les analizó la mutación FLT3/ITD por PCR Convencional. RESULTADOS: se encontró la presencia de la mutación en un 9.5% y una asociación significativamente estadística con alteraciones hematológicas relacionados con niveles de hemoglobina anormal (p=0,037) y ratio 6,63 y LDH elevada en 1,21 veces (p=0,024); recuento elevado de leucocitos y blastos (p=0,031). Los individuos portadores de la mutación se presentó con mayor incidencia en el sexo masculino y grupo etario adulto mediano (45-64 años). CONCLUSIONES: la literatura internacional afirma que la mutación FLT3/ITD en un importante marcador pronóstico; debido a su baja frecuencia, no se pudo determinar una relación estadísticamente significativa con otras variables clínicas en este estudio.(AU)


INTRODUCTION: acute Myeloid Leukemia is the most common hematological neoplasm, characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. The FLT3 / ITD mutation occurs in approximately 30% of all patients with this pathology, it is associated with a higher risk of relapse and lower survival. FLT3-ITD can be used as a poor prognostic factor, important for predicting clinical outcomes in patients with AML. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study was to characterize the FLT3 / ITD mutation and its relationship with hematological and clinical variables in patients diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia treated at SOLCA in the city of Cuenca, period 2013-2020. METHODS: data were obtained from secondary records in a hospital database, the universe of the sample was made up of 63 patients, diagnosed with AML, and the FLT3 / ITD mutation was analyzed by Conventional PCR. RESULTS: the presence of the mutation was found in 9.5% and a statistically significantly association with hematological alterations related to abnormal hemoglobin levels (p = 0.037) and ratio 6.63 and LDH elevated in 1.21 times (p =0.024); Elevated leukocyte and blast count (p = 0.031). Individuals carrying the mutation had a higher incidence in males and in the middle adult age group (45-64 years). CONCLUSIONS: the international literature affirms that the FLT3 / ITD mutation is an important prognostic marker; Due to its low frequency, it was not possible to determine a statistically significant relationship with other clinical variables in our study, for which it is suggested to expand the unirverse of the sample.(AU)


INTRODUÇÃO: a Leucemia Mielóide Aguda é a malignidade hematológica mais comum, caracterizada pela proliferação descontrolada de células-tronco hematopoiéticas. A mutação FLT3/ITD está presente em aproximadamente 30% de todos os pacientes com esta patologia, e está associada a um maior risco de recaída e menor sobrevida. O FLT3-ITD pode ser usado como um fator prognóstico para a gravidade desta patologia, importante para prever os resultados clínicos em pacientes com LMA. OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi relacionar a mutação FLT3/ITD com variáveis hematológicas e clínicas em pacientes diagnosticados com leucemia mielóide aguda tratados na Sociedade de Luta contra o Câncer (SOLCA) na cidade de Cuenca, período 2013 - 202020. Métodos. Os dados foram obtidos de registros secundários registrados em um banco de dados hospitalar, o universo da amostra consistiu de 63 pacientes diagnosticados com AML, eles foram analisados para a mutação FLT3/ITD por PCR convencional. RESULTADOS: a presença da mutação foi encontrada em 9,5% e uma associação estatística significativa com alterações hematológicas relacionadas a níveis anormais de hemoglobina (p=0,037) e relação 6,63 e LDH elevada em 1,21 vezes (p=0,024); contagem elevada de leucócitos e explosões (p=0,031). Os individuos portadores da mutação ocorreram com maior incidência no sexo masculino e na faixa etária média adulta (45-64 anos). CONCLUSÕES: a literatura internacional afirma que a mutação FLT3/ITD em um marcador prognóstico importante; devido a sua baixa freqüência, uma relação estatisticamente significativa com outras variáveis clínicas não pôde ser determinada neste estudo.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mutation , Neoplasms
10.
Med. infant ; 28(1): 23-26, Marzo 2021. ilus, Tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1282888

ABSTRACT

Pneumocystis jirovecii es un hongo oportunista, causante de neumonía en huéspedes inmunocomprometidos. Es una infección grave con elevada tasa de mortalidad en pacientes oncohematológicos y receptores de trasplante de células progenitoras hematopoyéticas. La administración de corticosteroides es el principal factor de riesgo para adquirir esta infección. Actualmente las infecciones ocurren en aquellos pacientes que no reciben adecuada profilaxis. Las técnicas de diagnóstico molecular son las recomendadas por su elevada sensibilidad, especificidad y rapidez. La frecuencia global de P. jirovecii en pacientes inmunocomprometidos de nuestro hospital, durante el período evaluado fue de 4,8%, con una mortalidad global del 20%. Como factores de mal pronóstico se reportan la presencia de coinfecciones y la necesidad de asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Es importante la sospecha precoz en pacientes de riesgo, confirmada con un diagnóstico preciso mediante métodos moleculares para una intervención adecuada y oportuna (AU)


Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus, causing pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. It is a severe infection with a high mortality rate in oncology/hematology patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The administration of corticosteroids is the main risk factor for acquiring this infection. Currently infections occur in patients who do not receive adequate prophylaxis. Molecular diagnostic techniques are recommended because of their high sensitivity, specificity, and speed. In the study period, the overall incidence of P. jirovecii in immunocompromised patients at our hospital was 4.8%, with an overall mortality rate of 20%. Factors of a poor prognosis are the presence of coinfections and the need for mechanical respiratory assistance. Early suspicion in high-risk patients is important to confirm the diagnosis through molecular studies and start adequate and early treatment (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Pneumocystis Infections/diagnosis , Pneumocystis Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies
11.
Rev. ADM ; 78(2): 90-94, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1247690

ABSTRACT

La biología molecular tiene mayor afinidad en las áreas de la salud, en odontología su principal aplicación ha sido en la identificación de microorganismos orales patógenos mediante el uso de secuencias genéticas específicas (ácido desoxirribonucleico [DNA], ácido ribonucleico [RNA] y proteínas). Las pruebas a nivel molecular se caracterizan por su rapidez, reproductibilidad, sensibilidad y especificidad de los microorganismos diana. El presente artículo de revisión bibliográfica servirá como herramienta para comprender los principios de las técnicas más destacadas como son: PCR estándar y RT-PCR en tiempo real, PCR con transcriptasa inversa, microarreglos y ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas (ELISA), además de sus ventajas y desventajas respecto a las pruebas convencionales (AU)


Molecular biology has a greater affinity in the areas of health. In dentistry, its main application has been the identification of pathogenic oral microorganisms, through the use of specific genetic sequences (deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA], ribonucleic acid [RNA] and proteins). Molecular tests are characterized by their rapidity, reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity of target microorganisms. This literature review article will serve as a tool to understand the principles of the most prominent techniques such as: Standard PCR, Real-time RT-PCR, Reverse transcriptase PCR, microarrays and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in addition to their advantages and disadvantages with respect to conventional tests (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Oral/methods , Molecular Biology , Mouth Diseases/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Databases, Genetic
12.
Infectio ; 25(1): 33-38, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154399

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Aislar STEC en las heces del ganado bovino en el municipio de Ulloa, Valle del Cauca y detectar factores de virulencia asociados con la patogénesis. Materiales y métodos: Se tomaron 21 muestras provenientes de bovinos, las cuales fueron tomadas directamente del recto del animal mediante hisopos. Las muestras se procesaron hasta obtener colonias puras a las cuales se les evaluó la presencia de los genes stx1, stx2, eae, saa y hlyA mediante PCR y posteriormente, se evaluó el efecto citotóxico de las muestras positivas sobre células Vero (ATCC-CCL-81.4). Resultados: De las 21 muestras de heces de bovinos,12 presentaron bacterias con uno o ambos genes stx. Se obtuvieron 106 aislamientos totales de STEC y se observaron diferencias en cuanto a la presencia y ausencia de los genes de virulencia evaluados en los aislamientos de cada bovino, obteniendo cinco combinaciones de genes. 48 aislamientos presentaron únicamente el gen stx2 y 58 presentaron tanto el gen stx1 como el gen stx2; de los 106 aislamientos, se detectaron 44 con el gen hlyA y 57 con el gen saa. Conclusiones: Todos los sobrenadantes de STEC analizados mostraron actividad citotóxica sobre las células Vero, mientras que en ausencia de STEC las células formaron monocapa después de 48 h de incubación. Este trabajo es el primer reporte en Colombia que aporta información sobre la presencia de STEC en el ganado bovino, la presencia de factores de virulencia y el potencial efecto citotóxico que poseen estas cepas nativas.


Abstract Objective: To isolate STEC in stool samples from cattle in Ulloa, Valle del Cauca, and to detect virulence factors associated with its pathogenesis. Materials and methods: We took 21 samples from cattle, which were taken directly from the rectum of the animal using swabs. The samples were processed until obtaining pure colonies and evaluated for the presence of the stx1, stx2, eae, saa and hlyA genes by PCR. Afterward, the cytotoxic effect of positive samples were evaluated on Vero cells (ATCC-CCL- 81.4). Results: We observed that from the 21 stools samples, 12 presented bacteria with one or both stx genes. A total of 106 isolates of STEC were obtained and differences among each other were observed regarding the presence and absence of the virulence genes, obtaining five combinations of genes. We found that 48 isolates presented only stx2 gene and 58 presented both the stx1 and stx2 gene. Regarding the other virulence genes, the hlyA gene was detected in 44 isolates and the saa gene was detected in 57 isolates. Conclusions: All the STEC supernatants showed cytotoxic activity on Vero cells, while in its absence the cells formed monolayer after 48 h of incubation. This work is the first report in Colombia that provides information about the presence of STEC in stool cattle, virulence genes and its potential cytotoxic effect in native strains.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Shiga Toxin , Escherichia coli , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli , Feces , Livestock , Bacteria , Virulence , Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): e58-e60, feb. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147267

ABSTRACT

El virus SARS-CoV-2, responsable de la pandemia de COVID-19, es un agente infeccioso emergente. El conocimiento tanto de sus mecanismos de infectividad como de las posibles complicaciones y tratamientos específicos es motivo de constante investigación.Para comprender la afectación del sistema nervioso central en los niños, se estudia el comportamiento de este germen basándose en las propiedades neuroinvasivas de ciertos virus respiratorios, el daño neurológico causado por otros coronavirus y las manifestaciones clínicas en adultos con COVID-19.Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente de 2 meses de edad que consultó por un cuadro febril sin foco con detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa en secreciones nasofaríngeas y el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Presentó buena evolución, con resolución de la fiebre y sin compromiso ni manifestaciones neurológica


The SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, is an emerging infectious agent. The knowledge of both its infectivity mechanisms and the possible complications and specific treatments is the subject of constant research. To understand the involvement of the central nervous system in children, the behavior of this germ is studied based on the neuroinvasive properties of certain respiratory viruses, the neurological damage caused by other coronaviruses, and the clinical manifestations in adults with COVID-19.We describe the clinical case of a 2-month-old patient who consulted for fever without a focus with detection of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in nasopharyngeal secretions and cerebrospinal fluid. The infant presented good evolution, with resolution of the fever and without compromise or neurological manifestation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Coronavirus , Pediatrics , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 21(supl.1): 299-304, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155304

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to describe epidemiological characteristics and deaths in children with cancer and COVID-19 at a reference hospital in Recife, Brazil. Methods: cohort involving children under the age of 19 underwent cancer treatment during April to July 2020. During the pandemic, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS -CoV-2) in nasal / oropharyngeal swab were collected in symptomatic patients or before hospitalization. Those with detectable results were included in this cohort study. The outcomes were delayed on cancer treatment and death. Descriptive analysis was performed and presented in preliminary results. Results: 48 children participated in the cohort, mostly with hematological neoplasms (66.6%.),69% were male, median age was 5.5 years. The most frequent symptoms were fever (58.3%) and coughing (27.7%);72.9% required hospitalization, 20% had support in ICU and 10.5% on invasive ventilatory assistance.66.6% of the patients had their oncological treatment postponed, 16.6% died within 60 days after confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions: COVID-19 led a delay in the oncological treatment for children with cancer and a higher mortality frequency when compared to the historical series of the service. It would be important to analyze the risk factors to determine the survival impact.


Resumo Objetivos: descrever características epidemiológicas e óbitos em crianças com câncer e a doença do novo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), em hospital de referência do nordeste brasileiro. Métodos: coorte envolvendo menores de 19 anos em tratamento de câncer, durante abril a julho de 2020. Pacientes sintomáticos ou antes de hospitalização foram submetidos a pesquisa do vírus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), por meio de reação em cadeia da polimerase com transcrição reversa em tempo real (RT-PCR), em swab naso/orofaríngeo. Foram incluídos aqueles com resultado detectável. Os desfechos foram atraso no tratamento oncológico e óbito. Realizada análise descritiva e apresentado os resultados preliminares. Resultados: 48 crianças, maioria com neoplasia hematológica (66,6%), sexo masculino (69%), mediana de idade 5,5 anos. os sintomas mais observados foram febre (58,3%) e tosse (27,7%); 72,9% necessitou internamento hospitalar, 20% suporte em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) e 10,5 % assistência ventilatória invasiva. O tratamento oncológico foi adiado em 66,6% dos pacientes, 16,6 % evoluiu para óbito até 60 dias após confirmação da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. Conclusões: COVID-19 determinou atraso no tratamento oncológico das crianças com câncer e aumento da frequência de óbitos quando comparada à série histórica do serviço. Será importante analisar os fatores de risco para determinar o impacto na sobrevida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Risk Factors , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cohort Studies , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing
15.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 72-81, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Diospyros. In this study, genetic diversity and variations in persimmon genotypes were investigated using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified by genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analysis. RESULTS: Ninety-five persimmon accessions grown in the Pear Research Institute, National Institute Horticultural and Herbal Science, were sequenced using the Illumina Hiseq2500 platform and polymorphic SNPs were detected to develop molecular markers. These reliable SNPs were analyzed using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assay to discriminate among persimmon genotypes. GBS generated a total of 447,495,724 trimmed reads, of which 89.7% were raw reads. After demultiplexing and sequence quality trimming, 108,876,644 clean reads were mapped to the reference transcriptome. An average of 1,146,070 genotype reads were mapped. Filtering of raw SNPs in each sample led to selection of a total of 1,725,401 high-quality SNPs. The number of homozygous and heterozygous SNPs ranged from 1,933 to 6,834 and from 846 to 5,927, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Of the 49 SNPs selected for development of an identification system for persimmons, 15 SNPs were used in the KASP assay to analyze 32 persimmon accessions. These KASP markers discriminated among all accessions.


Subject(s)
Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Diospyros/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genetic Markers , Chromosome Mapping , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Alleles , Genotyping Techniques , Homozygote
16.
Electron J Biotechnol ; 49: 29-33, Jan. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291632

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Agkistrodon acutus, a traditional Chinese medicine, clinically used in the treatment of rheumatism, tumor, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Due to the unique medicinal value and the difficulty of artificial breeding of Agkistrodon acutus, the supply of Agkistrodon acutus on the market exceeds the demand, and a large number of its adulterants are found on the market. In this study, the cytb gene sequences of Agkistrodon acutus and 9 snakes were compared and analyzed, specific primers were designed, and specific PCR methods were established to detect Agkistrodon acutus medicinal samples on the market. RESULTS: This method was successfully applied to distinguish the snake from other adulterated species, and tested 18 Agkistrodon acutus samples randomly purchased from six cities. Twelve samples were counterfeit and six were genuine. The standard reference material of Agkistrodon acutus was cloned by molecular cloning and sequencing, and the gene sequence difference with other species was significant. It shows that the region could be used as the fingerprint region of the target species. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method can be used as a species-specific marker and can be highly distinguished from other adulterated snake species, which is helpful to effectively avoid the problem of false sale of Agkistrodon acutus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Agkistrodon/genetics , Cytochromes b/genetics , Mitochondria/genetics , Snakes , Species Specificity , DNA/analysis , Cloning, Molecular , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
17.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(1): 7-13, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146465

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico (EHGNA) es la forma más común de enfermedad hepática. A nivel celular se caracteriza por la acumulación de triglicéridos (TG) en forma de gotas lipídicas (GL) dando lugar a esteatosis e inflamación. Entre los factores relevantes para la síntesis de TG se encuentran las enzimas DGAT1/2 que catalizan la etapa final de la síntesis de TG, y la proteína FABP4 que transporta lípidos intracelulares y se expresa en modelos de enfermedad hepática dependiente de obesidad. Por otra parte, TNF-α es una reconocida citoquina involucrada en el proceso inflamatorio en la EHGNA. La medicina popular del norte de Chile ha utilizado la planta Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) para el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades inflamatorias. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de un extracto hidroalcóholico de lampaya (EHL) sobre la esteatosis y expresión de marcadores de inflamación en hepatocitos tratados con ácidos grasos. Diseño experimental: Estudio in vitro en cultivos de la línea celular humana HepG2 tratadas con ácido oleico (AO) y ácido palmítico (AP). MÉTODOS: Se incubó hepatocitos HepG2 con AO/AP por 24 horas en presencia o no de EHL. Se evaluó la presencia de GL y el contenido de TG intracelulares por Oil Red O y Nile Red, respectivamente. La expresión de DGAT1/2, FABP4 y TNF-α fue evaluada por qPCR. RESULTADOS: Los hepatocitos tratados con AO/AP mostraron un aumento en las GL y TG, así como una mayor expresión de DGAT2 en comparación al control. El cotratamiento con EHL revirtió los efectos inducidos por AO/AP. CONCLUSIONES: EHL revierte el incremento en las GL, TG y en la expresión de DGAT2 inducido por AO/AP en células HepG2. Estos hallazgos sugieren un efecto hepatoprotector de la Lampaya contra la esteatosis, y apoyarían su uso complementario en el tratamiento de patologías con componente inflamatorio como la EHGNA.


Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease. At the cellular level, it is characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in the form of lipid droplets (LD), which leads to steatosis and inflammation. Among relevant factors for TG synthesis are the enzymes DGAT1/2 catalyzing the final stage of TG synthesis, and the protein FABP4 which transports intracellular lipids and is expressed in cell models of obesity-dependent liver disease. Additionally, TNF-α is a cytokine involved in the inflammatory process associated to NAFDL. Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine in northern Chile to treat some inflammatory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lampaya (HEL) on steatosis and the expression of inflammatory markers in hepatocytes treated with fatty acids. Study design: In vitro study in cultures of the human HepG2 cell line treated with oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA). METHODS: HepG2 hepatocytes were incubated with OA/PA for 24 hours in the presence and absence of HEL. The formation of LD and the accumulation of intracellular TG were assessed by Oil Red O and Nile Red, respectively. The expression of DGAT1/2, FABP4 and TNF-α was assessed by qPCR. RESULTS: The treatment with OA/PA increased the levels of LD and TG as well as the expression of DGAT2 in HepG2 hepatocytes compared to control cells. HEL cotreatment counteracted OA/PA-induced effects. CONCLUSIONS: HEL prevents the increase in LD and TG levels and DGAT2 expression induced by OA/PA in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that lampaya may have a protective effect against hepatic steatosis, which would support its complementary use in the treatment of pathologies associated with inflammation, such as NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Verbenaceae/chemistry , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Triglycerides/analysis , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Cell Survival , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Cell Culture Techniques , Oleic Acid , Ethanol/chemistry , Hep G2 Cells/drug effects , Inflammation
18.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e14, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252001

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Comparar las propiedades diagnósticas de cinco definiciones de caso sospechoso de COVID-19 utilizadas o propuestas en Chile durante los primeros ocho meses de la pandemia. Métodos. Se analizaron las propiedades diagnósticas (sensibilidad, especificidad, y valores predictivos positivo y negativo) de tres definiciones de caso sospechoso de COVID-19 utilizadas en Chile entre marzo y octubre del 2020, y dos propuestas de definición alternativas. La muestra fue de 2 019 personas con resultados conocidos a la prueba de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para SARS-CoV-2. Para elaborar el criterio 5 se aplicó una regresión logística escalonada (stepwise) optimizando los valores de sensibilidad y especificidad. Se exploró la asociación de variables demográficas, síntomas y signos con la positividad a la PCR mediante regresión logística multifactorial. Se analizaron diferentes escenarios de positividad y se compararon las curvas ROC. Resultados. La presencia de anosmia (OR = 8,00; IC95%: 5,34-11,99) y fiebre (OR = 2,15; IC95%: 1,28-3,59) y el haber tenido contacto estrecho previo con una persona enferma de COVID-19 (OR = 2,89; IC95%: 2,16-3,87) se asociaron con un resultado positivo de la PCR. Según el análisis de las curvas ROC, el criterio 5 tuvo la mayor capacidad de discriminación, aunque sin diferencias significativas con los otros cuatro criterios. Conclusiones. El criterio 5 —basado en la anosmia, el contacto estrecho con personas enfermas de COVID-19 y la fiebre como elementos únicos suficientes— tuvo la mayor sensibilidad para identificar los casos sospechosos de COVID-19, aspecto fundamental para controlar la propagación de la pandemia.


ABSTRACT Objective. Compare the diagnostic properties of five case definitions of suspected COVID-19 that were used or proposed in Chile during the first eight months of the pandemic. Methods. An analysis was done of the diagnostic properties (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of three case definitions of suspected COVID-19 used in Chile between March and October 2020, as well as two alternative proposed definitions. The sample was 2,019 people with known results for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2. Stepwise logistic regression was used to develop criterion 5, optimizing sensitivity and specificity values. Multifactor logistic regression was used to explore the association between demographic variables, symptoms and signs, and PCR positivity. Different positivity scenarios were analyzed and ROC curves were compared. Results. The presence of anosmia (OR = 8.00; CI95%: 5.34-11.99), fever (OR = 2.15; CI95%: 1.28-3.59), and having been in close contact with a person sick with COVID-19 (OR = 2.89; CI95%: 2.16-3.87) were associated with a positive PCR result. According to the analysis of the ROC curve, criterion 5 had the highest capacity for discrimination, although there were no significant differences with the other four criteria. Conclusions. Criterion 5—based on anosmia, close contact with people with COVID-19, and fever as sufficient unique elements—was the most sensitive in identifying suspected cases of COVID-19, a key aspect in controlling the spread of the pandemic.


RESUMO Objetivo. Comparar as características diagnósticas de cinco critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados ou propostos no Chile nos oito primeiros meses de pandemia. Métodos. Foram avaliadas as características diagnósticas (sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos positivo e negativo) de três critérios das definições de caso suspeito de COVID-19 usados no Chile entre março e outubro de 2020 e de duas alternativas propostas para definição de caso. A amostra do estudo consistiu 2 019 pessoas com resultados conhecidos no exame de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) para SARS-CoV-2. Para elaborar o critério 5, uma regressão logística com método stepwise foi realizada otimizando os valores de sensibilidade e especificidade. A associação entre variáveis demográficas, sintomas e sinais e resultado positivo no exame de PCR foi testada em um modelo de regressão logística multifatorial. Situações diferentes de resultado positivo foram testadas com uma análise comparativa das curvas ROC. Resultados. Presença de anosmia (OR 8,00; IC95% 5,34-11,99), febre (OR 2,15; IC95% 1,28-3,59) e contato próximo anterior com uma pessoa com COVID-19 (OR 2,89; IC95% 2,16-3,87) foram associados a um resultado positivo no exame de PCR. De acordo com a análise das curvas ROC, o critério 5 demonstrou maior capacidade discriminatória, apesar de não existir diferença significativa com os outros quatro critérios. Conclusão. O critério 5 - presença de anosmia, febre e contato próximo com uma pessoa com COVID-19 como elementos únicos e suficientes - demonstrou maior sensibilidade para identificar casos suspeitos de COVID-19, o que é fundamental para controlar a disseminação da pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Logistic Models , Chile , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190643, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249204

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to estimate allelic and genotypic frequencies of markers in the leptin (LEP), pituitary transcription factor (PIT-1) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) genes and evaluate their effects on reproductive traits and milk yield of Holstein cattle. Data from 147 cows from department of Francisco Morazán, Honduras, were collected and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assays were performed to characterize the PIT-1-HinfI, LEP- A59V and LHR-rs41256848 polymorphisms. To estimate the effect of genotypes on reproductive traits and milk yield fixed and mixed linear models were fitted. The frequencies of the genotypes CC, CT and TT of A59V, AA, AB and BB of HinfI, and CC, CG and GG of rs41256848 were 0.46, 0.33 and, 0.21; 0.09, 0.32 and 0.58; and 0.37, 0.61 and 0.02, respectively. The genotypes of LEP and LHR showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The A59V polymorphism was significantly associated with the calving to conception interval (CCI) (p=0.01), being the C allele favorable. The HinfI and rs41256848 polymorphism were significantly associated (p=0.08 and p=0.04) with age to first calving (AFC), being the A and G the alleles favorable associated, respectively. The results suggest that LEP, PIT and LHR polymorphisms can probably act as candidate to be used in marker-assisted selection for AFC and CCI traits.


Subject(s)
Luteinizing Hormone , Leptin , Genetic Profile , Gene Frequency/physiology , Reproduction , Cattle , Polymerase Chain Reaction/instrumentation
20.
Clinics ; 76: e2284, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153994

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Bacterial and aseptic meningitis after neurosurgery can present similar clinical signs and symptoms. The aims of this study were to develop and test a molecular method to diagnose bacterial meningitis (BM) after neurosurgery. METHODS: A 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR-based strategy was developed using artificially inoculated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) followed by sequencing. The method was tested using CSF samples from 43 patients who had undergone neurosurgery and were suspected to suffer from meningitis, and from 8 patients without neurosurgery or meningitis. Patients were classified into five groups, confirmed BM, probable BM, possible BM, unlikely BM, and no meningitis. RESULTS: Among the samples from the 51 patients, 21 samples (41%) were culture-negative and PCR-positive. Of these, 3 (14%) were probable BM, 4 (19%) were possible BM, 13 (62%) were unlikely BM, and 1 (5%) was meningitis negative. Enterobacterales, non-fermenters (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii), Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Granulicatella, Variovorax, and Enterococcus cecorum could be identified. In the group of patients with meningitis, a good agreement (3 of 4) was observed with the results of cultures, including the identification of species. CONCLUSION: Molecular methods may complement the diagnosis, guide treatment, and identify non-cultivable microorganisms. We suggest the association of methods for suspected cases of BM after neurosurgery, especially for instances in which the culture is negative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Neurosurgery , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Enterococcus
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