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1.
Rev. colomb. cir ; 37(2): 280-297, 20220316. fig, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362970

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El diagnóstico de cáncer de vesícula biliar se realiza generalmente de forma incidental durante el estudio de las piezas quirúrgicas o cuando la enfermedad está avanzada y se expresa por su diseminación. Muy pocas veces se diagnostica de forma preoperatoria. Corresponde a la neoplasia más común de las vías biliares y su incidencia varía de acuerdo a la región geográfica. La región andina en Latinoamérica presenta una de las mayores incidencias a nivel mundial. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión narrativa de la literatura, para presentar una información actualizada en lo referente a los factores de riesgo (incluyendo las alteraciones genéticas y moleculares), al diagnóstico y al tratamiento de esta patología. Basados en los datos actuales, presentamos algunas recomendaciones dirigidas al diagnóstico temprano, que permita un manejo más adecuado de nuestros pacientes. Resultados. Se han implicado nuevos factores de riesgo relacionados con la etiología del cáncer de vesícula biliar, como la obesidad, factores genéticos y moleculares. A pesar de la disponibilidad de los métodos diagnósticos imagenológicos, no ha ocurrido una importante variación porcentual en cuanto al estadio al momento del diagnóstico. Conclusiones. El manejo quirúrgico del cáncer de vesícula biliar está indicado en los estadios más tempranos de la enfermedad y es importante evaluar las opciones terapéuticas en pacientes con enfermedad avanzada. Se considera de suma importancia el estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza quirúrgica y la revisión del informe por parte del cirujano.


Introduction. The diagnosis of gallbladder cancer is generally made incidentally during the study of the surgical pieces or when the disease is advanced and is expressed by its dissemination. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. It corresponds to the most common neoplasm of the bile ducts and its incidence varies according to the geographical region. The Andean region in Latin America presents one of the highest incidents worldwide. Methods. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to present updated information regarding risk factors (including genetic and molecular alterations), diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. Based on current data, we present some recommendations aimed at early diagnosis, which allows a more adequate management of our patients. Results. New risk factors related to the etiology of gallbladder cancer have been implicated, such as obesity, genetic and molecular factors. Despite the availability of diagnostic imaging methods, there has not been a significant percentage variation in terms of stage at diagnosis. Conclusions. Surgical management of gallbladder cancer is indicated in the earliest stages of the disease and it is important to evaluate therapeutic options in patients with advanced disease. The pathological study of the surgical piece and the review of the report by the surgeon are considered of utmost importance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polyps , Lithiasis , Gallbladder , Therapeutics , Risk Factors , Diagnosis , Neoplasms
2.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 430-437, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356440

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the most common gastrointestinal neoplasm in the world, accounting for 15% of cancer-related deaths. This condition is related to different molecular pathways, among them the recently described serrated pathway, whose characteristic entities, serrated lesions, have undergone important changes in their names and diagnostic criteria in the past thirty years. The multiplicity of denominations and criteria over the last years may be responsible for the low interobserver concordance (IOC) described in the literature. Objectives: The present study aims to describe the evolution in classification of serrated lesions, based on the last three publications of theWorld Health Organization (WHO) and the reproducibility of these criteria by pathologists, based on the evaluation of the IOC. Methods: A search was conducted in the PubMed, ResearchGate and Portal Capes databases, with the following terms: sessile serrated lesion; serrated lesions; serrated adenoma; interobserver concordance; andreproducibility.Articlespublished since 1990were researched. Results and Discussion: The classification of serrated lesions in the past thirty years showed different denominations and diagnostic criteria. The reproducibility and IOC of these criteria in the literature, based on the kappa coefficient, varied in most studies, from very poor to moderate. Conclusions: Interobserver concordance and the reproducibility of microscopic criteria may represent a limitation for the diagnosis andappropriatemanagementof these lesions. It is necessary to investigate diagnostic tools to improve the performance of the pathologist's evaluation, for better concordance, and, consequently, adequate diagnosis and treatment. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Intestine, Large/injuries , Polyps/classification , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Adenoma/classification
4.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(7): 530-534, July 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347245

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound in the diagnosis of intrauterine lesions, using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. Methods This was a prospective observational study with 307 patients. All patients underwent hysteroscopy after a previous transvaginal ultrasound to compare the results. The hysteroscopy was performed by experienced examiners, and transvaginal ultrasounds were performed in various public and private services, which is reflective of routine healthcare practices in obstetrics and gynecology. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the transvaginal ultrasound were calculated using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. The level of agreement between the two exams was calculated using the Kappa test. Results Themean age was 56.55±12.3 years. For endometrial polyps, we observed a sensitivity of 39.8%, specificity of 72.7%, accuracy of 52.8%, and Kappa index of 0.11 (p=0.025). For fibroids, the sensitivity was 46.7%, specificity was 95.0%, accuracy was 87.9%, and Kappa index was 0.46 (p<0.001). For endometrial thickening, the sensitivity was 68.7%, specificity was 41.7%, accuracy was 47.6%, and Kappa index was 0.06 (p=0.126). For endometrial atrophy, we found a sensitivity of 6.7%, specificity of 99.3%, accuracy of 90.2%, and Kappa index of 0.10 (p=0.006). For the other findings, the sensitivity was 15.6%, specificity was 99.6%, accuracy was 87.3%, and Kappa index was 0.23 (P<0.001). Conclusion Our study demonstrated a low level of accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound for the diagnosis of endometrial lesions, when performed by a non-experienced professional. Thus, it is important to consider the use of hysteroscopy to avoid unnecessary and inappropriate treatments.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia do ultrassom transvaginal para o diagnóstico de lesões intrauterinas, tendo a histeroscopia como padrão de referência. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo observacional prospectivo em 307 pacientes, submetidas à histeroscopia após ultrassonografia prévia para comparação dos resultados. A histeroscopia foi realizada por duas médicas com experiência, e os exames de ultrassom foram realizados em diversas fontes, públicas ou privadas, como ocorre no cotidiano da assistência à saúde em nosso meio. Foram avaliados sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia, tendo a histeroscopia como padrão-ouro. O nível de concordância foi avaliado pelo teste de Kappa. Resultados A idade média foi de 56,55±12,3 anos. Os resultados para pólipo endometrial foram: sensibilidade 39.8%, especificidade 72,7%, acurácia de 52,8%, e índice Kappa 0,11 (p=0,025). Para mioma, sensibilidade 46,7%, especificidade 95,0%, acurácia 87,9%, e índice Kappa 0,46 (p<0,001). Para espessamento endometrial, sensibilidade 68,7%, especificidade 41,7%, acurácia 47,6%, e índice Kappa de 0,06 (p=0,126). Para atrofia, sensibilidade 6,7%, especificidade 99,3%, acurácia 90,2%, e índice Kappa 0,10 (p=0,006). Para outros achados, sensibilidade 15,6%, especificidade 99,6%, acurácia 87,3%, e índice Kappa 0,23 (p<0,001). Conclusão Nosso estudo demonstrou baixo nível de acurácia da ultrassonografia transvaginal para o diagnóstico de lesões endometriais, quando realizada por profissional não experiente. Assim, é importante considerar o uso da histeroscopia para evitar tratamentos desnecessários e inadequados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Aged , Polyps , Uterine Diseases/pathology , Uterine Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Uterine Neoplasms/pathology , Leiomyoma/pathology , Hysteroscopy , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Endometrium/pathology , Middle Aged
5.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 7-17, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251516

ABSTRACT

Resumen El cáncer colorrectal (CCR) es uno de los tumores malignos con mayor prevalencia en Colombia y el mundo. Estas neoplasias se originan en lesiones adenomatosas o pólipos que deben resecarse para prevenir la enfermedad, lo cual se puede realizar con una colonoscopia. Se ha reportado que durante una colonoscopia se detectan pólipos en el 40 % de los hombres y en el 30 % de las mujeres (hiperplásicos, adenomatosos, serrados, entre otros), y, en promedio, un 25 % de pólipos adenomatosos (principal indicador de calidad en colonoscopia). Sin embargo, estas lesiones no son fáciles de observar por la multiplicidad de puntos ciegos en el colon y por el error humano asociado con el examen. Diferentes investigaciones han reportado que alrededor del 25 % de pólipos colorrectales no son detectados o se pasan por alto durante la colonoscopia y, como consecuencia, el paciente puede tener un cáncer de intervalo. Estas cifras muestran la necesidad de contar con un segundo observador (sistema de inteligencia artificial) que reduzca al mínimo la posibilidad de no detectar estos pólipos y, de este modo, sea posible prevenir al máximo el cáncer de colon. Objetivo: crear un método computacional para la detección automática de pólipos colorrectales usando inteligencia artificial en videos grabados de procedimientos reales de colonoscopia. Metodología: se usaron bases de datos públicas con pólipos colorrectales y una colección de datos construida en un Hospital Universitario. Inicialmente, se normalizan todos los cuadros de los videos para disminuir la alta variabilidad entre bases de datos. Posteriormente, la tarea de detección de pólipos se hace con un método de aprendizaje profundo usando una red neuronal convolucional. Esta red se inicia con pesos aprendidos en millones de imágenes naturales de la base de datos ImageNet. Los pesos de la red se actualizan usando imágenes de colonoscopia, siguiendo la técnica de ajuste fino. Finalmente, la detección de pólipos se realiza asignando a cada cuadro una probabilidad de contener un pólipo y determinando el umbral que define cuando el pólipo se encuentra presente en un cuadro. Resultados: este enfoque fue entrenado y evaluado con 1875 casos recopilados de 5 bases de datos públicas y de la construida en el hospital universitario, que suman aproximadamente 123 046 cuadros. Los resultados obtenidos se compararon con las marcaciones de diferentes expertos en colonoscopia y se obtuvo 0,77 de exactitud, 0,89 de sensibilidad, 0,71 de especificidad y una curva ROC (receiver operating characteristic) de 0,87. Conclusión: este método logra detectar pólipos de manera sobresaliente, superando la alta variabilidad dada por los distintos tipos de lesiones, condiciones diferentes de la luz del colon (asas, pliegues o retracciones) con una sensibilidad muy alta, comparada con un gastroenterólogo experimentado, lo que podría hacer que se disminuya el error humano, el cual es uno de los principales factores que hacen que no se detecte o se escapen los pólipos durante un examen de colonoscopia.


Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent malignant tumors worldwide. These neoplasms originate from adenomatous lesions or polyps that must be resected to prevent the development of the disease, and that can be done through a colonoscopy. Polyps are reported during colonoscopy in 40% of men and 30% of women (hyperplastic, adenomatous, serrated, among others), and, on average 25% are adenomatous polyps (the main indicator of quality in colonoscopy). However, these lesions are not easy to visualize because of the multiplicity of blind spots in the colon and human errors associated with the performance of the procedure. Several research works have reported that about 25% of colorectal polyps are overlooked or undetected during colonoscopy, and as a result, the patient may have interval cancer. These figures show the need for a second observer (artificial intelligence system) to reduce the possibility of not detecting polyps and prevent colon cancer as much as possible. Objective: To create a computational method for the automatic detection of colorectal polyps using artificial intelligence using recorded videos of colonoscopy procedures. Methodology: Public databases of colorectal polyps and a data collection constructed in a university hospital were used. Initially, all the frames in the videos were normalized to reduce the high variability between databases. Subsequently, polyps were detected using a deep learning method with a convolutional neural network. This network starts with weights learned from millions of natural images taken from the ImageNET database. Network weights are updated using colonoscopy images, following the fine-tuning technique. Finally, polyps are detected by assigning each box a probability of polyp presence and determining the threshold that defines when the polyp is present in a box. Results: This approach was trained and evaluated with 1 875 cases collected from 5 public databases and the one built in the university hospital, which total approximately 123 046 frames. The results obtained were compared with the markings of different experts in colonoscopy, obtaining 0.77 accuracy, 0.89 sensitivity, 0.71 specificity, and a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87. Conclusion: This method detected polyps in an outstanding way, overcoming the high variability caused by the types of lesions and bowel lumen condition (loops, folds or retractions) and obtaining a very high sensitivity compared with an experienced gastroenterologist. This may help reduce the incidence of human error, as it is one of the main factors that cause polyps to not be detected or overlooked during a colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polyps , Artificial Intelligence , Adenomatous Polyps , Audiovisual Aids , Colorectal Neoplasms , Determination
6.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(1): 35-40, Jan. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156073

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To evaluate the presence of residual disease in the uterine specimen after hysteroscopic polypectomy or polyp biopsy in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC). Methods We analyzed a series of 104 patients (92 cases from the Hospital AC Camargo and 12 from the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo) with polyps that were diagnosed by hysteroscopy, showing endometrioid EC associated with the polyp or in the final pathological specimen. Patients underwent a surgical approach for endometrial cancer from January 2002 to January 2017. Their clinical and pathological data were retrospectively retrieved from the medical records. Results In78cases (75%), thepolyphad EC, and in 40(38.5%), itwas restricted tothe polyp, without endometrial involvement. The pathologic stage was IA in 96 cases (92.3%) and 90 (86.5%) had histologic grade 1 or 2. In 18 cases (17.3%), there was no residual disease in the final uterine specimen, but only in 9 of them the hysteroscopy suggested that the tumor was restricted to the polyp. In 5 cases (4.8%) from the group without outside of the polyp during hysteroscopy, myometrial invasion was noted in the final uterine specimen. This finding suggests the possibility of disease extrapolation through the base of the polyp. Conclusion Patients with endometrioid EC associated with polyps may have the tumor completely removed during hysteroscopy, but the variables shown in the present study could not safely predict which patient would have no residual disease.


Resumo Objetivo Avaliar a presença de doença residual no exame anatomopatológico definitivo de pacientes com câncer de endométrio endometrioide após polipectomia ou biópsia de pólipo histeroscópica. Métodos Analisamos 104 pacientes (92 casos do Hospital AC Camargo e 12 casos do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo) com pólipos diagnosticados durante histeroscopia e cuja biópsia histeroscópica ou exame patológico final do útero acusaram câncer de endométrio endometrioide. As pacientes foram submetidas a cirurgia para câncer de endométrio de janeiro de 2002 a janeiro de 2017. Os dados clínicos e anatomopatológicos de cada paciente foram retirados dos prontuários médicos Resultados Em 78 casos (75%), o pólipo continha a neoplasia, e em 40 (38.5%), ela estava restrita ao tecido do pólipo, sem envolvimento endometrial adjacente. O estadio final foi IA em 96 casos (92.3%) e em 90 (86.5%) tratava-se de grau 1 ou 2. Em 18 casos (17.3%), não havia doença residual no espécime uterino, mas emapenas 9 deles a histeroscopia sugeriu doença restrita ao pólipo. Em 5 casos (4.8%), não havia doença aparente extrapólipo na histeroscopia, mas havia invasão miometrial, sugerindo extravasamento do tumor pela base do pólipo. Conclusão Pacientes com câncer de endométrio associado a pólipos podem ter o tumor completamente removido durante a histeroscopia, mas, com as variáveis avaliadas, é difícil predizer com segurança qual paciente ficará sem tumor residual.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polyps/surgery , Endometrial Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/surgery , Neoplasm, Residual/surgery , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/surgery , Polyps/pathology , Hysteroscopy , Endometrial Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/pathology , Neoplasm, Residual/pathology , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology
7.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021289, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249012

ABSTRACT

Stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) is an intraepithelial lesion with overlapping features of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Currently, it is well described in the cervix. We present a case showing similar SMILE-like lesions in the polypectomy specimen from the anal canal along with invasive adenocarcinoma components. This lesion showed an immuno-profile characteristic of a SMILE lesion described in the cervix, such as p63 negativity, high ki67 index, and nuclear positivity for p16. It might be arising from the Human papillomavirus prone transitional region of the anal canal as described in the cervix. However, we could not assure this association and etiological link due to insufficient material in the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded block. Notwithstanding, we strongly suggest that the HPV is the main driver for this SMILE-like lesion similar to what is described in the cervix. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a SMILE lesion in the anal canal. Further studies will be required to elucidate the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of SMILE-like lesions described in the anal canal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anal Canal/pathology , Carcinoma in Situ , Adenocarcinoma , Polyps
8.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021279, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249036

ABSTRACT

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a rare autosomal dominant polyposis entity that often remains undiagnosed. The major problems associated with PJS are acute complications due to (i) polyp-related intestinal obstruction, (ii) intussusception, and (iii) the risk of cancer in the long-term. We report the case of a 32-year-old female who presented at the emergency room with signs of acute abdomen and died during the clinical workup. She had a one-month history of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and was pregnant at about 30 weeks. There was no contributing past history except for undergoing small bowel resection in infancy. The postmortem examination revealed multiple arborizing polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract, chiefly in the small bowel. Intestinal obstruction was found at the proximal jejunum with necrosis, perforation, and peritonitis. Histologically, the polyps were composed of tree branch-like bundles of smooth muscle covered by normal-appearing glandular epithelium, confirming the diagnosis of hamartomatous polyps. No malignant or premalignant lesions were detected in the gastrointestinal tract or other organs. This case was an opportunity to analyze the natural history and the pathological features of the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome in an adult and to investigate the presence of neoplastic lesions associated with this condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome , Intestinal Obstruction/complications , Polyps/pathology , Autopsy , Gastrointestinal Tract/abnormalities
10.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 414-420, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156323

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: los pólipos de vesícula biliar, benignos y malignos, en la mayoría de pacientes tienen un diagnóstico generalmente incidental; a través de estudios de imágenes, que no se pueden distinguir con precisión según su grado de malignidad. Objetivo: determinar los factores de riesgo para la malignidad de los pólipos vesiculares en dos hospitales públicos peruanos. Metodología: estudio de cohorte retrospectiva, de datos secundarios, en colecistectomizados del 2004 al 2012 en un hospital de Lima y otro de Callao. Se definió como pólipo maligno según el tipo histopatológico de adenocarcinoma. Se obtuvieron los riesgos relativos y sus intervalos de confianza del 95 % (IC 95 %). Además, mediante curvas ROC (característica operativa del receptor), se obtuvieron la sensibilidad y especificidad según el tamaño de pólipo. Resultados: de las 368 biopsias, 26 (7 %) fueron adenocarcinomas. La mediana del tamaño de los pólipos fue de 4 mm (rango: 1-65 mm), 176 (51 %) tuvieron múltiples pólipos y 85 (23 %) tuvieron litiasis biliar asociada. En el análisis multivariado, se incrementó el riesgo de malignidad por cada milímetro del tamaño del pólipo en 26 % (IC 95 %:14 %-40 %, valor p < 0,001) y del tamaño de la pared vesicular en 182 % (IC 95 %:46 %-445 %, valor p: 0,002), ajustados por la edad del paciente, la litiasis y el tamaño vesicular. Para un tamaño de 6 mm se tuvo una sensibilidad de 81 % y especificidad del 85 %. Conclusión: se concluye que el tamaño del pólipo y el grosor de la pared vesicular estuvieron asociados con la malignidad de pólipos vesiculares.


Abstract Introduction: In most patients, gallbladder polyps, both benign and malignant, are usually an incidental finding. However, imaging studies cannot accurately establish their degree of malignancy. Objective: To determine the risk factors for gallbladder polyp malignancy in two Peruvian public hospitals. Methodology: Retrospective cohort study conducted on secondary data from patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 2004 and 2012 in Lima and another in Callao, Peru. The malignancy of the polyp was established according to the histopathological type of adenocarcinoma. Relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained. Moreover, ROC curves were used to determine sensitivity and specificity according to the size of the polyp. Results: Of 368 biopsies, 26 (7%) were adenocarcinomas. The median size of the polyps was 4mm (range: 1-65mm). 176 patients (51%) had multiple polyps, and 85 (23%) had associated gallstones. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of malignancy increased by 26% (95%CI:14-40%, p-value:<0.001) per millimeter of polyp size and by 182% (95%CI:46-445%, p-value=0.002) based on vesicular wall size, adjusted for patient age, lithiasis and vesicular size. For a size of 6mm, sensitivity was 81%, and specificity was 85%. Conclusion: The size of the polyp and the thickness of the vesicular wall are associated with the malignancy of vesicular polyps.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Polyps , Adenocarcinoma , Risk Factors , Gallbladder , Hospitals, Public , Neoplasms
11.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(4): 519-521, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156333

ABSTRACT

Resumen La obstrucción intestinal es una patología potencialmente letal y cuyo tratamiento, por lo general, es quirúrgico. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con dolor abdominal y clínica de obstrucción intestinal recurrente, en quien se documenta, durante una colonoscopia, un gran pólipo pediculado que causaba obstrucciones parciales por el fenómeno de ball valve.


Abstract Intestinal obstruction is a potentially lethal pathology, and its treatment is usually surgical. The following is the case of a patient with abdominal pain and recurrent intestinal obstruction, in whom a large pediculated polyp that caused partial obstruction by Ball valve effect was observed during a colonoscopy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Polyps , Syndrome , Colon , Intestinal Obstruction , Therapeutics
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(1): 64-68, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099380

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Endometrial polyps are common in postmenopausal women, and the effect of tamoxifen use (a risk factor for endometrial polyps) on their pathogenesis is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the expression of hormone receptors and markers for proliferation/apoptosis (Ki-67 and Bcl-2) in endometrial polyps in postmenopausal users and nonusers of tamoxifen. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study in a tertiary-level academic hospital. METHODS: 46 women (14 tamoxifen users and 32 nonusers) with postmenopausal bleeding underwent hysteroscopic resection of endometrial polyps. Polyp samples were immunohistochemically assessed for detection of Ki-67, Bcl-2 and estrogen and progesterone receptors. RESULTS: Analysis on the glandular component of the polyps revealed progesterone receptor expression in the polyps of 96.9% of the nonusers of tamoxifen, and 92.3% of the tamoxifen users (P = 0.499). All polyps in nonusers and 92.3% of those in users were also positive for estrogen receptors (P = 0.295). Ki-67 was expressed in 75% of the polyps in the tamoxifen users and 82.8% of those in the nonusers. All endometrial polyps expressed Bcl-2. CONCLUSIONS: The immunohistochemical analysis on endometrial polyps demonstrated that, although tamoxifen is considered to be a risk factor for endometrial polyps, there were no significant differences in the expression of hormone receptors between users and nonusers of tamoxifen. There were no between-group differences in Ki-67 and Bcl-2 expression, and all patients displayed inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2, thus supporting the theory that polyps develop due to inhibition of apoptosis, and not through cell proliferation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tamoxifen/adverse effects , Postmenopause , Endometrium , Polyps , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Estrogen Antagonists/adverse effects
13.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(1): 25-32, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115598

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el cáncer de colon y recto (CCR) se origina a partir de pólipos adenomatosos y serrados. Por tanto, se recomienda que todos los pólipos colónicos sean resecados y enviados a patología. Sin embargo, en los pólipos diminutos (<5 mm) del recto y del sigmoides existe controversia sobre esta conducta, razón por la cual se ha planteado la estrategia de resecar y descartar o dejar in situ, a partir de la utilización de endoscopios avanzados (con una imagen de banda angosta [Narrow Band Imaging, NBI] u otras), y se logre concordancia con la histopatología, superior al 90 %. En nuestro medio, no hay estudios prospectivos con luz blanca sobre la prevalencia y las características histológicas de estos pólipos en el recto y el sigmoides. Por esta razón, se desarrolló este trabajo. Materiales y métodos: estudio de prevalencia analítica, prospectivo. Se incluyeron las colonoscopias de tamización realizadas en la Unidad de Gastroenterología de la Clínica Fundadores de Bogotá, entre enero y julio de 2018. Resultados: se incluyeron 719 pacientes. La prevalencia de pólipos diminutos en el recto y el sigmoides fue del 27 % (intervalo de confianza [IC], 95 %: 23,7-30,2 %). El 50 % eran pólipos adenomatosos, mientras que en 8 casos se presentó una displasia de alto grado (DAG). Entre los pólipos diminutos, 3 fueron tumores neuroendocrinos. No hubo cáncer en ninguna de las lesiones. Conclusiones: la mitad de los pólipos diminutos encontrados fueron adenomatosos y 8 (0,83 %) tuvieron DAG. Recomendamos resecar todos los pólipos diminutos hasta que los estudios locales realizados con NBI u otra tecnología demostrasen la capacidad para discriminar en más del 90 % los pólipos hiperplásicos (dejarlos in situ) o adenomatosos (resecarlos).


Abstract Introduction: Because colorectal cancer (CRC) originates from adenomatous and serrated polyps, it is recommended that all colonic polyps be resected and sent to pathology. However, there is controversy over this recommendation in the case of rectal and sigmoid polyps measuring less than 5 mm. Strategies using advanced NBI endoscopes to either "resect and discard" or leave "in situ" have been proposed. Concordance with histopathology of over 90% has been achieved. No prospective studies of the prevalence and histological characteristics of these rectal and sigmoid polyps had been done with white light in this country, so we undertook this study. Materials and methods: This is an analytical and prospective prevalence study. Screening colonoscopies performed in the gastroenterology unit of Clínica Fundadores in Bogotá between January and July 2018 were included. Results: Seven hundred nineteen patients were included. The prevalence of tiny polyps in the rectum and sigmoid colon was 27% (95% CI: 23.7 to 30.2%). Fifty percent were adenomatous, but eight cases had high grade dysplasia. Among the tiny polyps, three were neuroendocrine tumors. There was no cancer in any of the lesions. Conclusions: Half of the tiny polyps found were adenomatous, and eight (0.83%) had high grade dysplasia. We recommend resecting all tiny polyps until local studies conducted with NBI or other technology demonstrate the ability to discriminate between the more than 90% hyperplastic polyps (leaving them in situ) and adenomatous polyps (resect them).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Polyps , Colon, Sigmoid , Colonic Polyps , Prevalence , Colonoscopy , Adenomatous Polyps
14.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4916, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056055

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the prevalence and intensity of pain perception during diagnostic hysteroscopy in women and potential related factors. Methods A total of 489 women were investigated at an infertility clinic. Fluid diagnostic hysteroscopy was performed without analgesia or anesthesia by gynecologists with different levels of experience in operative hysteroscopy, using a 2.9mm rigid scope. The Visual Analog Scale was used to score pain intensity after vaginal speculum insertion and after hysteroscopy. Data collected included age, ethnicity, body mass index, history of infertility and endometrial surgery (curettage and/or hysteroscopy), smoking habits, and hysteroscopy diagnosis. Only the state of anxiety was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory given to each patient before the procedure. Results Hysteroscopy median (25th to 75th) Visual Analog Scale scored 3.3 (3 to 5), and 41.7% of the women referred Visual Analog Scale score ≥4. Median (25th to 75th) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score was 42 (38 to 45), and 58.3% of the women referred State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score >40. Hysteroscopy Visual Analog Scale score was significantly correlated to surgeon experience and to vaginal speculum insertion but not to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory score, ethnicity or abnormal hysteroscopic findings. Conclusion Diagnostic hysteroscopy was mostly perceived as a mild discomfort procedure by most women. Nevertheless, in a considerable number of cases, women perceived hysteroscopy as painful. Pain perception was linked to individual pain threshold and surgeon experience, but not to pre-procedural anxiety state levels, ethnicity or abnormal hysteroscopic findings.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar a prevalência e a intensidade da percepção da dor durante a histeroscopia diagnóstica, bem como os possíveis fatores relacionados. Métodos Foram incluídas 489 mulheres submetidas à propedêutica de infertilidade. A histeroscopia diagnóstica foi realizada sem analgesia ou anestesia, por ginecologistas com níveis de experiência diferentes em histeroscopia, usando histeroscópio rígido de 2,9mm. A Escala Visual Analógica foi utilizada para avaliar a intensidade da dor após a inserção do espéculo vaginal e após a histeroscopia. Os dados coletados incluíram idade, etnia, índice de massa corporal, história de infertilidade e cirurgia endometrial (curetagem e/ou histeroscopia), tabagismo e histeroscopia diagnóstica. Avaliou-se apenas o estado de ansiedade pelo Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado de cada paciente antes do procedimento. Resultados A mediana (25ºa 75º) de histeroscopia pela Escala Visual Analógica foi 3,3 (3 a 5), e 41,7% das mulheres obtiveram pontuação ≥4. A mediana (25ºa 75º) do Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado foi 42 (38 a 45), e 58,3% das mulheres referiram pontuação >40. A pontuação da Escala Visual Analógica da histeroscopia apresentou correlação estatisticamente significante com a experiência do cirurgião e a inserção do espéculo vaginal, mas não a pontuação do Inventário de Ansiedade Traço-Estado, etnia ou achados histeroscópicos anormais. Conclusão A histeroscopia diagnóstica foi percebida pela maioria das mulheres como desconforto leve, mas um número considerável de pacientes classificou o procedimento como doloroso. A percepção da dor esteve ligada ao limiar individual e à experiência do cirurgião, mas não aos níveis de ansiedade pré-procedimento, à etnia e nem aos achados histeroscópicos anormais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pain Measurement/statistics & numerical data , Pain Perception , Pain, Procedural/etiology , Pain, Procedural/epidemiology , Fertility Clinics , Anxiety/psychology , Polyps/surgery , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Reference Values , Uterine Diseases/surgery , Pain Measurement/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Hysteroscopy/adverse effects , Hysteroscopy/psychology , Prevalence , Statistics, Nonparametric , Visual Analog Scale , Pain, Procedural/psychology , Middle Aged
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812985

ABSTRACT

Gastric polyps are common precancerous diseases. With the intensive study on the characteristics of different types of gastric polyps in recent years, only 1.7% of the gastric polyps were found to have dysplasia and cancer, and most of the dysplasia and cancer were found in polyps larger than 1 cm. Traditional idea suggests that polyps should be removed immediately, but routine removal of all polyps results in an increased financial burden on patients. At present, there are controversies about whether endoscopic treatment is necessary for different pathological types and small gastric polyps.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperplasia , Polyps , Precancerous Conditions , Stomach Neoplasms
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811446

ABSTRACT

Optimal bowel preparation is essential for a more accurate, comfortable, and safe colonoscopy. The majority of postcolonoscopy colorectal cancers can be explained by procedural factors, mainly missed polyps or inadequate examination. Therefore the most important goal of optimal bowel preparation is to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. Although adequate preparation should be achieved in 85–90% or more of all colonoscopy as a quality indicator, unfortunately 20–30% shows inadequate preparation. Laxatives for oral colonoscopy bowel preparation can be classified into polyethylene glycol (PEG)-electrolyte lavage solution, osmotic laxatives, stimulant laxatives, and divided into high-volume solution (≥3 L) and low-volume solution (<3 L). The updated 2019 European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) guideline is broadly similar to the 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) recommendations and reaffirms the importance of split-dosing. However, new ESGE guideline, unlike the 2014 ASGE recommendation, suggests the use of high volume or low volume PEG-based regimens as well as that of non-PEG based agents that have been clinically validated for most outpatient scenarios. For effective, safe, and highly adherent bowel preparation, physicians who prescribe and implement colonoscopy should properly know the advantages and limitations, the dosing, and the timing of regimens. Recently many studies have attempted to find the most ideal regimens, and more convenient, effective, and safe regimens have been developed by reducing the dosing volume and improving the taste. The high tolerability and acceptability of the new low-volume regimens suggest us how we should use it to increase the participation of the national colorectal cancer screening program.


Subject(s)
Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Humans , Incidence , Laxatives , Mass Screening , Outpatients , Polyethylene Glycols , Polyps , Therapeutic Irrigation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785341

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Plasma cells and immunoglobulins (Igs) play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of chronic inflammation in nasal polyps. During secondary immune responses, plasma cell survival and Ig production are regulated by the local environment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence of long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) and specific survival niches for LLPCs in human nasal polyps.METHODS: Nasal mucosal samples were cultured with an air-liquid interface system and the Ig levels in culture supernatants were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The characteristics of LLPCs in nasal polyps were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The expression of neurotrophins as well as their receptors was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting.RESULTS: The numbers of CD138⁺ total plasma cells and BCL2⁺ plasma cells were increased in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps compared with those in normal tissues. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgE was detected in culture supernatants even after a 32-day culture of nasal polyps. Although the total numbers of plasma cells were decreased in nasal polyps after culture, the numbers of BCL2⁺ plasma cells remained stable. The expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) as well as tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) A, a high-affinity receptor for NGF, was upregulated in both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic nasal polyps. In addition, BCL2⁺ plasma cell numbers were positively correlated with NGF and TrkA mRNA expression in nasal mucosal tissues. Polyp plasma cells had the expression of TrkA.CONCLUSIONS: Human nasal polyps harbor a population of LLPCs and NGF may be involved in their prolonged survival. LLPCs may be a novel therapeutic target for suppressing the local Ig production in nasal polyps.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Nerve Growth Factor , Nerve Growth Factors , Phosphotransferases , Plasma Cells , Plasma , Polyps , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Tropomyosin
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787234

ABSTRACT

Intussusception is a medical condition, in which a proximal part of the intestine folds into the distal intestine. Adult intussusceptions are rare and account for approximately 5% of all cases of intussusceptions. The anatomical leading points include tumors, diverticulums, polyps, and strictures in 80-90% of adult intussusceptions, and 65% of colon intussusceptions and 30% of small bowel intussusceptions originate from malignant tumors. Treatments for adult intussusception have not been established, but most cases require surgical treatment. The gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The symptoms are mostly non-specific, but they rarely lead to complications, such as bleeding, perforation, and intussusception. Furthermore, few cases of primary gastrointestinal lymphomas causing intussusception have been reported. This paper reports a case of small bowel diffuse large B cell lymphoma that caused ileocolic intussusception in a 69-year-old woman with no medical history. She underwent a small bowel resection and received six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. Since then, she has been in complete remission.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Colon , Constriction, Pathologic , Cyclophosphamide , Diverticulum , Doxorubicin , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intestines , Intussusception , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Polyps , Prednisone , Rituximab , Vincristine
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: LINC01234, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), is overexpressed in several cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated the role of LINC01234 in CRC development and confirmed its correlation with Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6), a tumor suppressor gene that is dysregulated in CRC. METHODS: We tested mRNA levels using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Tissue samples from patients with CRC, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hyperplastic polyp, and adenoma were included. Correlations between clinicopathological parameters, overall survival (OS) rate, and LINC01234 were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis H test. Additionally, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor formation in nude mice were tested to investigate the mechanism of LINC01234. Western blotting was used to determine protein levels. RESULTS: LINC01234 expression was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues and CRC cell lines than in non-tumor tissues and normal epithelial cells, respectively. LINC01234 was associated with high tumor stage, larger tumor size, and metastasis. Patients with higher LINC01234 expression showed reduced OS. Cell proliferation was inhibited by LINC01234 knockdown, whereas apoptosis was enhanced. Mice injected with SW480 cells with LINC01234 knockdown displayed decreased tumor volume, weight, and Ki-67 levels compared with those injected with control cells. KLF6 was negatively regulated by LINC01234. Overexpression of KLF6 showed effects similar to those observed following LINC01234 knockdown on cell proliferation and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: LINC01234 could be a prognostic biomarker in CRC patients. Upregulation of LINC01234 in CRC promotes tumor development through negative regulation of KLF6.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Animals , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Colorectal Neoplasms , Epithelial Cells , Genes, Tumor Suppressor , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Mice , Mice, Nude , Neoplasm Metastasis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polyps , Prognosis , Reverse Transcription , RNA, Long Noncoding , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Burden , Up-Regulation
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