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1.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 10(1): 280, abr. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147585

ABSTRACT

Se evaluó la composición proximal, el contenido de polifenoles totales y la capacidad antioxidante de un chocolate oscuro formulado a partir de granos de cacao orgánico, seco, y no sometido al proceso fermentativo. Este producto fue elaborado con insumos y procesos desarrollados en la Granja Experimental El Cairo, ubicada en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (GEL-UN), departamento de Arauca, Colombia. El contenido de grasa se encontró entre los rangos conocidos (>50%), siendo una característica ligada al origen genético, y a las condiciones climáticas. El alto contenido de proteínas (16,21%), evidencia que se trata de granos de cacao secos no fermentados. Tal contenido juega un papel importante en la formación de los precursores del sabor y aroma, en chocolates finos y exquisitos. El pH determinado es un indicativo de un chocolate amargo, con bajo índice de fermentación y de baja acidez acética o láctica. El contenido de polifenoles totales se relaciona de manera directa con la alta actividad antioxidante de este chocolate. Se concluye que el tipo de material genético usado como insumo, así como los procesos implementados para la obtención del chocolate, en GEL-UN, contribuyeron para la obtención de un producto tipo comercial, con propiedades funcionales, entre ellas las relacionadas con la capacidad antioxidante(AU)


Thee proximal chemical composition, the content of total polyphenols, and the antioxidant capacity of a dark chocolate formulated from organic, dry cocoa beans and not subjected to the fermentation process were evaluated. This product was made with inputs and processes developed at the El Cairo Experimental Farm, located at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (CEF-UN), Arauca, Colombia. The fat content was found between the known ranges (> 50%), being a characteristic linked to the genetic origin, and to the climatic conditions. The high protein content (16.21%) evidenced that it´s unfermented dry cocoa beans. Such content plays an important role in the formation of precursors of flavor and aroma, in fine and exquisite chocolates. The determined pH is indicative of a dark chocolate, with a low fermentation index and low acetic or lactic acidity. The content of total polyphenols is directly related to the high antioxidant activity of this chocolate. It is concluded that the type of genetic material used as input, as well as the processes implemented to obtain chocolate, in CEF-UN, contributed to obtaining a commercial type product, with functional properties, including those related to antioxidant capacity(AU)


Subject(s)
Cacao/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Chocolate/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Fermentation , Food, Organic , Food Handling
2.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 70(4): 263-268, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1247666

ABSTRACT

Mango is the second most commercialized tropical fruit in the world, and Mexico is the major exporter. In terms of mango production, Manila´s variety represents a quarter of the total mangoes production in Mexico. However, the changes that occur on the phenolic compounds during the Manila mango ripening process are unknown. Quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds was conducted at different maturity stages, using several spectrophotometric measurements and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At the late ripening stage was observed the biggest content in pulp and peel of total phenols (577 and 10547 mg EAG /100 g), flavonoids (95.33 and 537 mg EQ/100 g), and antioxidant capacity by DPPH (25 and 347 mmol TE/100 g). Some bioactive compounds achieve their highest values at optimal consumption ripening. Although they diminish when the fruit reaches a senescence appearance. This is the first study to prove that mangiferin by itself shows a higher correlation in antioxidant capacity compared to other phenolic compounds in mango peel, and this suggest that phenolic compounds may have an important role in the postharvest antioxidant metabolism in Manila mango fruit. On the other hand, the results show that the peel compared to the pulp contains higher amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, gallic acid, mangiferin and antioxidant capacity, so its use as an ingredient in the preparation of functional food products is recommended. More studies are needed to go in-depth in the changes of the content of phytochemicals during the ripening process in the peel and pulp mango, which ones could be caused by the hormones responsible for ripening in the fruit, such as ethylene, and bioavailability of these compounds at different stages of maturation(AU)


El mango es la segunda fruta tropical más comercializada del mundo y México es el principal exportador. En términos de producción de mango, la variedad Manila representa una cuarta parte de la producción total de mangos en México. Sin embargo, se desconocen los cambios que ocurren en los compuestos fenólicos durante el proceso de maduración del mango Manila. El análisis cuantitativo de los principales compuestos fenólicos se realizó en diferentes etapas de madurez, utilizando varias medidas espectrofotométricas y mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC). En la etapa de madurez tardía se observó el mayor contenido en pulpa y cáscara de fenoles totales (577 y 10547 mg EAG / 100 g), flavonoides (95.33 y 537 mg EQ / 100 g) y capacidad antioxidante por DPPH (25 y 347 mmol TE / 100 g). Algunos compuestos bioactivos alcanzan sus valores más altos en el punto de madurez óptima. Aunque disminuyen cuando el fruto adquiere una apariencia de senescencia. Este es el primer estudio que demuestra que la mangiferina por sí misma presenta una alta correlación con la capacidad antioxidante en comparación con otros compuestos fenólicos de la cáscara de mango, y esto sugiere que los compuestos fenólicos pueden tener un papel importante en el metabolismo antioxidante postcosecha en el mango Manila. Por otro lado, los resultados muestran que la cáscara comparada con la pulpa contiene mayores cantidades de fenoles totales, flavonoides, ácido gálico, mangiferin y capacidad antioxidante por DPPH, por lo que se recomienda su uso como ingrediente en la elaboración de productos alimenticios fucionales. Se necesitan más estudios para profundizar en los cambios del contenido de fitoquímicos durante el proceso de maduración en la cáscara y pulpa del mango, los cuáles podrían ser provocados por las hormonas responsables de la maduración en el fruto, como el etileno, y la biodisponibilidad de estos compuestos en diferentes etapas de maduración(AU)


Subject(s)
Mangifera , Polyphenols/analysis , Antioxidants , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Phytochemicals , Fruit
3.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 1-7, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087465

ABSTRACT

Background: Biotechnological processes are part of modern industry as well as stricter environmental requirements. The need to reduce production costs and pollution demands for alternatives that involve the integral use of agro-industrial waste to produce bioactive compounds. The citrus industry generates large amounts of wastes due to the destruction of the fruits by microorganisms and insects together with the large amounts of orange waste generated during the production of juice and for sale fresh. The aim of this study was used orange wastes rich in polyphenolic compounds can be used as source carbon of Aspergillus fumigatus MUM 1603 to generate high added value compounds, for example, ellagic acid and other molecules of polyphenolic origin through submerged fermentation system. Results: The orange peel waste had a high concentration of polyphenols, 28% being condensed, 27% ellagitannins, 25% flavonoids and 20% gallotannins. The major polyphenolic compounds were catechin, EA and quercetin. The conditions, using an experimental design of central compounds, that allow the production of the maximum concentration of EA (18.68 mg/g) were found to be: temperature 30°C, inoculum 2 × 107 (spores/g) and orange peel polyphenols 6.2 (g/L). Conclusion: The submerged fermentation process is an effective methodology for the biotransformation of molecules present in orange waste to obtain high value-added as ellagic acid that can be used as powerful antioxidants, antibacterial and other applications.


Subject(s)
Waste Management , Citrus sinensis/chemistry , Ellagic Acid , Aspergillus fumigatus , Waste Products/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Biotechnology/methods , Hydrolyzable Tannins/analysis , Fermentation , Polyphenols/analysis , Phytochemicals
4.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18456, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249172

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of crude extracts from Eugenia uniflora, Libidibia ferrea and Psidium guajava. The extracts were obtained by turbo-extraction using water (AQ) or acetone-water (AC-W) (7:3, v/v) as solvents and lyophilized to obtain the crude extracts (CE). The CE were characterized by UV-Vis, TLC and HPLC. The activity of CEs was investigated against clinical isolates of Candida spp. and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), MIC50 and MIC90 were determinated. The analysis by TLC showed that all CEs presented polyphenols (flavonoids and tannins). The CEs from E. uniflora showed higher amount of polyphenols (30.35 ± 2.15%, AC-W) and the HPLC analysis revealed the tannins in all extracts. The CEs of E. uniflora showed MIC range from 1.9 to 500.0 µg/mL, and lower values of MIC50 and MIC90 against non-albicans Candida isolates. Regarding L. ferrea and P. guajava, the results showing MIC from 3.9 to 1000.0 µg/mL (CE-AQ) against C. albicans. The results demonstrate antifungal performance from CE against various species of Candida spp., suggesting that the herbal species may be use as new potential antifungal agents. Additionally, the polyphenol content can play a pivotal role in the antifungal properties of CE.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Polyphenols/analysis , Phytochemicals , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Flavonoids/pharmacokinetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 37: 1-10, Jan. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chia seeds are gaining increasing interest among food producers and consumers because of their prohealth properties. RESULTS: The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of chia seeds to act as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors. The highest inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE was observed for colored seed ethanol extracts. A positive correlation was found between the presence of quercetin and isoquercetin as well as protocatechuic, hydroxybenzoic, and coumaric acids and the activity of extracts as AChE and BChE inhibitors. It has also been shown that grain fragmentation affects the increase in the activity of seeds against cholinesterases (ChE). Furthermore, seeds have been shown to be a source of substances that inhibit microbial growth. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the chia seed extracts are rich in polyphenols and inhibit the activity of ChEs; therefore, their use can be considered in further research in the field of treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Seeds/chemistry , Butyrylcholinesterase , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Salvia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Flavonols/analysis , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Food Additives
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 189-193, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893209

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El propóleos es un producto resinoso complejo producido por las abejas Apis mellifera, el cual posee diversas actividades biológicas como inmunomodulador, antiinflamatorio, anticancerígeno, antiviral, antibacteriano, antioxidante, entre otros. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue realizar una evaluación in vivo de las propiedades antiinflamatorias de un extracto de propóleos chileno, sobre el modelo de edema auricular inducido por 13-acetato-12-O-tetradecanoilforbol (TPA) en pabellón auricular de ratón, para posterior evaluación y análisis histológico. El extracto de propóleos chileno (EEP) utilizado se obtuvo a partir de un macerado etanólico, rotaevaporado y liofilizado. Se observó que el EEP disminuyó el edema y el infiltrado inflamatorio de forma significativa. Estos resultados sugieren que el extracto etanólico de propóleos chileno posee potenciales efectos antiinflamatorios o moduladores del sistema inmunológico en edema auricular.


SUMMARY: Propolis is a complex resinous product produced by bees Apis mellifera, which has a number of biological activities such as an immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, among others. The purpose of the following study was to perform an in vivo evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of a Chilean propolis extract, on the model of atrial edema induced 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13- acetate (TPA) in the mouse auricular pavilion, for later evaluation and histological analysis. The Chilean propolis extract (EPP) used was obtained from an ethanolic, rotaevaporated and lyophilized macerate. It was observed that the EPP significantly decreased edema and inflammatory infiltrate. These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Chilean propolis possesses potential anti-inflammatory or modulatory effects of the immune system in atrial edema.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Propolis/pharmacology , Edema/drug therapy , Ear Auricle/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Propolis/chemistry , Ear Auricle/pathology , Polyphenols/analysis
7.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 16(2): 88-98, mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-881315

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a cellular defensive mechanism associated to oxidative stress. The administration of nitrofurantoin, nifurtimox and acetaminophen generates oxidative stress by their biotransformation through CYP450 system. The main adverse effect described for the first two drugs is gastrointestinal inflammation and that of the last, hepatitis. Therefore, standardised dry extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis, Buddleja globosa Hope, Cynara scolymus L., Echinacea purpurea and Hedera helix were tested to evaluate their capacity to decrease drug-induced oxidative stress. For that, rat liver microsomes were incubated with drugs in the presence of NADPH (specific CYP450 system cofactor) to test oxidative damage on microsomal lipids, thiols, and GST activity. All drugs tested induced oxidation of microsomal lipids and thiols, and inhibition of GST activity. Herbal extracts prevented these phenomena in different extension. These results show that antioxidant phytodrugs previously evaluated could alleviate drugs adverse effects associated to oxidative stress.


Inflamación es un mecanismo de defensa el cual está asociado a estrés oxidativo. La administración de nitrofurantoína, nifurtimox y paracetamol genera estrés oxidativo al metabolizarse a través del sistema CYP450. El principal efecto adverso de los dos primeros fármacos es inflamación gastrointestinal y del tercero, hepatitis. Por lo tanto, utilizamos diversos extractos herbales para disminuir el estrés oxidativo inducido por estos fármacos. Para esto se incubaron microsomas hepáticos de rata con dichos fármacos en presencia de NADPH (cofactor específico del sistema CYP450) y se evaluó el daño oxidativo generado sobre los lípidos, los tioles y la actividad GST microsómica. Todos los fármacos indujeron oxidación de los lípidos y los tioles microsómicos e inhibieron la actividad GST. Los extractos herbales previnieron estos fenómenos oxidativos en diferente extensión. Estos resultados indican que fitofármacos antioxidantes previamente evaluados, podrían aliviar los efectos adversos asociados a estrés oxidativo de los fármacos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Microsomes, Liver/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Acetaminophen/adverse effects , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Microsomes, Liver/enzymology , NADP/analysis , Nifurtimox/adverse effects , Nitrofurantoin/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfhydryl Compounds
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 25: 43-49, ene. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008576

ABSTRACT

Background: Gnetum parvifolium stems and roots have been used for a long time in traditional Chinese medicines. Stilbenes are bioactive compounds present in G. parvifolium plants, and they possess antioxidative and anticancer properties. However, little is known about the responses of G. parvifolium stilbene biosynthetic pathways to stress conditions. Therefore, we investigated stilbene biosynthesis, including the expression of relevant genes, in G. parvifolium exposed to high-temperature and ultraviolet-C treatments. Results: High temperatures did not influence the accumulation of total stilbenes in stems but decreased stilbene concentrations in roots at 3 h, with a subsequent restoration to control levels. In contrast, ultraviolet irradiation induced the accumulation of total stilbenes in stems but not in roots. We also observed that high temperatures inhibited the production of resveratrol and piceatannol in G. parvifolium stems and roots, whereas ultraviolet treatments initially inhibited their accumulation (up to 6 h) but induced their production at later time points. Analyses of specific genes (i.e., PAL, C4H, 4CL, STS, and CYP) revealed that their expression levels generally increased in stress-treated stems and roots, although there was some variability in the expression profiles during treatments. Conclusions: Our results indicated that high temperatures and ultraviolet irradiation differentially affect the biosynthesis of specific stilbenes in G. parvifolium stems and roots. Therefore, cultivating G. parvifolium seedlings under optimal stress conditions may increase the biosynthesis of specific stilbene compounds.


Subject(s)
Stilbenes/analysis , Gnetum/metabolism , Stilbenes/radiation effects , Stilbenes/metabolism , Ultraviolet Rays , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gnetum/radiation effects , Gnetum/genetics , Seedlings , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/radiation effects , Polyphenols/metabolism , Hot Temperature
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2017. 92p graf, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-876411

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis, one major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, is a complex and multifactorial disease that involves three mainly conditions: chronic inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. Although statins are the first-line therapy for LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering, the efficacy of cardiovascular events prevention is limited to 30-40%. This residual risk brought attention to the need of new therapies and clinical targets beyond LDL-C, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Importantly, suboptimal treatment and/or statin discontinuation due to adverse effects have also been a very challenging clinical problem. Complementary diet therapy can be an effective and safe approach to support pharmacological treatment, especially when drugs alone are insufficient to attenuate risk factors and/or the recommended dose is not well tolerated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three bioactive components, namely omega-3 fatty acids, plant sterols and polyphenols, on markers of dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress in patients treated with statins. A randomized, crossover clinical study was carried out, with the participation of 53 subjects. At each intervention period, study participants received a packaged for the functional or control treatment. Functional treatment consisted of fish oil (1.7 g of EPA+DHA/day), chocolate containing plant sterols (2.2 g/day) and green tea (two tea sachets/day). Control treatment consisted of soy oil softgels, regular chocolate and anise tea. After 6 weeks of intervention, functional treatment reduced plasma LDL-C (-13.7% ± 3.7, p=0.002) and C-reactive protein (-35.5% ± 5.9, p=0.027). Plasma triacylglycerol (-15.68% ± 5.94, p=0.02) and MDA (-40.98% ± 6.74, p=0.04) were reduced in subgroups of patients (n=23) with baseline values above the median (93 mg/dL and 2.23 umol/L, respectively). Analysis of lathosterol and campesterol in plasma suggested that intensity of LDL-C reduction was influenced by cholesterol absorption rate rather than its endogenous synthesis. After multivariate analysis, patients identified as "good responders" to supplementation (n=10) were recruited for a pilot protocol of statin dose reduction with complementary diet therapy. Responders received the functional treatment for 12 weeks: standard statin therapy was kept during the first 6 weeks and reduced by 50% from weeks 6 to 12. No difference was observed for plasma lipids and inflammation biomarkers, cholesterol efflux capacity or HDL particle number after statin dose reduction when compared to standard therapy. Although limited by the small sample size, our study demonstrates the potential for a new therapeutic approach combining lower statin dose and specific dietary compounds. This may be particularly helpful for the many patients with, and at risk for, CVD who cannot tolerate high-dose statin therapy


A aterosclerose, uma importante causa mundial de morbidade e mortalidade, é uma doença complexa e multifatorial que envolve três principais condições: inflamação crônica, dislipidemia e estresse oxidativo. Embora as estatinas sejam fármacos de primeira linha para redução de LDL colesterol (LDL-C), sua eficácia na prevenção de eventos cardiovasculares é limitadada a 30-40%. Este risco cardiovascular residual evidencia a necessidade de novas terapias e marcadores clínicos que vão além do LDL-C, como inflamação e estresse oxidativo. Não obstante, tratamento subótimo e/ou interrupção do uso de estatinas devido à ocorrencia de efeitos adversos também é um grave obstáculo na clínica médica. Neste contexto, a terapia dietética complementar representa uma abordagem efetiva e segura para o suporte do tratamento farmacológico, especialmente quando as drogas são insuficientes para atenuar fatores de risco e/ou quando a dose recomendada não é bem tolerada. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito de três compostos bioativos - ácidos graxos ômega 3, fitosteróis e polifenóis - sobre marcadores de inflamação, lipemia e estresse oxidativo em indivíduos tradados com estatinas. Foi realizado um estudo clínico randomizado, de delineamento crossover, com a participação de 53 voluntários. A cada período de intervenção, os participantes receberam um tratamento funcional ou controle. O tratamento funcional foi composto por cápsulas de óleo de peixe (1.7 g/dia de EPA+DHA), chocolate contendo fitosteróis (2.2 g/dia) e chá verde (dois sachês/dia). O tratamento controle foi composto por cápsulas de óleo de soja, chocolate sem adição de fitosteróis e chá de anis. Após 6 semanas de intervenção, o tratamento funcional reduziu a concentração plasmática de LDL-C (-13.7% ± 3.7, p=0.002) e proteína C-reativa (-35.5% ± 5.9, p=0.027). Triglicerídeos (- 15.68% ± 5.94, p=0.02) e malondialdeído (-40.98% ± 6.74, p=0.04) foram reduzidas apenas em subgrupos de indivíduos que apresentavam valores basais acima da mediana (93 mg/dL e 2.23 umol/L, respectivamente). A análise de latosterol e campesterol no plasma sugeriu que a intensidade da redução de LDL-C não foi influenciada pela síntese endógena de colesterol, mas sim pela taxa de absorção. Após análise multivariada dos resultados, pacientes identificados como "good responders" à suplementação (n=10) foram recrutados para um estudo piloto de redução da dosagem da estatina, aliado à terapia dietética complementar. Estes pacientes receberam o tratamento funcional por 12 semanas: durante as 6 primeiras semanas mantevese a dosagem de estatina, que em seguida foi reduzida em 50% das semanas 6 a 12. Não foram observadas diferenças para os marcadores plasmáticos de lipídeos, inflamação, capacidade de efluxo de colesterol ou número de partículas de HDL após a redução da dose de estatina, quando comparada à terapia convencional. Embora limitado pelo reduzido número de pacientes, o estudo demonstra o potencial para uma nova abordagem terapêutica, combinando reduzida dose de estatina com específicos compostos bioativos. Esta pode ser uma importante alternativa para muitos pacientes em risco cardiovascular e que são intolerantes à terapia com altas doses de estatina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atherosclerosis/pathology , Biomarkers , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/analysis , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/analysis , Phytosterols/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis
10.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(4): 1527-1535, oct.-dic. 2016. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958232

ABSTRACT

Abstract:The marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum, commonly known as turtle grass, is a dominant sea- grass that grows in the Caribbean Sea shelf associated to Syringodium filiforme. The hydroalcoholic extract of T. testudinum is rich in polyphenols; the most abundant metabolite in this extract is thalassiolin B, a glycosilated flavonoid with skin damage repairing properties, and antioxidant capacity among others. The present study aimed at generating information about the seasonal behavior of secondary metabolites, as well as to study the antioxidant capacity of the T. testudinum leaves extract, collected monthly during 2012 from the Northeast coastline of Havana, Cuba. For this study, spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, soluble carbohydrates and proteins, chlorophylls a and b, and antioxidant activity of the extracts. In general, results demonstrated seasonal variations of the analyzed parameters. Extracts prepared from the vegetal material collected in October and November showed the highest values of polyphenols (58.81 ± 1.53 and 52.39 ± 0.63 mg/g bs, respectivally) and flavonoids (44.12 ± 1.30 and 51.30 ± 0.67 mg/g dw, respectively). On the contrary, the lowest values of polyphenols were found in extracts of leaves collected in July and August (15.51 ± 0.84 and 13.86 ± 0.48 mg/g, respectively). In accordance with these results, the lower value of Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) was obtained to get a 50 % of maximal effect on free radical scavenging activity with the extracts prepared from leaves collected in October and November, and less significant IC50 was obtained from the extract prepared from leaves collected in August (5.63 mg/mL). A negative correlation (r= -0.694) was observed in this study between the content of polyphenols and the IC50 necessary to get the half of its antioxidant maximal effect. The high correspondence between the maximum values of polyphenols, flavonoids, carbohydrates and proteins in October and November, revealed a close relationship between these metabolites found in the extract of T. testudinum. Our hypothesis about the annual variation in the concentration of these metabolites was validated; and these results will support the correct harvesting of T. testudinum leaves for biotechnology and industrial purposes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (4): 1527-1535. Epub 2016 December 01.


Resumen:La angiosperma marina Thalassia testudinum, comúnmente conocida como "hierba tortuga", es un pasto marino dominante que crece en el Mar Caribe asociada a Syringodium filiforme. El extracto hidroalcohólico de T. testudinum es rico en polifenoles; el metabolito más abundante en este extracto es thalassiolina B, un flavonoide glicosilado con propiedades para la reparación de daños en la piel y la capacidad antioxidante, entre otros. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer el comportamiento estacional de los metabolitos secundarios, así como la capacidad antioxidante del extracto de hojas de T. testudinum recolectadas mensualmente durante el 2012, en la costa noreste de La Habana, Cuba. Para este estudio fueron empleados métodos espectrofotométricos para la determinación de la concentración de polifenoles, flavonoides, carbohidratos y proteínas solubles, clorofilas a y b y la actividad antioxidante del extracto. En sentido general, los resultados demostraron las variaciones estacionales de los parámetros analizados; los extractos preparados a partir de material vegetal recolectado en octubre y noviembre mostraron los mayores valores de polifenoles y flavonoides (44.12 ± 1.30 y 51.30 ± 0.67 mg/g bs respectivamente) y se encontraron los valores más bajos en los extractos de hojas recolectadas en julio y agosto. (15.51 ± 0.84 y 13.86 ± 0.48 mg/g respectivamente). De acuerdo con los resultados, se obtuvo el valor más bajo de la concentración inhibitoria (CI50 ) necesaria para obtener un 50 % de efecto máximo en la actividad de captación de radicales libres con los extractos preparados a partir de las hojas recolectadas en octubre y noviembre y la CI50 menos significativa se obtuvo a partir del extracto preparado a partir de las hojas recolectadas en agosto (5.63 mg/ml). Se observó una correlación negativa (r= -0,694) entre el contenido de polifenoles y la CI50 necesaria para obtener la mitad del efecto antioxidante máximo. La alta correspondencia que existe entre los valores máximos de polifenoles, flavonoides, carbohidratos y proteínas en octubre y noviembre reveló una estrecha relación entre estos metabolitos, encontrados en el extracto de T. testudinum. La hipótesis de la variación anual de la concentración de estos metabolitos fue validada. Estos resultados se tendrán en cuenta con el fin de seleccionar el momento de recolecta de las hojas de T. testudinum para su uso con fines biotecnológicos e industriales.


Subject(s)
Seasons , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Hydrocharitaceae/chemistry , Reference Values , Spectrophotometry/methods , Time Factors , Flavonoids/analysis , Carbohydrates/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Anthocyanins/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis
11.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(3): 1171-1184, jul.-sep. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-958204

ABSTRACT

ResumenEntre los principales compuestos químicos sintetizados por las plantas, pero considerados no esenciales para su metabolismo básico, están los alcaloides, los polifenoles, los glucósidos cianogénicos y las saponinas que tienen diversas funciones en las plantas y reconocidas propiedades medicinales y farmacológicas. En esta investigación se determinaron las concentraciones de los mencionados metabolitos secundarios en los extractos de las hojas de las plantas medicinales Taraxacum officinale, Parthenium hysterophorus, Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius y Piper carpunya y se relacionaron con la toxicidad aguda contra Artemia salina. En cada bioensayo con A. salina se usaron los extractos alcohólicos de las hojas de las plantas seleccionadas a diferentes concentraciones, calculándose la proporción de organismos muertos y los CL50. Las concentraciones de alcaloides, fenoles totales, taninos, glucósidos cianogénicos y saponinas fueron determinadas mediante métodos espectrofotométricos. Este es el primer reporte de cuantificación de metabolitos secundarios en las plantas analizadas provenientes de Ecuador. T. officinale presentó las mayores concentraciones de fenoles (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) y taninos (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C aconitifolius de glucósidos cianogénicos (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) y P. hysterophorus de saponinas (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Las plantas evaluadas presentaron actividades hemolíticas dependiendo de las concentraciones de saponinas. Los valores de taninos determinados estuvieron entre 0.20 ± 0.01 y 11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g, por lo que no son adversos para su consumo. Aunque los valores de glucósidos cianogénicos son permisibles, es necesario monitorear la presencia de estos compuestos químicos en las plantas para minimizar problemas de salud. Los CL50 obtenidos oscilaron entre los valores 3.37 µg/mL, extremadamente letal o tóxica, para P. carpunya y 274.34 µg/mL, altamente tóxica, para T. officinale. De los análisis de correlaciones realizados a los resultados, se observó que los alcaloides favorecen de manera significativa (p<0.001) a la toxicidad aguda contra A. salina, mientras que a mayor contenido de polifenoles dicha toxicidad disminuye significativamente (p<0.001) el nivel de toxicidad de las plantas. Del análisis de componentes principales, se demuestra que las saponinas están en sinergia con los polifenoles para disminuir la toxicidad, pero tienen un efecto antagónico con los alcaloides y los glucósidos cianogénicos, lo cual evidencia que estos metabolitos secundarios presentan variabilidades en los mecanismos de acción contra A. salina, como compuestos citotóxicos. Estos resultados demuestran que las saponinas y los polifenoles pueden ser letales para A. salina a bajas concentraciones, evidenciando que este bioensayo permite evaluar extractos vegetales que contengan bajas concentraciones de compuestos con altas polaridades. La correspondencia significativamente positiva entre citoxicidad y concentración de los alcaloides, confirmada con el bioensayo de Artemia salina, puede ser útil para hallar fuentes promisorias de compuestos antitumorales y para evaluar los límites tolerables que no afecten otras células benignas. El contenido de metabolitos secundarios hallados en las plantas analizadas les atribuye un gran valor farmacológico.


Abstract:Alkaloids, polyphenols, cyanogenic glycosides and saponins are among the main chemical compounds synthesized by plants but not considered essential for their basic metabolism. These compounds have different functions in plants, and have been recognized with medicinal and pharmacological properties. In this research, concentrations of the mentioned secondary metabolites were determined in the medicinal plants Artemisia absinthium, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius, Parthenium hysterophorus, Piper carpunya and Taraxacum officinale, from Ecuador, and related with cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts from leaves of these selected plants were prepared at different concentrations. To assess cytotoxicity of these extracts, different bioassays with A. salina were undertaken, and the mortality rates and LC50 were obtained. Besides, concentrations of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, phenols, tannins and saponins were determined by spectrophotometric methods; this constituted the first report of quantification of secondary metabolites in the selected plants from Ecuador. T. officinale had the highest concentration of total phenols (22.30 ± 0.23 mg/g) and tannins (11.70 ± 0.10 mg/g), C. aconitifolius of cyanogenic glycosides (5.02 ± 0.37 µg/g) and P. hysterophorus of saponins (6.12 ± 0.02 mg/g). Tannins values obtained were not adverse to their consumption. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of selected plants had hemolytic activity depending on the concentration of saponins. Although the values of cyanogenic glycosides were permissible, it was necessary to monitor the presence of this metabolite in plants to minimize health problems. LC50 values ranged from extremely toxic (3.37 µg/mL) to highly toxic (274.34 μg/mL), in P. carpunya and T. officinale, respectively. From correlation analysis, it was observed that increase values of alkaloids concentrations had highly significant (p<0.001) acute toxicity against A. salina, while at a higher polyphenol concentration the level of plants cytotoxicity decreased significantly (p<0.001). The results of principal component analysis showed that saponins apparently were in synergy with polyphenols to decrease cytotoxicity, but antagonize with alkaloids and cyanogenic glycosides, indicating that these secondary metabolites present variability in the mechanisms of action against A. salina, as cytotoxic compounds. These results also demonstrate that polyphenols and saponins can be lethal at low concentrations, demonstrating the potential of brine shrimp bioassay as a model to evaluate plant extracts containing low concentrations of chemical compounds with high polarities. The significant positive correlation between cytotoxicity and concentration of alkaloids confirmed by the bioassay of brine shrimp can be useful to identify promising sources of antitumor compounds, and to evaluate tolerable limits not affecting other benign cells. Contents of secondary metabolites found in the selected plants confer them great pharmacologic values. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (3): 1171-1184. Epub 2016 September 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Artemia/drug effects , Saponins/analysis , Alkaloids/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Glycosides/analysis , Time Factors , Biological Assay , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Asteraceae/toxicity , Asteraceae/chemistry , Euphorbiaceae/chemistry , Artemisia absinthium/chemistry , Taraxacum/chemistry , Piper/chemistry , Ecuador , Secondary Metabolism
12.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 48(1): 71-77, mar. 2016. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843148

ABSTRACT

Fungal hydrolysis of ellagitannins produces hexahydroxydiphenic acid, which is considered an intermediate molecule in ellagic acid release. Ellagic acid has important and desirable beneficial health properties. The aim of this work was to identify the effect of different sources of ellagitannins on the efficiency of ellagic acid release by Aspergillus niger. Three strains of A. niger (GH1, PSH and HT4) were assessed for ellagic acid release from different polyphenol sources: cranberry, creosote bush, and pomegranate used as substrate. Polyurethane foam was used as support for solid-state culture in column reactors. Ellagitannase activity was measured for each of the treatments. Ellagic acid was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. When pomegranate polyphenols were used, a maximum value of ellagic acid (350.21 mg/g) was reached with A. niger HT4 in solid-state culture. The highest amount of ellagitannase (5176.81 U/l) was obtained at 8 h of culture when cranberry polyphenols and strain A. niger PSH were used. Results demonstrated the effect of different polyphenol sources and A. niger strains on ellagic acid release. It was observed that the best source for releasing ellagic acid was pomegranate polyphenols and A. niger HT4 strain, which has the ability to degrade these compounds for obtaining a potent bioactive molecule such as ellagic acid.


La hidrólisis fúngica de los elagitaninos produce ácido hexahidroxidifénico, considerado como una molécula intermedia en la liberación de ácido elágico. El ácido elágico tiene importantes y deseables propiedades benéficas para la salud humana. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar el efecto de la fuente de elagitaninos sobre la eficiente liberación de ácido elágico por Aspergillus niger. La liberación de ácido elágico se realizó con tres cepas de A. niger (GH1, PSH y HT4) en presencia de diferentes fuentes de polifenoles (arándano, gobernadora y granada), usadas como sustrato. Se empleó espuma de poliuretano como soporte para el cultivo en estado sólido en reactores en columna. Se midió la actividad elagitanasa a cada uno de los tratamientos. El ácido elágico liberado se cuantificó por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución. Cuando se utilizaron los polifenoles de granada, se alcanzó un valor máximo de 350,21 mg/g de ácido elágico con A. niger HT4 en cultivo en estado sólido. La mayor actividad elagitanasa (5176.81 U/l) se obtuvo a 8 h de cultivo cuando se usaron los polifenoles de arándano como sustrato y A. niger PSH. Los resultados demostraron el efecto que tiene la fuente de polifenoles y la cepa de A. niger en la liberación de ácido elágico. Se observó que la mejor fuente para la liberación de ácido elágico fueron los polifenoles de granada y que la cepa A. niger HT4 posee la habilidad de degradar estos compuestos para la obtención de potentes moléculas bioactivas, como el ácido elágico.


Subject(s)
Aspergillus niger/isolation & purification , Ellagic Acid/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Aspergillus niger/physiology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
13.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(3): 499-513, July-Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766322

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol found in grapes, was found to be effective in the prevention and therapy of several diseases, however, it does have unfavourable physicochemical properties. In this context, an increasing number of studies have aimed at developing novel therapeutic systems for its delivery to overcome these disadvantages. This review focuses on the mechanisms of action and therapeutic applications. Finally, it also describes some tested formulations for RSV administration, controlled release and targeting, developed with the purpose of increasing RSV bioavailability.


O resveratrol (RSV) é um polifenol natural encontrado nas uvas, que se mostrou eficaz na prevenção e terapia de várias doenças. No entanto, apresenta propriedades físico-químicas desfavoráveis. Neste contexto, um número cada vez maior de estudos visando ao desenvolvimento de novos sistemas terapêuticos para a sua liberação vem sendo desenvolvido no sentido de ultrapassar estas desvantagens. Esta revisão discorre sobre os mecanismos de ação e aplicações terapêuticas do RSV. Finalmente, são abordadas algumas formulações de liberação controlada e vetorizada, testadas para administração do RSV, desenvolvidas com a finalidade de aumentar a biodisponibilidade do RSV.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Polyphenols/analysis , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Therapeutic Uses , Vitis/classification
14.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(3): 436-443, Jul-Sep/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752553

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Camellia sinensis é amplamente conhecida por seus efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Dentre as diversas formas de processamento desta erva, o chá verde e chá preto são os mais populares. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os teores de fenólicos totais e flavonoides em amostras de 25 diferentes marcas disponíveis à venda em farmácias e supermercados de Salvador-Ba. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram diferenças significativas na concentração dos compostos fenólicos entre as marcas de chá verde estudadas. No estudo também ficou comprovado que, no preparo do chá verde, as amostras obtidas por infusão aquosa com agitação mecânica apresentaram maiores teores de polifenóis e flavonoides em relação àquelas que não foram submetidas à agitação.


ABSTRACT Camellia sinensis is widely known for its beneficial effects to human health. Among the various forms of processing this herb, the green and the black tea are the most popular ones. The objective of this work was to evaluate the contents of total polyphenol and flavonoids in samples of 25 different brands available for sale in pharmacies and supermarkets of Salvador-Ba. The results showed great variation in the concentration of phenolic compounds among the brands of green tea which were tested. In the study it was also proven that in the green tea preparation the samples obtained by mechanical agitation with aqueous infusion showed higher levels of phenolics and flavonoids contents than those which were not subjected to stirring.


Subject(s)
Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Flavonoids/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis , Antioxidants/pharmacology
15.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 17(3): 392-397, Jul-Sep/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-752554

ABSTRACT

RESUMO No Brasil, a família Malvaceae está representada por aproximadamente 200 espécies e algumas foram descritas como gastroproteroras. Pavonia alnifolia A.St.-Hil. (Malvaceae) foi selecionada após uma abordagem quimiossistemática, considerando-se sua potencial capacidade em prevenir lesões gástricas. Assim, a atividade gastroprotetora do extrato etanólico de caules de P. alnifolia foi avaliada utilizando o modelo de indução aguda da lesão gástrica por etanol acidificado em camundongos. Além disso, foram quantificados o teor de flavonóides, pelo método de cloreto de alumínio, e de polifenóis, pelo método Folin-Ciocalteu, uma vez que a relação desses componentes com a proteção gástrica foi evidenciada. Os ensaios apontaram redução acentuada das lesões gástricas em camundongos tratados com o extrato da planta em todas as doses ensaiadas (10, 100 e 300 mg/kg). Esse efeito pode estar relacionado com a presença de polifenóis, cujo teor encontrado foi 74,3 ± 7,5 µg equivalente de pirogalol/mg do material vegetal examinado e 82,7 ± 7,1 µg equivalente de pirogalol /mg da amostra no extrato preparado por percolação e teor de flavonoides totais, que por sua vez apresentou um resultado de 17,1 ± 1,4 µg/mg de extrato. O extrato apresentou proteção da mucosa gástrica e este efeito pode estar relacionado à presença dos polifenóis e flavonóides encontrados


ABSTRACT Gastro protective activity of the Pavonia alnifolia A.St.-Hil. extract. In Brazil, the Malvaceae family is represented by at about 200 species. Some of those species are known as gastro protective ones. The Pavonia alnifolia A.St.-Hil (Malvaceae) was selected after a chemosystematic approach. The gastro preventive activity of the ethanol extract of stems Pavonia alnifolia was evaluated through the use of the Ethanol:chlroridric acid model on mice. The quantification of the total flavonoids (aluminum chloride method) and total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu method) was also performed since the relation of those components with gastric protection has been previously highlighted. The tests showed a significant reduction of the ulcer formation in the mice treated with the plant extract (10, 100 and 300 mg/kg). This effect may be related to the presence of polyphenols whose content was found to be 74.3 ± 7.5 µg/mg of vegetal material and 82.7 ± 7.1 µg/mg of crude extract and flavonoids, which in turn showed a content of 17.1 ± 1.4 µg/mg dry extract


Subject(s)
Malvaceae/classification , Plant Extracts/analysis , Flavonoids/analysis , Polyphenols/analysis
16.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 65(2): 119-127, June 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752722

ABSTRACT

The objective of this work was investigate the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices, and optimize its formulation by the response surface methodology based on the responses: total polyphenols (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content and sensorial acceptance. Camu-camu, acerola and acai were the major factors that influenced the antioxidant potential of the juice; and the yellow mombin showed a positive effect on the acceptance of the tropical juice. It was observed an antagonistic effect between acerola and camu-camu for the TAC response. The optimum formulation obtained was 20% acerola, 10% camu-camu, 10% yellow mombin, 10% cashew apple and 10% acai, which was responsible for a response of 155.46 mg.100 g-1 of ascorbic acid, 103.01 mg of GAE.100 g-1 of TP, 10.27 μM Trolox g-1 of TAC and approximately 6.1 of acceptance.


El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar los efectos sinérgicos, aditivos y antagónicos de mezclas de diferentes frutas tropicales en la capacidad antioxidante total (TAC) y compuestos bioactivos presentes en los jugos mixtos, y optimizar su formulación por la metodología de superficie de respuesta basado en las evaluaciones de: polifenoles totales (TP), capacidad antioxidante total (TAC), contenido de ácido ascórbico y la aceptación sensorial. Camu-camu, acerola y acai fueron las frutas que más influyeron en el potencial antioxidante del jugo mixto; y el jobo mostró un efecto positivo en la aceptación del jugo mixto tropical. Se observó un efecto antagónico entre acerola y camu-camu para la TAC. La formulación óptima obtenida contenía 20% acerola, 10% de camu-camu, 10% el jobo, 10% de manzana de marañón y 10% de acai, la cual ha proporcionado contenidos medio de 155,46 mg.100 g-1 de ácido ascórbico, 103,01 mg de GAE.100 g-1 de TP, 10,27 mM Trolox g-1 de TAC y aproximadamente 6.1 de aceptación sensorial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Fruit and Vegetable Juices/analysis , Anacardiaceae/chemistry , Anacardium/chemistry , Ananas/chemistry , Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Chemical Fractionation/methods , Drug Interactions , Euterpe/chemistry , Mangifera/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Research Design , Taste
17.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2015 Mar; 53(3): 143-151
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158399

ABSTRACT

In animals, long-term feeding with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) seed coats causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the thyroid gland. However, to date there have been no detailed studies. Here, we explored the thyroidal effects of dietary peanut seed coats (PSC) in rats. The PSC has high levels of pro-goitrogenic substances including phenolic and other cyanogenic constituents. The PSC was mixed with a standard diet and fed to rats for 30 and 60 days, respectively. Animals fed with the PSC-supplemented diet showed a significant increase in urinary excretion of thiocyanate and iodine, thyroid enlargement, and hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. In addition, there was inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity, 5’-deiodinase-I (DIO1) activity, and (Na+-K+)-ATPase activity in the experimental groups of rats as compared to controls. Furthermore, the PSC fed animals exhibited decreased serum circulating total T4 and T3 levels, severe in the group treated for longer duration. These data indicate that PSC could be a novel disruptor of thyroid function, due to synergistic actions of phenolic as well as cyanogenic constituents.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/adverse effects , Animals , Antithyroid Agents/isolation & purification , Antithyroid Agents/toxicity , Arachis/chemistry , Drug Synergism , Glucosides/analysis , Glucosides/pharmacology , Glucosides/toxicity , Hyperplasia , Hypertrophy , Hyperthyroidism/blood , Hyperthyroidism/chemically induced , Iodide Peroxidase/antagonists & inhibitors , Iodine/urine , Male , Nitriles/analysis , Nitriles/pharmacology , Nitriles/toxicity , Ovule/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Thiocyanates/urine , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Thyroid Gland/enzymology , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Hormones/blood
18.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 125-133, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741616

ABSTRACT

The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Flowers/chemistry , Hibiscus/chemistry , Industrial Waste/analysis , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/analysis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/economics , Beverages/analysis , Beverages/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Dietary Carbohydrates/economics , Dietary Carbohydrates/isolation & purification , Dietary Fiber/economics , Food, Fortified/economics , Food-Processing Industry/economics , Industrial Waste/economics , Mexico , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/economics , Polysaccharides/analysis , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/economics , Polysaccharides/isolation & purification , Solubility
19.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Curcuma longa Linnaeus and Zingiber officinale Roscoe are two main representatives ofZingiberaceae family studied for a wide range of therapeutic properties, including: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, antibacterial, analgesic, immunomodulatory, proapoptotic, anti-human immunodeficiency virus properties and anticancer effects. This study was aimed to analyse the ethanolic extracts of Curcuma rhizome (Curcuma longa Linnaeus) and Zingiber rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in terms of polyphenols, antioxidant activity and anti-melanoma potential employing the B164A5 murine melanoma cell line. RESULTS: In order to evaluate the total content of polyphenols we used Folin-Ciocâlteu method. The antioxidant activity of the two ethanolic extracts was determined by DPPH assay, and for the control of antiproliferative effect it was used MTT proliferation assay, DAPI staining and Annexin-FITC-7AAD double staining test. Results showed increased polyphenols amount and antioxidant activity forCurcuma rhizome ethanolic extract. Moreover, 100 μg/ml of ethanolic plant extract from both vegetal products presented in a different manner an antiproliferative, respectively a proapoptotic effect on the selected cell line. CONCLUSIONS: The study concludes that Curcuma rhizome may be a promising natural source for active compounds against malignant melanoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Melanoma, Experimental/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/analysis , Zingiberaceae/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/isolation & purification , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Curcuma/chemistry , Curcuma/classification , Ginger/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Polyphenols/classification , Rhizome/chemistry
20.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-8, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. RESULTS: Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01). Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l) while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l). The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g) and fructose (15.55 g/100 g) contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l), o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l), and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l) content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l), and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l) contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g-1 from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. CONCLUSIONS: Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse and valuable sugars, organic acids, phenolic acids, Vitamin C values and demonstrated important antioxidant capacity for human health benefits. Further preservation and use of this gene pool will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.


Subject(s)
Citric Acid/analysis , Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Polyphenols/analysis , Vitis/chemistry , Acids/analysis , Antioxidants/analysis , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Caffeic Acids/analysis , Coumaric Acids/analysis , Crops, Agricultural/chemistry , Crops, Agricultural/classification , Gallic Acid/analysis , Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Hydroxybenzoates/analysis , Turkey , Tartrates/analysis , Vitis/classification
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